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# STROMING LEER II / FLUID MECHANICS II

INGM321 '16
STUD01
Saamdrukbare vloei / Compressible flow
TUT#01
Isentropiese vloei / Isentropic flow

Mr W.H. Kaiser
Senior Lecturer

2016/07/18
1/19
Vrae oorsig / Question outline

## Section A Review of thermodynamics

Vraag / Question 01 - Vraag / Question 02

## Section B Mach number, speed of sound and Mach cone

Vraag / Question 03 - Vraag / Question 08

## Section C Stagnation temperature

Vraag / Question 08 - Vraag / Question 10

2/19
Vraag / Question 01
Lug vloei deur n lang kanaal met n konstante area teen n massa vloei van 0.15 [kg/s]. n Kort
gedeelte van die kanaal word afgekoel mbv vloeibare stikstof wat die kanaal omring. Die hitte verlies
vanaf die lug in die kanaal seksie is 15.0 [kJ/s] Die absolute druk, temperatuur en snelheid van 188
[kPa], 440 [K], 210 [m/s]. By die uitlaat, die absolute druk en temperatuur is 213 [kPa], 351 [K]. Aanvaar
cp = 1.000 [kJ/kg] en cv = 0.717 [kJ/kg]
1) Bereken die a) kanaal se area, en die b) verandering in entalpie, c) interne energie en d) entropie
vir die vloei.
Q < 0

1 2
Air flows through a long duct of constant area at 0.15 [kg/s]. A short section of duct is cooled by liquid
nitrogen that surrounds the duct. The rate of heat loss in this section is 15 [kJ/s] from the air. The
absolute pressure, temperature and velocity entering the cooled velocity are 188 [kPa], 440 [K], 210
[m/s]. At the outlet, the absolute pressure and temperature are 213 [kPa], 351 [K].
Assume cp = 1.000 [kJ/kg] and cv = 0.717 [kJ/kg]
1) Determine the a) duct cross sectional area and the b) changes in enthalpy, c) internal energy and
d) entropy for this flow.
Antw / Ans: a) A = 4.79x10-4 [m2]; b) h = -89.00 [kJ/kg]; c) u = -63.81 [kJ/kg]; d) s = -0.2618 [kJ/(kg-
K)]
3/19
Vraag / Question 02
Argon vloei deur n buis met aanvanklike toestand van P1 = 1,7 [MPa] en 1 = 18 [kg/m3] met
sy finale toestand van P2 = 248 [kPa] en T2 = 400 [K]. Aanvaar vir Argon R = 208 [J/kg-K] and
K = 1,67. Bereken
1.a) die aanvanklike temperatuur; b) finale digtheid, c) verandering in entalpie en d)
verandering in entropie van die gas

Q < 0

1 2

Argon flows through a tube such that its initial conditions is P1 = 1,7 [MPa] and 1 = 18 [kg/m3]
and its final conditions is P2 = 248 [kPa] and T2 = 400 [K]. Assume for Argon R = 208 [J/kg-K]
and K = 1,67 Calculate:
1.a) Initial temperature; b) final density; c) change in enthalpy and d) change in entropy of the
gas.
Antw / Ans: a) T1 = 454 [K]; b) = 2,981 [kg/m3]; c) h = --28,03 [kJ/kg]; d) s = 0.335 [kJ/(kg-
K)]
4/19
Vraag / Question 03

## n Ho werkverrigtings vliegtuig teen n spoed van Mach 3 en

hoogte van 24000 [m] vlieg. Aanvaar VS standaard atmosfeer.
1) Wat is snelheid van die vliegtuig in m/s

Ma = 3

## A high performance aircraft is able to cruise at Mach 3 at an

altitude of 24000 [m]. Assume the US standard atmosphere.
1) How fast is the airplane in m/s
Antw / Ans: 892.79 [m/s]

5/19
(US) Standard atmosphere

## Altitude Temperature Pressure Density

[m] [C] [kPa] abs [kg/m3]
-1000 21.5 1.139 E +5 1.347 E +0
0 15.0 1.013 E +5 1.255 E +0
1000 8.50 8.998 E +4 1.112 E +0
2000 2.00 7.950 E +4 1.007 E +0
3000 -4.49 7.012 E +4 9.093 E -1
4000 -10.98 6.166 E +4 8.194 E -1
5000 -17.47 5.405 E +4 7.364 E -1
6000 -23.96 4.722 E +4 6.601 E -1
7000 -30.45 4.111 E +4 5.900 E -1
8000 -36.94 3.565 E +4 5.258 E -1
9000 -43.42 3.080 E +4 4.674 E -1
10000 -49.90 2.650 E +4 4.135 E -1
15000 -56.50 1.211 E +4 1.948 E -1
20000 -56.50 5.529 E +3 8.891 E -1
25000 -51.60 2.549 E +3 4.008 E -2
6/19
US standard atmosphere

80000

70000

60000

50000
Elevation [m]

40000

30000

20000

10000

0
-80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40
-10000
Temperature [C]

7/19
Vraag / Question 04

## n Deeltjie beweeg teen n uniforme snelheid in standaard lug by see-vlak.

Die partikel veroorsaak twee sfere soos getoon in die figuur.
1. Bereken die snelheid en Mach getal van die deeltjie

8 [m]
3 [m]

b a

Deeltjie/
Particle

## A particle moving at uniform velocity in sea-level standard air, creates two

disturbance sphere shown in the figure.
1) Determine the particle velocity and Mach number of the particle
Antw / Ans: Ma = 0.6; V= 204 [m/s]
8/19
(US) Standard atmosphere

## Altitude Temperature Pressure Density

[m] [C] [kPa] abs [kg/m3]
-1000 21.5 1.139 E +5 1.347 E +0
0 15.0 1.013 E +5 1.255 E +0
1000 8.50 8.998 E +4 1.112 E +0
2000 2.00 7.950 E +4 1.007 E +0
3000 -4.49 7.012 E +4 9.093 E -1
4000 -10.98 6.166 E +4 8.194 E -1
5000 -17.47 5.405 E +4 7.364 E -1
6000 -23.96 4.722 E +4 6.601 E -1
7000 -30.45 4.111 E +4 5.900 E -1
8000 -36.94 3.565 E +4 5.258 E -1
9000 -43.42 3.080 E +4 4.674 E -1
10000 -49.90 2.650 E +4 4.135 E -1
15000 -56.50 1.211 E +4 1.948 E -1
20000 -56.50 5.529 E +3 8.891 E -1
25000 -51.60 2.549 E +3 4.008 E -2
9/19
Vraag / Question 05

## n Deeltjie beweeg teen n uniforme snelheid in standaard lug by see-vlak.

Die partikel veroorsaak twee sfere soos getoon in die figuur.
1. Bereken die Mach getal, Mach hoek en snelheid van die deeltjie

8 [m]
3 [m]

b a
8 [m]
Deeltjie/
Particle

## A particle moving at uniform velocity in sea-level standard air, creates two

disturbance sphere shown in the figure.
1) Determine the Mach number, Mach angle, and Velocity of the particle
Antw / Ans: Ma = 3.8; = 15.3; V = 1290 [m/s];
10/19
(US) Standard atmosphere

## Altitude Temperature Pressure Density

[m] [C] [kPa] abs [kg/m3]
-1000 21.5 1.139 E +5 1.347 E +0
0 15.0 1.013 E +5 1.255 E +0
1000 8.50 8.998 E +4 1.112 E +0
2000 2.00 7.950 E +4 1.007 E +0
3000 -4.49 7.012 E +4 9.093 E -1
4000 -10.98 6.166 E +4 8.194 E -1
5000 -17.47 5.405 E +4 7.364 E -1
6000 -23.96 4.722 E +4 6.601 E -1
7000 -30.45 4.111 E +4 5.900 E -1
8000 -36.94 3.565 E +4 5.258 E -1
9000 -43.42 3.080 E +4 4.674 E -1
10000 -49.90 2.650 E +4 4.135 E -1
15000 -56.50 1.211 E +4 1.948 E -1
20000 -56.50 5.529 E +3 8.891 E -1
25000 -51.60 2.549 E +3 4.008 E -2
11/19
Vraag / Question 06
n Vuurpyl onder toetskondisies beweeg horisontaal teen Mach 2 in die atmosfeer op
n elevasie van 300 [m] bo die aarde se oppervlak. Aanvaar VS standaard atmosfeer.
1) Hoe lank neem dit vir n persoon op die grond om die versteuring te hoor van die
oomblik dat die missiel direk bo hom is.
A B
Ma = 2

h=300 m

C

t=? s; L = Vt

## A cruise missile under test is moving horizontally at Mach 2 in the atmosphere at an

elevation of 300 [m] above the earths surface. Assume the US standard atmosphere.
1) How long does it take for an observer on the ground to hear the disturbance from
the instant when it is directly overhead?
Antw / Ans: 1) ts = 0.766 [s]
12/19
(US) Standard atmosphere

## Altitude Temperature Pressure Density

[m] [C] [kPa] abs [kg/m3]
-1000 21.5 1.139 E +5 1.347 E +0
0 15.0 1.013 E +5 1.255 E +0
1000 8.50 8.998 E +4 1.112 E +0
2000 2.00 7.950 E +4 1.007 E +0
3000 -4.49 7.012 E +4 9.093 E -1
4000 -10.98 6.166 E +4 8.194 E -1
5000 -17.47 5.405 E +4 7.364 E -1
6000 -23.96 4.722 E +4 6.601 E -1
7000 -30.45 4.111 E +4 5.900 E -1
8000 -36.94 3.565 E +4 5.258 E -1
9000 -43.42 3.080 E +4 4.674 E -1
10000 -49.90 2.650 E +4 4.135 E -1
15000 -56.50 1.211 E +4 1.948 E -1
20000 -56.50 5.529 E +3 8.891 E -1
25000 -51.60 2.549 E +3 4.008 E -2
13/19
Vraag / Question 06
LDA = V tDA LDB = V tDB
D A B

LDE = c tDE Ma = 2
E
LAC = c tAC

h=300 m
LDC = c tDC
( tDC =
t DB )

## LDC c t DC 1 LDE c t DE 1 LEC LEC c t EC

=
sin = = = = =
cos= = =
LDB V t DB Ma LDA V t DA Ma LAC h c t AC
LAC h ct AC

tan= = = t DC = t DE + t EC ; t DB = t DA + t AB
LAB LAB V t AB

t AB =
t EC =
0,766[ s ]; t DA =
t DE =
0, 255[ s ]; t DC =
t DB =
1,022[ s ]; t AC =
0,885[ s ]; t DA =
0, 255[ s ]

14/19
Vraag / Question 07

## Jy staan by seevlak en sien n hospoed vliegtuig wat op hoogte van 3000

[m] vlieg. Jy hoor die vliegtuig 8 [s] nadat dit direk bo jou oorbeweeg het.
Aanvaar VSA standaard atmosfeer.
1) benader die Mach getal sowel as die spoed van die vliegtuig.
A B

h=3000 [m]

C

t=8 s; L = Vt
At the seashore, you observe a high-speed aircraft moving overhead at
elevation of 3000 [m]. You hear the plane 8 [s] after it passes directly
overhead. Assume the US standard atmosphere properties.
1) estimate the Mach number and speed of the aircraft
Antw / Ans: 1) Ma=2.074; V = 681.6 [m/s]
15/19
US standard atmosphere

## Altitude Temperature Pressure Density

[m] [C] [kPa] abs [kg/m3]
-1000 21.5 1.139 E +5 1.347 E +0
0 15.0 1.013 E +5 1.255 E +0
1000 8.50 8.998 E +4 1.112 E +0
2000 2.00 7.950 E +4 1.007 E +0
3000 -4.49 7.012 E +4 9.093 E -1
4000 -10.98 6.166 E +4 8.194 E -1
5000 -17.47 5.405 E +4 7.364 E -1
6000 -23.96 4.722 E +4 6.601 E -1
7000 -30.45 4.111 E +4 5.900 E -1
8000 -36.94 3.565 E +4 5.258 E -1
9000 -43.42 3.080 E +4 4.674 E -1
10000 -49.90 2.650 E +4 4.135 E -1
15000 -56.50 1.211 E +4 1.948 E -1
20000 -56.50 5.529 E +3 8.891 E -1
25000 -51.60 2.549 E +3 4.008 E -2
16/19
Vraag / Question 07
LDA = V tDA LDB = V tDB
D A B

LDE = c tDE E
LAC = c tAC

h=3000 m
LDC = c tDC
( tDC =
t DB )

## LDC c t DC 1 LDE c t DE 1 LEC LEC c t EC

=
sin = = = = =
cos= = =
LDB V t DB Ma LDA V t DA Ma LAC h c t AC
LAC h ct AC

tan= = = t DC = t DE + t EC ; t DB = t DA + t AB
LAB LAB V t AB

t AB =
t EC =
8[ s ]; t DA =
t DE =
2, 42[ s ]; t DC =
t DB =
10, 42[ s ]; t AC =
9,13[ s ];

17/19
Vraag / Question 08

n Missiel beweeg teen Mach 3 teen n hoogte van 10280 [m] in standaard
atmosfeer met n temperatuur en druk van -52 [C], 25 [kPa] (abs).
1) Wat is die temperatuur waaraan die neus van die missiel blootgestel is as
ons aanvaar dat daar geen skokke voor die neus bestaan nie?

Ma=3
pamb = 25 [kPa] (abs)
tamb = -52 [C]

## A missile is moving at Mach number 3 at an altitude of 10280 [m] in standard

atmosphere with at temperature and pressure of -52 [C] and 25 [kPa] (abs).
1) What temperature is the nose of the rocket exposed to if one assumes no
detached shocks?
Antw / Ans: T0 = 619 [K]

18/19
US standard atmosphere

## Altitude Temperature Pressure Density

[m] [C] [kPa] abs [kg/m3]
-1000 21.5 1.139 E +5 1.347 E +0
0 15.0 1.013 E +5 1.255 E +0
1000 8.50 8.998 E +4 1.112 E +0
2000 2.00 7.950 E +4 1.007 E +0
3000 -4.49 7.012 E +4 9.093 E -1
4000 -10.98 6.166 E +4 8.194 E -1
5000 -17.47 5.405 E +4 7.364 E -1
6000 -23.96 4.722 E +4 6.601 E -1
7000 -30.45 4.111 E +4 5.900 E -1
8000 -36.94 3.565 E +4 5.258 E -1
9000 -43.42 3.080 E +4 4.674 E -1
10000 -49.90 2.650 E +4 4.135 E -1
15000 -56.50 1.211 E +4 1.948 E -1
20000 -56.50 5.529 E +3 8.891 E -1
25000 -51.60 2.549 E +3 4.008 E -2
19/19
Vraag / Question 09

## n Supersoniese vliegtuig vlieg Mach 1.5 deur lug met n

temperatuur van -30 [C].
1) Watter temperatuur verwag jy sal die vliegtuig se buite
paneel wees?
Ma = 1.5

## A supersonic aircraft is flying at Mach 1.5 through air at

temperature of -30 [C].
1) What temperature could be expected at the aircraft exposed
surface?

## Antw / Ans: T0 = 352.5 [K]; t0 = 79.4 [C]

20/19
Vraag / Question 10
n Vliegtuig vlieg teen n snelheid van 250 [m/s] teen n hoogte van 5000 [m], met n atmosferiese
druk van 54.05 [kPa] omgewings temperatuur van 255.7 [K]. Die omgewings lug word gerem in
n diffusor voordat dit die kompressor ingaan. Aanvaar dat beide die diffusor en kompressor
isentropies is. Bepaal
1) die stagnasie druk by die kompressor se inlaat
2) die werk benodig per eenheidsmassa indien die stagnasie druk n verhouding van die
kompressor 8 is.
Diffuser
T1 = 255.7 [K]
P1 = 54.05 [kPa] Compressor
V1=250 [m/s]
Aircraft engine
1 2 3
An aircraft is flying at a cruise speed of 250 [m/s] at an altitude of 5000 [m], with an atmospheric
pressure is 54.05 [kPa] and the ambient air temperature of 255.7 [K]. The ambient air is first
decelerated in a diffuser before it enters the compressor. Assuming both the diffuser and the
compressor to be isentropic, determine
1) stagnation pressure at the compressor inlet and
2) the required work per unit mass if the stagnation pressure ratio of the compressor is 8.
Antw / Ans: a) P02=80.77 [kPa]; b) Win=233.9 [kJ/kg]

21/19
NB Vraag / Question 01 - 10