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Fluid Mechanics

Assignment 1

(Date of Submission - 05/09/17)

1. A flat plate 60 cm x 120 cm slides on SAE 10 oil ( 1.04 101 Pa.s) over a large plane
surface. What force is required to drag the plate at 3.5 m/s if the oil film is 3mm thick?

2. Glycerin has a density of 1260 kg/m3 and a kinematic viscosity of 0.001183 m2/s. What
shear stress is required to deform this fluid at a strain rate of 10 4 s 1 ?

3. The velocity distribution in the flow of a thin film of oil down an inclined channel is given
by

u (d 2 y 2 )sin
2
Where d= depth of flow, = angle of inclination of the channel to the horizontal, u=
velocity at a depth y below the free surface, = unit width of oil and = dynamic
viscosity of oil. Calculate the shear stress: (i) on the bottom of the channel, (ii) at mid-
depth and (iii) at the free surface.

4. A square plate 50 cm x 50 cm weighing 200 N slides down an inclined plane of slope 1


vertical: 2.5 horizontal with a uniform velocity of 0.40 m/s. If a thin layer of oil of thickness
0.5 cm fills the space between the plate and the inclined plane, determine the coefficient of
viscosity of the oil.

5. A piston of 7.95 cm diameter and 30 cm long works in a cylinder of 8.0 cm diameter. The
annular space of the piston is filled with an oil of viscosity 0.2 poise. If an axial load of 10
N is applied to the piston, calculate the speed of movement of the piston.

6. Classify the following rheological behavior of a fluid:

du
Shear rate= 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
dy

Shear stress= 0 1.0 3.0 5.0 7.0


7. Air is introduced through a nozzle in to a tank of water to form a stream of bubbles of size
2 mm. Calculate by how much the pressure in the nozzle must exceed that of the
surrounding water. Assume = 0.073 N/m.

8. Two parallel, wide, clean, glass plates separated by a distance of 0.8 mm are placed, partly
immersed, in water. The plates lie in a vertical plane. How high would the water rise in the
gap between the plates due to capillary action? [Assume surface tension of water= 0.073
N/m].

9. A liquid with a volume of 0.2 m3 at 300 kPa is subjected to a pressure of 3000 kPa and its
volume is found to decrease by 0.2%. Calculate the bulk modulus of elasticity of the liquid.

10. Determine the viscosity of fluid between the shaft and sleeve in Figure 1

3-in. dia

V= 0.4 ft/sec
20 lb

0.003 in.
8 in.
Figure 1
11. A force expressed by F 4i 3 j 9k acts upon a square area 2 by 2 in the xy plane.
Resolve this force into a normal- and a shear force component. What are the pressure and
the shear stress? Repeat the calculation for F 4i 3 j 9k .

12. A small circular jet of mercury 0.1 mm in diameter issues from an opening. What is the
pressure difference between the inside and outside of the jet when at 200C?

13. Find the angle at which the surface tension film leaves the glass for a vertical tube
immersed in water if the diameter is 0.2 in. and capillary rise is 0.09 in. ; = 0.005 lb/ft.

14. Crude oil, with specific gravity SG=0.85 and viscosity =0.1N.s/m2, flows steadily down
a surface inclined =45 degrees below the horizontal in a film of thickness h=2.5mm. The
velocity profile given by
g y2
u hy sin
2
(Coordinate x is along the surface and y is normal to the surface). Plot the velocity profile.
Determine the magnitude and direction of the shear stress that acts on the surface).

15. A viscometer is used to measure the apparent viscosity of a fluid. The data below are
obtained. What kind of non-Newtonian fluid is this? Find the values of k and n used is the
power equation in defining the apparent viscosity of the fluid (assume is 0.5 degree).
Predict the viscosity at 90 and 100 rpm.

Speed 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
(rpm)
(N.s/m2) 0.121 0.139 0.153 0.159 0.172 0.172 0.183 0.185

16. The velocity distribution for laminar flow between parallel plates is given by
2
u 2y
1
umax h

Where h is the distance separating the plates and the origin is placed midway between the
plates. Consider a flow of water at 150C, with umax =0.10 m/s and h=0.1mm. Calculate the
shear stress on the upper plate and give its direction. Sketch the variation of shear stress
across the channel.