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1. NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity against viral-infected cells has several features.

Which of the
following description is correct?
a. NK cell mediated cell killing is called necrosis, which is caused by releasing a cytotoxic
antibody.
b. NK cell mediated cell killing is called apoptosis, which is caused by releasing toxic
substance such as perforin.
c. NK cell mediated cell killing is called necrosis, which is caused by intracellular reactive
oxygen intermediates.
d. NK cell mediated cell killing is called apoptosis, which is caused by TNF- released by
macrophages.
2. Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3 is a receptor that plays a role in defending cells against virus
infection. TLR-3 is known to:
a. Recognize single-stranded viral RNAs
b. Interact with unmethylated CpG-rich DNA
c. Resides on the cell surface and interacts with double-stranded viral RNAs
d. Is expressed by innate immune cells such as NK cells and located in intracellular
endosomes
3. The important functions of the complement system in the innate immunity include:
a. Regulate inflammatory response, promote T cell proliferation, and increase macrophage
activities.
b. Kill invading pathogens, increase vascular permeability, and opsonize pathogens for
macrophage phagocytosis.
c. Initiate classical pathway, activate macrophage activities, and mediate antibody
production.
d. Regulate vascular permeability, initiate the alternative pathway, and mediate T cell-
mediated killing.
4. When human cells are infected by virus, these cells produce type I Interferon (IFN-/). The
transcriptional activation of the type I interferon gene is mainly mediated by:
a. Transcription factor STAT
b. Transcription factor NF-kB
c. Transcription factor AP-1
d. Transcription factor IRF-3
5. The major signs of acute phase response are:
a. Fever, increased numbers of neutrophils, and production of C-reactive proteins
b. Fever, increased IL-6 production and reduced numbers of neutrophils
c. Fever, increased numbers of lymphocytes and production of C-reactive proteins
d. Fever, increased NK cell cytotoxicity, and increased numbers of neutrophils
6. The correct structure and/or components of an IgG antibody are as follows:
a. An IgG antibody contains two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains. The
antibody only recognize one antigenic epitope.
b. An IgG antibody contains two different heavy chains and two identical light chains. It
can recognize two different antigenic epitopes.
c. An IgG antibody contains two identical heavy chains and two different light chains. It
can recognize one antigenic epitope.
d. An IgG antibody contains one heavy chain and one light chain. It can recognize one
antigenic epitope.
7. Which statements below are best in describing antibody diversity during B cell development?
a. The immunoglobulin gene is organized with different numbers of gene segments for
heavy chain and light chain B cells.
b. Somatic recombination occurs in different variable gene segments in the V regions of
the immunoglobulin.
c. Generation of junction adds further diversity between V-D-J and D-J joints.
d. Somatic hypermutation happens in the variable region of an antibody after encounter
with antigen.
e. All of above.
8. The isotype of an immunoglobulin such as IgG is determined by:
a. Genetic variations or differences in the constant regions of the heavy chain.
b. Genetic variations or differences in the variable regions of the heavy chain.
c. Genetic variations or differences in the constant regions of the light chain.
d. Genetic variations or differences in the variable regions of the light chain.