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(A Case Study at the Second Grade Students ofSMK Muhammadiyah Parung)

A' Skripsi '

Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers'Training

In Partial Fulfillment of Requirement for the Degree of Strata -1 (S-I)








(A Case Study at the Second Grade Stndents of SMK Muhammadiyah Parnng)

A' Skripsi'

Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teacher's Training

In Partial Fulfillment of the Reqnirements for the Degree of Strata -1 ( SI)



Approved By

Drs. Nasrun Mahmud, M.Pd








ON RELATIVE PRONOUN ( A Case Study at the Second Grade Students of

SMK Muhammadiyah Parung ) was examined at examination session of the

Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teachers Training Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta on July,17th

2006. This Skripsi has fulfilled the requirements for the degree of Strata ( SI) at

English Department
Jakarta July, I i 2006

Examination Committee

The Head of crc:ittee The Secretary of Committee

os ada MA

Examiner I Examiner II

~~ I
" ,

Drs. H. Sunardi K. Dipl.Ed Prof. DR. H. Mulianto SUlllardi

NIP. 150 022 779 NIP. 150 016 367

In the name of Allah, the most beneficent the most Merciful. Praise be to

Allah for the blessing given to the writer until she can finish and complete her

Skripsi. Peace and blessing be upon to the best people in the world the big prophet

Muhammad SAW, his family, his relatives and his followers.

In this special moment the writer would like say thank to

1. Her family, Ema, Bapak, Teteh, Aa and Youngers

2. Dr. Dede Rosyada MA, the Dean of Tarbiyah and Teacher's Training Faculty

3. Drs. Nasrun Mahmud M. Pd, the Head of English Department and writer's


4. All her lectures Tarbiyah and Teacher's Training as inspiring of spirit and

Inspiring of motivation

5. Mr. Madra; M.!'d and Drs. Zaenudin The Head Master and English Teacher at

SMK Muhammadiyah I Parung

6. All her best friends Bonita, Cacay, Manieza, Ina, Sopiah, Dj, Azis, Aa, and

all her friend In class A and B '2001'

7. Renaldo as writel:, close friend

Writer hopes somes suggestion and criticsm because this skripsi is far from being


Jakmia, July 2006

The Writer

Acknowledgment i

Table of Contents .ii

List of Table .iv


A. Background Study 1

B. Objective of Study .3

C. Limitation of Study .3

D. Organization of Writing 3


A. Test. 5

I. Df'finition of Test.. 5

2. Type of Test 6

3. Type of Test Items 9

4. Criteria of Good Test.. .13

B. Error

I. Meaning ofError 15

2. Causes of Error .15

3. Type of Error .16

C. Relative Pronoun 17

I. Meaning of Relative 17

\\ \
2. Kinds of Relative 19


A. Research Methodology 20

I. Time and Location 20

2. Instrument of Research 20

3. Technique of Sample Taking 20

4. Technique of Data Collecting 21

5. Technique of Data Analysis 21

B. Research Finding 22

I. Data Description 22

2. Data Analysis 23

3. Data Interpretation 28


A. Conclusion 29

B. Suggestion 29




1. Table 1. Area tested of Relative Pronoun 22

2. Table 2. Percentage ElTor on ' Who' 23

3. Table 3. Percentage ElTor on ' Which' 24

4. Table 4. Percentage ElTor on ' Whom' 25

5. Table 5. Percentage ElTor on' Whose' 27

6. Table 6. Sequence of Relative Pronouns Area Based on its High Frequency of

Error. 28


A. Background Study

(-~\En~!ish as international language has been widely used ,and studied all over

the world, In Indonesia English has been taught from basic level to university.

Learning a foreign language, especially English is different from learning

one's mother tongue. The learner of English is mattlre, has already acquired a

language and has probably developed strategies for leaming in gelleral.

As we know that teaching leaming English is not as e'lsy as teaching other

subjects, because in Indonesia English is not used as a second language, so the

students have difficulties in learning English.

Learning English in Indonesia often becomes problem for most high school

students although they have studied English since elemrl1tary school. Most of them

eventually are not interested in English anymore and English is likely to become

something too hard to learn.

We realize that evaluation plays an impOl1ant role in schools and it is an

integral pmt of teaching. It gives results to the teacher and students. It is used to know

the effectiveness of school's progrmn instruction and to lmow how much progress

the pupil have made in achieving the materials that have been studied in other word

good evaluation of our tests can help us to measures student skill more accurately. It

also shows that we are concerned about those we teach.


Evaluation may be defined as a systematic process of determining the extent

to which instructional objective are achieve by pupil. l There are two important

aspects of this definition. First, note that evaluation implies a systematic process,

which omits casual, uncontrolled observation of pupils. Second, evaluation assumes

that instructional objectives have been previously identified.

Test is the most obvious way to measure learner's competent and to provide

some indication of his or her ability. For teachers, testing is an important diagnostic

instrument. Not only does it allow them to keep track of the progress of their

students, but it enables them to measure their own success and failures in classroom

and lets them know when lesson plans must be modified to meet the students

unforeseen problem?

An Error in language is the use of a language form, which differs in some

way. It is based on the rules which is either not fully analyzed or is only imagined.

And mistake is one of slip of the tongue or the finger ( Another case in the keyboard).

A mistake refers to a performance error that is either a random guess 'slip', in that it

is failure to utilize a known system correctly.3

I David Nunan, Research Method in Language Learning,( Cambridge University Press) , p.184
2 Rebecca M Vallete and David Allen,Classroom Technique :Fol'eign language and englishas a
second language (New York: HE Javamovich) pA8
3 Pit Corder, Language Learner and Theil' Errol', ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1982, p.

By using error analysis, the teacher tries to identifY, to describe and to explain

the errors made by students in the test. It can help the teachers to minimize the

student en'or in their learning.

Based on that explanation above, the writer would like to identify a problem

under the tittles 'Error Analysis on the Students' Test Results on Relative Pronouns'

B. Objective Study

I. The objective of this "Skripsi" is to find out the student relative

pronouns error

2. To measure how well the students answer the question on Relative


C. Limitation of Study.

The writer limiHhis "Skripsi" on using Relative Pronouns and the errors made

by student in relative pronouns

D. Organization of Writing

To give more explanation about this paper the writer divides it into four


Chapters One is Introduction:

In this chapter the writer describes the background of study, objective of

study, Limitation of study and organization of writing.

Chapter Two explains the Theoretical Framework

In this chapter the writer divides it into three items, first item she describes

about Test: definition of test, type of test, type of test Item criteria of good test. The

second she describes about elTor analysis: the meaning of error, causes of error. and

the last describes about relative pronouns : the meaning and kinds of relative


Chapter Three Explains Research Methodology and l{esearch

Finding s

Research methodology describes about time and location, method of study,

population and sample, research instrument and data collecting. recearch findings

describe about description of data, data analysis and interpretation data.

Chapter Four, Conclusion and suggestion




1. Definition of Test

Test may be defined as an activity whose main purpose is to convey (Usually

to the testee) How well the testee or can do something. This is in contrast to practice,

whose main purpose is sheer learning4 It is often conventionally assumed that tests

are mostly used for assessment: the tests gives a score which is assumed to define the

level of knowledge of the testee. This may be in order to decide the whether he or she

is suitable for a certain job or admission to an institution, has passed a course, can

enter a certain class. But in fact testing and assessment overiap only paliially : there

are other way of assessing student and there are certainly other reason These are

he main reason why the test in the classroom - not necessarily in order of

impoliance 5

I. Give the students information about what they know, so that they also have an

awareness of what they need to learn or review;

2. Asses for some purpose external to CutTent teaching ( a final grade for the

course, selection

3. Motivate students to learn or review specific material;

4. Get a noisy class to keep quite and concentrate;

4 Peny Ur,A Course in Language Teaching: Practice and Theory, ( Cambridge University Press)

5. Provide a clear indication that the class has reached a station in learning;

6. Get the student to make effort;

7. Give the students tasks which themselves may actually provide useful review

or practice as well as testing

8. Provide the students with a sense of achievement and progress in their learning

2. Type of Test

There are many kinds of test, each with a specific purpose, a particular

criterion to be measured. The appropriateness of a test depends on the purpose, why a

test is needed at a certain stage or level in the student learning and what use will be

made of results 6

1. Placement Test

Placement test is design to sort new students into teaching groups, so that they

can start a course at approxim'ltely the same level as the other students in the class. It

is concerned with the student" s present and standing and so relates to general ability

rather than specific points of learning.

Placing new student in the right class in a school is facilitated with the use of

placement test usually base on syllabus and material the student will follow and use

once their level has been decided on these test grammar and vocabulary knowledge

6 Dra Tomasow & Dra AlbeItine MA, Pengelolaan Pengajaran SlJhasa Inggris II : Modul - 5
(Jakarta: Universitas Terbuka, Depdikbud. 1999), p.5.2

and asses the student' productive and receptive skilC

2. Diagnostic Test

A diagnostic test, which is sometimes called formative or progress test, check

on the students progress in learning particular element of the course. While placement

test are design to show how a good a students' English is in relation to a previously

agreed system of level, diagnostic test can be use to expose learner difficulties, gap in

their knowledge, and skill deficiencies during a course.

3. Achievement Test

This test are designed to measure leamer's language and skill progress in

relation to the syllabus. They have been following. Achievement test only work if

the contain item types which the student are familiar with. Achievement tests at the

end of term ( like progress test is a test like the end of unit a fortnight, etc) should

reflect progress not failures. This test is intended to show the standard which the

student have rich.

4. Proficiency Test

Proficiency test is a test to asses the student ability te. apply in achial situation

what he was learnt.

Proficiency test give a general picture of a student's knowledge and ability (

rather than measure progress). Proficiency test have a profound backwash effect

since, where here are external exanlS, the students obviously want to pass them, and

the teacher's reputation sometimes depend (probably unfairly) upon how many of the

7 Jeremy Harmer, The practice ofEnglish Language Teaching(London : Longman,2001)p


succeedS. proficiency tests are designed to measure people's ability in language,

regardless of any trainir.g they may have had in that language9

5. The Fonnative Test

Formative Test is given during the course of instruction; is to show which

aspects of the chapter the student has mastered and where remedial work is necessary.

6.The Summative Test

This test Usually given at the end of a marking period and measures the sum

total of material covered. on this type of test the student are usually ranked and


7. The Nonn - Referenced Test

This test compare a student's performance against performance of the other


8. The Criterion - Referenced Test

This test indicates whether the student has met predetermined objective or


9. The discrete Point Test

This test measures whether or not has mastered specific element of language.

10. Global Language Test

This test measure student's ability to understand and use language in context.

the dictation test based on unfamiliar material.

, ibid.p.320
9 Arthur Huges, Testing for language Teacher, Second Edition( Cambridge University Press
2003) 0.11

11. Cloze Test

In this test the student presented with a reading selection in which certain

word have been delecte in a mechanical or objectives ways.

3 Type of Test Item

Test in the classroom may be the conventional type of exemplified in the

previous unit, where the teatees are told in advance what they need to know what

criteria are for suc:cess, and so on. The search for objective testing method is the

direct outcome of dissatisfaction with the unreliability of the marking of the

traditional examination. Tests are set up so eliminate any differences in results due to

variation between markers or due variation in the judgment of one marker in different

times. There are basically formal test item 10;

1. Question - Answer

This can be uses to test almost anything. The more 'closed' the question is

(that is, the fewer the possible option for correct answers), the easier the item will be

to mark. It is fairly easy to compose and grade close-ended question ; more open,

thought - provoking ones are more difficult, but may actually test better. For example

what is the ( family) relationship between David Copperfield and Mr. Murdstone.

2. True / False

10 Peny Ur, A Course language Teaching: Practice and TheOlY (Cambridge University
Press, 1996) p.39

This does not directly test writing or speaking abilities : only listening or

reading: it may be used to test aspect of language. A statement is given which is to be

marked true or false in which case the answer is yes or no. for example:

Addis Ababa is capital of Egypt.

Is Addis Ababa is capital of Egypt?

3. Multiple - Choice

This may be used to the same testing purposes as true / false item; it does test

rather more thoroughly since it offers more optional answers and obviously very easy

to mark. The question consists of a stem and a number of options ( usually four) from

which he testee has to select the right one. For example

A person who writes books is called

a. a Booker b. an Editor c. an Author d. a Pnblisher

4. Gap - Filling and Completion

This Usually tests grammar or vocabulary. The testee has to complete a

sentence by filling a gap or adding something. A gap mayor may not be signaled by

blank or dash the word to be inserted mayor may not give or hinted at. For example

They to Australia in 1980 ( go )

5. Matching

This usually tests vocabulary and is rather awkward to administer orally: thus

it is best presented written on the board or on paper, though responses may be either

oral or writing. This testee faced with two groups of words, sentences or phrase: each

item in first group has to be linked to a different item in the second.


Large Small

Unhappy Many

A lot Big

Little Sad

6. Dictation

The tester dictates a passage or set of word : testee writes them down. This

mainly test spelling, perhaps punctuation and perhaps surprisingly on the face of it.

7. Cloze

Word are omitted from a passage at regular interval. This tests ( intensive)

reading, spelling and some to extent knowledge of vocabulary and grammar. For

example. The family are all fine. Thought Leo had a bad about of flu iast week. He

spent most of it lying on safe. watching when he was not sleeping!

his exams ....

Into weeks, so he is about mis3.i ng school but has managed to .

quite a lot in spite feeling ill.

8. Transfonnation

This item is relatively easy to design, administer and mark but its validity may

be suspect. It tests the ability of the testee to transform grammatical structure, which

is not the same as testing grammar. A sentence is given; the testee has to change it

According to some given instruction. For example

Put it into past tense

I go to school by bus.

9. Rewriting

This test the same sort of thing as transformation, but is likely to reflect more

thorough knowledge of the target items, since it involves paraphrasing the entire

meaning of a sentence rather than transfoffiling a particular item. The sentence is

given the testee \rewrites it. Incorporating a given change of expression but

preserving the basic meaning. For example : He came to the meeting in spite of his


Although ..

10. Translation

The testee is asked to translate expressions, sentences or entire passages to or

from the target language.

II. Essay

The testee is given a topic, such as ' childhood IDlOmories' and asked to write

an essay a specific length

12. Monologue

The testee is given a topic or question and asked to speak about it for a minute

or two.

4. Criteria of a Good Test

When the teacher considering to make a test he or she has to recognize the

various test of each case depend on purpose, time, subject and characteristic of a good


1. Validity

A test is valid if it test what it supposed to test. A particular kind of validity

that concerns most test designer is face validity this means that the test should look.

on the face of it as if it is valid!2.The validity of the test related to how well the test

does what it is supposed to do, namely to inform us about the examinee's progress

toward some goal in a cUr!'iculum or courses of study or to differentiate level of

ability among various examinee on some task. Validity question is about what a test

actually measures in relation to what supposed measure!3 According Arthur Hughes

A test is said to have content validity if its test content constitutes a representative

sample oflanguage skill, structure, etc!4

There are three basic aspect of validity namely!5 :

Content Validity - the extent the items on a test are representative of the

domain or universe that they are suppose to represent

11 Mary finochiaro and Sidney Sako.Foreign Language Test A Practical Approach (New York
Regents Pnblishing Company Inc, 1983) p.24
12 Jeremy Harmer, The Practice ofEnglish Language Teaching ( London: Longman, 2001), p. I 79
13 Jhon. W Oller, Language Test at School: Pragmatic and Approach (London,1979) p. 179
14 Arthur Hnghes, Testlngfor language Teacher,( Cambridge University Press, 2003) p. 26
15 Anthony J. Nitko, Educational Tests and Measurement an Introduction (Harcourt Brace
Javanovich, New York: 1983)p. 413

Construct Validity - The extent a test measures the trait, attribute, or mental

process it should measure and whether description of persons in terms of such

constructs can follow using the sores from that test.

Criterion - Related Validity - The extent scores on a test can be used to infer

an individual's standing on some other test or variable called criterion

2. Reliability

A good test should give consistent results. In practice reliability is enhanced by

making the test instruction absolutely clear, restricting the scope for variety in the

answer, and making sure that the test conditions remain constant.

A reliable test is one that produce essentially the same results consistently on

different occasion when the condition of the test remain the same 16. Reliability is

also depends on the people who mark the test - the score clearly. The test is

unreliable if the results depends on any large extent on who is marking it. Much

thought has gone into marking the scoring of the test as reliable as possible. Question

of reliability have to do how consistently a test does what it snpposed to do and thus

can not be strictly separated i'om validity question. Moreover, a test can not be any

more valid than it is reliable.

3. Practically

16 Jhon W. Oller, Language Test al School: Pragmatic and Approach (London, 1979) p. 179

Practically must be determined in relation to the cost in terms of material, time

and effort that is requires. This must include the preparation, administration, scoring

and interpretation of the test.

4. Instructional Value

Instructional value of the test pertains to how easily it can be fitted into an

educational program, whether the letter involves teaching a foreign language,

teaching language ali to native speakers, or verbally imparting subject matter in

monolingual or multilingual school setting.


1. Definition of Error

Error is defined as a process based on analysis of learner error with one clear

objective, evolving, a suitable and effective teaching - learning strategy and remedial

measures necessary in certain clearly marked out areas of the foreign language l ?

H. D. Brown defines error as ' noticeable deviation ' from the adults grammar

of native speaker, reflecting the inter language competence of the learner. 18 As

someone learn a foreign language, the error that she! he makes indicates her! his level

of proficiency.

J7 SK Sharma, Error analysis: Why and How? English Teaching Forum, ( April 1982), p.
1 8 H. Douglas Brown, Principle oflanguage and teaching, Fourth Edition (Addison Wisley,
longman inc.2000) p.217

2. Causes of Error

Error can not always be easily identified, we must analyze the causes of errors

that happen the students, there are three major causes of error namely mother tongue

interference, over generalization and error encourage by teaching material or

method l9

1. Mother Tongue Interference

The sound system ( phonology) and the grammar of the first language impose

themselves on the new language and his leads to a foreign pronunciation, faulty

grammatical pattern and occasionally wrong choice of vocabulary.

2. Overgeneralization

The mentalist claims that error are inevitable because they reflect various

stages in the language devebpment ofihe learner. It claims that the learner processes

new language data in his mind and produces rules for it,> production, based on


3. Error Encouraged by Teaching Material Method

Having related mentalism to overgeneralization, we can relate behaviorism to error

which appear to be induced by teaching process.

3.Type of Error

There are four type of Error20

1. En-or Types Based on Linguistic Category

19 Peter Hubbard, ef ai, A Training Course for Tefl ( New York: OXfJrd University Press) p. 141
20 Heidy Dullay, et ai, Language Two (New York: Oxford University PresR) p.146

Many error taxonomy have been based on linguistic item, which is affected by

an error according to either or both of the language component and the particular

linguistic constituent the error effect.

2. Surface Strategy Taxonomy

Surface strategy taxonomy highlight the ways surface structures are altered:

learner may omit necessary item ( omission) or add unnecessary ones ( addition) they

may misform items ( selection) and misorder them ( misordering )

3. Error Type Based on Comparative Taxonomy

The classification of error in comparative taxonomy is based on comparison between

structure of second language error and certain other type of construction.

4. Error Based on Communicative Effect Taxonomy

Communicative effect focuses on distinguish between error that seem to cause

Miscommunication. Error that effect the overall organization of he sentence hinder

successful communication, while error that effect a single element of the sentence

usually do not hinder communication.


1. Meaning of Relative Pronoun

Relative Pronoun ( Kata ganti Penghubung) adalah kata ganti yang

menghubungkan dua kalimat menjadi satu kalimat21

( Relative Pronoun is pronoun that is used to combine two sentence and cut

the same parts on it become one sentence)

21 Jhan Hartanla, Dkk, English Grammar (Surabay.: Indab, 1996) p. 77


Relative Pronoun is pronoun that mark a relative clause and corenferential to

the word modified by the relative clause. A relative pronoun relates a subordinate

clause to the rest of sentence. It may be found in adjective and noun clause.

Pronoun that Include in Relative Pronoun

- Who : Used for show the people

Example : I thanked the women who helped me

- Which : Used for things, animal, plant etc

Example : The book which is on the table is mine

- That : Used for people and things

Example : This is the book that I bought last night

- Whom : Used to replace people as subject, 'Whom' is generally used

only in very formal English

Example : The man whom I met teaches biology

- Whose : used to show possession. It carries the same meaning as other

possessive pronouns used as adj ective

Example : The student whose composition I read writes well

- What : what is used for antecedent

Example : I do not understand what you mean


2. Kinds of Error

Relative are usually introduced by the pronouns, Who, Which, Whose, Whom

and That22 there are three kinds of relatives, Defining Relatives, Non Defining

Relative, and COlmective Relative. 23

1. Defining Relatives

These describe the preceding noun in such way as to distinguish it from other

nouns of the same class, A class of this kinds is essential to the clear understanding

of the noun. The relatives clause is essential to the meaning because it define the


2. Non Defining Relatives

The relatives adds to our information but is no necessary; the main clause is

perfectly clear without it, non defining relative are placed after nouns which are

definite already. They do not therefore define the noun but merely add something to it

by giving some more information about it.

3. COlli1ective Relative

It has the same form as non defining relatives clause. They are usually placed

after the object of main verb.

22 W. Stannard Allen, Living Engiishfor Schoois (Longman: 1977) p. 43

23 Thomson n.a.v.m arlinet, A practical Engiish Grammar (Oxford University: 1980) p. 43


A. Research Methodology

l.The Time and Location

This research took place at SMK Muhamadiyah Parung which located on

Jalan H. Mawi no. 292 Parung Bogor. The Writer began this research on April 10,

and it ended on may 10,2006. the field research consist of two activities:

1. Observation

Before doing the research the writer first of all observed the location, the

situation population where the research is carried out

2. Test

The test was given to the students on Wednesday May 10, 2006. The test

multiple choice related with Relative Pronouns

2. Instrument of Research

To collect the data, the writer gives a multiple choice test to the second grade

student of SMK Muhammadiyah Parung consisting of 20 items

3. Technique of Sampling Taking

The number of population is 93 taken from 3 classes namely : Akuntansi,

Penjualan I, Penjualan II the sample taken is only 54 students, the writer used a

purposive random sampling to get representative data.


4. The Technique of Data Collecting

The Writer gives a multiple choice test to the second grade of SMK

Muhammadiyah parung. The test was about grammar which is focused on Relative


5. The Technique Data Analysis

The technique of data analysis that the writer uses is descriptive analysis

technique( Percentage) . The Formula:

P= - - , - - - XIOO%

Notes P = Percentage

F = Frequency of Wrong Answer

N = Nwtlber of Sample

B. Research Finding

1. Data Description

As stated in preceding in the preceding chapter, that this skripsi is focused on

the error done by student the second years student ofSMK Muhamadiyah on Relative

Pronouns. To get the data the writer gives Multiple - Choice test which is focused on

Relative Pronoun.

The test consist of 20 items which is divided into four item ( 5 items for'

Who'), (5 Items for' Which' ), (5 Items for 'Whom') and (5 items for 'Whose' ).

Table 1 : Area Tested of Relative Pronoun

No Area Tested Items

1 Who 1,7, 12, 15, 19

2 Which 2,5 ,9, 13, 18

J Whom 4, 8, 11, 16, 20

4 Whose 3,6,10,14,17

2. Data Analysis

In this part, the data was analyzed and the description is as follows:

Table 2 : Percentage Enol' on ' Who'

No Item Numbers Frequency of Error Percentage of Enol'

1 1 2 3,70 %

2 7 34 62,96%

3 12 16 29,62%

4 15 20 37,03%

5 19 7 12,96%

Total 79 29,25%
- -
The first Item IS about' Who' from table above we can see that:

I. 2 student from 54 samples made error in item I ; the percentage from of

enor in this item is 3, 70 %

2. 34 student from 54 samples made error in item 7 ; the percentage from of

error in this item is 62, 96 %

3. 16 student from 54 samples made enor in item 13 ; the percentage from of

error in this item is 29,62 %

4. 20 student from 54 samples made error in item 15 ; the percentage from of

error in this item is 37, 03 %

5. 7 student fi'om 54 samples made en'Ol" in item 19 ; the percentage from of

error in this item is 12, 96 %


After analyzing Relative Pronoun' Who' the next analysis is on ' Which'

Table 3 : Percentage on ' Which'

No Item Numbers Frequency of Error Percentage of


1 2 3 3,70%

2 5 14 25,92%

3 9 12 22,22%

4 13 16 29,62%

5 18 10 18,51%
Total 54 J9,99%
I l

The second item is about' Which' from the table we can see that:

1. 2 students from 54 samples made error in item 2 ; the percentage of error

in this item 3 , 70 %

2. 14 students from 54 samples made error in item 5 ; the percentage of error

in this item 25 , 92 %

3. 12 students from 54 samples made elTor in item 9 ; the percentage of error

in this item 22, 22 %

4. 16 students from 54 samples made error in item 13 ; the percentage of

error in this item 29 , 62 %


5. 10 students from 54 samples made error in item 18 ; the percentage of

error in this item 18 , 51 %

From the results above, it is shown that the total percentage of the

student' s error on ' Which' is 19. 99 %. The highest frequency of error is

made in item number 13, with 29,62 %

After analyzing relative pronoun' Which' the next analysis is on ' Whom'

Table 4: Percentage on' Whom'

No Item Frequency Percentage

Numbe,'s of Error of Error

1 3 8 14, 81 %

2 6 14 25,92%

"~ 10 38 70,37 %

4 14 49 90,74 %

5 17 49 90,74 %

Total 158 58,51 %

The third item is about relative pronoun part' Whom'

1. 8 students from 54 samples made error in item 3 ; the percentage of

error III this items is 14 , 81 %


2. 14 students from 54 samples made error in item 6 ; the percentage of

en-or m this items is 25 , 92 %

3. 38 students from 54 samples made elTor in item 10 ; the percentage of

elTor m this items is 70 , 37 %

4. 49 students from 54 samples made elTor in item 14 ; the percentage of

error In this items is 90 , 74%

5. 49 students from 54 samples made elTor in item 17 ; the percentage of

error In this items is 90 , 74 %

From the results above, it is shown that the total percentage of the

student' error on ' Whom' is 58 , 51 % the highest frequency of error s made

in items number i 4 and 17 with 90 , 74 %


Table 5 : Percentage on 'Whose'

No Item Frequency of Percentage

Numbers Error of Error

1 4 11 20,37%

2 8 45 83,33%
3 11 52 96,29%

4 16 22 40,74%

5 20 51 94,44%

Total 181 67,03%

------ --

The last item is about relative pronoun on 'Whose' and we can see

from table that there:

1. 11 students from 54 samples made error in item 4 ; the percentage of error

in this items is 20,37%

2. 45 students from 54 samples made error ill item 8 ; the percentage of etTOr

in this items is 83,33%

3. 52 students from 54 samples made error in item 11 ; the percentage of

error in this items is 96,29%

4. 22 students from 54 samples made error in item 16 ; the percentage of

error in this items is 40,74%


5. 51 students from 54 samples made error in item 20 ; the percentage of

en"Of in this items is 94,44%

3. The Interpretation Data

Finally the sequence of relative pronoun based on it is high frequency of error

is presented. The frequency of error could be seen at the following table:

Table 6 : The sequence of relative pronoun a!'ea

based on it is high f"equency error

No Relative Pronoun A"ea Frequency of Error Percentage

1 Who 79 29,25%

2 Which 54 19,99%

3 Whom 158 58,51%

4 Whose 171 67,03%

From the table we can see, the first most of students make error in relative

pronoun on ' Whose' with frequency 67,03% with those frequencies the teacher must

pay attention more in relative pronoun on ' Whose', the second level is about relative

pronoun on ' Whom' with frequencies 58,51%, the third level s about relative

pronoun on 'Who' frequency of error n this item is 29,25% and the last level is about

relative pronoun on 'Which' the frequency of error n this item is 19.99%



I. Conclusion

After finding out the results of the test and analyzing it. The Writer can take

conclusion that most of student made errors in pronoun' Whose' or 67, 03% ( made

it elTor in it) . According to the writer it could happen because the students have not

understoorl about the rules of relative pronoun especially part' Whose' so the

frequency of correction is 32,97 %. It means that 'Whose' is the most difficult item

in relatives pronoun for the students and it needs more attention in teaching- learning


2. Suggestion

Ir. this section, writer would like to give some suggestion to improve English


The teacher must pay attention to the material of rdative pronoun more

than any other pronoun

It is necessary to do more exercise in English pronoun in order to improve

student's English proficiency.


lIen. W. Stannard, Living English Structure for Schools, Longman, 1997

,own Douglas H, Principle of language and Teaching, fourth edition, Longman


zar, Betty Scrampher, Understanding and Using: English Grammar, New Jersey:

Pretince Hall Regent, 1997

order, S. Pit. Language Learner and Their Error, New York: Oxford University

press 1982

armer, Jeremy, The Practice English Teaching, London: Longman 2001

Hubbard, Peter, et ai, A Training Course for TEFL, New York Oxford

niversity Press, 1983

ughes, Arthur, Testing for Language Teacher, Second Edition, Cambridge

University Press, 2003

lon, Hartanto Drs, dkk, English Grammar, Surabaya: lndah, 1996

itko. J. Anthony, Educational Test and Measurement an introduction, New York:

Harcourt Brace Javanovich, 1993

lunan, David, Research Method in Language Learning, Cambridge University Press,


Iller. W. Jhon, Language Test at School: Pragmatic Approach, London: Longman

homson AJ. Martinet, a Practical English Grammar, Fourth Edition, New York:

Oxford University Press, 1980

im Penyusun UIN, Pedoman Penulisan Slo'ipsi, Tesis dan Desertasi, Jakarta: UIN

Jakarta Press, 2002

ommasow, Dra and Albertine, Dra, MA. Pengajaran Bahasa Inggris 11 : Modul - 5

Jakarta: Universitas Terbuka, Depdikbud, 1999

Ir, penny, A Course Language Teaching : Practice and Theory, Cambridge

University Press, 1996

'allete, Rebecca M., Modern Language Testing New York Harcourt brace

Jovanovich Publisher, 1997

Vardojo, MSD, English Through Practice, Bandung : Pustaka Buana, 1987

\.ppendix I

The Question of Relatives Pronoun

1. The Boy ( Who - Which - Whom - Whose) broke the window lives next door

2. The Music (Who - Which - Whom - Whose) we listened to last night was good

3. The man (Who - Which- Whom- Whose) I saw was Mr. Rahmad

4. My,.Chail:ro( Who - Which - Whom - Whose) one leg is broken need


5. The book ( Who - Which - Whom - Whose) is on the table is Bahasa Indonesia

6. She is the women about ( Who - Which - Whom - Whose) 1 told

7. I Thanked the women ( Who - Which - Whom - Whose) Helped me

8. There are t!1e man ( ( Who - Which - Whom - Whose) son has passed his


9. Flies, ( Who - Which - Whom - Whose) <,re very annoying carry disease

10. Your brother ( Who - Which - Whom - Whose) I met yesterday did not

remember about me

11. The student ( Who - Which - Whom - Whose) composition I read writes well

12. I saw the man (Who - Which - Whom - Whose) closed the door

13. The tree ( Who - Which - Whom - Whose) stand in the river many fruits

14. The man ( Who - which - Whom- Whose) I met teaches biology

15. The lady ( Who - Which - Whom - Whose) was here yesterday is a teacher

16. The Man ( Who - Which - Whose - Whom) wife died last week is my uncle
17. The girl ( Who - Which - Whom -Whose) I saw told me to come back\

18. My white dog ( Who - Which - Whom - Whose) was lost has been found

19. Napoleon (Who - Which - Whom - Whose) is a great General of France was

also a writer

20. I know the man ( Who - Which - Whom - Which) money was stolen
Appendix II

Answer Key

1. Who

2. Which

3. Whom

4. Whose

5. Which

6. Whom

7. Who

8. Whose

9. Which

10. Whom

11. Whose

12. Who

13. Which

14. Whom

15. Who

16. Whose

17. Whom

18. Which

19. Who

20. Whose
lomor : Istimewa Ciputat, 12 Desember 2005
,ampiran : ( satu) Berkas
'erihal : Pengaj uan Judul Skripsi

{th. Ketua Jurusan Bahasa Inggris
)rs. Nasrun Mahmud

Assalamualaikum WI". Wb
Salam Silaturahmi kami sampaikan semoga Bapak senantiasa dalam lindungan
Allah SWT Serta sukses dalam menjalankan sehari hari.
Sehubungan dengan akan berakhimya masa studi program Strata satu (Sl) yang
saya tempuh, maka saya yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini:

Nama : Rafika
NIM :101014020853
Jurusan : Tadris Bahasa Inggris
Fakultas : Tarbiyah

Bermaksud Mengajukan judul Skripsi sebagaimana tertera di bawah ini :

Student Of SMK Muhammadiyah I Parung )

Sebagai Bahan Pertimbangan bagi bapak, Bersarna ini saya lampirkan

I. Outline
2. AbstTaksi
3. Daftar Kepustakaan Sementara

Demikian judul Skripsi ini saya ajukan, dengan harapan bapak berkenan untuk
menyetujuinya dan sekaIigus menentukan dosen pembimbingnya, atas perhatiannya saya
ucapkan terima kasih

Wassalamualaikum Wr.wb
Ketua Jurusan Bahasa Inggris Pemohon



~NA .-'""

J)/fl II/~afika
./FJ. j/~ r NIM: 101014020853

Telp. : (62-21) 7443328, 7401925, Fax. (6221) 7402982
Nomor 95, Ciputnt 15412, Indonesia Email: uinjkt@cabi.netid

NomoI' : ETffL.02.1/1/2006 Jakarta, 16 Januari 2006

Lamp. : Abstraksi/Outline

Kepada Yth.
Drs. Nasrun Mahmud, M.Pd
Dosen Pemb!mbing Skripsi
Fakultas lImu Tarbiyah dan Keguruan
UIN Syari f Hidayatullah Jakarta
Assalamu 'alaikum WI'. wb.
Dengan ini diharapkan kesediaan Saudara untuk menjadi Pembimbing 1/1I
(maleri/teknis) penulisan skripsi mahasiswa:
Nama : Ratika
NIM : 101014020853
Jurusdnl Semester : Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris IIX
JuclulSkripsi "Error Analysis on the Students' Test Results on Relative
Proi1ouns a Case Study Wita Second Grade ()l Senior High
School (SMK Muhammadiyah J Parung)"
Judul tersebut telah disetujui oleh Jurusan yang bersangkutan pacla tanggal
12 Januari 2006 dengan abstraksiloutline sebagaimana terlampir.
Bimbingan skripsi ini diharapkan selesai c1alal11 waktu 6 (enam) bulan,
yakni sampai dengan tanggal 12 Juli 2006.
Atas perhatian dan bantuan Saudara. kami ucapkan terima kasih.
rVassalanIU 'ahdkum wr.ll'b.

I. Dekan FITK
2. Ketua Jurusan ybs.
3, Mahasiswa yang bersangkutan.
Telp. : (62.21) 7443328,7401925, Fax. (6221) 7402982
a Nomar 9~, Ciputnt 15412, Indonesia Email:

NomoI' : ET/TL.02.21 I 12006 Jakarta. 23 Januari 2006

Lamp. : Instrulllen Riset

Kepada Ylh.
Kepala SMK Muhammadiyah I

Assalalllu 'alaikulII WI'. wb.

Dengan hormat kami sampaikan bahwa:
Nama : Rafika
adalah benar mahasiswa Fakultas I1mu Tarbiyah dan Keguruan lJlN Syarif.-
I-lidayatullah Jakarta:
NIM : 101014020853
Jurusan/ Semester : Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris
Semester : IX (Sembilan)
Sehubungan dengan tugas penyelesaian skripsi yang berjudul:
"Error Analyisis on Students Test Results on Relative Pronouns (A Case Study With
Second Grade Students ofSMK Muhammadiyah 1 - Parung) ".
Kami mohon kesediaan Saudara untuk menerima dan membantu mahasiswa/i
terse but.
Atas perhatian dan bantuan Saudara, kami ucapkan terima kasih.
Wassalamu 'alaikul11 WI'. wb.

1. Dekan FITK
2. Ketua Jurusan ybs.
3. Mahasiswa yang bersangkutan.
Alamat: JI. H. Mawi No. 292. Bojong Indah, Parung - Bogar Kode Pos 16330
Telp. (0251) 542137

NomOI' : II.A/2.b/Skt/088/2006

'ang bertanJa tangan dibawah ini Kepala Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan (SMK)
'luhammadi:'ah Parung, menerangkan bahwa :

lama :RA F I KA
'empat Tgl. Lahir : Sukabumi, 19 April 1982
enis Kelamill : Perempuan
JIM . 101014020853
Uamat : Ds. Bojong Indah Rt.05/02
Kee.Parung Kab.Bogar

~ahwa nalila tersebut diatas telah melaksanakan Riset dan Wawaneara di SMK
vluhammadiyah Parung sejak tanggal 10 Apl"i12006 sampai dengan 10 Mei 2006 dengan
udul Skripsi . Error Allalysis 011 Studellt Test Resault 011 Relative Prolloull.

)emikianlah Surat Keterngan ini kami buat dengan sebenarnya, agar dapat dipergunakan
;ebagaimana mestinya.