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98 views5 pagesThe method of calculating wind load on conductors from the wind speed and height of the installation.

Aug 31, 2017

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The method of calculating wind load on conductors from the wind speed and height of the installation.

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98 views

The method of calculating wind load on conductors from the wind speed and height of the installation.

© All Rights Reserved

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Approved

Four Methods: Wind Load Calculator Calculating Wind Load Using the Generic Formula

Calculating Wind Load Using the Electronic Industries Association Formula Calculating Wind Load Using the Uniform Building Code (UBC) 97 Formula

Wind is a mass of air that moves in a mostly horizontal direction from an area of high pressure to an area with low pressure.[1]

High winds can be very destructive because they generate pressure against the surface of a structure. The intensity of this

pressure is the wind load. The effect of the wind is dependent upon the size and shape of the structure. Calculating wind load

is necessary for the design and construction of safer, more wind-resistant buildings and placement of objects such as

antennas on top of buildings.

Method

Calculating Wind Load Using the Generic Formula

1

1 Define the generic formula. The generic formula for wind load is F = A x P x Cd where F is the force or wind

load, A is the projected area of the object, P is the wind pressure, and Cd is the drag coefficient.[2] This equation

is useful for estimating the wind load on a specific object, but does not meet building code requirements for planning

new construction.

2 Find the projected area A. This is the area of the two-dimensional face that the wind is hitting.[3] For a full

analysis, you will repeat the calculation for each face of the building. For example, if a building has a west face

with an area of 20m2, use that value for A to calculate the wind load on the west face.

The formula to calculate area depends on the shape of the face. For a flat wall, use the formula Area = length x

height. Approximate the area of a column face with Area = diameter x height.

For SI calculations, measure A in square meters (m2).

For imperial calculations, measure A in square feet (ft2).

3 Calculate wind pressure. The simple formula for wind pressure P in imperial units (pounds per square foot) is

, where V is the speed of the wind in miles per hour (mph).[4] To find the pressure in SI units

(Newtons per square meter), instead use , and measure V in meters per second.[5]

This formula is based on the American Society of Civil Engineers code. The 0.00256 coefficient is the result of

a calculation based on typical values for air density and gravitational acceleration.[6]

Engineers use a more accurate formula to take into account factor such as the surrounding terrain and type of

construction. You can look up one formula in ASCE code 7-05, or use the UBC formula below.

If you're not sure what the wind speed is, look up the peak wind speed in your area using the Electronic

Industries Association (EIA) standard. For example, most of the U.S. is in Zone A with 86.6 mph wind, but

coastal areas might lie in Zone B (100 mph) or Zone C (111.8 mph).

4 Determine the drag coefficient for the object in question. Drag is the force that air exerts on the building,

affected by the building's shape, the roughness of its surface, and several other factors. Engineers typically

measure drag directly using experiments, but for a rough estimate you can look up a typical drag coefficient for the

shape you are measuring. For example:[7]

The standard drag coefficient for a long cylinder tube is 1.2 and for a short cylinder is 0.8. These apply to

antenna tubes found on many buildings.

The standard coefficient for a flat plate such as the face of a building is 2.0 for a long flat plate or 1.4 for a

shorter flat plate.

The drag coefficient has no units.

5

5 Calculate the wind load. Using the values determined above, you can now calculate wind load with the equation

F = A x P x Cd.

6 For example, lets say you want to determine the wind load on an antenna that is 3 feet long with a

diameter of 0.5 inches in a gust of 70mph winds.

Start by estimating the projected area. In this case,

Calculate the wind pressure: .

For a short cylinder the coefficient of drag is 0.8.

Plugging into the equation:

1.25 lbs is the amount of wind load on the antenna.

Method

Calculating Wind Load Using the Electronic Industries Association Formula

2

1 Define the formula developed by the Electronic Industries Association. The formula for wind load is F = A x

P x Cd x Kz x Gh, where A is the projected area, P is wind pressure, Cd is the drag coefficient, Kz is the exposure

coefficient, and Gh is the gust response factor. This formula takes a few more parameters into account for wind load.

This formula is generally used to calculate wind load on antennas.

2 Understand the variables of the equation. In order to use an equation properly, you must first understand what

each variable stands for and what its associated units are.

A, P, and Cd are the same variables used in the generic equation.

Kz is the exposure coefficient and it is calculated by taking into account the height from the ground to the

midpoint of the object. The units of Kz are feet.

Gh is the gust response factor and it is calculated by taking into account the entire height of the object. The

units of Gh are 1/feet or ft-1.

3 Determine projected area. The projected area of your object is dependent upon its shape and size. If the wind is

hitting a flat wall, the projected area is easier to calculate than if the object is rounded. Projected area will be an

approximation of the area that the wind comes in contact with. There is no one formula for calculating projected area,

but you can estimate it with some basic calculations. Units for area are ft2.

For a flat wall, use the formula Area = length x width, measuring the length and width of the wall where the

wind is hitting it.

For a tube or column, you can also approximate the area using length and width. In this case, the width will be

the diameter of the tube or column.

4 Calculate wind pressure. Wind pressure is given by the equation P = 0.00256 x V2, where V is the speed of the

wind in miles per hour (mph). The unit for wind pressure is pounds per square foot (psf).

For example, if the wind speed is 70 mph, the wind pressure is 0.00256 x 702 = 12.5 psf.

An alternative to calculating wind pressure at a particular wind speed is to use the standard for various wind

zones. For example, according to the Electronic Industries Association (EIA) most of the U.S. is in Zone A with

86.6 mph wind, but coastal areas might lie in Zone B (100 mph) or Zone C (111.8 mph).

5 Determine the drag coefficient for the object in question. Drag is the net force in the direction of flow due to

pressure on the surface of an object.[8] The drag coefficient represents the drag of an object through a fluid and is

dependent upon the shape, size, and roughness of an object.

The standard drag coefficient for a long cylinder tube is 1.2 and for a short cylinder is .8 These apply to

antenna tubes found on many buildings.

The standard coefficient for a flat plate such as the face of a building is 2.0 for a long flat plate or 1.4 for a

shorter flat plate.

The difference between drag coefficients for flat and cylinder items is approximately 0.6.

The drag coefficient has no units.

6 Calculate the exposure coefficient, Kz. Kz is calculated using the formula [z/33](2/7), where z is the height from

the ground to the midpoint of the object.

For example, if you have an antenna that is 3 ft long and 48 ft off the ground, z would be equal to 46.5 ft.

Kz = [z/33](2/7) = [46.5/33](2/7) = 1.1 ft.

7 Calculate the gust response factor, Gh. Gust response factor is calculated with the equation Gh =

.65+.60/[(h/33)(1/7)] where h is the height of the object.

For example, if you have an antenna that is 3 ft long and 48 ft off the ground, Gh = .65+.60/[(h/33)(1/7)] =

.65+.60/(51/33)(1/7) = 1.22 ft-1

8 Calculate the wind load. Using the values determined above, you can now calculate wind load with the equation

F = A x P x Cd x Kz x Gh. Plug in all of your variables and do the math.

For example, lets say you want to determine the wind load on an antenna that is 3 feet long with a diameter of

0.5 inches in a gust of 70mph winds. It is placed on top of a 48 ft high building.

Start by calculating the projected area. In this case, A = l x w = 3 ft x (0.5in x (1 ft/12 in)) = 0.125 ft2.

Calculate the wind pressure: P = 0.00256 x V2 = 0.00256 x 702 = 12.5 psf.

For a short cylinder the coefficient of drag is 0.8.

Calculate the exposure coefficient: Kz = [z/33](2/7) = [46.5/33](2/7) = 1.1 ft.

Calculate the gust response factor: Gh = .65+.60/[(h/33)(1/7)] = .65+.60/(51/33)(1/7) = 1.22 ft-1

Plugging into the equation: F = A x P x Cd x Kz x Gh = 0.125 x 12.5 x 0.8 x 1.1 x 1.22 = 1.68 lbs.

1.68 lbs is the amount of wind load on the antenna.

Method

Calculating Wind Load Using the Uniform Building Code (UBC) 97 Formula

3

1 Define the UBC 97 formula. This formula was developed in 1997 as part of the Uniform Building Code (UBC) for

calculation of wind load. The formula is F = A x P, were A is the projected area and P is the wind pressure;

however, this formula has an alternate calculation for wind pressure.

Wind pressure (PSF) is calculated as P= Ce x Cq x Qs x Iw, where Ce is the combined height, exposure and

gust response factor, Cq is a pressure coefficient (it is equivalent to the drag coefficient in the previous two

equations), Qs is wind stagnation pressure, and Iw is importance factor. All of these values can be calculated or

obtained from the appropriate tables.

2 Determine projected area. The projected area of your object is dependent upon its shape and size. If the wind is

hitting a flat wall, the projected area is easier to calculate than if the object is rounded. Projected area will be an

approximation of the area that the wind comes in contact with. There is no one formula for calculating projected area,

but you can estimate it with some basic calculations. Units for area are ft2.

For a flat wall, use the formula Area = length x width, measuring the length and width of the wall where the

wind is hitting it.

For a tube or column, you can also approximate the area using length and width. In this case, the width will be

the diameter of the tube or column.

3 Determine Ce, the combined height, exposure, and gust response factor. This value is chosen based on

table 16-G of UBC and takes into account three terrain exposures with various heights and Ce values for each.

Exposure B is terrain with buildings, trees or other surface irregularities covering at least 20 percent of the

surrounding area and extending 1.6 kilometers or more from the site.

Exposure C has terrain that is flat and generally open, extending 0.8 km or more from the site.

Exposure D is the most severe, with basic wind speeds of 129 km/hr or greater and terrain that is flat and

unobstructed facing large bodies of water.

4 Determine the pressure coefficient for the object in question. The pressure coefficient, Cq, is the same as the

drag coefficient (Cd). Drag is the net force in the direction of flow due to pressure on the surface of an object.[9]

The drag coefficient represents the drag of an object through a fluid and is dependent upon the shape, size, and

roughness of an object.

The standard drag coefficient for a long cylinder tube is 1.2 and for a short cylinder is .8 These apply to

antenna tubes found on many buildings.

The standard coefficient for a flat plate such as the face of a building is 2.0 for a long flat plate or 1.4 for a

shorter flat plate.

The difference between drag coefficients for flat and cylinder items is approximately 0.6.

The drag coefficient has no units.

5 Determine the wind stagnation pressure. Qs is the wind stagnation pressure and is equivalent to the wind

pressure calculation from the previous equations: Qs = 0.00256 x V2, where V is the speed of the wind in miles

per hour (mph).

For example, if the wind speed is 70 mph, the wind stagnation pressure is 0.00256 x 702 = 12.5 psf.

An alternative to this calculation is to use the standards set for various wind zones. For example, according to

the Electronic Industries Association (EIA) most of the U.S. is in Zone A with 86.6 mph wind, but coastal areas

might lie in Zone B (100 mph) or Zone C (111.8 mph).

6 Determine importance factor. Iw is the importance factor and can be determined using table 16-K of the UBC. It

is a multiplier used in calculating loads that takes into account the use of the building. If a building contains

hazardous materials, its importance factor will be higher than that of a traditional building.

Calculations for buildings with standard use have an importance factor of one.

7 Calculate the wind load. Using the values determined above, you can now calculate wind load with the equation

F = A x P = A x Ce x Cq x Qs x Iw . Plug in all of your variables and do the math.

For example, lets say you want to determine the wind load on an antenna that is 3 feet long with a diameter of

0.5 inches in a gust of 70mph winds. It is placed on top of a 48 ft high standard building in an area with an

exposure B terrain.

Start by calculating the projected area. In this case, A = l x w = 3 ft x (0.5in x (1 ft/12 in)) = 0.125 ft2.

Determine Ce. Based on table 16-G, using the height of 48 ft and exposure B terrain, Ce is 0.84.

For a short cylinder the coefficient of drag or Cq is 0.8.

Calculate Qs: Qs = 0.00256 x V2 = 0.00256 x 702 = 12.5 psf.

Determine importance factor. This is a standard building therefore, Iw is 1.

Plugging into the equation: F = A x P = A x Ce x Cq x Qs x Iw = 0.125 x 0.84 x 0.8 x 12.5 x 1= 1.05 lbs.

1.05 lbs is the amount of wind load on the antenna.

Community Q&A

I want to create a 12' diameter cylinder grain tower that's 55' high, and has a smooth surface and dome roof. How

many yards of concrete does it take to anchor it for an estimated maximum wind force of 110 MPH?

The force will be around 0.0012 x ((88/60) x (110))^2. The 88/60 converts from mph to fps, and the answer is around

wikiHow Contributor 31 pounds per square feet. If we add the height of the dome, it is 55 + 6 = 61' tall, and 12' wide, so the area is 12 x 61

= 732 square feet. Total force acting on the tower is about 732 x 31 = 22,692 pounds, over ten tons. The force will be

greatest near the top, because wind is strongest higher up, and the top will be more turbulent. Without knowing the

wind gradient one can't be sure where the net force acts. You'll have to pour enough concrete to withstand over ten

tons sideways near the top of your tower. We're out of space here - good luck!

Not Helpful 0 Helpful 2

How can I convert wind speed to wind pressure?

.0012 x the speed in feet per second squared is close enough at sea level, so that 88 FPS would give you .0012 x 88

wikiHow Contributor x 88 = 9.3 pounds per square foot. 88 FPS is 60 MPH, almost 100 KPH.

Not Helpful 3 Helpful 3

Tips

Know that wind velocity varies at various distances from the ground. Wind speed increases with structural height and is

most unpredictable closer to the ground, because it is affected by interacting with things on the ground.

Be aware that this unpredictability can make it difficult to make accurate wind calculations.

1. http://www.slideshare.net/machota2011/wind-load-calculation

2. http://k7nv.com/notebook/topics/windload.html

3. http://www.aij.or.jp/jpn/symposium/2006/loads/Chapter6_com.pdf

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