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Design Guide

for
Plant Layout
Section A - General Requirements

This document contains proprietary information belonging to Washington Group International its parent and/or affiliated companies and shall be used only for the purpose for which it was
supplied. It shall not be copied, reproduced or otherwise used, nor shall such information be furnished in whole or in part to others, except in accordance with the terms of any agreement
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0 March 2004 For Approval MTA ADG MTA

ISSUE/ DATE/ DATA DESCRIPTION/ DESCRIERE BY/ CHKD/ APPD/ AUTHD/


REV. INTOCMIT VERIF. APROB. AUTORIZ..
ID. NO. SHEET/ PAGINA DOC.NO/ NR.DOC.

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Table of Contents

1. Process ....................................................................................................................................... 3
2. Hazardous and Toxic Areas ....................................................................................................... 3
2.1 Locate Control Rooms ..................................................................................................................... 3
2.2 Locate Buildings .............................................................................................................................. 3
3. Economic Considerations .......................................................................................................... 3
4. Aesthetic Considerations ........................................................................................................... 4
5. Access ........................................................................................................................................ 4
6. Safety ......................................................................................................................................... 5
7. Site Considerations .................................................................................................................... 5
8. External Influences .................................................................................................................... 5
9. Clearances .................................................................................................................................. 5
10. Paving ...................................................................................................................................... 6
11. Elevations ................................................................................................................................ 6
12. Insulation ................................................................................................................................. 6
13. Columns and Drums (Vertical/Horizontal) ............................................................................. 7
14. Exchangers............................................................................................................................... 7
15. Furnaces and Fired Equipment ................................................................................................ 8
16. Pumps ...................................................................................................................................... 9
17. Compressors ............................................................................................................................ 9
18. Piping ....................................................................................................................................... 9
19. Access to Valves and Instruments ......................................................................................... 10
20. Relief Valve Systems ............................................................................................................. 10
21. Maintenance and Equipment Handling ................................................................................. 11

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1. Process
Equipment should be laid out in a sequence to suit the process flow.

Fluid flow requirements, for example gravity flow systems, pump suction heads and
thermosyphon system, often dictate relative elevations and provoke the need for
structures.

Limitations of pressure or temperature drop in transfer lines decide proximity of


furnaces, reactors, etc.

2. Hazardous and Toxic Areas


Equipment items considered a possible source of hazard should preferably be grouped
and located separately, if possible and economic.

Examples are:
Furnaces, flare stacks, or other direct fired equipment containing an open flame;
rotating or mechanical equipment handling flammable or volatile liquids which
could easily leak or spill.
Equipment handling acids or other toxic materials which could cause damage or
danger by spillage, should be grouped and contained within a bounded area.

2.1 Locate Control Rooms


15 meters or more from equipment which in operation or during maintenance
can create a hazard. (If not practicable, pressurize). Ensure maximum cable run
to any instrument is not more than 90 meters.
2.2 Locate Buildings
Example offices, first-aid rooms, cafeterias, garages, fire station, warehouses,
gas holders and work-shops a minimum of 30 meters from any hazard.
Unpressurised substation and switchrooms a minimum of 15 meters from any
hazard.
Definition of dangerous areas and their safety requirements shall be in accordance
with the Institute of Petroleum Safety Codes, or where this is not recognized, to the
applicable National Code(s).

Local bye-laws and Fire Office whose requirements may be more stringent or specific
than the above codes shall take precedence.

3. Economic Considerations
Apart from process restrictions, position equipment for maximum economy of pipe-
work and supporting steel. As compact a layout as possible with all equipment at
grade is the first objective, consistent with standard clearances, construction and
safety requirements.

Minimize runs of alloy pipework and large bore pipe without the introduction of

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expensive expansion devices.

Optimize use of supporting structures in concrete or steel by duplicating their


application to more than one item of equipment and ensuring that access ways,
platforms, etc., have more than one function. Space saving can be achieved by
locating equipment over the piperack. Pumps should in general be located with their
motors underneath the main piperack.

4. Aesthetic Considerations
Attention should be paid to the general appearance of the plant. An attractively laid
out plant with equipment in straight lines is usually economical. Preference should be
given to use of a single central pipeway with a minimum number of side branches,
with equipment laid out in rows on either side. Buildings, structures and groups of
equipment should form neat, symmetrical, balanced layout, consistent with keeping
pipe runs to a minimum.

Towers and large vertical vessels will be arranged in rows with a common center line
if of similar size, but line up with a common face if diameters vary greatly. If adjacent
to a structure, common face will be on the structure side.

Center lines of exchanger channel nozzles and center lines of pump discharge nozzles
should be lined up.

Piping around pumps, exchangers and similar ground-level equipment should be run
at set elevations, one for north-south and another for east-west elevations wherever
possible. (Similar for rack pipe-work). These elevations being to bottom of pipe or
underside of shoe for insulated lines. This should also help to achieve a common
elevation for off takes from pipeways.

If possible, duplicated streams should be made identical. Handed arrangements should


be avoided. Follow this principle for this similar equipment sequences within the
process stream, for example, fractionator tower with overhead condensers, reflux
drum pumps and reboiler, etc., is a system which could be repeated almost identically
for different towers having a different process duty.

Advantages are design and construction economy, improved maintenance and


operating efficiency.

5. Access
Overall plant arrangement must be reviewed for constructions, operation, safety and
maintenance. Consider large items of equipment or towers for which special lifting
gear will be required. Provide adequate access to lift these into place. Large
equipment positioned close to boundary limits may require erection from outside.

Check to ascertain whether sufficient space will be available at the construction


phase.

Operation and maintenance should be reviewed by the eventual operating company.


Give consideration to maintenance access to air fins, etc., above pipe tracks.

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Consider location of equipment requiring frequent attendance by operating personnel
and relative position of control room to obtain shortest and most direct routes for
operators when on routine operation.

6. Safety
Provide:

Sufficient clear area between critical or high temperature items of equipment.


Clear routes for operators with two or more escape ladders or exits at extremities.
Clear routes for access by fire-fighting equipment.

Do not Allow:

Areas classified as hazardous to overlap the plot limits or extend over railways where
open firebox engines are likely to be employed.

7. Site Considerations
Ascertain soil loading considerations and site contours before fixing final layout.
Considerable variations occur in allowable soil loads throughout site areas. It may be
advantageous to locate heavy equipment in the best soil loading area. Use existing
contours, so that the quantity of earth movement due to cut and fill may be
substantially reduced by intelligent positioning of the equipment.

8. External Influences
Stacks should preferentially be located so that prevailing winds do not blow smoke
over the plant. Try not to locate the plant where it will receive dust, smoke, spray or
effluent from a neighboring plant.

Avoid using locations polluted by continuous drift of dust, smoke, etc.

If the plant is to be located in an existing refinery or factory site, line up with existing
roads, columns, stacks.

Location of external railways, pipeways, cableways, sewers and drains, etc., may also
influence the final orientation of the plant.

When railway facilities are required, avoid boxing in the plant by branch lines.

Hazardous areas from other existing plants or equipment may extend over the plant
limit. This could effectively reduce plot size and thus influence the plant layout
philosophy.

9. Clearances
(See also Attachment - Sheet 2)

Clearances between adjacent plants should at least equal those for primary access
roads. The space between edge of any road and nearest equipment must not be less
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than 1.5 meters.

Adequate road access with properly formed roads must be provided for known
maintenance purposes: e.g., compressor house, large machinery areas, reactors or
converters where catalyst removal and replacement must be effected.

Equipment requiring infrequent maintenance such as exchanger tube bundles, tower


internals, etc., need adequate level clear space for access/removal purposes. The
ground need not be specifically built up to take loads other than a surfacing of granite
chips or similar, as duckboards, gratings, or other temporary material can be laid at
the time when the plant is under maintenance.

10. Paving
Within the process area minimal concrete paving should be supplied for walkways
interconnecting major items of equipment, platforms, stairways and buildings.

Paving should be supplied around pumps or other machinery located in the open,
underneath furnaces, and any other areas where spillage is likely to occur during
normal operation.

Areas containing alkalis acids, or other chemicals or toxic materials should be paved
and bounded to prevent spillage spreading.

Other areas of the plant are to be graded and surfaced with granite chips or similar
material.

11. Elevations
(See also Attachment - Sheet 2)

All elevations refer to a nominal 100 meters. The point 100 elevation is taken as the
high point of paving in the paved areas.

This should be common throughout the plant. Equipment elevations referring to grade
elevations of 100 meters are as shown in Attachment - sheet 2.

12. Insulation
Insulation may be applied to vessel supports or stanchions of structures for fire
protection purposes, thus decreasing available free space for access, sitting of
pipework, instruments or electrical equipment.

In particular, note thickness of insulation of very high temperature or low temperature


piping, which may considerably increase effective o/d of pipe to be routed. For low
temperature insulation, additional clearance must be provided around control valves,
instrumentation, etc. Consider additional weight of insulation and reduced centers of
supports necessary to support heavily insulated pipe.

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13. Columns and Drums (Vertical/Horizontal)
Columns are usually self-supporting without external structures. Circular or
segmental platforms with ladders are supported from the shell. Maximum allowable
straight run of ladder before a break platform should not exceed 9 meters.

Factors influencing column elevation are provision of gravity flow system and
installation of thermosyphon reboilers. Depending on plant arrangement columns may
have to be elevated to a height in excess of the normal requirements to allow for
headroom clearance from low level piping off-takes.

Skirt height of all columns or vessels providing suction to pumps, particularly if


handling hot or boiling liquids, should be adequate for pump NPSH requirements.

Provide platforms on columns for all valves 3 and above, instrument controllers and
transmitters, relief valves, manholes and blinds or spades. Otherwise, access to small
valves, indicating instruments, etc., is acceptable by ladder.

Platforms for access to level gauges and controllers should not be provided if
underside of supporting steelwork is less than normal headroom clearance from grade.

Adjacent columns should be checked, so that platforms do not overlap. For layout, 2.0
to 2.5 meters between shells, depending upon insulation, should suffice. Allow 900
meters minimum clearance between column foundation and adjacent plinth. Provide
clearance for removal of internals and attachments, and for davits at top of column if
relevant.

Center line of manholes will be 900 mm above any platform.

Horizontal vessels should be located at grade, with longitudinal axis at right angles to
the pipeway if possible.

Consider saving plot space by changing vessels from the horizontal and by combining
vessels together with an internal head. (Subject to project approval).

Size and number of access platforms on horizontal vessels shall be kept to a minimum
and are not to be provided on horizontal vessels or drum when the top of the vessel is
2.5 meters or less from grade.

Channel end of vessels provided with internal tubular heaters will face towards open
space. Withdrawal area must to be indicated on studies, GAs and Plot Plants.

Internal agitators or mixers are to be provided with adequate clearance for removal.
Removal area must be indicated on Studies, GAs and Plot Plants.

14. Exchangers
Tubular exchangers usually have standard length tubes of 2.5, 4, 5, and 6 meters.

Whenever possible locate exchangers at grade to facilitate maintenance and tube


withdrawal.

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Two or more shells forming one unit will be stacked, or otherwise arranged as
indicated on the exchanger specification sheet.

Exchangers on dissimilar service may be stacked but never more than three high,
except for fin tube type units. Horizontal clearance of at least 900 mm will be left
between exchangers or exchangers and piping. Where space is limited, clearance may
be reduced between alternate exchangers, providing sufficient space is left for
maintenance and inspection access.

Tube bundle removal distance will be minimum tube length plus 900 mm. Minimum
removal distance plus 600 mm will be left behind the rear shell cover of floating head
exchangers. Where rear shell cover is provided with a davit, allow clearance for full
swing of the head. Set overhead vapor exchangers or condensers at such elevation that
exchanger is self draining.

Arrange outlets to a liquid hold pot or trap, so that underside of exchanger tubes is
above the liquid level in the trap.

Arrange exchangers so that fixed end is at the channel end.

Vertical exchangers should be set to allow lifting or lowering of tube bundle. Consult
Vessel Section as to feasibility of supporting vertical exchangers from associated
towers.

Space for tube or bundle withdrawal should be left free, exchanger channels
preferably pointing towards access area or road. If exchanger is situated well within
the plot, leave a free area and approach for mobile lifting equipment.

Preferably air fin exchangers should be located in a separate row outside the main
equipment row, remote from the central pipeway.

Consider location of air fin exchangers over the central pipeway if plot space if very
limited.

15. Furnaces and Fired Equipment


Locate at least 15 meters away from other equipment which could be a source of
spillage or leakage of gas.

No pits or trenches permitted to extend under furnaces or any fired equipment and if
possible to be avoided in furnace areas.

Ensure ample room at firing front for operation and removal of the burners and for
burner control panel if required.

Bottom floor fired furnaces require adequate headroom underneath the furnace. Wall
fired furnaces require an adequate platform width with escape routes at each end of
the furnace.

Apart from adequate platforming and access to the firing front, other structural
attachments and platforming around furnaces should be kept to a minimum. Peep-
holes should only be provided where absolutely necessary. Access by means of step
ladder is sufficient.

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Arrange heaters on common center line wherever possible. Provide unobstructed
space for withdrawal. Operation and maintenance platforms should be wide enough to
permit a 1.0 meter clear walkway.

Escape ladders should be provided on large heaters.

Vertical heaters are usually supplied with stub supporting feet, ensure drawings show
adequate supports elevated to required height.

Headroom elevation from floor level to underside of heater should be 2.3 meters, to
provide good firing control operation.

16. Pumps
Locate pumps close to the equipment from which they take suction possibly under
structures or with motor ends under a pipetrack allowing an access aisle for mobile
handling equipment. Suction lines are generally larger than discharge lines, to avoid
problems arising from low NPSH.

End suction, top discharge is preferable for pumps taking suction directly from tanks
or vessels located at grade.

Pumps should be arranged in rows with center line of discharges on a common line.
Clearances between pumps or pumps and piping shall be a minimum of 900 mm.

17. Compressors
Locate reciprocating compressors, anchors and restrains for pipes in the compressor
system on foundations independent of any building, structure or pipe trestle.

Spacing varies with type and duty, pay particular attention to:

Withdrawal of engine and compressor pistons, cam shaft, crank shaft and lube oil
cooler bundle; cylinder valve maintenance clearance with least possible obstruction
from piping supports.

Compressors are generally provided with a degree of shelter, i.e., a sheets building.
Keep the sides up to 8 feet above grade, open and vent the ridge to allow for escape of
flammable gas which might leak from the machines.

Certain types of compressors, owing to the height of the mass foundation above grade
level, require a mezzanine floor of the grid construction to avoid trapping any gas, for
operation and maintenance.

18. Piping
All piping within a process area should usually be run above grade. Trenched piping
to be avoided. Piperacks and supports to be of the simplest form.

Piperacks may contain two layers of pipework. Avoid triple layer of pipeways except
for very short runs.

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Run piping external to the process area at grade on sleepers (300 mm high). (Piping at
grade is cheaper but liable to interfere with access).

Locate large bore piping as close to stanchions as possible. Lines requiring a constant
fall (relief headers) can be run on cantilevers from piperack stanchions or on vertical
extensions to pipe track stanchions.

Run hot line requiring expansion loops on the outside edge of pipeway to permit
loops to have greatest width over the pipeway and facilitate nesting.

Take-off elevations from pipeways should be at a constant elevation consistent with


the range of pipe sizes involved.

Change elevation whenever banks of pipes, either to grade or on piperacks change


direction. Elevations to the underside of piperacks will be minimum for operation and
mobile maintenance equipment and consistent with clearances.

Open pipe trenches may be used between plants where there is no risk of flammable
vapors collecting. It is sometimes convenient to run open trenches alongside
roadways. (Soil from the trench can be used to build up the road). Where a pipeway or
road changes direction, the pipe is run beneath the road. Occasionally it is permissible
to run pipes in trenches to overcome a difficult piping problem. Such trenches should
be concreted, drained and covered. Although trenched piping is to be avoided due to
the expense and hazards associated with open trenches, underground buried piping is
acceptable provided pipe is adequately protected and below the frostline.

Sizing and arrangement of underground piping should be fixed early to ensure that
installation is simultaneous with foundation work. (Many drains, sewers and
cableways, which do not require attention, are run underground below the frost-line).
Leave space for drawboxes on cableways, anchors on underground cooling water
pipes and manholes on sewers.

Fire mains should be located between the perimeter road and the plant.

19. Access to Valves and Instruments


(See also Attachment - Sheet 3)

All operating valves 3 and larger are to be accessible either from grade or suitable
platform with maximum 2.0 meters above working level to center of hand-wheel.
Small operating valves can be reached from a ladder. Valves installed for
maintenance and shutdown purposes (other than operating) can be reached by
portable ladder. Otherwise extension spindles or suitable remote operating gear
should be provided, but not on valves 1 1/2 and below.

The minimum access to be provided is as shown on Attachment - sheet 3.

20. Relief Valve Systems


Closed relief valve systems should be arranged to be self-draining and should not
contain pockets where liquids may condense and collect to provide any back pressure.

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21. Maintenance and Equipment Handling
Handling facilities are limited to the handling of working parts of equipment which
require frequent or routine service and which are inaccessible to mobile handling
facilities assumed to be available at the plant. These facilities are not designed to
handle heavy parts such as bedplates of rotating machines, rotating equipment,
compressors bodies, machinery frames, etc. The handling facilities provided are
limited as shown on Attachment - Sheet 4.

The design and installation of trolley beams, overhead traveling cranes and hoist
trestles is based on lifting the parts to be handled and transporting or lowering them to
specified maintenance areas or to grade. From these points they are expected to be
removed by skids or hand trucks to other areas more suitable for maintenance.

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Attachment - 11 Sheets

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Sheet 2

Access Clearances

DESCRIPTION MINIMUM

Clear Headroom Clear Width Other Clearance

Primary Access Roads 6M 6M 10.5M inside


(carrying major equipment) corner radius

Secondary 5.1M 4.8M 4.5M inside


corner radius

Minor Access Roads 5.1M 3.6M -

Yard Piping 3M - -

Platform, walkways, 1M
2.1M
passageways, working working -
areas, stairways platforms

Clearance from face 2.1M 1M Manhole center


of manhole Approx. 1M
above platform

Railways To suit local - -


codes

Elevation

Open-Air Paved Area High Point of Paving 100.000M

Underside of baseplates for structural steel 100.150M

Stair and ladders pads 100.075M

Underside of baseplates vessel and column


100.300M
plinths

Top of pump plinths 100.230M

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Sheet 3

Valve Access

Item Minimum access from Locate over


Size Fixed Ladders Edge of Platform or
Grade
Platform

Exchanger Heads All - - X

Operational Valves 2 and X - -


under
Operational Valves Over 2 - X -

Motor Operated Valves All - X -

Control Valves All - - X

R.V.S (Process) 2 and - - X


under
Block Valves Accessible by Portable Ladder.

Battery Limit Valves etc. All Edge of Platform access where Clients
spec. requests. Otherwise no access.
Pressure Instruments All X - -

Temp. Instruments All X - -

Sample Points All - X -

Try Cocks All X - -

Gauge Glasses All X - -

Level Controllers All - X -

Process Blinds and - - X


All
Spades

Manways All - - X

Handholes All - X -

Nozzles All No Access Provided.

Vessel Vents All X - -

Line Drains and Vents No Access Provided.

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Sheet 4

Maintenance Facilities

Equipment Part Handled Handling Facilities


Reactors, Vessels and Manhole Covers Davits or hinges for swinging
Columns. open.
Internal requiring regular Trolley beams or davits for
removal or servicing. lowering from holes to grade.
Fixed bed reactors, catalyst These will be provided as
change, etc. specially specified to enable
catalyst to be off loaded and
loaded.
Floating Head Exchangers. Tube Bundles. All such exchangers are
provided with jackbolts to
break joints. It is assumed
bundles will be handled by
mobile equipment.
Exchanger Heads, Channel No special provision.
Cover, Bonnets.
Vertical Exchangers. Removable Tube Bundles. Overhead trolley beam or davit.
Pump. Any part. None.
Centrifugal Rotating parts. Overhead trolley beams or
Compressors. cranes.
Piping. Relief Valves, 2 nominal bore Hitching point or davit for
and larger. lowering to grade.
Blanks, blank flanges and Overhead hitching point or
swing elbow weighing more davit only when subject to
than 300 lbs (125 kg). frequent removal for
maintenance.

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Sheet 5

Listing of Instrumentation

which may Assist

Initial Layout

Sheets (6-8) Likely Devices and Probable Number

Fitted to Various Types of Equipment.

Sheets (9-11) Devices and Design Points Affected.

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Sheet 6

List 1)

Equipment Devices and probable number of items fitted


Distillation Tower PSV (1) (Pressure Safety Valve)
PIC (1) (Pressure Indicating Controller)
FRC (3) (Flow Recording Controller)
TR (1) (Multipoint- 6 channel) (Temperature Recorder)
TI (6) (Temperature Indicator)
PI (6) (Pressure Indicator)
Analyzer (1) (Single Stream)
LG (2) (Level Gauge)
LI (1) (Level Indicator)
LIC (1) (Level Indicating Controller)
Reflux Drum LG (3) (Level Gauge)
Surge Drum LIT (1) (Level Indicating Transmitter)
Buffer Storage PI (1) (Pressure Indicator)
Feed Tank TI (1) (Temperature Indicator)
Product Tank PSV (1) (Pressure Safety Valve)
PIC (1) (Pressure Indicating Controller)
Reactor PI (6) (Pressure Indicator)
TI (6) (Temperature Indicator)
PSV (1) (Pressure Safety Valve)
TR (1) (Multipoint- 50 Channels) (Temperature
Recorder)
FIC (2) (Flow Indicating Controller)
LIC (1) (Level Indicating Controller)
Analyzer (1)
PIC (1) (Pressure Indicating Controller)
TIC (1) (Temperature Indicating Controller)
Compressor PI (4) (Pressure Indicator)
(Axial Flow) DPC (1) (Differential Pressure Controller)
PIC (1) (Pressure Indicating Controller)
FR (1) (Flow Recorder)
TI (1) (Multipoint- 12 channel)(Temperature
Indicator)
Vibration (2)
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Equipment Devices and probable number of items fitted
NRV (Damped to prevent reverse flow)
Programmer and Logic System (1)
Shutdown System (1)
Compressor Driver PI (4) (Pressure Indicator)
(Steam Turbine) FRC (1) (Flow Recording Controller)
TI (4) (Temperature Indicator)
Shutdown Valve (1)
Exchanger TRC (1) (Temperature Recording Controller)
TI (6) (Temperature Indicator)
PI (2) (Pressure Indicator)
LG (1) (Level Gauge)
PSV (Pressure Safety Valve)
Furnaces FRC (4) (Flow Recording Controller)
TRC (Temperature Recording Controller)
PIC (Pressure Indicating Controller)
Flame Detector (2)
Local Panel
PI (12) (Pressure Indicator)
FURNACES (contd) TI (6) (Temperature Indicator)
Multi-channel Temperature (1)
O2 Analyzer (1) (Only where BFW or steam is
circulating)
pH Analyzer (1)
Conductivity
LG (3) (Level Gauge)
LIC (1) (Level Indicating Controller)
PSV (3) (Pressure Safety Valve)
PCV (3) (Pressure Control Valve)
In-line instrument elements:-

Flow Elements (Orifice, Plates, Venturi, Turbine, P/D, etc.).

Control Valves (Globe, Butterfly, Ball, etc.).

Relief Valves.

Thermowells.

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Sheet 8

LIST 2)

Device Type Design Points Affected

(Flow)
Fe 1 Pipe Section with sensing Flange rating/size/overall length/orientation
element
Fe 2 Pitot Tube Location/straight length connection size & type
Fe 3 Orifice/Nozzle/Venturi Location/straight lengths/orientation Flange
size and rating. Position, size type of instr.
tappings
Fe 4 Elbow Size/end connections/orientation straight
lengths
Fe 5 Target Meter Transmitter Orientation/straight lengths/Flange rating /
connections / insertion face to face
Fe 6 Vortex Meter Orientation/straight lengths/Flange rating/ face
to face/insertion
Fe 7 Hot Wire Consult Instrument Department
Fe 8 Variable Area Meter Vertical only/Flow upwards only. Orientation
of connections, sizes and type.
Fe 9 Magnetic Flowmeter Overall length / size / connections / vertical or
horizontal / no straight lengths.
Fe 10 Turbine Meter Straight length/with or without pipe section/
usually horizontal end connection and size.
(Common to use upstream filter and sometimes
degassing).
Fe 11 Positive Displacement Orientation one way only/weight/no straight
lengths. Connecting as per vendor literature.
Fe 12 Sonic Flowmeter Consult Instrument Department
Fe 13 Weight Rate Consult Instrument Department
Fe 14 Radio Active Consult Instrument Department
Fe 15 Photo Electric Consult Instrument Department
Fe 16 Channels and Flumes Mostly Civil Engineering.
Fe 17 Vane Type Spool piece = face to face end connections.
Temp
TE 1 Thermocouple
TE 2 Resistance Bulb Location/Increase in pipe dia. / elbows,
connection size and type.
TE 3 Filled System

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Device Type Design Points Affected
TE 4 Thermistor
TE 5 Radiation Location of window/heat protection.

Flame Failure
Be Photo Electrical/Colour Location of instrument and window.

Analyzer
An Diverse Methods including Usually with by-pass line to drain on back to
SG and density process - only occasionally in line - sometimes
co-axial spool piece.
Face to face/Flanges.

Level Measurement
An Capacitance Similar to temperature Te 1.
Probe Conductivity Sometimes co-axial in spool piece.

Proximity
Fero magnetic) Non intrusive
Magnetic) Location and mounting
Switch Inductive) a) Non-intrusive
b) Intrusive, type Te 1.

Pressure
Differential Bourdon Tubes Small tapping/ location/ connections/ size and
Pressure Capsules type

Strain Gauge

Gauge Glass Level LG


All Types Vertical only - nozzle spacing/ connections
Interface Level (Gauge-Glass) LG
All Types Vertical only - nozzle spacing critical/
connections

Speed Measurement
Magnetic Consult Instrument Department.
Strobe Consult Instrument Department.
Tachometer Consult Instrument Department.

Valves
PV, FV, Operation-electrical- Nominal body size is determined by flow
hydraulic criteria. Face to face/connection sizes - flange
TV, etc.
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Device Type Design Points Affected
PVC -pneumatic rating often 300 lbs minimum as a standard.
-self operated Axis of movement of topworks must be
vertical-all other orientation prohibited. Face to
face dimensions do not always conform to BS.

Safety Valves
PSV Spring opposed pressure Free or closed venting. Multiple valve relief.
Gauge valves with single operation of
changeover - single isolation valves prohibited
- minimum nozzle size laid down in the codes.
Some inlet/outlet flange combinations are
excluded in standard manufacture depending on
application.

General Note:

Intrusive elements and/or spool type installation may call for flow line size due to change due to
forces on wetted parts, erosion, noise, deposition of solids in cavities or viscosity.

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