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Cardiology Reference


a- not, without, no cardi/o- heart intra- within, in sphygm/o- pulse

-ac pertaining to coron/o- heart -itis - steth/o- chest
-al pertaining to cyan/o- blue inflammation tachy- fast
angi/o- vessel endo- innermost, -megaly - thromb/o- blood
aort/o- aorta within enlargement clot
-ar pertaining to epi- above, upon my/o- muscle -tomy process
arteri/o- artery hemangi/o- blood -ole small thing of cutting
ather/o- fatty vessel ox/o- oxygen tri- three
plaque hyper- above, phleb/o- vein valvul/o- valve
atri/o- atrium excessive -plasty surgical vas/o- vessel
bi- two hypo- below, repair vascul/o- vessel
brachi/o- arm under, deficient sept/o- dividing ven/o- vein
brady- slow inter- between wall, septum


AAA: abdominal aortic aneurysm ECG, EKG: electrocardiography

ABE: acute bacterial endocarditis ECLS: extracorporeal life support
ABG: arterial blood gas EF: ejection fraction
ACE: angiotensin-converting enzyme ERP: effective rectory period
ACS: acute coronary syndrome EST: exercise stress test
AI: aortic insufficiency ETT: endotracheal tube; exercise tolerance
AMI: acute myocardial infarction test; exercise treadmill test
AS: aortic stenosis FET: forced expiratory time
ASCVD: arteriosclerotic cardiovascular FEV: forced expiratory volume
disease FIC: forced inspiratory capacity
ASD: atrial septal defect FMV: floppy mitral valve
AV: atrioventricular FNA: fine-needle aspiration
AVA: aortic valve area Ga: gallium
BFV: blood flow velocity Hb: hemoglobin
BNP: B-type natriuretic peptide HBE: His bundle electrogram
BP: blood pressure HCl: hydrochloride
CABG: coronary artery bypass graft HDL: high-density lipoprotein
CAD: coronary artery disease HF: heart failure
CHF: congestive heart failure HLT: heart-lung transplant
CK: creatine kinase JVD: jugular venous distention
CPR: cardiopulmonary resuscitation LA: left atrium
CRMP: Cardiac Risk Management LDL: low-density lipoprotein
Program LV: left ventricle
CV: cardiovascular LVH: left ventricular hypertrophy
CVA: cerebrovascular accident mA: milliamperes
DL: double lumen MI: myocardial infarction
DOE: dyspnea on exertion mmHg: millimeters of mercury

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MVA: mitral valve area RA: right atrium
MVP: mitral valve prolapse RDS: rate-drop response
OHD: organic heart disease ROMI: rule out myocardial infarction
PAC: premature atrial contraction RV: right ventricle
PACI: partial anterior circulation infarct S1: first heart sound
PAD: peripheral artery disease S2: second heart sound
PAT: paroxysmal atrial tachycardia S3: third heart sound
PDA: patent ductus arteriosus S4: fourth heart sound
PLHB: percutaneous left heart bypass SA: sinoatrial
PMI: point of maximum impulse SBE: subacute bacterial endocarditis
PMV: percutaneous mitral valvuloplasty SOB: shortness of breath
PND: paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea TAVI: transcatheter aortic valve
PP: pulse pressure implantation
PTA: percutaneous transluminal TEE: transesophageal echocardiography
angioplasty TIA: transient ischemic attack
PTCA: percutaneous transluminal coronary V: ventricular
angioplasty VAD: ventricular assist device
PT: prothrombin time VSD: ventricular septal defect
PTT: partial thromboplastin time WL: wavelength
PVC: premature ventricular contraction WPW: Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome
PVD: peripheral vascular disease ZFP: zero-flow pressure
PVR: prosthetic valve regurgitation;
pulmonary vascular resistance


ablation: A procedure that eliminates extra electrical pathways within the heart that cause
irregular or fast heart rhythms.
ACE inhibitors: Helps to relax and open blood vessels.
agranulocytosis: Extremely low levels of leukocyte levels as a result of drug toxicity or
alpha blockers: Helps keep the hormone norepinephrine from tightening the muscles in the
walls of smaller arteries and veins, improving blood flow and reducing blood pressure. These
also improve urine flow in men with prostate problems.
anastomosis: A surgical connection, often between two blood vessels.
aneurysm: A pathological blood-filled dilatation of a blood vessel.
angina pectoris: Chest pain after exertion caused by reduction of oxygen to the myocardium.
angina: Chest pain.
angiogram: Contrast material is injected into the blood vessels and an x-ray image obtained.
angiography: An x-ray study that uses dye injected into arteries to study blood circulation.
angioplasty: A nonsurgical procedure for treating narrowed arteries.
antiarrhythmic drugs: Treats cardiac arrhythmias. These include beta blockers, calcium
channel blockers, potassium channel blockers, and sodium channel blockers.
anticoagulant: A medication that keeps blood from clotting.
antihyperlipidemics: Reduces cholesterol.
aorta: The major artery of the body. Blood ejected by the left ventricle of the heart passes into
the aorta and from there is distributed to every organ of the body.
aortic regurgitation: Backwards leakage of blood from the aorta, through a weakened aortic
valve, and into the left ventricle.
aortic stenosis: Narrowing of the opening of the aortic valve.

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aortic valve: Valve that allows blood flow out of the left ventricle into the aorta. It also closes
to prevent the blood from flowing backwards.
aortic: Relating to the aorta.
apnea: Cessation of breathing.
arrhythmia: Irregular heartbeat.
arteries: Carry blood away from the heart. They function in the distribution of nutrients, gases,
etc., movement of blood under high pressure, and assist in maintaining arterial blood pressure.
arterioles: Small branches of arteries.
atherosclerosis: An accumulation of fat-containing deposits on arterial walls.
atresia: Inadequate development of an organ or part of an organ during pregnancy.
atrial fibrillation: A rapid, highly irregular heart rhythm, caused by chaotic electrical activity in
the atria.
atrial flutter: A rapid heart rhythm originating in the atria that has a characteristic pattern on the
atrioventricular (AV) node: The relay mechanism between the SA node and the ventricles.
atrioventricular valve (AV): Valves separating the atrial chambers from the ventricular
chambers. These valves act as doors to prevent the backflow of blood into the atria during
ventricular contraction.
atrium: The chamber of the heart that collects blood returning from the rest of the body.
bacterial endocarditis: A bacterial infection of the valves or interior surfaces of the heart.
basos: Acceptable brief form for basophils.
beta blockers: Reduces blood pressure.
bicuspid valve: Valve between the left atrium and ventricle.
blood pressure: Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of the
arteries. Blood pressure is recorded as 2 numbers. Top number is the systolic (contraction)
pressure over the bottom number, diastolic (relaxation) pressure. Easy way to rememberMy
sister (systolic) is having contractions. Normal blood pressure is less than 120/80. When blood
pressure stays higher than 140/90 or higher, this is considered high blood pressure.
bradycardia: Excessively slow heartbeat.
Bruce protocol: Staging on cardiac treadmill test.
bruit: A sound or murmur heard on vascular auscultation.
B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) test: This blood test helps doctors to identify and determine
the severity of heart failure.
Buerger disease: Inflammation of the peripheral arteries and veins of the extremities with clot
formation caused by a prolonged history of smoking.
bundle branch block: A condition in which one or more of branches of the heart's electrical
system are unable to normally conduct the electrical signal in the ventricles.
bundle of His (AV bundle): A bundle of specialized muscle fibers that receive impulses from
the AV node.
CABG: When a blockage occurs in vessels, this procedure is performed by anastomosing
vessels to bypass the blockage.
calcium channel blockers: A medication that prevents calcium from entering cells of the heart
and walls of blood vessels, lowering blood pressure. Some of these medications slow the heart
capillaries: Carry blood from arterioles and venous to the larger vessels. They function as the
exchange mechanism of nutrients, wastes, and fluids between the arterioles and venules and
the arteries and vein.
cardiac arrest: Sudden and unexpected cessation of cardiac activity resulting from anoxia or
interruption of electrical stimuli to the heart.
cardiac catheterization: With or without contraction, detects pressures and patterns of blood
flow in the heart.

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cardiac output: The amount of blood that goes through the circulatory system in one minute.
cardiomyopathy: Cardiac muscle disease that results in enlargement of the myocardium and
ventricular dysfunction.
cardioversion: Brief electrical discharges are applied across the chest to stop arrhythmias.
chem-7: Chemistry panel of the blood consisting of 7 tests: BUN, carbon dioxide (CO2),
creatinine, glucose, serum chloride (Cl), serum potassium (K), serum sodium (Na),
chordae tendineae: Cordlike structures attaching the AV valves to the wall of the heart.
cineangiography: The procedure of taking moving pictures to show the passage of dye
through blood vessels.
coarctation of the aorta: A congenital heart defect that results in narrowing of the aorta.
congestive heart failure: The acute or chronic inability of the heart to pump enough blood
throughout the body to sustain homeostasis.
cor pulmonale: Enlargement of the right ventricle as a result of primary lung disease.
coronary: Relating to the heart or to one of the arteries that originate in the aorta and supply
blood directly to heart tissue.
coronary artery bypass graft (CABG): Surgical procedure to bypass one or more occluded
coronary arteries by using a vein graft.
C-reactive protein. A blood test that identifies high levels inflammation and an increased risk
for heart disease.
cyanosis: A condition in which a person's skin is discolored to a bluish hue because of
inadequate oxygenation of the blood.
cyanotic: Appearing blue, due to insufficient oxygen in the blood.
defibrillator: An electronic device used to establish normal heartbeat.
diastole: Normal period of relaxation and dilatation of the heart cavities.
dilatation: The condition of being abnormally dilated or enlarged.
diuretics: Medication that helps to get rid of sodium and water, water pill.
Doppler ultrasound: Measures the movement of blood flow.
ductus arteriosus: A connection between the aorta and the pulmonary artery that is necessary
in fetal life, but becomes unnecessary after birth.
dyspnea: Difficulty in breathing.
dysrhythmia: An abnormal heart rhythm.
echocardiogram: Images of the heart produced by high-frequency sound waves; cardiac
edema: Collection of extra fluid in tissues seen in congestive heart failure.
effusion: A collection of fluid in a closed cavity.
ejection fraction: The measurement of the amount of blood pumped out of the ventricles.
electrocardiogram: A normal EKG has 3 waves. P wave - Reads depolarization signals from
the atria. QRS wave - Reads depolarization signals from the ventricles. T wave - Reads
repolarization signals from the ventricles.
endarterectomy: Removal of atheromas and thromboses from clogged arteries.
endocardium: The smooth layer of cells that lines the interior of the heart and heart valves.
enlarged heart: A condition in which the heart is larger than normal.
eos: Acceptable brief form for eosinophils.
epicardium: The membrane that covers the outside of the heart.
exercise electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG): A test to assess cardiac rhythm and function by
having the patient exercise on a treadmill or bicycle.
femoral-popliteal bypass: A vessel graft into the femoral and popliteal arteries to bypass
foramen ovale: A hole between the right and left atria. It is present in all unborn children and
remains open after birth for variable periods of time.

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HDL cholesterol: The higher the HDL cholesterol levels in the blood, the lower the risk for
coronary artery disease.
Holter monitoring: An EKG device is placed around the patients chest for a 24-hour period to
detect cardiac arrhythmias.
homograft: A blood vessel taken from a tissue donor used to replace a defective blood vessel.
hypertension: High blood pressure. Essential: Abnormally high blood pressure with no clear-
cut etiology. Malignant: A very severe form of hypertension that is life-threatening.
hypoxemia: Abnormally low oxygen content in the blood.
hypoxia: Abnormally low oxygen content in the organs and tissues of the body.
insufficiency: A condition in which a valve is not able to prevent back-flow of blood.
ischemia: Localized loss of blood supply due to a mechanical obstruction.
lipid test: Measures the amount of cholesterol and triglycerides found in the blood.
lipoprotein electrophoresis: Physical separation of fat and protein in a blood sample to test
for LDL and HDL.
lumen: The hollow area inside a blood vessel.
mitral insufficiency: Failure of the mitral valve to close allowing blood to flow from the left
ventricle back into the left atrium as a result of tissue inflammation and vegetation or mitral valve
mitral valve: Valve that separates the left atrium and the left ventricle and prevents back-flow
from the ventricle to the atrium.
monos: Acceptable brief form for monocytes.
murmur: A rasping or blowing sound made by blood flow heard while listening to the heart.
myocardial infarction: Heart attack, ischemia develops causing necrosis of myocardial tissue.
myocardial ischemia: Insufficient blood flow to part of the heart that can lead to damage of
heart tissue.
myocardium: The middle, muscular layer of the heart. It is the thickest of the 3 layers.
nitrates: Used to treat symptoms of chest pain.
occluded artery: An artery that is narrowed by plaque or other obstruction that impedes blood
open heart surgery: Surgery that involves opening the chest and heart while a heart-lung
machine performs for the heart and lungs during the operation.
oxygen desaturation: Insufficient amounts of oxygen in the bloodstream.
oxygen saturation: The extent to which hemoglobin is saturated with oxygen.
pacemaker: An electronic device that is surgically inserted and connected to the heart to
regulate the heartbeat.
palpitation: An abnormal sensation in the chest caused by an irregular heartbeat.
patent: Open.
percutaneous coronary intervention: Insertion of a catheter with a balloon on the tip into a
coronary artery to open the artery. Once the artery is open, a stent is placed to keep it patent
pericardial effusion: Buildup of excess fluid between the heart and the membrane that
surrounds it, often due to inflammation.
pericardiocentesis: A procedure that uses a needle to draw fluid from the pericardium.
pericarditis: Inflammation or infection of the sac which surrounds the heart.
pericardium: The fibrous and membranous sac surrounding the heart. It is composed of 2
PET scan: Radioactive substances are injected and images obtained of blood flow as well as
function of the myocardium following contrast uptake.
premature atrial contraction (PAC): An early heartbeat started by the atria.
premature ventricular contraction (PVC): An early heartbeat started by the ventricles.
prolapse: Floppy valve, associated with regurgitation.

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prophylaxis: Prevention.
pulmonary artery: Blood vessel connecting the right ventricle to the lungs, allowing oxygen-
poor blood to receive oxygen.
pulmonary edema: Fluid accumulation in the lungs caused by an incorrectly functioning heart.
pulmonary valve: Valve that allows blood to flow into the lungs and prevents it from flowing
pulmonary vein: The vessel that carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left side of the
pulmonary: Relating to the lungs.
pulse oximeter: A device that measures the amount of oxygen in the blood.
Purkinje fibers: Fibers comprising the bundle of His.
Raynaud disease: Pain, numbness, and discoloration of the fingers, hands, and feet caused
by constriction of the blood vessels.
regurgitation: Back-flow of blood through an insufficient valve.
rheumatic fever: Autoimmune, systemic inflammatory disease involving joints and cardiac
tissue caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus. It can lead to rheumatic heart disease.
Ross procedure: A surgical procedure performed to repair aortic stenosis.
segs: Acceptable brief form for segmented neutrophils.
semilunar valve (SL): Valves located between the 2 ventricular chambers. They carry blood
away from the heart during contraction. They open and close simultaneously.
septa: Partitions separating the 4 chambers of the heart.
septal defect: A hole in the wall between the atria or the ventricles.
serum enzyme: Tests for levels of creatine kinase and troponin-I, which are released during a
heart attack. If levels are found, the patient is positive for having had a heart attack.
shock: Collapse of the cardiovascular system caused by many other conditions.
sinoatrial node (SA): The pacemaker of the heart. This structure starts conduction.
sinus node: The cells that produce the electrical impulses that cause the heart to contract.
sinus rhythm: A normal heart rhythm in which each heartbeat originates in the sinus node and
proceeds through the rest of the electrical conduction system normally.
sinus tachycardia: A heart rhythm that originates in the sinus node and proceeds through the
rest of the electrical conduction system, but is faster than normal.
stenosis: Constriction of a passage.
superior vena cava: The large vein that returns blood to the heart from the head and arms.
syncope: A brief loss of consciousness caused by temporary lack of oxygenated blood.
systole: Period of contraction of the heart during which blood is ejected from the ventricles.
tachycardia: Excessively rapid heartbeat.
tachypnea: Rapid breathing.
tamponade: Compression of the heart muscle and restriction of heart movement caused by
blood or fluid trapped in the pericardial sac.
technetium 99m Sestamibi scan: A contrast called Technetium 99m is injected enhancing
areas where an MI occurred. It is also used in exercise stress tests.
tricuspid valve: Valve that separates the right atrium and the right ventricle and prevents back-
flow from the ventricle to the atrium.
valvuloplasty: Repairing a heart valve by surgery or by using a catheter with a balloon.
vasodilator: A medication that widens the opening in a blood vessel.
vasopressor: A medication that raises blood pressure.
vasovagal syncope: A sudden drop in blood pressure caused by a dysfunction of the nerves
controlling the heart and blood vessels.
veins: Carry blood toward the heart. They function to collect blood for return to the heart and
are low pressure vessels.

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venipuncture: Insertion of a needle into a vein for blood removal for testing, injecting
medication, fluids, or diagnostic materials.
ventricle: The chamber of the heart that is responsible for pumping blood out to the rest of the
ventricular fibrillation: A condition in which the ventricles contract in rapid, unsynchronized,
and ineffective rhythms and cannot pump blood into the body.
ventricular septal defect: An abnormal opening in the wall between the right and left
ventricular tachycardia: A condition in which the ventricles beat very quickly.
Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome: An extra electrical pathway that connects the atria and
ventricles and can cause supraventricular tachycardia.


This list includes antihypertensives (beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, ACE inhibitors),
diuretics, alpha antagonists, anti-angina, antiarrhythmics, lipid-lowering agents, and
anticoagulant/thrombolytic agents.

Accupril (quinapril) betaxolol

acebutolol hydrochloride bisoprolol
Aceon (perindopril) Blocadren (timolol)
Activase (alterplase) bumetanide
Adalat CC (nifedipine) Bumex (bumetanide)
Adenocard (adenosine) Caduet (amlodipine/atorvastatin)
Adenoscan (adenosine) Calan (verapamil)
adenosine Calan SR (verapamil)
Aggrastat (tirofiban) candesartan
Aldactone (spironolactone) Capoten (captopril)
Aldoril (methyldopa/hydrochlorothiazide) Capozide 25/15
Altace (ramipril) (hydrochlorothiazide/captopril)
amiodarone captopril
amlodipine Cardarone (amiodarone hydrochloride)
anistreplase Cardene (nicardipine)
Apresazide (hydralazine/ Cardene SR (nicardipine)
hydrochlorothiazide) Cardioquin (quinidine)
Apresoline (hydralazine) Cardizem (diltiazem)
aspirin Cardizem CD (diltiazem)
Atacand HCT (hydrochlorothiazide/ Cardura (doxazosin)
candesartan) carteolol
atenolol Cartia XT (diltiazem)
atorvastatin Cartrol (carteolol)
Atreza (atropine) carvedilol
AtroPen (atropine sulfate) Catapres (clonidine)
atropine chlorothiazide
atropine sulfate chlorthalidone
Avalide (hydrochlorothiazide/irbesartan) clofibrate
Avapro (irbesartan) clonidine
benazepril clopidogrel
bepridil Colestid (colestipol)
Betapace (sotalol) colestipol

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Combipres (clonidine/chlorthalidone) Hytrin (terazosin)
Cordarone (amiodarone) Hyzaar (hydrochlorothiazide/losartan)
Coreg (carvedilol) Imdur (isosorbide mononitrate)
Corgard (nadolol) indapamide
Coumadin (warfarin) Inderal (propranolol)
Covera-HS (verapamil) Inderide (propranolol/hydrochlorothiazide)
Cozaar (losartan) Innohep (tinzaparin)
Crestor (rosuvastatin) Inspra (eplerenone)
Cyclan (cyclandelate) irbesartan
cyclandelate isoproterenol
dalteparin Isoptin (verapamil)
danaparoid Isoptin SR (verapamil)
Demadex (torsemide) Isordil (isosorbide dinitrate)
dicumarol isosorbide
Digitek (digoxin) isosorbide dinitrate
digoxin isosorbide mononitrate
Dilacor XR (diltiazem) isradipine
diltiazem Kerlone (betaxolol)
diltiazem hydrochloride CD Lanoxicaps
Diovan HCT (hydrochlorothiazide/valsartan) Lanoxin (digoxin)
dipyramidole Lasix (furosemide)
disopyramide Lescol (fluvastatin)
Diupres (reserpine/chlorothiazide) Levatol (penbutolol)
Diuril (chlorothiazide) Lexxel (enalapril/felodipine)
dobutamine lidocaine
doxazosin Lipitor (atorvastatin)
Dyazide (hydrochlorothiazide/triamterene) lisinopril
DynaCirc (isradipine) Loniten (minoxidil)
Dyrenium (triamterene) Lopid (gemfibrozil)
Edecrin (ethacrynic acid) Lopressor (metoprolol)
Eminase (anistreplase) Lopressor HCT (hydrochlorothiazide/
enalapril metoprolol)
Enkaid (encainide hydrochloride) lorcainide
enoxaparin losartan
epinephrine Lotensin (benazepril)
eplerenone Lotrel (amlodipine/benazepril)
eprosartan Lovenox (enoxaparin)
eptifibatide Lozol (indapamide)
esmolol Matzim LA (diltiazem)
ethacrynic acid Mavik (trandolapril)
Ethmozine (moricizine) Maxzide (hydrochlorothiazide/triamterene)
felodipine metoprolol
fosinopril metoprolol succinate ER
Fragmin (dalteparin) Mevacor (lovastatin)
furosemide Mexitil (mexiletine)
gemfibrozil Micardis HCT (hydrochlorothiazide/
heparin telmisartan)
hydralazine Microzide (hydrochlorothiazide)
hydrochlorothiazide Midamor (amiloride)
hydrochlorothiazide metolazone Minipress (prazosin)
Hygroton (chlorthalidone) Minitran (nitroglycerin)

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Minizide (polythiazide/prazosin) Retavase (retaplase)
minoxidil Rythmol (propafenone)
Miradon (anisindione) Rythmol SR (propafenone)
moexipril sal-tropine
Monopril (fosinopril) Salutensin (reserpine/hydrochlorothiazide)
moricizine Sectral (acebutolol)
nadolol Ser-Ap-Es (hydralazine)
Natrecor (nesiritide) simvastatin
Nexterone (amiodarone) sotalol
niacin spironolactone
Niaspan (niacin) statins
nicardipine streptokinase
nicotinic acid Sular (nisoldipine)
nifedipine Tambocor (flecainide)
nimodipine telmisartan
Nimotop (nimodipine) Tenexn (guanfacine)
nisoldipine Tenoretic (atenolol/chlorthalidone)
Nitro-Bid (nitroglycerin) Tenormin (atenolol)
Nitro-Dur (nitroglycerin) terazosin
nitroglycerin Teveten (eprosartan)
Nitrostat (nitroglycerin) Tiazac (diltiazem)
Normiflo (ardeparin) Ticlid (ticlopidine)
Normodyne ticlopidine
Norpace (disopyramide) Tikosyn (dofetilide)
Norvasc (amlodipine) timolol
Orgaran (danaparoid) tinzaparin
Pacerone (amiodarone) tirofiban
perindopril TNKase (tenecteplase)
perindopril erbumine Toprol-XL (metoprolol)
Persantine (dipyridamole) torsemide
Pitressin (vasopressin) Trandate (labetalol hydrochloride)
Plavix (clopidogrel) trandolapril
Plendil (felodipine) Transderm-Nitro (nitroglycerin)
Port-A-Cath Trental (pentoxifylline)
Pravachol (pravastatin) TriCor (fenofibrate)
pravastatin Univasc (moexipril)
prazosin Uroxatral (alfuzosin)
Prinivil (lisinopril) valsartan
Prinzide (hydrochlorothiazide) Vascor (bepridil)
procainamide Vaseretic 5-12.5 (hydrochlorothiazide/
Procan SR (procainamide) enalapril)
Procardia (nifedipine) Vasodilan (isoxsuprine)
Procardia XL (nifedipine) Vasotec (enalapril)
Promega verapamil
propafenone Verelan (verapamil)
propranolol Vytorin (ezetimibe/simvastatin)
Questran Light (cholestyramine) warfarin
quinapril WelChol (colesevelam)
quinidine Xylocaine (lidocaine)
ramipril Zaroxolyn (hydrochlorothiazide metolazone)
retaplase Zebeta (bisoprolol)

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Zestoretic (hydrochlorothiazide/lisinopril) Ziac (bisoprolol/hydrochlorothiazide)
Zestril (lisinopril) Zocor (simvastatin)
Zetia (ezetimibe)


30-degree view arch of azygos vein bifurcation

abdominal aorta arrhythmia bigeminy
Abiomed BVS 5000 arterial catheterization bilateral bundle branch
pump arterial embolism block
ablation arterial limb of the bypass blind intubation
accelerated ventricular tubing blood flow
tachycardia arterial pressure brachial artery
acute coronary syndrome arteriography brachiocephalic trunk
acute myocardial infarction arterioles brachytherapy
alcoholic cardiomyopathy arteriosclerosis bradyarrhythmia
amaurosis fugax arteriotomy bradycardia
anastomosis arteritis Bruce protocol
aneurysm ascending aorta bruit
angina asystole bulldog clamp
angina pectoris atherosclerosis bundle branch block
angiocardiography atrial amplitude bundle of His
angiogram atrial appendage bypass cooling
angiography atrial arrhythmias calcification
angioplasty atrial extrasystoles calcified
antegrade atrial fibrillation calcium channel blocker
anterior cardiac veins atrial flutter caliber
anterior chest wall atrial gallop cannula
anterior cusp atrial pacing cannulated
anterior descending atrial premature beats CarboMedics valve
branch atrial septal defect cardia
anterior pulmonary plexus atrial tachycardia cardiac arrest
anterolateral atriotomy cardiac branch
aorta atrioventricular block cardiac catheterization
aorta was cross clamped atrioventricular nodal cardiac decompensation
aortic aneurysm tachycardia cardiac enzymes
aortic arch atrioventricular node cardiac hypertrophy
aortic balloon atrium cardiac index
counterpulsation auscultation cardiac nerves
aortic incompetence autonomic insufficiency cardiac shunt
aortic insufficiency AV block cardiac tamponade
aortic septal defect AV nodal reentry cardiac valve
aortic stenosis tachycardia Cardiolite
aortic valve axis cardiomegaly
aortic valve lesions backbled cardiomyopathy
aortic valve replacement balloon valvuloplasty cardioneurogenic syncope
aortotomies beats per minute cardioplegia
apex beta blocker cardioplegic solution
arch of aorta bifascicular block cardiopulmonary bypass

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cardiopulmonary function CPK endoscopic vein
cardiopulmonary CPK-MB harvesting technique
resuscitation creatine kinase EP study
cardioversion crescendo-decrescendo escape rhythms
carditis cross-clamp Ethibond sutures
carotid bruit crushing chest pain exertion
carotid pulse crystalloid quadriplegia exertional dyspnea
carotid sinus syncope damping extrasystole
catheter de-airing maneuvers fibrillation
catheterization decelerated fibrinous pericarditis
cerebral embolism decompensated first diagonal
cerebral infarction defibrillator first-degree heart block
cerebral ischemia depolarization flutter
Chamberlain procedure diaphragm foramen ovale
chem-7 diastole foreshortened aorta
chest tube diastolic murmur free wall
cholesterol digitalis French
chordae tendineae digoxin friction rub
circumflex dilatation fusion beats
claudication distal narrowing gallium scan
click dobutamine stress gallop
coaptation echocardiography gated SPECT study
coarctation of the aorta Doppler ultrasound
coarse double-lumen intubation global hypokinesis
cold and tepid blood downward sloping
cardioplegia drug eluting stent great cardiac vein
color Doppler dual chamber guidewire
color flow duplex ductus arteriosus HDL cholesterol
ultrasonography dullness heart disease
color venous duplex dyspnea heart murmur
common femoral vein dysrhythmia heart valves
compensated echocardiography HeartMate II LVAD
concentric ectopic beats HeartMate XVE LVAD
conduction efflux HeartWare Ventricular
congenital heart disease effusion Assist System
congestive heart failure ejection fraction heave
contraction ejection murmur hemiblock
contrast bubble study electrocardiogram hemostasis
cor pulmonale electrocardiography heparinized
coronary angiography electrophysiology holosystolic murmur
coronary angioplasty emboli Holter monitor
coronary arteries embolism hyperlipidemia
coronary artery bypass embolus hypertension
graft embyocardia hypertrophic
coronary artery disease endarterectomy cardiomyopathy
coronary bypass surgery end-diastoic pressure hypertrophy
coronary embolism endocarditis hypokinesis
coronary heart disease endocardium hypotension
coronary steal syndrome endomyocardial biopsy hypovolemia
CoSeal endomyocardial fibrosis hypoxia

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idiopathic long QT Mobitz type I heart block percutaneous transluminal
syndrome Mobitz type II heart block coronary angioplasty
infarction Morse sternal retractor pericardial constriction
inferior cardiac branch multiple-gated acquisition pericardial disease
inferior lead scan (MUGA) pericardial tamponade
inferior vena cava multivessel pericardial well
innominate artery murmur pericardiocentesis
in-stent stenosis mV pericarditis
interatrial septum Myo/Wires II pericarditis-myocarditis
internal mammary bypass myocardial pericardium
interval myocardial disease peripartrum
interventricular septum myocardial infarction cardiomyopathy
intra-aortic balloon myocardial ischemia peripheral edema
counterpulsation myocardial perfusion scan peripheral embolism
intra-aortic balloon myocardial ST segment Persantine thallium stress
pumping mapping test
introducer sheath myocarditis phlebitis
ischemia myocardium phlebogram
ischemic heart disease narrow complex phlebothrombosis
jugular vein tachycardia phlebotomy
jugular venous distention necrosis phonocardiography
kinking in the grafts nitro paste pigtail catheter
LDL cholesterol nitroglycerin pitting edema
leaflets nitroglycerin paste pleural effusion
left atrium nocturnal dyspnea pneumothorax
left auricle nonpedicled technique polyarteritis nodosa
left bundle branch block normal sinus rhythm polycythemia vera
left common carotid artery oblique pericardial sinus porcine prosthetic valve
left pulmonary artery ohms postectopic potentiation
left pulmonary veins ON-X posterolateral branch
left subclavian artery oxygen therapy P-R interval
left vagus nerve paced rhythm precordium
left ventricle pacemaker premature atrial
left ventricular aneurysm pacemaker implantation contraction
left ventricular disease pacemaker pocket premature beats
left ventricular hypertrophy pacing mode premature ventricular
loop diuretics palpation contraction
LV/CORS palpitation presternal fascia
palpitations presystolic murmur
MB fraction pansystolic ejection progressive angina
median sternotomy murmur Prolene suture
mediastinum pansystolic murmur prosthetic click
Medtronic paradoxical prosthetic valve
midclavicular paroxysmal pullback
midline sternotomy supraventricular pulmonary artery
mitral insufficiency tachycardia pulmonary circulation
mitral regurgitation paroxysmal tachycardia pulmonary edema
mitral stenosis patent pulmonary embolism
mitral valve disease patent ductus arteriosus pulmonary heart disease
mitral valve prolapse PDS suture pulmonary hypertension
mitral valvotomy pedal edema pulmonary infarction

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pulmonary stenosis rub T wave
pulmonary trunk SA node tachyarrhythmia
pulmonary valve saphenous vein tachybrady
pulmonary vascular second-degree heart block tachycardia
disease Seldinger technique tachycardia-bradycardia
pulmonic valve septal defect syndrome or tachy-brady
pulse generator septum syndrome
pulse wave sestamibi tachydysrhythmia
Purkinje fibers sestamibi stress test tamponade
Q wave sick sinus syndrome TAVI
Q-R interval side-biting clamp tetralogy of Fallot
QRS changes sinoatrial node thallium stress test
QRS complex sinotubular junction third-degree heart block
QRS complex tachycardia sinus arrhythmia Thoratec CentriMag
QRS interval sinus bradycardia Blood Pumping System
QRS vector sinus of Valsalva thrill
QRS-ST junction sinus rhythm thromboembolism
QRS-T changes situs solitus thrombolytic therapy
QRST interval skin bridging technique thrombosis
Q-T interval ST depression thrombus
quadrigeminy ST elevation tilt table test
R wave ST segment depression torsade de pointes
radial arterial pulse ST segment elevation tortuous
radiating steal syndrome t-PA or tissue plasminogen
ramus stenosis activator
Ranger balloon stent transesophageal
Raynaud phenomenon sternal notch echocardiography
recovery phase sternal saw transseptal catheterization
regurgitation sternal wires transverse pericardial
repolarization sternocostal sinus
restenosis ST-T wave treadmill stress test
resuscitation subclavian vein tricuspid atresia
retrograde sublingual nitroglycerin tricuspid incompetence
retrograde arterial sulcus terminalis tricuspid regurgitation
catheterization superior vena cava tricuspid valve
retrograde percutaneous supraventricular tricuspid valve disease
femoral artery arrhythmia trifurcate
rewarming supraventricular premature trifurcation
rheumatic fever beats trigeminy
rheumatic heart disease supraventricular triglycerides
rheumatic myocarditis tachycardia (SVT) trileaflet aortic valve
rheumatic nodules Surgilon suture triple-valve disease
right atrium sympathetic nervous troponin I
right auricle system troponin T
right brachiocephalic vein syncope unstable angina
right bundle branch block systole Valsalva maneuver
right coronary artery systolic click valvular heart disease
right ventricle systolic ejection murmur valvular incompetence
right ventricular failure systolic hypertension valvuloplasty
right ventricular systolic murmur valvulotomy
hypertrophy systolic whoop variant angina

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varicose veins venogram ventricular septal defect
Vas-Cath venous hum ventricular septum
vascular insult ventricle ventricular tachycardia
vasoconstriction ventricular ventriculography
vasodilatation ventricular amplitude venules
VasoSeal ventricular aneurysm Vycryl suture
vasovagal attack ventricular arrhythmia Wenckebach
vectorcardiography ventricular diastole white-coat hypertension
vegetation ventricular fibrillation (VF) wide complex tachycardia
veins ventricular heave Wolff-Parkinson-White
velocity ventricular premature
vena cava beats


See the AHDI Book of Style, 3rd edition, chapter 14, Cardiology


EKG and ECG are both acceptable abbreviations for electrocardiogram and should be
transcribed as dictated.

Use roman numerals for standard bipolar leads as listed below.
lead I lead II lead III

Use a lowercase a followed by a capital V and then a capital R for right, a capital L for left, or a
capital F for foot for augmented limb leads as listed below.

Use a capital V followed by an arabic numeral for precordial leads as listed below.
V1 V4 V7 V2 V5 V8 V3 V6 V9

Use a capital V followed by an Arabic numeral and a capital R for right precordial leads as listed

Use a capital V followed by a capital E for the ensiform cartilage lead as listed below.

Use a capital V followed by an arabic numeral for the 3rd interspace leads as listed below.
3V1 3V2 3V3

Use a capital E followed by an Arabic numeral for the esophageal leads as listed below.
E15 E24 E50

Repeat the V for sequential leads as listed below. No hyphen or dash.

Correct: leads V1 through V5
NOT: leads V1 through 5 NOT: V1-V5 NOT: V1-5

Use a capital letter for large waves. Do not place a hyphen after the single letter unless the term
is used as a compound modifier.
P wave Q wave QS wave

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R wave T wave R prime wave
S wave U wave S prime wave

Note: The AHDI Book of Style says to use the prime symbol after the R; however, we
discourage the use of special symbols, superscripts, and subscripts, as they are difficult to read
and often interfere with transferring of the file to the facility.

Additional examples:
J junction QT interval, prolongation, etc.
J point QTc
PR interval, segment, etc. QRS axis, complex, configuration, etc.
ST segment Ta wave

When a term is used as a compound modifier, insert a hyphen between the capital letter and the
other part of the compound modifier.

T-wave abnormality Non-Q-wave myocardial infarction

ST-segment depression ST-segment and T-wave abnormality

Note: There is no such thing as an ST wave or an ST-T wave, but it is common practice for
providers to dictate the ST segment and the T wave together. Care should be taken to
transcribe these references in a way that does not imply an ST wave or ST-T wave.
Dictated: STT wave abnormality.
Transcribe: ST and T-wave abnormality or ST-T-wave abnormality
Not STT-wave abnormality or ST-T wave abnormality

When the number of degrees is dictated after QRS axis, a plus or minus sign followed by arabic
numerals and the word degrees should be transcribed.
QRS +60 degrees


S1 1st heart sound

S2 2nd heart sound
S3 3rd heart sound
S4 4th heart sound
A2 aortic valve component
M1 mitral valve component
P2 pulmonic valve component
T1 tricuspid valve component

grade 1 barely audible, must strain to hear
grade 2 quiet but clearly audible
grade 3 moderately loud
grade 4 loud
grade 5 very loud; audible with stethoscope partly off the chest
grade 6 so loud that it can be heard with stethoscope just above chest

Place a slash mark between the murmur grade and the scale used.

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2/4 means a grade 2 murmur on a scale of 4.

Express partial units as dictated.

Dictated: a grade 4 and a half over 6 murmur
Transcribed: grade 4.5 over 6 murmur or grade 4.5/6 murmur

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When a range is dictated:
Dictated: a grade 1 to 2 over 6 murmur
Transcribe: a grade 1 to 2 over 6 murmur or a grade 1/6 to 2/6 murmur
NOT a grade 1-2/6 murmur
Do not use a hyphen when there are other symbols in the range.


Blood Pressure Chart

Glossary of Cardiology Terms
Electronic Flashcards for Cardiology Terminology
Cardiovascular Operative Sample Reports For Medical Transcriptionists
Cardiac Stress Test Medical Transcription Transcribed Sample Reports
American Heart Association - Cardiac Medications-At-A-Glance
YouTube Video - Blood Circulation
YouTube Video - The Circulatory Song!
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
YouTube Video - Cardiac Catheterization
Stedman's Sample Reports

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