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Teehankee v.

Madayag, 140 SCRA 425 (1985) ISSUE: Whether or not an amended information involving a substantial
Topic: Rule 110, Sec 14 - Amendment/substitution of Information amendment, without preliminary investigation, after the prosecution has
rested on the original information, may legally and validly be admitted? YES
1. On July 19, 1991 an information for the crime of frustrated murder HELD:
was filed against Claudio Teehankee Jr. allegedly committed to Sec. 14. Amendment.The information or complaint may be amended, in substance
Maureen Navarro Hultman. or form, without leave of court, at any time before the accused pleads; and thereafter
and during the trial as to all matters of form, by leave and at the discretion of the
court, when the same can be done without prejudice to the rights of the accused.
2. After the prosecution had rested its case, the petitioner moved for
leave to file a demurrer to evidence, but before the motion was filed, If it appears at any time before judgment that a mistake has been made in charging
the victim died. So, the private prosecutor filed an omnibus motion the proper offense, the court shall dismiss the original complaint or information upon
for leave of court to file the amended information. The amended the filing of a new one charging the proper offense in accordance with Rule 119,
information filed on October 31, 1991 charges Teehankee of murder. Section 11, provided the accused would not be placed thereby in double jeopardy and
may also require the witnesses to give bail for their appearance at the trial.
3. The trial court admitted the amended information. During the
arraignment, the petitioner refused to be arraigned on the amended 1st paragraph - provides rules for amendment of information or complaint
information contending the lack of a preliminary investigation 2nd paragraph - refers to substitution of information of complaint
thereon. The judge, then, ordered the plea of "not guilty" be entered
for petitioner. The prosecution was ordered to present its evidence. It may accordingly be posited that both amendment and substitution of the
The petitioner's counsel manifested that he did not want to take part information may be made before or after the defendant pleads, BUT THEY
in the proceedings because of the legal issue raised. So, the trial court DIFFER in the following respects:
appointed a counsel de officio to represent the petitioner.
Petitioner alleged that: It may involve either formal or It necessarily involves a substantial
There being a substantial amendment, the same may no longer be substantial changes change from the original charge
allowed after arraignment and during the trial - he said there is a Amendment before plea has been Substitution of information must be
need to establish that the same mortal wounds which were initially entered can be effected without with leave of court as the original
frustrated by timely medical assistance ultimately caused the death of leave of court information has to be dismissed
the victim, because as for him, this death could have been caused by If amendment is only as to form, no Another preliminary investigation
a supervening act which is not imputable to petitioner (offender) need for another preliminary is entailed and the accused has to
Since the amended information for murder charges an entirely investigation and the retaking of the plead anew to the new information
different offense, involving as it does a new fact, that is, the fact of plea of the accused
death whose cause has to be established, it is essential that another An amended information refers to Substitution requires or presupposes
preliminary investigation on the new charge be conducted before the the same offense charged in the that the new information involves a
new information can be admitted. original information or to an offense different offense which does not
Hence, petitioner now seeks, among other things, for the SC to which necessarily includes or is include or is not necessarily
nullify the respondent judge's admittance of the amended necessarily included in the original included in the original charge,
information, and to compel the judge to order preliminary charge. hence the accused cannot claim
investigation of the crime charged in the amended information. Hence, substantial amendments to double jeopardy.
the information after the plea has
been taken cannot be made over the
objection of the accused, for if the
original information would be
withdrawn, the accused could invoke
double jeopardy. A substantial amendment consists of the recital of facts constituting the
offense charged and determinative of the jurisdiction of the court. All other
In determining if there should be an amendment or a substitution of matters are merely of form.
Thus, the following have been held to be merely formal amendments, viz.:
The rule is that where the second information involves the same
offense, or an offense which necessarily includes or is necessarily 1. new allegations which relate only to the range of the penalty that the
included in the first information, an amendment of the information court might impose in the event of conviction;
is sufficient 2. an amendment which does not charge another offense different or
Otherwise, where the new information charges an offense which is distinct from that charged in the original one;
distinct and different from that initially charged, a substitution is in 3. additional allegations which do not alter the prosecutions theory of
order. the case so as to cause surprise to the accused and affect the form of
defense he has or will assume; and
Going now to the case at bar, it is evident that frustrated murder is but a stage 4. an amendment which does not adversely affect any substantial right
in the execution of the crime of murder, hence the former is necessarily of the accused, such as his right to invoke prescription.
included in the latter. It is indispensable that the essential element of intent to
kill, as well as qualifying circumstances such as treachery or evident An objective appraisal of the amended information for murder filed against
premeditation, be alleged in both an information for frustrated murder and for herein petitioner will readily show that the nature of the offense originally
murder, thereby meaning and proving that the same material allegations are charged was not actually changed. Instead, an additional allegation, that is,
essential to the sufficiency of the informations filed for both. This is because, the supervening fact of the death of the victim was merely supplied to aid the
except for the death of the victim, the essential elements of consummated trial court in determining the proper penalty for the crime.
murder likewise constitute the essential ingredients to convict herein That the accused committed a felonious act with intent to kill the victim
petitioner for the offense of frustrated murder. continues to be the prosecutions theory.
There is no question that whatever defense herein petitioner may adduce
In the present case, therefore, there is an identity of offenses charged in both under the original information for frustrated murder equally applies to the
the original and the amended information. What is involved here is not a amended information for murder. Under the circumstances thus obtaining, it
variance in the nature of different offenses charged, but only a change in the is irremissible that the amended information for murder is, at most, an
stage of execution of the same offense from frustrated to consummated amendment as to form which is allowed even during the trial of the case.
murder. This being the case, we hold that an amendment of the original
information will suffice and, consequent thereto, the filing of the amended
information for murder is proper.