You are on page 1of 42

GEODYNAMICS

Introduction
TIM DOSEN : GASAL TA 2016/2017
Ir. Idwan Suhardi, M.Phill., Ph.D.
Twin Hosea Widodo Kristyanto, M.T.
Reza Syahputra, M.Si.
Albert S. Tempessy, M.T.
PROGRAM STUDI S1 GEOLOGI & GEOFISIKA
FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
UNIVERSITAS INDONESIA
Kampus UI Depok, Depok 16424
INTRODUCTION - OUTLINE

GEODYNAMICS AROUND US
GEODYNAMICS AS SCIENCE AND ITS SCOPE
THEORIES OF GEODYNAMICS
THE EARTHS INTERIOR
GEOPHYSICS METHOD IN GEODYNAMICS
GEODYNAMICS IMPLICATIONS

PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
2
2016
PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA
FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
3
2016
GEODYNAMICS AROUND US

Italy Earthquake (2016)


Sinabung Eruption (2016)

Pangandaran Tsunami (2006)


PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA
FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
4
2016
GEODYNAMICS AROUND US

Indonesian as Ring of Fire

PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
5
2016
GEODYNAMICS AROUND US

PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
6
2016
GEODYNAMICS AROUND US

Aurum finding in Indonesia

PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
7
2016
GEODYNAMICS AROUND US

Indonesian Basin Map

PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
8
2016
PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA
FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
9
2016
GEODYNAMICS AS A SCIENCE AND ITS SCOPE

Geology as a basic
Study of the
procesesses which Mineralogy
responsible for Earth
forming. Petrology

Processes that
Structural Geology
modify the Earth
Area of Geology: Geomorphology

- Earth s resources
Stratigraphy
- Topography
Paleontology
- Natural hazards and
Environment
- Climate Change
PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA
FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
10
2016
GEODYNAMICS AS A SCIENCE AND ITS SCOPE

Examining the Earth Movement

Terminology Scopes:
Geo Earth/Land - Earth s interior
Dunamis Move - Earths tectonic units
Explain the dynamics of - Examine their movement
Earths based on - The implication of Earths
Geotectonics concept dynamics
(through Geophysics).

A subfield of geophysics
dealing with dynamics of the
Earth.
Our Home, the rounded unstatic
rigid planet

PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
11
2016
PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA
FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
12
2016
THEORIES OF GEODYNAMICS

Fixist
Vertical movement
Lihtosfere does not go
anywhere.
Up-Down movement.

Mobilist VS
Lateral movement
Lithospeheres position
are updating
Mobile Earths surface

PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
13
2016
THEORIES OF GEODYNAMICS

Contraction Hypothesis (Spencer, 1877)


Based on L W Kelvins thermodynamics (1828).
Earths body assumed as heating machine which releasing energy continually.
Innitially liquid and hot Rigid by cooling due to energy release: Volcanism and
Diastrophism
Cooling and Rigiding Shringking Fault and Folds (Beaomunt, 1829)

Undation Hyp (Still, 1924; Bemmelen, 1933)


Primary Tectonogenesa
Energy release due to vertical differentiastion
Secondary Tectonogenesa.
Gliding Tectonic

PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
14
2016
THEORIES OF GEODYNAMICS

Geosyncline Hyp (Dana, 1813; Hall, 1859; Mitchell & Reading, 1986)

Based on research of
Apalachian Mt.
Related with huge folded
mountain (Orogenesa).
Subsidence due to
sedimentation Long deep
and narrow
depression/basin that move
continually (mobile belt)

PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
15
2016
THEORIES OF GEODYNAMICS

Continental Expansion Hyp


(Huldenberg, 1930)

Earth posses heat due to


radioactive elements
Lithosphere become
cracked separated
into fragments.
Expansion goes
continually Oceanic
Basin.
Cracking process in
Lithosphere due to
expansion.
Magma erupted through
the cracks
PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA
FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
16
2016
THEORIES OF GEODYNAMICS
Continental Drift Hyp (Wagener, 1912; du Toit, 1937)

250 Ma Earth is Pangea


(Wegener) and Laurasia
and Gondwana (Toit),
250 Ma continental
cracked.
Proofs:
Same coastal line
Same geological
condition
Paleontology
Paleoclimate

PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
17
2016
THEORIES OF GEODYNAMICS
Continental Drift Hyp (Wagener, 1912; du Toit, 1937)

PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
18
2016
THEORIES OF GEODYNAMICS
Continental Drift Hyp (Wagener, 1912; du Toit, 1937)

Wagener Concept (1912)

PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
19
2016
THEORIES OF GEODYNAMICS
Continental Drift Hyp (Wagener, 1912; du Toit, 1937)

PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
20
2016
THEORIES OF GEODYNAMICS
Continental Drift Hyp (Wagener, 1912; du Toit, 1937)

PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
21
2016
THEORIES OF GEODYNAMICS
Sea Floor Spreading Hyp (Holmes, 1928; Dietz, 1961; Hess, 1962)

PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
22
2016
THEORIES OF GEODYNAMICS
Sea Floor Spreading Hyp (Holmes, 1928; Dietz, 1961; Hess, 1962)

PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
23
2016
THEORIES OF GEODYNAMICS
Sea Floor Spreading Hyp (Holmes, 1928; Dietz, 1961; Hess, 1962)

Further Research of Plate Tectonics

PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
24
2016
PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA
FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
25
2016
THE EARTHS INTERIOR

Continental Crust:
Ave Density: 2.7 g/cm3
Ave Thickness: 35-40 km
Comp: Felcis (Granite)
Rich of Si, Al, Na, K

Oceanic Crust:
Ave Density: 3 g/cm3
Ave Thickness: 7-10 km
Comp: Mafic
(Basalt/Gabro)
Rich of Si, Mg, Ca, Fe.

PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
26
2016
THE EARTHS INTERIOR

Mantle:
Layer thats covering the core

The thickest layers, up to 2.883 km

Density: 5.7 g/cm3 (near core) and 3.3 g/cm3 near crust

PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
27
2016
THE EARTHS INTERIOR

Outer Core:
Depth: 2.883-5.140 km
Liquid
Ave Temp: 5.430-5.730C

Inner Core:
Depth: 5.140-6.371 km
Solid
Ave Temp: 5.400 C
Pressure: 330-360 GPa

PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
28
2016
THE EARTHS INTERIOR

Spherical Earth Model PREM (Dziwonski and Anderson,


1981). Seismic velocity (Vp and Vs) and density (p)
plotted together to the function of depth

PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
29
2016
THE EARTHS INTERIOR

PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
30
2016
THE EARTHS INTERIOR

PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
31
2016
PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA
FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
32
2016
GEOPHYSICS METHOD IN GEODYNAMICS

NB : that velocity is measured from earthquake waves, but density must


be inferred from inversion of the velocity combined with elastic modulii

PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
33
2016
GEOPHYSICS METHOD IN GEODYNAMICS
Earths Satellite Derived Gravity Field

PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
34
2016
GEOPHYSICS METHOD IN GEODYNAMICS

Mantle Tomography
Blue = Fast (cold)

Red = Slow (hot)

PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
35
2016
PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA
FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
36
2016
GEODYNAMICS IMPLICATIONS

Geological Hazards

PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
37
2016
GEODYNAMICS IMPLICATIONS

Natural Resources

Indonesian Basin Map


PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA
FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
38
2016
GEODYNAMICS IMPLICATIONS

Environmental

PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
39
2016
GEODYNAMICS IMPLICATIONS

Science and Technology

PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
40
2016
HOMEWORK
1. Why were fixists left behind? Mention the hypothesis that supported
fixists and their deficiency.
2. Tell in detail about geocyncline and undasi hypothesis!
3. Why tectonic plates theory well developed since 1960s?
4. What are the importants of seismic waves (eearthquake) related with
earths interior?
5. How are the difference between continental and oceanic crust? How
are their responses toward seimic waves?
6. How are the explaining about ophiolites and metamorphism in oceanic
crust?
7. How are the detail explanation about the mantle and the core?
8. What are you know about deformation in crust and mantle?
9. How can the plates floating upon mantle? Explain about isostasy!

PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
41
2016
Thank You
PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI DAN GEOFISIKA
FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM

PROGRAM STUDI SARJANA GEOLOGI


FAKULTAS MATEMATIKA DAN ILMU PENGETAHUAN ALAM
42
2016