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TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

Ayala Blvd., Ermita, Manila


COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Experiment No. 1
BASIC MOTOR REPAIR (HOUSEHOLD FAN)

BSEE-4D GROUP NO.3 DATE PERFORMED: JULY 28, 2017


Submitted by: DATE SUBMITTED: AUGUST 25, 2016
LEADER: SARAZA, MARK JOVEN A.
ASST. LEADER: BACARO, ALJUN D.
MEMBERS : BAGOOD, CHRISTIAN M.
BALINAS, JAMESON E.
CAHILIG, MARKWIL R.
FESALBON, RHOD JAY G.
FILLOMENA, HARROLD .
PABILICO, FRANCISCO
TENEBRO, KYNE MARIELLE P.
VILLA, KATHLEEN JOY Z.

Submitted to:

ENGR. EDWIN C. ESPINAS


RATINGS
I. Objectives
At the end of the experiment, the students should be able to:
1. To do minor repair on different types of household fan such as desk, wall and stand
fan.
2. Familiarize with the basic parts.
3. Learn how to troubleshoot and replace worn-out parts.

II. Theory
An AC motor is a motor that converts the alternating current into mechanical power
by using an electromagnetic induction phenomenon. This motor is driven by an
alternating current. The stator and the rotor are the two most important parts of the AC
motors. The stator is the stationary part of the motor, and the rotor is the rotating part.
The rotor magnetic field may be produced by permanent magnets, reluctance saliency,
or DC or AC electrical windings.

Alternating current technology was rooted in Michael Faradays and Joseph


Henrys 1830-31 discovery that a changing magnetic field can induce an electric
current in a circuit. Faraday is usually given credit for this discovery since he published
his findings first. In 1832, French instrument maker Hippolyte Pixii generated a crude
form of alternating current when he designed and built the first alternator. It consisted
of a revolving horseshoe magnet passing over two wound wire coils. Because of AC's
advantages in long distance high voltage transmission, there were many inventors in
the United States and Europe during the late 19th century trying to develop workable
AC motors.The first person to conceive of a rotating magnetic field was Walter Baily,
who gave a workable demonstration of his battery-operated polyphase motor aided by
a commutator on June 28, 1879, to the Physical Society of London.Describing an
apparatus nearly identical to Bailys, French electrical engineer Marcel
Deprez published a paper in 1880 that identified the rotating magnetic field principle
and that of a two-phase AC system of currents to produce it. Never practically
demonstrated, the design was flawed, as one of the two currents was furnished by the
machine itself. In 1886, English engineer Elihu Thomson built an AC motor by
expanding upon the induction-repulsion principle and his wattmeter, In 1887,
American inventor Charles Schenk Bradley was the first to patent a two-phase AC
power transmission with four wires.

The two main types of AC motors are classifx`x`ied as induction and synchronous.
The induction motor or asynchronous motor always relies on a small difference in
speed between the stator rotating magnetic field and the rotor shaft speed called slip to
induce rotor current in the rotor AC winding. As a result, the induction motor cannot
produce torque near synchronous speed where induction is irrelevant or ceases to exist.
The stator will generate flux in the rotor which will make the rotor to rotate, but due to
the lagging of flux current in the rotor with flux current in the stator, the rotor will never
reach to its rotating magnetic field speed i.e. the synchronous speed. While the
synchronous motor does not rely on slip-induction for operation and uses either
permanent magnets, salient poles or an independently excited rotor winding. It
produces its rated torque at exactly synchronous speed. The brushless wound-rotor
doubly fed motor is a synchronous motor that can function exactly at the supply
frequency or sub to super multiple of the supply frequency.

The parts of an AC motor are stator, stator windings, rotor, enclosure and bearings.
The stator is the stationary part of the motor's electromagnetic circuit and is made up
of thin metal sheets, called laminations. Laminations are used to reduce energy losses
that would result if a solid core was used. Stator windings are coils of insulated wire
that are inserted into slots of the stator core. When the assembled motor is in operation,
the stator windings are connected directly to the power source. The rotor is the rotating
part of the motor's electromagnetic circuit. The most common type of rotor used in a
three phase induction motor is a squirrel cage rotor, it is made by stacking thin steel
laminations to form a cylinder. Enclosure consists of a frame and two end bells or
bearing housings, the stator is mounted inside the frame. It protects the internal parts
of the motor from water and other environmental elements. The degree of protection
depends of the type o enclosure. Last is the bearings, it supports the rotor and allow it
to turn.

Other AC motor types are the Universal motor and series wound motor, Repulsion
motor, Exterior rotor, Sliding rotor motor, Electronically commutated motor,
Watthour-meter motor and Slow-speed synchronous timing motor. Universal motor
and series wound motor is designed to operate on either AC or DC power, the stator
and rotor of a brushed DC motor are both wound and supplied from an external source
with the torque being a function of the rotor current times the stator current. Repulsion
motors are wound-rotor-single-phase AC motors that are type of induction motor, the
armature brushes are shorted together rather than connected in series with the field.
Exterior rotor is where the speed stability is important, the stator on the inside and the
rotor on the outside to optimize inertia and cooling. Sliding rotor motor is when the
motor is at rest and a spring acts on the sliding rotor and forces the brake ring against
the brake cap in the motor, holding the rotor stationary. Electronically commutated
motors are electric motors powered by direct-current electricity and having electronic
commutation systems, rather than mechanical commutators and brushes. Watthour-
meter motor are two-phase induction motors with permanent magnets to retard the rotor
so its speed is accurately proportional to the power passing through the meter. And the
Slow-speed synchronous timing motor are low-torque synchronous motors with a
multi-pole hollow cylindrical magnet surrounding the stator structure.

Advantages of an AC motor are voltage can be stepped up and down, it can be


transmitted at high voltage, less energy loss in transmission and simple slip ring
commutator is used. While the disadvantages are back emf opposes supplied emf,
Emits electromagnetic radiation, so wires need insulation and shielding and it will
produce eddy currents due to the production of a back emf.

III. EXPERIMENTAL ITEMS


1. Continuity Items
2. Resistant Measurement on speed no. 1,2 & 3
3. Capacitor Check-up
4. Thermal Overload Check-up
5. Shafting check up

IV. RESOURCES
1. Electric Fan
2. Multi tester (Analog and Digital)
3. Soldering Iron
4. Soldering Lead
5. Screw Drivers
6. Pliers
7. Electrical Tape
8. Connecting cord or wire

V. PROCEDURES

Step 1. Continuity test in power plug and in selector switch


Step 2. If the plug has continuity, we can now disassemble and test the capacitor
using multimeter.

Step 3. After that, check the rotation of the shaft if there is dents or if the shaft has
rust. If there is a problem, check if there are still possible solution to fix or replace a
new one.

Step 4. Then, check the winding continuity and connection. Also, check the thermal
overload. If there is a problem, check if it can be fix by rewinding it or if not replace
it with a new one.
Step 5. After fixing and checking the motor, if there is no problem anymore assemble
it again and test if it is already working.

VI. DATA & RESULTS

Procedure Confirmation Job Done Sequential Condition


1. Power line ok Test for - Good condition
continuity
2. Winding not ok Check for - Good condition
connection continuity,
replacement
of winding &
soldering the
winding
connection
3. Thermal over- not ok Test for - Good condition
load resistance &
replacement
of thermal
over-load
4. Capacitor ok Test & check - Good condition
if the needle
deflect & go
back to its
original
position
5. Selector switch ok Test for Speed 1- 300 Good condition
continuity Speed 2- 290
Speed 3- 230
6. Rotation of not ok Replacement - Good condition
shaft of the shaft &
bushing
VII. RECOMMENDATION AND DISCUSSION

In repairing a stand-type electric fan, the first step is to check if the plug has continuity
from the switch. Second, check the continuity of the switches, winding connections and
the condition of the capacitor of the electric fan. Use a multi-tester to check some parts, If
the needle returns slowly back from the infinity reading of the multi-tester even if you
change the connection it is in a good condition but if not, it is leaked and it should be
replaced. Then troubleshoot and check the mechanical parts like the shafting if it is dented,
screws if they are loose thread, bushing if they are not broken and lastly gears if they are
aligned properly and if it is not broken. If all the mechanical parts are functioning well and
in good condition then check some of the electrical parts that are defective and replaced
then try it again in the multi-tester for continuity checking. After doing so, observe if the
fan are moving and while different switch are pressed, speed is also adjusting to the switch
number. Return the disassembled parts of the electric fan into its original form and the
work is done.

VIII. CONCLUSION

We therefore conclude that in repairing a defective electric fan we need to consider


many aspects to determine or on how to troubleshoot the main problem. First, checking the
continuity in power plug, selector switch, capacitor and the winding because once theres
no continuity the electric fan cannot function well. Second, if the thermal protector is cause
by an overheat and lastly, if the shaft is freely moving or it is not corrosive.