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H PHNG TRNH
Bin son: Trn Th Thu Ngn ST: 01667872256
Cu hc sinh trng THCS L T Trng TP Lo Cai
Cu hc sinh trng THPT Chuyn i hc S phm.

MC LC

I. H PHNG TRNH BC NHT 2

II. H PHNG TRNH C MT PHNG TRNH BC NHT 4

III. H PHNG TRNH C MT PHNG TRNH A C V PHNG TRNH TCH 6

IV. H PHNG TRNH C MT PHNG TRNH L PHNG TRNH BC HAI THEO MT N 8

V. GII H PHNG TRNH BNG PHNG PHP T N PH 9

VI. H PHNG TRNH I XNG LOI I 11

VII. H PHNG TRNH I XNG LOI II 13

VIII. H PHNG TRNH NG CP BC HAI 14

IX. GII H PHNG TRNH BNG PHNG PHP NH GI 15

X. MT S H PHNG TRNH DNG KHC 16

BI TP TNG HP (~ 200 Bi) 18

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I. H PHNG TRNH BC NHT

a 1 x y a 1 1

V d 1. Cho h phng trnh: (a l tham s).
x a 1 y 2 2
a) Gii h phng trnh vi a 2 .
b) Gii v bin lun h phng trnh.
c) Tm cc s nguyn a h phng trnh c nghim nguyn.
d) Tm a nghim ca h phng trnh tha mn x y t gi tr nh nht.

Gii.
a) Vit li h phng trnh cho vi a 2 v gii h phng trnh mi:
5
x
3x y 3 4 x 5 4

x y 2 y 2 x y 2 5 3
4 4
5 3
Vy vi a 2 h phng trnh c nghim x; y ; .
4 4
b) Gii v bin lun:
T phng trnh 1 ta c: y a 1 x a 1 3 th vo phng trnh 2 ta c:
x a 1 a 1 x a 1 2 x a 2 1 x a 2 1 2 a 2 x a 2 1 4
a2 1
Nu a 0 , phng trnh 4 c nghim duy nht x . Thay vo 3 ta c:
a2
a2 1 a 1 a 2 1 a 2 a 1 a3 a a 2 1 a3 a 2 a 1
y a 1 . 2 a 1 2 .
a a2 a2 a
a2 1 a 1
Suy ra h phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x; y 2 ; 2 .
a a
Nu a 0 , phng trnh 4 v nghim.
Suy ra h phng trnh cho v nghim.
a2 1 a 1
Vy: a 0 h phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x; y 2 ; 2 .
a a
a 0 h phng trnh cho v nghim.
a2 1 a 1
c) Vi a 0 th h phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x; y 2 ; 2 .
a a

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a2 1
x a 2
H phng trnh c nghim nguyn: a .
y a 1
a 2
a2 1 1 1
iu kin cn: x 2
1 2 2 a 2 U 1 1 a 2 1 a 1
a a a
iu kin :
1 1
a 1 y 0 (nhn)
1
2

11
a 1 y 2 (nhn)
12
Vy a 1 h phng trnh cho c nghim nguyn.
a2 1 a 1
d) Vi a 0 th h phng trnh cho c nghim duy nht x; y 2 ; 2 .
a a
a2 1 a 1 a2 a 2 1 2 1
Ta c: x y 2
2 2
1 2 . t t ta c:
a a a a a a
1 1 1 2
7
2
1 7 7
x y 2t 2 t 1 2 t 2 t 2 t 2 t
2 2 4 16 4 8 8
1
Du = xy ra khi v ch khi t , khi a 4 .
4
7
Vy a 4 th h phng trnh c nghim tha mn x y t gi tr nh nht bng .
8

x x y y 2015 1

V d 2. Cho h phng trnh: (k l s cho trc).
x x y y k
2
Bit rng h phng trnh cho c ng hai nghim phn bit x; y a; b ; c; d .
Tnh tng a b c d theo k.

Gii.
Tr v theo v ca 1 cho 2 ta c: 2 x 2 y 2015 k 2 x y 2015 k 3 .
V h phng trnh cho c ng hai nghim phn bit nn ta c: 2 x y a b c d 4 .
T 3 v 4 suy ra: a b c d 2015 k .
Vy a b c d 2015 k .

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BI TP LUYN TP THEO DNG I

mx 2 y 1

Bi I.1. Cho h phng trnh: (m l tham s).

3 x m 1 y 1
a) Gii v bin lun h phng trnh theo m.
b) Tm cc gi tr nguyn ca m h phng trnh c nghim nguyn.

x my m 2 z 0

Bi I.2. Bit x; y; z tha mn h phng trnh: x ny n 2 z 0 . Trong m; n; p i mt khc nhau.
x py p 2 z 0

Chng minh rng: x y z 0 .

mx y 3
Bi I.3. Cho h phng trnh: .
2 x my 9
a) Gii h phng trnh khi m 1 .
b) Tm cc gi tr nguyn ca m h cho c nghim duy nht x; y sao cho biu thc A 3x y
nhn gi tr nguyn.

ax by c

Bi I.4. Cho h phng trnh: bx cy a ( a; b; c l tham s). Chng minh rng iu kin cn v ca
cx ay b

h phng trnh cho c nghim l: a3 b3 c3 3abc .

II. H PHNG TRNH C MT PHNG TRNH BC NHT


Vi dng ny ta s s dng phng php th. T phng trnh bc nht trong h, ta biu din n bc
nht theo n kia ri th vo phng trnh cn li.

2 x y 1
V d 3. Gii h phng trnh: 2 .
x 2 xy y 7
2

Nhn xt: Nhn vo h phng trnh cho ta d dng thy c phng trnh th nht l phng trnh bc
nht ca c x v y. Tuy nhin, h s ca y nh hn nn ta s rt y theo x tin cho vic tnh ton. Ri sau
th vo phng trnh th hai.

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Gii.
2 x y 1 y 2x 1
y 2x 1
2 2 2
x 2 xy y 7 x 2 x 2 x 1 2 x 1 7 x 4x 2x 4x 4x 1 7 0
2 2 2 2

x 4 x 4
y 2 x 1
y 2x 1 y 2 x 1 y 2. 4 1 y 9
2 x 4 .
x 2 x 8 0
x 4 x 2 0 x 2 x 2 x 2

y 2.2 1 y 3
Vy h phng trnh cho c hai nghim x; y 4; 9 ; 2;3 .

x y 1 x y 1 3x 4 x 1
2 2

V d 4. Gii h phng trnh: .


xy x 1 x

2

Nhn xt: Nhn vo h phng trnh cho ta thy rng phng trnh th hai l phng trnh bc nht i
vi n y. Theo cch gii ca dng ny ta s biu din y theo x ri th vo phng trnh th nht.

Gii.
x y 1 x y 1 3x 4 x 1
1
2 2

xy x 1 x

2
2
x2 1
Ta thy x 0 khng tha mn phng trnh 2 . Vi x 0 , t phng trnh 2 ta c: y 1 thay
x
vo phng trnh 1 ta c:
x2 1 x2 1
x2 . . x 3x 4 x 1 x 1 2 x 1 3x 4 x 1 x 1 2 x 1 x 1 3x 1
2 2 2 2 2 2

x x
x 1 2 x3 2 x2 x 1 x 1 3x 1 0 x 1 2 x3 2 x 2 4 x 0 2 x x 1 x 2 x 2 0
x 1
2 x x 1 x 2 0 (v x 0 ).
2

x 2
12 1
Vi x 1 th y 1 1 .
1
2 1
2
5
Vi x 2 th y 1 .
2 2
5
Vy h phng trnh cho c hai nghim x; y 1;1 ; 2; .
2

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BI TP LUYN TP THEO DNG II

xy 12
Bi II.1. Gii h phng trnh: .
x 2 y 2 0

x 2 4 y 2 3x 2 0
Bi II.2. Gii h phng trnh: .
2 x 3 y 5
x y 1 0
Bi II.3. Gii h phng trnh: 2 .
2 x xy 3 y 7 x 12 y 1 0
2


x 3y 9
2

Bi II.4. Gii h phng trnh: 4 .



y 4 2 x 3 y 2
48 y 48 x 155 0

III. H PHNG TRNH C MT PHNG TRNH A C V


PHNG TRNH TCH
Vi dng ny ta cn tm v a mt phng trnh v phng trnh tch. Sau tm cch rt mt n theo
n kia ri th vo phng trnh cn li.
nhn ra nhanh phng trnh c th a v phng trnh tch cc bn nn lm nhiu bi tp phn
tch a thc thnh nhn t theo chng trnh lp 8 v thm cc bi phn tch a thc thnh nhn t
c cha cn thc theo chng trnh lp 9.
Bn cnh nhng h ta c th nhn ra ngay phng trnh a c v phng trnh tch ta cn c nhng
bi cn phi bin i mt vi bc mi c, thng thng s dng phng php cng i s,

xy 2 x y 2 0
V d 5. Gii h phng trnh: 2 .
x 5 xy y 15
2

Gii.
x 1
x 1 2
xy 2 x y 2 0 x 1 y 2 0 1 5.1. y y 15 0
2

2 2 y 2 y 2
x 5 xy y 15 x 5 xy y 15 2
2 2

x 5 xy y 2
15
x 2 5.2.x 22 15 0

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x 1

x 1 x 1 y 7
2 y 2
y 5 y 14 0 y 7 y 2 0
.
y2
y 2

y 2
x 10 x 11 0
2 x 1 x 11 0 x 1

x 11

Vy h phng trnh cho c bn nghim x; y 1;7 ; 1; 2 ; 1;2 ; 11;2
.


xy x y x 2 y
2 2

V d 6. Gii h phng trnh: .



x 2 y y x 1 2 x 2 y

Gii. KX: x 1; y 0 .

xy x y x 2 y
2 2 x 2 y 2 xy x y y 2 0
x y x y y 1 x y 0


x 2 y y x 1 2x 2 y
x 2 y y x 1 2x 2 y
x 2 y y x 1 2x 2 y

x y x y y 1 0
x y x 2 y 1 0
x 2 y 1 0

(v x y 0 )

x 2 y y x 1 2 x 2 y
x 2 y y x 1 2 x 2 y
x 2 y y x 1 2 x 2 y

x 2 y 1
x 2 y 1
x 2 y 1


2 y 1 2 y y 2 y 2 2 y 1 2 y
2y y 2y 2y 2
2 y y 1 2 y 1 0

x 2 y 1
x 2 y 1 x 2 y 1
y 1 (v y 0 )

y 1 2 y 2 0 y 2

y 2

y 2 y 2
(nhn, tha mn KX).
x 2.2 1 x 5
Vy h phng trnh c nghim duy nht x; y 5; 2 .

BI TP LUYN TP THEO DNG III

x 2 xy 2 y 2 3x 3 y 0

Bi III.1. Gii h phng trnh: 2 .
2 x 15 xy 4 y 12 x 45 y 24 0

2


x 5x y
3

Bi III.2. Gii h phng trnh: 3 .



y 5 y x

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x 2 y 2 x y 18

Bi III.3. Gii h phng trnh: 2 .
x y x y 6

2


2 x 2 x xy y 0
2

Bi III.4. Gii h phng trnh: 2 .



2 y 2 y xy x 0


x 4 y xy 5 y 1
2 2

Bi III.5. Gii h phng trnh: 2 .


x 3 y xy 4 y 1

2

IV. H PHNG TRNH C MT PHNG TRNH L PHNG


TRNH BC HAI THEO MT N
Vi dng ny ta cn tm v a mt phng trnh v phng trnh bc hai theo mt n bng cch coi n
kia l tham s v biu din n theo tham s ri sau th vo phng trnh cn li.


xy x y x 2 y
2 2

V d 7 (Cch lm khc ca V d 6). Gii h phng trnh: .


x 2 y y x 1 2x 2 y

Gii. KX: x 1; y 0 .
Phng trnh th nht ca h l phng trnh bc hai n x tham s y sau: x2 y 1 x 2 y 2 y 0 1 .
y 1 4. 2 y 2 y y 2 2 y 1 8 y 2 4 y 9 y 2 6 y 1 3 y 1 0 y 0 3 y 1 .
2 2

y 1 3y 1 4 y 2
x1 2 y 1
Phng trnh 1 c hai nghim phn bit:
2.1 2
.
x y 1 3 y 1 2 y
y
2 2.1 2
Vi x 2 y 1 thay vo phng trnh th hai ca h ta c: 2 y 1 2 y y 2 y 2 2 y 1 2 y
2 y y 2 y 2 y 2 2 y y 1 2 y 1 0
y 1
y 1
2y 2 0
y 2
y 2 (v y 0 ) x 2.2 1 5 (tha mn x 1)

Vi x y x y 0 , khng tn ti iu ny v x 1; y 0 x y 1 0 .
Vy h phng trnh c nghim duy nht x; y 5; 2 .

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BI TP LUYN TP THEO DNG IV

y 5 x 4 4 x
2

Bi IV.1. Gii h phng trnh: .


y 5 x 4 xy 16 x 8 y 16 0

2 2

x x y y 2 4 x 1
Bi IV.2. Gii h phng trnh: .

2 2
x x y 2 y 7 x 2

x y x y 1 0
2

Bi IV.3. Gii h phng trnh: 2 .


x 1 x y 2 y 0

V. GII H PHNG TRNH BNG PHNG PHP T N PH


Vi dng ny ta cn tm c lng thch hp t n ph (pht hin n ph), n ph c th thy ngay
hoc xut hin sau mt s php bin i, thng thng s l bin i hng ng thc hoc php chia cho
mt biu thc khc 0. Sau khi t n ph h phng trnh s a v cc dng bit cch gii.
Lu c nhng bi t n ph khng hon ton!

x 2 xy y 2 x 2 y 2 185

V d 8. Gii h phng trnh: .
x 2 xy y 2 x 2 y 2 65

Nhn xt: Nhn vo h phng trnh cho ta thy xut hin nhng lng chung ca hai phng trnh l
xy v x 2 y 2 , ta ngh n t n ph n gin h phng trnh cho.

Gii.
a 2 b a 185 a 3 ab 185
a x 2 y 2 0
t . H phng trnh cho tr thnh: 2 3
b xy
a b a 65
a ab 65

2a3 250

a 125
3
a 5 a 5 a 5
3 3 3 (nhn, tha mn iu kin).
a ab 185 5 5b 185 5b 60
a ab 185
b 12

x 2 y 2 5 x y 25 xy 12
2 2
Vi a 5 v b 12 ta c h phng trnh: 2
xy 12 2 xy 24 x 2 xy y 1
2

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y x 1 y x 1 y x 1
xy 12 xy 12 2
xy 12 x x 1 12 x x 12 0 x 4 x 3 0
x y 1 y x 1
x y 1 x y 1 y x 1 y x 1 y x 1 y x 1
2


x x 1 12 x 4 x 3 0
x x 12 0
2

x 4 x 4

y x 1 y 4 1 y 3
x 3 x 3
x 4

x 3
y 3 1 y 4
(nhn)
y x 1 x 4 x 4
y 4 1 y 3
x 4
x 3 x 3
x 3
y 3 1 y 4

Vy h phng trnh cho c bn nghim x; y 4;3 ; 3; 4 ; 4; 3 ; 3;4
.

x 1 y y x 4 y
2

V d 9. Gii h phng trnh: 2 .


x 1 y x 2 1

Gii.
Ta thy y 0 khng l nghim ca h phng trnh cho. Vi y 0 , chia hai v ca hai phng trnh ca
h cho y ta c:
x2 1
y yx4 x2 1
a

2 . t y ta c h phng trnh mi theo a v b:
x 1 y x 2 1 y x 2 b
y

a b 2 b 2 a
b 2 a b 2 a
a 1 a 1
2 .
ab 1 a 2 a 1 a 2a 1 0 a 1 0 b 2 1 b 1
2

x2 1
1 x2 1 y y 3 x y 3 x
Vi a b 1 , ta c h phng trnh: y 2
y x 2 1 3 x y x x 2 0 x 1 x 2 0

x 1 x 1
y 3 x
y 3 1 y 2
x 1 (nhn)
x 2 x 2
x 2

y 3 2 y 5
Vy h phng trnh cho c hai nghim x; y 1;2 ; 2;5 .

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BI TP LUYN TP THEO DNG V

x 2 3 y 2 1 10 xy 0

Bi V.1. Gii h phng trnh: x y 3 .
2 2 0
x 3 y 1 20

xy x 3 y 2 6

Bi V.2. Gii h phng trnh: 2 .

x y 2
3 x 2 y 1

x y x y 1 0
2

Bi V.3. Gii h phng trnh: 2 .


x 1 x y 2 y 0


x xy 3x y 0
2

Bi V.4. Gii h phng trnh: 4 .



x 3 x 2
y 5 x 2
y 2
0

VI. H PHNG TRNH I XNG LOI I


H phng trnh hai n x; y c gi l h phng trnh i xng loi I nu mi phng trnh khng i
khi ta thay i vai tr x; y.
Cch gii tng qut: Tm x + y v xy t h phng trnh.


x y 11
2 2

V d 10. Gii h phng trnh: .


x xy y 3 4 2

Gii.
x 2 y 2 11 x y 2 xy 11
2

x xy y 3 4 2
x y xy 3 4 2
x y a
t I , ta c h phng trnh mi theo a v b:
xy b
a 2 2b 11
a 2 2b 11
b 3 4 2 a
b 3 4 2 a

a b 3 4 2
2a 2b 6 8 2
a 2a 17 8 2
a 2a 1 18 8 2

2 2

b 3 4 2 a b 3 4 2 a
b 3 4 2 a
b 3 4 2 a
2 a 1 4 2 a 3 2


2

a 1 4 2
a 1 4 2




a 1 4 2 a 5 2

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a 3 2 a 3 2

b 3 4 2 3 2 b 3 2
.
a 5 2 a 5 2

b 3 4 2 5 2 b 8 5 2

a 3 2
x y 3 2 y 3 2 x
Vi , thay vo I ta c h phng trnh:
b 3 2 xy 3 2


x 3 2 x 3 2

x 3 x 3
y 3 2 x
y 3 2 x y 3 2 3 y 2

2 x 3

.
x 3 2 x 3 2 0 x 2
x 2
x 2 y 3
y 3 2 2
a 5 2 x y 5 2
Vi , thay vo I ta c h phng trnh:
b 8 5 2 xy 8 5 2
y 5 2 x
y 5 2 x



x 5 2 x 8 5 2
2

x 5 2 x 85 2 0
(loi, x 2 5 2 x 8 5 2 0 ).



Vy h phng trnh cho c hai nghim x; y 3; 2 ; 2;3 .
BI TP LUYN TP THEO DNG VI

x 2 y 2 17
Bi VI.1. Gii h phng trnh: .
x xy y 9


x y xy 15
2 2

Bi VI.2. Gii h phng trnh: .


6 x y 3xy


x xy y 7
2 2

Bi VI.3. Gii h phng trnh: 3 .



x y 3
3 x y

x xy y 4
2 2

Bi VI.4. Gii h phng trnh: 4 .


x x y y 8
2 2 4

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VII. H PHNG TRNH I XNG LOI II


H phng trnh hai n x; y c gi l h phng trnh i xng loi II nu ta i vai tr x cho y th
phng trnh ny bin thnh phng trnh kia v ngc li.
Cch gii tng qut: Tr v theo v ca hai phng trnh c nhn t chung l (x y).

x 2 4 x 2 y 5

V d 11. Gii h phng trnh: 2 .
y 4 y 2 x 5

Nhn xt: Khi i vai tr ca hai n cho nhau ta thy phng trnh ny bin thnh phng trnh kia. H
cho l h phng trnh i xng loi II.

Gii.

x 4 x 2 y 5
2

x 4 x 2 y 5
2

Tr v theo v ca hai phng trnh ca h, ta c: 2


x y 2x 2 y 0
x y x y 2 0

2

x 2 4 x 2 y 5 y x y x
x 2 4 x 2 y 5 2 2
y x x 6 x 5 0 x 6 x 5 0
x y 0
y 2 x y 2 x
x y 2 0
x 2 4 x 2 y 5

y 2 x x 2 4 x 2 2 x 5 0 x 2 2 x 1 0

x 1 0
x 1 x 5 0 x 1
x 5 0
y x
yx y 1 .

x 5
x 1 0
2


y 2 x
x 1 0
y 5
y 2 x
Vy h phng trnh cho c hai nghim x; y 1;1 ; 5;5 .

BI TP LUYN TP THEO DNG VII

x3 6 y 13x

Bi VII.1. Gii h phng trnh: 3 .
y 6 x 13 y

xy x 2 a y 1
Bi VII.2. Cho h phng trnh: . Tm cc gi tr ca a h cho c nghim duy nht.
xy y a x 1
2


x y 4 y 8y
2 3 2

Bi VII.3. Gii h phng trnh: 2 .



y x 3
4 x 2
8 x

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VIII. H PHNG TRNH NG CP BC HAI


ax 2 bxy cy 2 d

H phng trnh ng cp bc hai c dng 2 .

a ' x b ' xy c ' y 2
d '
C hai cch gii tng qut cho dng ny:
Cch 1: Dng phng php cng i s, sau biu din mt n theo n kia ri th vo phng
trnh cn li.
Cch 2: Xt xem x 0 c l nghim ca h hay khng. Sau xt x 0 , t y kx ri thay vo
hai phng trnh ca h, kh n x ri tm gi tr ca k. T suy ra x v y.

x 2 xy y 2 1

V d 12. Gii h phng trnh: 2 .
2 x 3xy 4 y 3

2

Gii.
+ Cch 1:

x xy y 1
2 2
3x 2 3xy 3 y 2 3
x2 y 2 0
x y x y 0

2
2 x 3xy 4 y 3
2 x 3xy 4 y 3 x xy y 1 x xy y 1
2 2 2 2 2 2 2

x y 1
x y 1

1
y x x
x y 0 y x 2
2 2 3
2
2
2
x 1
x xy y 1 x x x 1 1
y x y .
x y 0 y x 3

x 2 xy y 2 1 x 2 x 2 x 2 1 x 2
1 1
3 x
3

1
y
3
1 1 1 1
Vy h phng trnh cho c bn nghim x; y 1;1 ; 1; 1 ; ; ; ; .
3 3 3 3
+ Cch 2:
Ta thy x 0 khng l nghim ca h phng trnh cho. Xt x 0 , t y kx , thay vo h phng trnh
cho ta c h phng trnh mi theo x v k l:
x kx k x 1 *
1 k k 2
2 2 2 2
1
2 3 3k 3k 2 2 3k 4k 2 0 k 2 1 k 1 .
2 x 3kx 4k x 3 2 3k 4k
2
3
2 2 2

1 1 1
Vi k 1 , thay vo * ta c: x 2 x 2 x 2 1 x 2 x y .
3 3 3
Vi k 1 , thay vo * ta c: x2 x2 x2 1 x2 1 x 1 y 1 .

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1 1 1 1
Vy h phng trnh cho c bn nghim x; y 1;1 ; 1; 1 ; ; ; ; .
3 3 3 3

BI TP LUYN TP THEO DNG VIII


x 2 xy 3 y 0
2 2

Bi VIII.1. Gii h phng trnh: 2 .



2 x 13 xy 15 y 2
0

3x 2 5 xy 4 y 2 38

Bi VIII.2. Gii h phng trnh: 2 .
5 x 9 xy 3 y 15

2


x 4 xy y 1
2 2

Bi VIII.3. Gii h phng trnh: 2 .



x 3 xy 4

IX. GII H PHNG TRNH BNG PHNG PHP NH GI


Vi dng ny ta cn lu , pht hin cc biu thc m hoc dng trong h v cn nm vng cch vn
dng cc bt thc c bn nh Bt ng thc Cauchy, Bt ng thc Bunyakovsky.

x 12 y y 12 x 2 12 1

V d 13 [H A 2014] Gii h phng trnh: .
x 8 x 1 2 y 2
3
2

Gii. KX: 2 3 x 2 3; 2 y 12 .
+ S dng Bt ng thc Cauchy.
x 2 12 y y 12 x 2
Ta c: x 12 y v y 12 x 2
.
2 2
x 2 12 y y 12 x 2 x 0
Nn: x 12 y y 12 x 2 12 . Do : 1 .
y 12 x
2
2 2
+ S dng Bt ng thc Bunyakovsky.
x 0
Ta c: x 12 y y 12 x 2 x 2
12 x 2 12 y y 12 . Do : 1 .
y 12 x
2


Thay vo phng trnh 2 ta c x3 8x 1 2 10 x 2 x3 8 x 3 2 1 10 x 2 0
2 x 3 2 x 3
x 3 x 2 3 x 1 x 3 0 (v x 0 nn x 2 3x 1 0 ).
1 10 x 2
1 10 x 2

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Vi x 3 y 3 (tha mn iu kin).
Vy h phng trnh cho c mt nghim duy nht x; y 3;3 .

BI TP LUYN TP THEO DNG IX

2 xy
x 3 2 x2 y
x 2x 9
Bi IX.1. Gii h phng trnh: .
y 2 xy
y x
2

3
y2 2 y 9


y x 3x 4
3

Bi IX.2. Gii h phng trnh: .


x 2 y 6 y 2

3

2 x 2 y xy 3
Bi IX.3. Gii h phng trnh: .
3x 1 3 y 1 4

xy 1 y y
Bi IX.4. Gii h phng trnh: .
2 xy y y 1

X. MT S H PHNG TRNH DNG KHC

xy 12

V d 14. Gii h phng trnh: xz 15 .
yz 20

Gii.
D thy x 0; y 0; z 0 .
Nhn theo tng v vi ba phng trnh ca h, ta c: x2 y 2 z 2 3600 , suy ra xyz 60 1 .
Chia tng v ca phng trnh 1 cho ln lt tng phng trnh ca h cho c: z 5; y 4; x 3
Vy h phng trnh cho c hai nghim x; y; z 3;4;5 ; 3; 4; 5 .

2 x y 1
V d 15. Gii h phng trnh: .
4 x y 2 xy z 3
2

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Gii.
T phng trnh th nht ca h phng trnh cho ta c: y 2 x 1 . Th vo phng trnh th hai ca h
ta c:
4 x 2 x 1 2 x 2 x 1 z 2 3 4 x 2 8x 4 z 2 0

4 x 1 0
x 1
2

4 x 2 z 0 y 1
2 2


z 2
0 z 0

Vy h phng trnh cho nghim duy nht x; y; z 1;1; 0 .

BI TP LUYN TP THEO DNG X

x 2 xy xz 48

Bi X.1. Gii h phng trnh: xy y 2 yz 12 .
xz yz z 2 84

x y z 5

Bi X.2. Gii h phng trnh: y x z 8 .

z x y 9

x y 5z

Bi X.3. Gii h phng trnh: x 2 y 2 13z .
x3 y 3 35 z

2 x y xy

Bi X.4. Gii h phng trnh: xy yz zx 108 .
xyz 180

x y z 13

Bi X.5. Gii h phng trnh: x 2 y 2 z 2 91 .
y 2 xz

x y z 2

Bi X.6. Gii h phng trnh: x 2 y 2 z 2 6 .
x3 y 3 z 3 8

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x2 4 y 7 0

Bi X.7. Gii h phng trnh: y 2 6 z 14 0 .
z2 2x 7 0

BI TP TNG HP

x3 x x 2 y y

1. [Chuyn Nguyn Tri, Hi Dng, 2011] Gii h phng trnh: .


2 x 4
1 5 x y 2 0


2 x y xy y 5 x 2 0
2 2

2. [Chuyn Hng Yn, 2012] Gii h phng trnh: 2 .


x y x y 4 0

2

4 1
2 x y 3x y 2
3. [Chuyn Hng Vng, Ph Th, 2012] Gii h phng trnh: .
4 x 12 y 7 2 x y 3x y


x 4 y 5
2 2

4. [Chuyn Ngoi Ng, HQGHN, 2012] Gii h phng trnh: .


x 2 y 5 4 xy 27

x 3 y 2
2

5. [Chuyn Bc Ninh, 2012] Gii h phng trnh: 2 .


9 y 8 x 8

xy x y 3

6. [Chuyn Phan Bi Chu, Ngh An, 2012] Gii h phng trnh: 1 1 2.

x 2x y 2 y 3
2 2

7. [Chuyn Nguyn Tri, Hi Dng, 2013]


x x 2 2012 y y 2 2012 2012

Gii h phng trnh: .
x 2 z 2 4 y z 8 0

x 2 x y
8. [Chuyn L Qu n, Nng, 2013] Gii h phng trnh: 2 .
y y x

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x 1 y 1 2

9. [Chuyn L T Trng, Ngh An, 2013] Gii h phng trnh: 1 1 .
x y 1


x xy 4 x 6
2

10. [Chuyn Qung Nam, 2013] Gii h phng trnh: 2 .



y xy 1

x2 2 y 3 y 2 4x

11. [Chuyn Bnh Phc, 2013] Gii h phng trnh: 2 .
x y 5

2


x 2 y xy 2 y x 0
2 2

12. [Chuyn L Qu n, Bnh nh, 2013] Gii h phng trnh: 2 .



x y 2
6 x 12 0


x xy x y 4
2

13. [Chuyn Hng Vng, Bnh Dng, 2013] Gii h phng trnh: .
x 11 xy 4

x 1 y 1 17 xy 1
2 2

14. [Chuyn Qung Tr, 2013] Gii h phng trnh: .



3 xy x y 1

3x 2 2 y 1 2 z x 2

15. [Ph thng nng khiu HQG TP.HCM, 2014] Gii h phng trnh: 3 y 2 2 z 1 2 x y 2 .
2
3z 2 x 1 2 y x 2


2 x xy y 3 y 2
2 2

16. [Chuyn Trn Ph, Hi Phng, 2014] Gii h phng trnh: 2 .



x y 2
3


5 x y
2 251
2 2
2 xy
x y
2
5
17. [Chuyn Bc Giang, 2014] Gii h phng trnh: .
x 2
2 xy y 2
1
5 x y
x y

xy 3x 2 y 6
18. [Chuyn Lng Vn Chnh, Ph Yn, 2014] Gii h phng trnh: 2 .
x y 2 x 4 y 53
2

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x 2 y m
19. [Chuyn Hng Vng, Ph Th, 2014] Cho h phng trnh: .
2 x y m 1
Tm m h phng trnh c nghim x; y sao cho x; y l di cch cnh gc vung ca mt tam gic c
di cnh huyn bng 5.

x 2 y 2 5
20. [Chuyn Nguyn Tri, Hi Dng, 2014] Gii h phng trnh: .
xy x y 6
2 2

1 4
3x y 2 x y 2
21. [Chuyn Lo Cai, 2014] Gii h phng trnh: .
12 y 4 x 7 2 x y 3x y


3x 7 1 y x 3
22. [D b Chuyn Trn Ph, Hi Phng, 2014] Gii h phng trnh: .
y 4 x 2 4 3x 7 1

2 x y 2 m
23. [Chuyn An Giang, 2014] Cho h phng trnh: .
3x 4 y 8 7m

2 x 2 xy 3 y 2 2 y 4 0

24. [Chuyn TP.H Ni, 2014] Gii h phng trnh: 2 .
3x 5 y 4 x 12 0

2

5 x 2 y 3 y
2 2

25. [Chuyn Khnh Ha, 2014] Gii h phng trnh: .



6 x 4 y 1 x y 1 2 x 2 y 1 3 x 2 y

2 x y 2 1

26. [Chuyn Bc Ninh, 2014] Gii h phng trnh: 2 y z 2 1
2 z x 2 1

xy x y 1

27. [Chuyn Vnh Phc, 2014] Gii h phng trnh: yz y z 5 .
zx z x 2

x2 y 2 2 y 4
28. [Chuyn Ngoi Ng, HQGHN, 2014] Gii h phng trnh: .
2 x y xy 4

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x y 2 y 3
3

29. [Chuyn Phan Bi Chu, Ngh An] Gii h phng trnh: 3 .


y 3x 2 1

2 xy x 2 y 20

30. [Chuyn Qung Nam, 2014] Gii h phng trnh: 1 2 4 .
y x 3

x 4 1 y 4 1 4 xy
31. [Chuyn L Qu n, Nng, 2014] Gii h phng trnh: .
3 x 1 y 1 1 x
3

1 1
x y x y 4 0

32. [Chuyn Quc hc Hu, 2010] Gii h phng trnh: .
xy 1 x y 4 0
xy y x

2 3 3
x y z 2

33. [Chuyn Nng, 2010] Gii h phng trnh: .
4 3 2 3
xy z 2 y

x y z 3

34. [Ph thng nng khiu HQG TP.HCM] Gii h phng trnh: xy yz xz 1 .
3
x y z 6 3 x y z
3 3 2 2 2

1 10 10 1
x x y y
y 3 3 y
35. [Chuyn Lam Sn, Thanh Ha, 2011] Gii h phng trnh: .
x2 y 2 82
9

2.x 2010 y 6 z 6

36. [Chuyn Qung Bnh, 2011] Gii h phng trnh: 2. y 2010 z 6 x 6 .
2.z 2010 x 6 y 6

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a 1 x 2 y 1

37. [Chu Vn An, Amsterdam, H Ni, Chung, 1994] Cho h phng trnh: .
3x ay 1
a) Gii h phng trnh vi a 3 1 .
b) Chng minh rng vi mi gi tr ca tham s a, h phng trnh c nghim duy nht.
c) Tm a x y t gi tr ln nht.

38. [Chu Vn An, Amsterdam, H Ni, Chung, 2002] Cho h phng trnh hai n x, y vi m l tham s:
mx y 2
1

2 m x y m
2
a) Gii h phng trnh vi m 3 .
b) Trong mt phng Oxy xt hai ng thng c phng trnh l (1) v (2).
Chng minh rng vi mi gi tr ca m, ng thng (1) i qua im B c nh v ng thng (2) i
qua im C c nh.
Tm m giao im A ca hai ng thng tha mn iu kin gc BAC vung. Tnh din tch tam
gic ABC ng vi gi tr ca m.

x y 13 6 x y m
4 2 2

39. [Chu Vn An, Amsterdam, H Ni, Chuyn, 2005] Cho h phng trnh: .
xy x 2
y 2
m
a) Gii h phng trnh vi m 10 .
b) Chng minh rng khng tn ti gi tr no ca m h c nghim duy nht.

40. [Chu Vn An, Amsterdam, H Ni, Chuyn, 2008]


x 19 y 6 m 2008 y 1

Cho h phng trnh:
y 19 x 6 m 2008 x 1

a) Gii h phng trnh khi m 2008 .
b) Chng minh rng khi m 2008 th h cho c khng qu mt nghim.


x y xy 2 3 2
41. [Chuyn Thnh ph H Ni, 2011] Gii h phng trnh: 2 .
x y 6

2

2
x 2 y x 1 0
42. [Chuyn Thnh ph H Ni, 2012] Gii h phng trnh: .
x 2 4 xy 4 y 2 4 1 0
x

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43. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Vng 1, 1991] Cho a, b, c l cc s i mt khc nhau v khc 0.
a 3 x a 2 y az 1

Gii h phng trnh: b3 x b 2 y bz 1 .
c3 x c 2 y cz 1

x y 2 y 2
44. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, L + Ha, 1992] Gii h phng trnh: .
x y x 2
xy y 2
1


xy 2 y 3x 0
2 2

45. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Ton + Tin, Vng 1, 1992] Gii h phng trnh: 2 .
y x y 2 x 0
2

x y y z 4 xy 2 z

46. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Ton + Tin, 1994] Gii h phng trnh: y z z x 4 yz 2 x .

z x x y 4 zx y
2

2 x 2 y 2 1
47. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Chung, 1995] Gii h phng trnh: .
xy x 2
2

x xy y 1

48. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Chuyn, 1995] Gii h phng trnh: y yz z 3 .
z zx x 7

1 1
2 2
x y
49. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Chung, 1996] Gii h phng trnh: .
1 1
2 2
x
y

x y 1

50. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Chuyn, 1996] Gii h phng trnh: y z 1 .

z x 1

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2 xy x y 1

51. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Chung, 1997] Gii h phng trnh: 2 yz y z 7 .
2 xz z x 2


y y x 3x 6 y 0
3 2

52. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Chuyn, 1997] Gii h phng trnh: 2 .


x xy 3

x xy y 7
2 2

53. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Chung, 1998] Gii h phng trnh: 4 .


x x y y 21
2 2 4

a 3 3ab 2 19
54. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Chuyn, 1998] Cc s a, b tha mn iu kin 3 .
b 3a b 98
2

Hy tnh gi tr ca biu thc: P a 2 b2 .

1 1 9
x y x y 2

55. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Chung, 1999] Gii h phng trnh: .
xy 1 5

xy 2

2 1 x
x y2 y 3

56. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Chung, 2000] Gii h phng trnh: .
1 x
x 3
y y

x 1 y 1 8

57. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Chung, 2002] Gii h phng trnh: .
x x 1 y y 1 xy 17

x 2 y 2 xy 1
58. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Chuyn, 2002] Gii h phng trnh: 3 .
x y x 3 y
3

2 x 3x y 5
3 2

59. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Chung, 2003] Gii h phng trnh: 3 .


y 6 xy 7
2


2 x xy y 5 x y 2 0
2 2

60. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Chuyn, 2003] Gii h phng trnh: 2 .



x y 2
x y 4 0

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x y x 2 y 2 15

61. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Chuyn, 2004] Gii h phng trnh: .
x y x y 3
2 2

x y xy 3
62. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Chung, 2005] Gii h phng trnh: 2 .
x y 2
2

x3 y 3 xy 2 1
63. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Chuyn, 2005] Gii h phng trnh: 4 .
4 x y 4 x y
4

x 2 xy x y 4
64. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Chung, 2006] Gii h phng trnh: .
x 11 xy 4


x y 4x 2 y 3
2 2

65. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Chuyn, 2006] Gii h phng trnh: 2 .



x y 2
5

xy x y 2
66. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Chung, 2007] Gii h phng trnh: 3 .
x y x y 4
3

x2 4 y 2 5
67. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Chuyn, 2007] Gii h phng trnh: .
x 2 y 4 xy 7

x 2 y 2 2 x
68. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Chung, 2008] Gii h phng trnh: .
x 1 y 1
3 3

2 x 2 y y 2 x 1
69. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Chuyn, 2008] Gii h phng trnh: 3 .
8 x y 7
3

x 2 y 2 xy 1
70. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Chung, 2009] Gii h phng trnh: .
3x y y 3
2


3x 8 y 12 xy 23
2 2

71. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Chung, 2010] Gii h phng trnh: 2 .


x y 2
2

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5 x 2 2 y 2 2 xy 26

72. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Chuyn, 2010] Gii h phng trnh: .
3x 2 x y x y 11

x 1 y x y 3
2

73. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Chung, 2011] Gii h phng trnh: .


y 2 x y x 1
2


x y 2x y
2 2 2 2

74. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Chuyn, 2011] Gii h phng trnh: .


x y 1 xy 4 x y
2 2

x2 y 2 2 y 4
75. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Chung, 2012] Gii h phng trnh: .
2 x y xy 4

xy x y 2

76. [Chuyn KHTN HQGHN, Chuyn, 2012] Gii h phng trnh: .
9 xy 3x y 6 26 x 2 y
3 3

y 5 x 3 0
77. [Chuyn i hc S phm, Chung, 1991] Gii h phng trnh: .
2 x y 3 0

78. [Chuyn i hc S phm, Chuyn, 1991]


x ay 1
Tm cc gi tr ca a h phng trnh sau v nghim: .
ax 3ay 2a 3

x 3y
x x2 y2 3

79. [Chuyn i hc S phm, Chuyn, 1993] Gii h phng trnh: .
y y 3x 0
x2 y2

x y 3
xz yt 4

80. [Chuyn i hc S phm, Chuyn, 1997] Gii h phng trnh: 2 .
xz yt 2
6
xz 3 yt 3 10

x 2 4 yz 2 z 0

81. [Chuyn i hc S phm, Chung, 1998] Gii h phng trnh: x 2 xy 2 z 2 0 .
2 zx y 2 y 1 0

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x 3 y 2 3 y 3 3 y 2


82. [Chuyn i hc S phm, Chuyn, 2000] Gii h phng trnh: y 3 z 2 3z 3 3z 2 .
3 2
z x 3x 3 3x
2

x3 y 3 x 2 y z xyz 14

83. [Chuyn i hc S phm, Chuyn, 2001] Gii h phng trnh: y 3 z 3 y 2 z x xyz 21 .
3
z x z x y xyz 7
3 2

x y 4z 1

84. [Chuyn i hc S phm, Chung, 2002] Gii h phng trnh: y z 4 x 1 .

z x 4 y 1


x xy y 19
2 2

85. [Chuyn i hc S phm, Chung, 2004] Gii h phng trnh: 4 .


x x y y 931
2 2 4

2 x 2004 y 6 z 6

86. [Chuyn i hc S phm, Chuyn, 2004] Gii h phng trnh: 2 y 2004 z 6 x 6 .
2 z 2004 x 6 y 6

x y z 6

87. [Chuyn i hc S phm, Chung, 2005] Gii h phng trnh: xy yz zx 7 .
x 2 y 2 z 2 14

xz x 4

88. [Chuyn i hc S phm, Chung, 2006] Gii h phng trnh: 2 y 2 7 xz 3x 14 .
x 2 z 2 35 y 2

x 1 y z
89. [Chuyn i hc S phm, Chuyn, 2010] Gii h phng trnh: .
xy z 7 z 10 0
2

2 2 xy
x y x y 1
2

90. [Chuyn i hc S phm, Chuyn, 2011] Gii h phng trnh: .


x y x2 y

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