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Topic 1

1a. Explain what is meant by management. In your answer discuss the competing
explanations of management. In your answer, draw on foundation management
studies to justify each explanation.

Management refers to the process of getting things done, effectively and efficiently, with and
through other people.
Technical, elite and political are the competing explanation of management
Technical management was created in order to fulfil all the large scale organisational efficiency
due to industrial age. In order to forecast demand to supply products efficiently
Elite which is to define and defend the interests of managers. Rules and principles were
developed into management to be used in a variety of settings. Authority which was identified
from one of 14 principle of Henri Fayol principle of management that emphasised for managers
to give orders and take responsibilities.
Political management arose to control and discipline workers. The Hawthorne studies
emphasised on the human behaviour factor on the role of people in an organisation. Therefore
political explanation were founded as there was an aspect in which employees and human
behaviour could be managed.
In Reality of the workforce, it demonstrates that management can be all three, and the emphasis
on each theory of management varies from differences in corporate culture, CEO`s and different
policies implemented.

1b. There has been a major shift in management thinking leading to the development of
new models for management. Discuss the key features of the network of teams model
and the role that managers play in managing a network of teams.

A network of teams encourages companies to build and empower teams to work on specific
business projects and challenges.
Enables employees to be mission-oriented for a set purpose,

It is built on several fundamental principles:

Moving people mission-focused teams, led by team leaders who are experts in their domain
Empower teams to set their own goals and make their own decisions
Organize these teams around mission, product, market, or integrated customer needs rather
than business function.
Teach and encourage people to work across teams
In order for network of teams to be effective, as emphasised by Mintzberg, a manager can
undertake roles under interpersonal, information and decisional.
Interpersonal: Listen to individuals desires for that mission or project and helps align them with
the project or mission needs
Informational: Tracks and monitor individuals contribution to the project or team and how they
can improve their value to that team.
Decisional: Focuses on getting the right people into the project or mission, regardless of their
individual career journeys at the moment.
2a. Discuss how understanding of personality can help managers be more effective. In your answer
describe with examples the three ways in which behaviour is influenced by personality. Draw on the
Five-Factor personality model to illustrate your answer.

Personality refers to a unique combination of emotional, thought and behavioural patterns that
affects how a person reacts to situations and interacts with others.

Costa and Mccraes five factor personality model is a model based on common language
descriptors of personality. These include:
Conscientiousness: Describes the degree to which someone is careful and dependable
Agreeableness: Describes the degree to which someone is courteous and caring.
Neuroticism: Describes the degree to which someone is anxious, hostile and nervous.
Openness to experience: Describes the degree to which someone is sensitive and flexible.
Extraversion: Describes the degree to which someone is outgoing and talkative.

Understanding personality and using the FFM can help managers be more effective.
Essentially, there are three ways in which work related behaviour is influenced by personality.
This includes job personality fit/compatibility, approach to work and approach to managing
Job-personality fit/ compatibility: which is the type of personality a person is most suitable in a
working environment. For e.g. an individual who scores high in extroversion, is usually outgoing
and talkative, this individual may most likely fit the job personality and description of a marketing
rep or a retailer assistant than a job description of a computer analyst.
Approach to work: which is the level or degree of interest in willingness to work. For e.g. an
individual who scores high in neuroticism who may be working as a retail assistant where they
need to be talkative, may be pessimistic and negative towards their job as they are anxious and
Approach to managing people which is the objective and focus of a manager. For e.g Jeff Bezos,
CEO of Amazon fundamentally focuses on generating a profit, this affects his ability to manage
people as his priorities
Therefore understand the personality traits that suit the role when hiring is important, this can be
implemented through the hiring process to make effective decisions on which applicant fits the
job best.
2b. Discuss the three factors that affect motivation. In your answer, explain how process and content
theories of motivation do not reflect the complexity of motivation. Give examples to illustrate your

The three factors that affect motivation are Self concept, Maturity and experience and self
Self concept: Is the degree of self-concept that determine where we are, at the Locus of Control,
which then affect our motivation.
E.x.Leaders have responsibilities to establish a joint relationship with the employee to enable
growth to happen which can increase employees motivation.
Maturity and experience is an emphasis on motivational development which leads to fulfillment of
intrinsic and extrinsic factors. For e.g. salary, promotion are factors of extrinsic however
satisfaction at accomplishments, general enjoyment in our work and feeling appreciated is an
intrinsic fact.
This overall, contributes to attitude, motivation and performance.
Self efficacy: Self efficacy refers to an individuals belief that he or she is capable of performing a
Task. The higher your self-efficacy, the more confidence you have in your ability to succeed in a
task. So, for e.g. in difficult situations, we find that people with low self-efficacy are likely to
reduce their effort or give up altogether, whereas those with high self-efficacy will try harder to
master the challenge.

Content theories focus on the factors within a person that energise, direct, sustain and stop
behavior. They look at the specific needs that motivate people.vFor ex. Abraham Maslow,
Process theories provide a description and analysis of how behaviour is energised, directed,
sustained and stopped.
However these theories pertain to be universal theories and apply to everyone. They take no account of
gender, age, culture, or religion. Not only do the theories ignore the significance of individual difference
but they largely fail to recognise that individuals needs are constantly changing, and consequently what
may be a motivator one may not the next. Their static nature doesn't relate to the real world. Which is why
process and content theories do not reflect the complexity of motivation.
5a. Discuss the evolution of corporate social responsibility (CSR) between the 1950s and today. In
your answer draw on the influence of systems and stakeholders on CSR. Discuss the implications of
integrating CSR strategies for small, medium and large organisations in todays society. Use
examples to illustrate your answer.

Evolution of CSR started after the post war in 1950s where societys education level increased in
regarding the environment and effect of production on the environment.
Since then CSRs implication have helped protecting human rights and extending the discipline
into corporate organisation contributing what they can afford to give for the greater good of
Managerial implications: must consider society and the greater good of society. This is
widespread for all small, medium and large businesses.
For instance Large and medium scale organisations can donate money or resources towards
charities and foundations
Small and medium businesses can create a supply chain with local suppliers only, this
demonstrates the support for the community and helps generate circulation for the small
economy in their area.
Also, regardless of size, Large, medium and small can beware of resource conservation: which
is where managers can cut down waste and allocate resources effectively and efficiently. For e.g.
Creating or selling products that are biodegradable from using recycled materials.
corporate social responsibility affects the influence of systems and stakeholders. For e.g. altering
employee tasks and liaising with stakeholders regarding co-operative systems. managers can
implement CSR policies where resources and materials used are recycled and biodegradable.
Managers can implement CSR policies towards suppliers by only sourcing locally instead of
importing internationally for cheaper goods which is an influence in stakeholders

5b. You are a manager wanting to behave ethically in your organisation. Discuss with
examples the three key views and goals of ethical behaviour. In your answer explain the
factors that contribute to ethical and unethical behaviour.

Business ethics are moral principles that guide the way a business behaves.
Three key views and goals of ethical behaviour include Utilitarian, Rights and Justice.
The utilitarian view of ethics defines ethical behaviour solely on the basis of outcomes or
consequences. provides greatest good for the greatest number.
Rights defines ethical behaviour as behaviour that respects and protects peoples individual
liberties and privileges, including the rights to privacy, freedom of conscience, free speech. For
eg. To apply the rights view of ethics, managers would determine who is affected and then
evaluate each option to decide whether it compromises anyones individual rights and freedoms.
The justice view of ethics focuses on choosing actions that fulfil principles of procedural,
distributive and compensatory justice. Procedural justice requires that decision processes need
to be consented to by those affected and to be administered impartially. Distributive justice
requires that rewards and punishments be distributed equitably and based on performance,

6a. Leaders are made...not born! Discuss the key components of leadership and how
they align with the 5 practices of exemplary leadership. Use examples to illustrate
your answer.

The key components of a leader consist of 7 factors; vision & values, communication &
influence, teamwork, confidence & resilience, self - leadership, motivation & morale and
The practices of exemplary leadership include 5 factors which are to model, inspire,
challenge, enable and encourage.
key components and 5 practices of exemplary leadership align because Each component of a
leader falls into a category within the 5 practices of exemplary leadership as these practices
are built up from the actions of the particular components
For example the components such as motivation & morale fall into the practice of
encouragement as it will encourage ordinary people to produce extraordinary results.
Model the Way: In which leaders establish principles concerning the way people should be
treated and the way goals should be pursued. They create standards of excellence and then
set an example for others to follow.
Inspire a shared vision: Leaders passionately believe that they can make a difference. They
envision the future, creating an ideal and unique image of what the organisation can become.
This supports the key component of vision and values as employees are able to identify the
objective and target of where the organisation wishes to be
Challenge the process: Those who lead others to greatness seek and accept challenge.they are
willing to step out into the unknown .
Enable others to act: Leaders foster collaboration and build spirited teams. They actively
involve others. This is in alliance with the key components of leadership as it emphasises the
value of Teamwork where the organisation can only be achieved through the help of others
working cooperatively.
Encourage the heart: To keep hope and determination alive, leaders recognise contributions
that individuals make.

6b. Critically discuss the underlying assumptions that the Heroic and Engaging leadership theories
make. Draw on the Mintzbergs managerial styles with examples to illustrate your answer.

In Mintzberg's study, he distinguishes between various characteristics of managing, or managing styles,

under three different categories: Art, Craft and Science.

Art represents vision, which is associated with creativity, which in turn enables the emergence of insights
and creation of a vision.

Science represents analysis, which is associated with the creation of order as a result of systematic
analyses and assessments.

Craft represents experience, which is associated with making connections and learning from tangible

The Heroic Style leader is seen as the all-knowing, all-powerful person who figures everything out, sets
everything in motion, makes sure everything gets done. Theories assume that:

Managers are important people, quite apart from others who develop products and deliver services.
The higher up the organisation these managers go, the more important they become

Strategy comes from the top, everyone else implements

The Engaging Style is based on a blend of mostly craft with some art. Ex. mentors and coaches are
generall people associated with an engaging style. Assumes that
Managers are important to the extent that they help other people who develop products and services

to be important

To manage is to bring out positive energy that exists within people

Topic 7:

7a. In your lectures an overview of Strategic management was discussed. Discuss the key
characteristics of the three approaches, and a key theory or model that typifies each. In your
answer discuss in what circumstances each approach might be adopted.
Strategic management is what managers do to develop an organisations strategies.
There are three approaches to strategic management which include Strategy as process,
strategy as tools and strategy as models.
Strategy as a process is a six-step process that encompasses strategy planning, implementation
and evaluation.
Strategy as process include Macro Analysis, Industry/sector analysis, Organisation analysis,
strategic dilemma, strategic direction and implementation and control.

7b. Discuss two generic models that could be applied by managers when facing a
strategic dilemma. Explain which approach would be more useful in a particular
context. In your answer define what is meant by a strategic dilemma, and the basic
characteristics of each model. Use examples to illustrate your answer.

Topic 11:
11a. Deloitte identified 10 Global Human Capital trends for 2016. Discuss 5 of these
trends. In your answer discuss how managers will manage these trends with a
flexible workforce. Provide examples to illustrate your answer.

Organizational Design: The rise of teams

Businesses are reinventing themselves to operate as networks of teams to keep pace with the new trend.
To teach and encourage people to work across teams managers will need to implement open office spaces
that promote collaboration and job retention to give teams a common understanding of each other.
For Ex. Nestle use decentralised and use shared service centres and information centrist to help teams
maintain productivity and alignment with overall business strategy.
Managers will ned to put in place tools and measuring systems that encourage people to move between
teams and share information and collaborate with other teams.

Leadership awakened: Generations, teams, science

Building leadership programs on a foundation of evidence, data analytics.

Identifying great leaders as early as possible is an important way to deepen the leadership bench and
promote dramatic by focusing on young, diverse leaders.
One way managers can facilitate this is by rotational program to help identify and develop future leaders.
For Ex. considering todays leaders Googles Larry Page was 38 at the time of his appointment, shows the
new breed of younger CEO are more global and more digitally savvy who transform their business.
Managers will need to get their leadership strategies right through scientific assessment and to have
consistent development right through the organisation
Most high performers are very data driven, scientific, getting their strategies right and have leadership
organisation program
Management will need to ensure the delegation of important tasks and responsibilities are given to other
individuals and not just given to the superiors but the subordinates.
Engagement: Always on

Employee engagement and retention today means understanding an empowered workforces desire for
flexibility, creativity, and purpose.
Managers should have strong focus on listening to employees, workforce health and well-being wide
analysis of all dimensions of employee engagement.
For Ex. Quicken Loans look at employee engagement as core to its strategy of providing excellent
customer survice. Its CEO is reportable for identifying engagement problems, creating solutions and
working his HR leadership to maintain the highest levels of engagement in the industry.
HR in leading engagement program should shif from a transactional, once a year mindset, to an always
on continuous listening approach to monitoring engagement.
Now companies are measuring always on, listening tools, pulse surveys.
Annual engagement surveys are being replaced by employee listening tools such as pulse
surveys and regular feedback check-ins by managers.
Management will be able to increase employee morale, by listening and adapting to changes in
order to suit and increase the level of employee engagement.
This can result in many positives such as increased productivity as employee satisfaction is

Digital HR: Revolution, not evolution

The all digital world is changing how we live, work and how business is organised and conducted.
Innovative HR organisations are integrating mobile and cloud technologies to build an app-based
set of services designed to incorporate HR programs into an employees daily life.
For Ex. DuPont, embarked on a major project to replace, simplify, and combine all of its HR and
learning systems into one integrated portal.Rather than offering a traditional self-service
application, the company developed a streamlined interface that has improved productivity.
HR management information should provide managers with real-time information and leaders
with real-time analysis, decreasing the time spent on reports and increasing the time HR and
business leaders spend on analysing data and solving problems.

HR: Growing momentum toward a new mandate

Companies can upgrade technology with modern cloud systems to leverage technology as a way to
upgrade skills and move away from traditional HR transaction work.
Managers should consider tailored development programs specifically designed to help HR professionals
understand new roles and grow their capabilities.
For ex. Airbnb are creating roles such chief culture officer and chief employee experience offer to
reflects HRs new mandate.
Therefore managers must understand HRs changing mandate mission and roles.

11b. The workforce is undergoing rapid change. Discuss five trends to 2030 that have
been identified for the financial sector. In your answer discuss how managers will
manage an older, more urban generation. Provide examples to illustrate your
One trend is the birth of new markets. By 2030, many markets currently dubbed emerging or growth
markets will have reached maturity. Global banks will be able to compete in these markets, but they will
need to carefully navigate local needs and regulations.
For e.g. global banks such as ANZ can introduce new business approaches that best appeal to
the older and urban generation.

Another trends is the changing demographics of the future. The older and increasingly urban
Demographics will drive the future of banking.
Thus, managers will need to implement new business models that will be needed to serve this ageing, and
increasingly urban, demographic.
For e.g. Managers can undertake research and surveys for a sample of the generation, and from the
gathered conclusions, managers can make models specifically catering to the older generations needs and
Another trend is Customers increase in financial relationships.

For e.g. managers of a global bank will need to construct the business model of hundred banks, each with a
specific product that suits a discrete customer segment. This allows for global banks to establish a wider
approach to consumer and geographic needs such as the older generation that is prevalent.

Another trend, is the limits on social banking. New economic challenges might push many nations to adopt
protectionist trade approaches.

For e.g. a global bank find new ways of financing large infrastructure projects by partnering with other
financial institutions, as well as non-banks, to leverage new technologies and generate fees.

Lastly is the impact of the changes in energy. Political and environmental factors related to energy
production, combined with new technology, will require new financial products.

For e.g. Managers will need to undertake Herzbergs role of resource allocation in determining the best
budget in order to be cost effective. This may be prioritising most of the budget to popular financial
products in order to create the most revenue.