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Index
Table of contents Page

Introduction 4
1- Transformer types
1.1 Definition
1.2 Types of transformer
2- Theoretical Basics

2.1 Definition
2.2 Theory of operation
2.3 Transformer Testing
2.4 Voltage Regulation
2.5 Transformer Efficiency
2.6 Group Numbers
2.7 Parallel Operation

3- local manufacture

3.1 Specifications
3.2 Formation of distribution transformers

4- Transformer specifications

4.1 General data for transformers


4.2 selection

5- Installation

5.1 Indoor installation


5.2 outdoor installation
5.3 Dimensions of tr. Station
5.4 Width of inspection passageway
5.5 Floor of transformer station
5.6 rails
5.7 Collecting pits
5.8 ventilation
5.9 Dimension of outlet opening
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Index
6- Transformer tests

6.1 Instruction before tests

6.2 Transformer tests

7- operation

7.1 Arrangement of transformers

7.2 Some requirements for operation

7.3 Peculiarities of H.V ring system

7.4 Parallel operation

6.5 Protection requirements for parallel

operation
7.6 Protection by fuses

7.7 Over load protection

7.8 Short circuit strength

8 Maintenance

8.1 Dry type transformer

8.2 Renovation of the operating room

8.3 Oil immersed Transformer

8.4 Break down voltage

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Introduction

:


.

E1/E2=N1/N2
.

: :
: .
:
.
: .

: :
-1 .
-2
.
-3 .
: :

.

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1.1 Definition:
- Transformers: transform electrical energy at certain voltage to electrical energy at
the required lower or higher voltage.
1.2 Types of transformers
Distribution transformers:- Instrument transformers
- Oil immersed transformers - Current transformers
- Askarel immersed transformers - Voltage transformers
(Disposed)
- Dry type transformers

1.2.1 Oil immersed transformers:


Oil immersed transformers have their cores & windings immersed in mineral oil.
1.2.2 Askarel immersed transformers
Askarel Oil immersed transformers have their cores and winding immersed in the
synthetic cooling & insulating fluid Askeral normally.
These transformers referred to under the trade name of the fluid, e.g. colophon
immersed transformers or Pyroclor / Aroclor immersed transformers
Askeral is a colourless, flame resistant & explosion proof fluid, it is made of
chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. This density is approx. 1.56 Gm/cm3 at

15.5 C ambient temperature.
The electrical properties are a good as these of mineral oil (transformer oil) but
Askarel immersed transformers can be installed without special measures of
fire protection.
For chemical reasons, mineral transformer oil & Askaral must not be mixed.
An oil immersed transformer cannot therefore be refilled with Askaral or an
Askaral immersed transformer be refilled with oil.

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1.2.3 Dry type transformers:
Dry type transformers have no insulating & cooling fluid they are designed
according to the type of insulation of the windings into varnish insulated &
silicon insulated dry type transformers.
Self Cooling:
Distribution transformers are mainly manufactured with self cooling, with this
kind of cooling the heat generated is dissipated by the natural air flow and by
radiation.
With forced air cooling the cooling air is circulated by fans. Subsequent addition
of fans to the transformer is only possible after consulting the manufacturer.
The limits of temperature rise permitted for various insulating materials are
specified in (VDE-0532) and these are based on the following limits of cooling
air temperature:

- Maximum temperature of air 40h C.

- Daily mean temperature of the air 30h C.

- Yearly mean temperature of the air 20h C.

The temperature of the ambient air is measured at a distance of 1-2 m from the
transformer.

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1.2.4 Instrument transformers:
- Current transformers.
- Voltage transformers.
1.2.4.1 Current transformers:
Current transformer is a transformer with small rate power (burden), whose
primary windings are in series with the line circuit, and secondary windings are
connected to measuring instruments (whatever they are included on switchboards
or any other measuring system), electricity meters relays or control devices,
current transformers isolate the measuring of protection circuits from the primary
voltage and also protect the apparatus corresponding to the over current response
of the current.
1.2.4.2 Voltage transformers:
Voltage transformers are also of small power rate and operate at almost no load.
They isolate the primary high voltage from the connected measuring or protected
circuits which are included in high voltage or medium voltage systems.

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Definition :
Transformers can be defined as a static electric machine which converts electric energy from one
potential to another at the same frequency.
- It can also be defined as consists of two electric circuits linked by a common variable flux.

Primary

Theory of operation:
The primary coil of the transformer is connected to a supply of sine wave voltage . An alternating
sine wave current will flow in the primary. thus the primary m.m.f (N.I) will produce a common

flux (g) which is also alternating and in phase with the current according to Faradays law the

common flux intersecting two coils will induce in them an alternating e.m.f (e1 , e2).

N1d
e1 - 1
dt

e1 is an e.m.f of self induction


e2 is an e.m.f of Mutual induction

d
e2 - N2 2
dt

From 1,2 the transformation ratio

e1 N1
K
e2 N 2

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Applying Kirchoffs law on the primary circuit
V = - e1
V+ e1 = 0

e.m.f V.D

From the secondary circuit e2 = v2


e N V
K 1 1 1
e 2 N 2 V2
Equivalent circuit :

Io = 10 : 15 % of rated current .

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E I r JI X
V1 1 11 1 1

V2 E 2 I2 r2 JI2 X2

Transformer testing:

- Determination of parameters :

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No load test:

Connect the primary to a source of alternating current at nominal voltage the secondary is open
circuit read the magnitude of (Io , V1 , Po) at no load.
The impedance of the circuit at no load:
V1
Z1 Z0
Io
Z1 can be neglected
Z1 Z o
V1
Z0
Io
p o I o ro
2

po
ro
I o 2
Zo r 2 o X o
2

Xo Zo ro
2 2

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Another method:

Po = V1 Io cos go

V1
Zo
I0
Po Po
cos o o cos -1
V1I o V1I o
Ro Zo cos o

x o Zo sin o
For parallel circuit rm & JXm:
Measure Po , Io , V1

Io a Io cos o , Io r Io sin o
Po
Where ; o cos -1
1
V

V1 V1
rm , Xm
Ioa Ior
N2 E1 V1
K
N1 E2 V2

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- Short circuit test:

Connect the primary to a reduced voltage (from 15 20 % of V1) until the primary current becomes
near to the value of the full load current of the primary short circuit the secondary winding.
Measure; (V1) s.c (I1) s.c (P1) s.c

Figure (c)

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In the circuit Z2 , Zo are connected in parallel Zo is of the order of (10)2 relative to Z2
So the effect of Zo can be simplified to the shown figure (c).

V1s.c
Z eq
I1s.c
Where;
Zeq = Req + Jxeq

Req = r1 + r2
xeq = x1 + x2
P1 s.c ( V1 )s.c ( I1 )s.c ( cos ) s.c

P1
s.c cos -1
V1I1s.c

xeq Zeq sin

Req Z eq cos

r1 r2

Xeq
X1 X2
2

r2 x 2
r2 , x2
K2 k2

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D.C Test:

Connect the primary coil with a direct current supply. Measure the applied voltage and the current.
E
r1 ohms
I

The effect of X1, X0 will not appear when using direct current (I).

Ldi
X dt

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I is the const. relative to time] also the effect of ro will not appear because it represent the eddy and
hysteresis losses which are not existing in the case of direct current they appear only when there is
variable flux in the core.
Similarly we can determine the resistance of the secondary (r2) by connecting the battery to the
terminals of the secondary coil.
Voltage Regulation:

The voltage regulation is defined as the change in the secondary voltage of a loaded transformer when
the load is removed, While the primary voltage is constant at its nominal value.
E = (V2) n.l V2 load
In order to enable the comparison between transformers of different working voltages, the voltage
regulation is usually expected as percent or a per unit value related to the secondary voltage at load.
Usually the voltage regulations are determined for full load conditions.

V n.L - V2 L






V.R 2
V2 L 100

%

V n.L - V2 L





V.R 2
V2 L per unit

Calculation the effect of I0 is neglected and we get the following simplified equivalent circuit and the
corresponding to it vector diagram (Kapp vector diagram).

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Io neglected :
I1= I 2
Zq = Req + JXeq = (r1 + r2) + J(X1 + X2)
To calculate the voltage regulation the following values must be determined.

V1,I1 cos g1 and Zeq .


1V
V 2 IReq JI1 Xeq
2 V
V 1 I1Req JI1 Xeq

V'2 V cos I Req V sin - I Xeq


1 1 1
2
1 1 1 (1)

Note:
(V2)n.l = V1

n.l (V )l
( V )(V )l
2 2

)n.l (KV )l
(K V (KV 2
)l
2

( V )(nV.l )l(V )l V VV
2 2 1 2

2 2

Where V2 is calculated by eq. (1)

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Sometimes the quantities known are V2, I2 Cos g2, Zeq
In this case, to find the voltage regulation V1 we can be calculated from the geometry as
Note:
Parameters r2, X2, I2, E2 as follows:

1
V V cos I R V sin - I Xeq
2 2 2 eq
2
2 2 2

Where;
I2
I2
K
r2 = k2 r2 , x2 = k2 x2
E2 = kE2

N1 E1 V1 I 2
k
N 2 E1 V2 I1

Pcu I2 pcu I r
2
1 1 r2 I12Req I22Req( S.C Losses)

Poutput Pin - losses



Pinput Pin
Transformer efficiency ():

This means that if the cu losses are known at a certain load (current), then the copper losses can
be determined at another load.

Pcu a I a 2

Pcu b I b 2

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I1: nominal value (full load value) usually the copper losses are determined from a short circuit
test at a current equal to the full load or nominal value, accordingly the equation can be written
as:

Pcu I 2

Pcu f .l I f .l2

2
pcu required pcu f .l I
If.l

I
let X
If.l
Pcu required X 2 ( Pcu ) f.l

Pout

Pout const. loss cu loss


KVA out cos
KVA out cos Po Pcu

X ( KVA ) f.l cos

X ( KVA ) f.l cos po X2 ( pcu )f.l

pin - losses

pin

X ( KVA ) f.l cos po X 2 ( pcu )f.l



X ( KVA ) f.l cos

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Average efficiency for the transformer during 1 day;

Total output energy through 24 hours



Total input energy through 24 hours

The input energy of the transformer through the day is equal to the Total out put + Total losses
per/day.
Losses are const. or magnetic (Po) and are constant through the day.

The (electrical or cu) losses are variable according to the load (QI2).
E.X:
100 KVA lighting transformer has a full load loss of 3 KVA, the losses being equally
divided between iron and copper. During a day the transformer operates, on full load for 3
hours, one half for 4 hours, the output being negligible for the reminder of the day calculates
the all day efficiency.
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Solution:
It should be noted that lighting transformers are taken to have a load p.f of unity
Iron losses for 24 hours = 1.5 x 24 = 36 KWH (const. losses)
FL.cu losses = 1.5 KW
Cu loss for 3 hours on F.L = 1.5 x 3 = 4.5 KWH
Cu loss for half F.L = 1.5 /4 KWH
Cu loss for 4 hours at half the load = (1.5 / 4) x 4 = 1.5 KWH
Total losses = 36 + 4.5 + 1.5 = 42 KWH
Total output = (100 x3) + (50 x 4) = 500 KWH
all day = 500 x 100 / 542 = 92.26 %
Group numbers:
The group number indicates the phase difference between primary and secondary (H.T and
L.T) line voltages in electrical degrees.

It is sometimes determined as a clock reading each hour is equivalent to 30 phase difference.

Y-Y connection:

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(Y Inverted Star)

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(Y)

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Parallel operation:

In power station transformers are usually working in parallel in order to enable the
connections or disconnection of any number of them according to their required load:
The following conditions must be fulfilled for correct parallel operation:
1. The transformations ratios must be the same.
2. The group number must be the same.
3. The phase connection must be in same sequence.
4. Short circuit impedance (Zeq) must be the same.

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Transformers are produced locally as, three phase immersed in oil, natural cooling,
in door & outdoor, with power rate from 50 up to 10.000 KVA & voltages up to
22 KVA under license of Siemens, ABB & France Transfo.

2.1 General characteristics :


The transformers described have the following general characteristics:
- Three phase.
- Connection D/Y11
- Frequency 50 Hz.
- Natural cooling in oil or silicon.
- Continuous service.
- Indoor or outdoor installation.
Rated power :
Normal rated power in KVA as follows: (25- 50- 100 160 250 400 500- 630
800 1000 1250 1600 2000 2500 KVA -.).

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2.2 Formation of distribution
transformers:
2.2.1 Iron core: :*
Made of cold rolled silicon steel sheets
0.3mm to minimize losses. 3.3
.

2.2.2 Windings: :
High tension turns are made of copper
wires of either circular cross sections
varnish isolated or rectangular cross
sections isolated by sililose paper. Low

tension turns are made of either

noninsulated copper foils with insulating
.
paper in between or of rectangular wires
insulated by cylindrical paper sheets.

2.2.3-Tank : :
The transformer tank is made of corrugated
steel.
The corrugated tank surface is itself the
cooling surface. The tank is provided with
an additional steel reservoir for oil

expansion, on which a piping device is
.
installed to transmit oil cock, a hole for
silica gel apparatus, and an oil level
indicator.

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2.2.4- Terminals : :
H.V. and L.V. terminals are brought out
through porcelain bushings according to the
rated voltage. The insulators are fixed to the
tank cover in such a way to ensure

replacement without dismantling the

transformer cover. Cable end boxes on either

H.T. or L.T. side or both can be made if
.
required.

2.2.5 Tap changers: :


Or distribution transformers, tap changers
are externally for allowing voltage %5 +
regulation with 5 % of the rated value in 5 % 2.5 +
equal steps of 2.5 % each, the tap changer
is manually operated while current is off. .

2.2.6- Oil: :
Transformers are filled with special oil
(Diala (B, C) or equal) of high insulating ) (
grade according to IEC specifications. IEC.

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2.2.7 Main accessories of distribution :
transformers:

-Oil expansion reservoir


-

-Thermometer pocket -

-Oil drain cock -

-Oil level indicator -

-Lifting chuckles -
-Four two directional adjustable wheels -
-Earth screw -
- Name plate -

-Dehydrating breather -

-Buchholz relay, to protect the -


transformer in case of sudden failure in
the internal windings. (

.)

-
-Ordinary mercury thermometer

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( )1

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3.1 The general data of transformers are:

Power of transformer in KVA ..


Input voltage, output voltage in , ,
volts and cycle in Hertz. .
Connection group (e.g. DY II) .
The place in which the transformer
will be installed and whether indoor
or outdoor, to define the degree of .(IP)
protection.
Percentage regulation of tap .
changer.
Determine whether the transformer
will work in parallel or individual
In case of parallel work with old
transformers, the voltages and
impedance of them must be
.
mentioned.

3.2 Selection:

3.2.1 Rated values :

The rated values of the transformer such as power, voltage, transformation ratio
and impedance ratio are selected according to the requirements of the system.

3.2.2 Rated power :
The rated power is found first by determining the peak effective power demand
designed or measured, usually a margin is added to provide for the regular increase
in power demand.
-
.

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When calculating the rated power (PN) we must take in consideration the
anticipated power factor (COS )
.
3.2.3 The impedance voltage (UK):
The impedance voltage UK is the voltage necessary at the input terminals at rated
frequency to cause the rated current to flow in the primary when the terminals on
the secondary are short circuited

3.2.4 The rated impedance voltage(UkN):


The rated impedance voltage (UKN) is the value of the impedance voltage on the
principal tap when related to the rated voltage (UN) it is called UKN and given in
percent.
Uk
UkN = U X 100%
N

Where ;
UKN = rated impedance voltage %.
UK = rated impedance voltage in Volts.
U.N = rated voltage in Volts.

3.2.5 Selection of rated impedance voltage:

In distribution system a rated impedance voltage UKN= 4 % is preferred in order to


keep the voltage drop small.
For larger industrial systems with greater power demand transformers with a rated
impedance voltage of 6 % are used in order to limit the short circuit stresses on
the switch gear of the plant.

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3.2.6 Transformers loss PK:

For transformers losses include no-load losses (Po) and load losses (Pk) the no
load losses resulting from the continuous magnetic flux reversal in the iron are
practically constant voltage impedance of load.
The load losses (copper losses) constant of resistive losses in the windings and
losses due to stray fields, the load losses vary with the square of the load. The
total losses of a transformer are:
PV PO a2 Pk

PV = total losses in watts.


Po = no-load losses in watts.
part load (Pa) in KVA )
Load factor (a) = (
rated power (PN ) in KVA
PK = load losses in Watts.

3.2.7 Transformer Efficiency ( ) :


The efficiency of a distribution transformer can be calculated with reasonable
accuracy from the following;

Po a 2 Pk
1. 100 % - 100 %
a PN cos (KW) Po

Where;
= efficiency in %
PN = rated power in KVA
Po = no-load losses in KW
Pk = load losses in KW
Cos = power factor
a = load factor

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* Example:
Calculate efficiency () of a transformer at full load given the following information:

PN = 500 KVA, Po = 1.1 W, Pk = 5.5 KW


Cos = 0.8, a = 1.0
Po a 2 PK
100 % - 100 %
a PN cos Po

1.1 KW (1) 2 5.5 KW


100 % - 100 %
1 500 KVA 0.8 1.1 KW

= 98.36 %

3.2.8 Maximum efficiency:

The load factor (a) for the maximum efficiency of a transformer is defined as follows;
P
a o
P
k
For the transformer in the above example this becomes;

1.1 (kw)
a 0.447
5.5(kw)

Therefore maximum efficiency occurs with a load of;


Pa = PN.a
Pa = 500 KVA 0.447 = 224 KVA
And for this load the efficiency is;

1.1 KW 0.447 5.5 KW


2
100 % - 100 %
0.447 500 KVA 0.8 1.1 KW

= 98.36 %
= 98.78 %

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3.2.9 Insulation class:
The insulation rating of a transformer is designed by numerals indicating the
insulation voltage class in KV & a letter N indicating that the transformer is
designed for use on a system where a neutral is not solidly earthed.
The insulation class corresponds to the values given in table no (1)*

Fluid filled transformers (oil or Askarel) Dry type transformers and oil - filled
transformers without impulse voltage rating
Insulation class Maximum Insulation class Maximum
continuous continuous
operating voltage operating voltage
Ub Ub
KV KV
0.6 0.78 0-6 0.78
1N 1.15 1 1-15
3N 3.6 3 3-6
--- --- 6 7-2
10N 12 10 12
--- --- 15 17-5
20N 24 20 24
30N 36

Table no (1)

3.2.10 Maximum continuous operating voltage (Ub) :


Transformers must be selected with an insulation class such that the voltage on which
they are continuously used does not exceed the allocated operating voltage (Ub).
Rated voltages (UN):
The rated voltage (UN) is the voltage percentage, at rated load, at the input
windings and for which the transformer is designed.
The rated voltage (UN) on the output side is the voltage which appears at no load
voltage (Uo) with rated voltage and rated frequency on the input side.

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3.2.11 Adjustment of transformer ratio steps :
To compensate for voltage fluctuations due to load variations in systems, the high
voltage windings of distribution transformers have tapping brought out to terminals
(as normally used on dry-type transformers) or to a tap changer (as normally used
on oil or Askeral immersed transformers) the tapping corresponding to the
nominal voltage is normally situated in the middle of the tapping range and is
referred to as the principal tap.
Rated tapping range:

The rated tap voltage range of a winding is the range between the highest tap
voltage and nominal or similarly the lowest tap voltage and nominal under no load
condition with an excitation corresponding to the rated voltage on the principal tap.
Tap voltage range:
Tap voltage ranges are laid down in DIN standard and expressed as a percentage
rated voltage (e.g 4%) V.D.E 0532 specifies that rated voltages and the
adjustable voltages are shown in Volts in the rating plate. For a transformer with
rated voltage on the input side of 20.000 volt and a rated tap voltage range of
5%, the rating plate would show the values 21.000 V, 20.000 V and 19.000 Volts.
3.2.12 Vector group number:

The vector group symbol indicates the respective connections of the high voltage
and low voltage transformer windings their relative phase displacement expressed
as a clock hour figure.
The identification letters of the method of connection are given for the high
voltage winding (OS) in capital letters and for low voltage side (us) in small
letters see table no, (2).

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(HVS)

Table no (2)

Clock hour number:

The clock hour number indicate the multiple of 30 with which the vector of the
low voltage side is lagging when moving anti-clock wise in comparison to the
high voltage side of the corresponding terminal this angle between the voltage
vectors can have values between 0 & 360.
The terminals 2U, 2V& 2W on the low voltage side are related to the terminals
1U,1V,1W on the high voltage side, the mark up U, V, W corresponding to DIN
standard.
Obtaining the clock hour number:

The clock hour number can be obtained by first drawing the vector diagrams of the
connections of the windings up one on top of the other and both on top of a clock
face in such a way that the marking 1V of the high voltage side coincides with
number 12 corresponding to 0.

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The position 2V of the connection diagram of the low voltage side on the clock
face gives the clock hour number of the vector group.
Example: (fig 2).

Fig no (2)
Vector group (DY5)

* C Y/5according to DIN

High voltage side: C connection


Low voltage side: y connection
Clock hour number 5 multiplied by 30 gives 150 phase displacement between
vector (1v) of the high voltage winding & the vector (2v) of the low voltage winding.
Preferred vector group:

For distribution transformers, star or delta connections for the high voltage
windings and star or zigzag connections for the low voltage winding are preferred
table (3)* shows some group numbers.

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Table no (3)

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4.1 Indoor installation:
Indoor pattern fluid cooled transformers must be installed in covered rooms which
provide protection against rain, snow, dust & sand etc., and good ventilation.
Dry type transformers: must be installed in closed rooms which dry & practically
dust free the rooms should be easily accessible, to allow for transport, operation
maintenance & fire fighting.
4.2 Outdoor installation:
Fluid cooled transformers are suitable for outdoor installation when provided with
suitable bushings & paint finish suitable for outdoor conditions.
Measuring the temperature of insulating and cooling fluid, the temperature of the
cooling and insulating fluid are measured near the top for this purpose, the cover of
the transformer contains thermometer pockets into which thermometers can be
inserted, these pockets are filled with the same type of cooling and insulating fluids
used within the transformer.
4.3 Building dimensions of transformer station:
The dimensions of the transformers are an important factor to house the
transformer, allowance should always be made for increasing the power demand in
the future.
The following table gives an example of dimensions of transformers for a given
power [table (4) & fig no. (3)].

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Fig no. (3)

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Table no (4)
Shows some ratings of Transformers
And their dimensions and weights
) (

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The height of the building to house a transformer & also provide the required access is
dependent upon the height of the transformer , the type of ventilation , the location
cables & connections & the clearance necessary between live parts & earthed metal .
for this type of transformer station the minimum height transformer should be the
overall height of the transformer plus 500mm ..
4.4 Width of inspection passage way:
The length & width of a transformer station with service access should be dimensioned
such that for transformers with rated power of up to 630 KVA the inspection passage
way is at least 70 cm wide, for transformers of 800-1600KVA. The passage- ways
should be at least 75 cm wide.
4.5 Floor of transformer station for fluid cooled transformers:
The floor of the transformer station can be made from either a reinforced concrete slab
with an opening in the centre or from girders of reinforced concrete slab construction
is used . the cement grouting should have an inclination of 1-2 in the direction of the
collecting pit as shown in
Cable Protection
fig.(4). Grating metal
galvanized

Ventilation outlet
with screen

Pipe for petrol

Platform
Ventilation inlet
with screen

Layer of gravel
chippings

Fig no. (4)


Example for the indoor
installation of a transformer

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4.6 Rails for transportation rollers:
The international specifications states the recommendations for steel I section
girders for supporting transformers the transportation rollers rest on these girders
which also incorporate a guide strip 2 cm high fig. (5)

Fig no (5)
Typical arrangement of girder and guide strip for
transportation rollers

4.7 For oil immersed transformers:


Collecting tank and pits cooling and insulating fluid :
For transformers with a rated power of 630 KVA a collecting tank below the transformer
can be used providing it has capacity sufficient to hold the total fluid of the transformer
floor can also be used as collecting tank when the door step & ventilation openings are
correspondingly high.

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Collecting pit:
For transformers with rated power of 800 1600 KVA, the collecting pit provided
must have a capacity of approximate 2 m (oil content of transformers).
With a number of transformers each with rated capacity of between 800 1600
KVA, A common collecting pit can be used providing this has a capacity at least
2m. This pit can be situated outside the transformers, it is permitted to construct a
number of small inter connected pits providing the total capacity of these pits
exceed 2 m. A sum pit should be provided in the bottom of each pit to facilitate the
pumping out of small amounts of water or oil.
Gravel, granite chipping layer:
Collecting pits & the oil carrying ducts for a common collecting pit must be
screened above by a layer of gravel or granite chipping at least 20 cm, thick laid on
a galvanized iron grating to minimize the spread of fire fig no (5).

Outdoor collecting pit :

A collecting pit must also be provided if transformers are installed outdoor in order
to prevent seepage of cooling &insulating fluid into the ground. The outdoor
collecting pit must have a capacity of at least 1.2 times the fluid content of the
transformer to allow for part filling of rain water or melted or melted snow , the pit
must be pumped out regularly, otherwise it would became filled with rainwater.

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4.8 Ventilation of transformer rooms :

When designing the room to house a self cooled transformer it must be borne in
mind that the transformer heat losses must be dissipated inlet- & outlet air openings
have to provided the air inlet should be either from underneath the transformer or as
close as possible to the floor level but never higher than the midpoint of the
transformer. The outlet opening should be as high as possible. Inlet and outlet
openings should be arranged on opposite walls. The efficiency of the ventilation
increases with the difference in height between the middle of the transformer tank &
the outlet openings, fig (6)*.

Fig no (6)
Arrangement of inlet and outlet air openings

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4.9 Dimensioning of outlet air opening:
From curves given fig.(10) the dimensions of the required out let air opening can be
approximated the value obtained is for a free air opening without screen & also
allowing for an air temperature rise of 15 C within the room the values have been
increased by for simple screens approx. 10% , for screens & shutters approx. 50 %.
Dimensions of inlet- air opening:
The dimensions of the inlet air opening can be 10 % smaller than the dimensions of
the outlet- air opening, (plus the increase required for screen & shutters). To find the
dimensions of inlet & outlet air openings:
Given :

Height from station floor to center of outlet air opening 3100 mm , transformer rated
power 400 KVA height from station floor to mid point of transformer tank 600 mm
resulting difference in height h = 3100 600 = 2500 mm .
- Outlet air opening obtained from curves 0.9 m
- Increase for simple screen + 10 % + 0.09 m
- Dimension of outlet air opening 0.99 m
- Dimension of inlet air opening (10 %) 0.9 m

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5.1 Important instructions for
commissioning :
:
1. Cleaning the porcelain bushings bus -1
bars for both H.T & L.T sides & tank
surface .
2. Well fastening of porcelain bushing to -2
transformer cover and to be sure that oil
seals are in good condition .
3. Oil level for safe operation 3



.

4 - In case that the transformer is not used -4


for long time the dielectric strength of
oil is to be checked & after a year of . 2.5/. 23
operation it must be not less than 20
KV/2.5 mm
5- To ensure safety of operation apparatus , 5
like bucholz relay, thermometer , silica .
gel and earthing screw

6 - To be sure that the silica gel is blue 6


(i.e.) able to remove humidity, if it
became red it must be dried 140 till it
is blue again or must be changed. 143

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7 - Terminals of warning and switching 7
off in the Buchholz relay must be
connected to the warning circuit and to
the protection circuits of the customer
Here is a guide connection diagram
(fig.No.13) In case of small faults the
gasses gathered around the upper fault
which closed , the warning circuit and .
the warning voice is heard, in case of
big faults a big amount of gasses move 24
the lower float which shuts the tripping . 223
circuit and the current is switched off ) 13(
the transformer warning and
switching circuits work on the
customer protection current on
voltages between 24 & 220 Volts
A.C or D.C .
8 - To be sure that the tape changer is in 8
the required position. .

9 - In case of indoor installation of 9


Transformer, the dimensions of the
Transformer room must be suitable to
the Transformer, size and aeration, air
ducts must be made in opposite
directions .Covering the air ducts with
a metallic net is recommended.

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( )7

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5.2Transformer tests:
Routine tests are carried out
according to IEC standards: : IEC
- Turns ratio test . -

- Insulation test between windings and -


between winding and earth. .
- Induced high voltage test. . -

- No load losses test. -


- Short circuit test. -

- Windings resistance measurements. -

5.2.1 Upon request following tests


can be made:
- Loading and heat tests. -
- Resistance of insulation to impulse test. -
- Noise level. -

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6.1 Arrangement of distribution transformers
The distribution transformers can be arranged centrally in one station or in a
number of sub stations distributed over the whole load area.
As a rule they should be placed at the centers of load thus the length of cables
cross section of conductors and losses are kept within economic limits.
The centrally arranged system used for distribution systems where only small
extension of the area is likely and load intensity is high.
The load equalization occurs mainly on the low tension side on the bus bars see
fig (8)* in calculating the rated power of distribution transformer.

Fig no (8)
Centrally Arranged distribution
Transformers in a sub-station

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6.2 Some requirements for operation:
The peak load of the whole distribution system taking into account a reserve in the
event of one transformer being out of order the transformers should if possible be equal
in size to facilitate operation in parallel and interchangeability.

The decentralized arrangement of distribution transformers is of ten favored for wide


supply area and for widely distributed centers of load neighborly substation can then be
connected by ring main on the low voltage side in this way load equalization between
the sub station Can be achieved and the supply can be maintained when one of the
transformers on the high voltage side of substation is out of order.

If necessary several transformers may be required as reserve, as shown in fig.(9) and


fig.(10) and fig.(11).

Fig no (9)
Decentralized arrangement of distribution
Transformers in several sub-stations

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Fig no (10)
Ring-main system with ring
Circuit looped between sub-stations

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Fig no (11)
Diagram of ring-main system
a) Ring main system with two ring circuits
b) Ring-main system with terminal station

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6.3 Peculiarities of high voltage ring system: )(

This simple way to loop ring circuits into substations is via load break isolators the
ring circuit can be opened at convenient points to confine a fault to a part of the circuit
only.

By means of short circuit indicators in each sub-station affected can be determined thus
the faulty section of the circuit can be readily found and isolated.

After isolating the faulty cable run at (d)(fig10)(worst fault condition) & closing the
isolating point in substation b3 , normal service can be resumed under the worst fault
condition , with the fault in cable run (d) between the ring supply and the first
substation the remaining cable has to supply current to the whole ring circuit and must
therefore be rated for single supply if there is a load center with high load demand
opposite the transfer station (e.g a university, hospital in a rural area), it will found
advantageous to provides a ring main system with a terminal substation at the load
center. This would ensure good load equalization and high security of supply to, all sub
station yet the number of ring circuits will be less - fig. (11).

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6.4 Parallel operation:
Transformers will operate in parallel when they are connected to the same network
system, both on the high voltage as well as on the low voltage side.
Slight different conditions apply between operation in parallel bus bars and
operation in parallel on systems networks.
6.5 General requirements for parallel operation:
For satisfactory operation in parallel, especially on bus bars the following general
requirements apply;
- For transformers having the same vector group and clock hour number, terminals
having identical designations are paralleled.
- The ratio of transformation must be identical.
- All taping must have identical values on each transformer.
- The rated impedance voltage must be practically the same within 10 %, the
transformer with the smaller rated power should have the higher rated impedance
voltage, if possible the ratio of the rated power of transformers working in parallel
should not be more than 3:1.
For checking the phase relationship the 2 N-terminal of the transformer to be
connected to the transformer to be connected is connected to the 1N bus bar of the
system the phase relation is then check by using a voltmeter if the connection is
correct the voltmeter will indicate zero, if the connection is correct the voltmeter
will indicate values of up to twice the phase voltage fig (13).

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1W 1V 1U 1W 1V 1U

2W 2V 2U 2N 2W 2V 2U 2N

Fig no (13)
6.6 Protection by H.R.C- fuses (short circuit protection):
Distribution transformers are normally protected against short circuits by high
voltage High rupture capacity fuse (H.R.C- fuses) (table No 5) can be used for the
selection of fuses for distribution transformers; the maximum current inrush when
switching on the transformer has been taken into consideration.
Rated power of Operating voltage
transformer 3KV 6KV 10KV 20KV 30kv
Rated current of the high voltage fuse element
KVA A A A A A
50 40 25 16 10 6.3
75 63 40 25 16 10
100 63 40 25 16 10
125 63 63 40 25 16
160 100 63 40 25 16
200 100 63 40 25 16
250 100 63 40 25 16
315 100 63 40 25 16
400 63 63 25 25
500 100 63 40 25
630 100 63 40 25
800 100 100 40
1000 100 63

Table no (5)
Guiding values for the rating
Of high-voltage HRC-fuses
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6.7 Over load protection:
The over load protection of transformers is provided on the low voltage side. The
low voltage H.R.C- fuses or the thermally delayed over current trips of the circuit
breakers are selected according to the rated current in of the transformer. This
selection normally provides adequate selectivity between high voltage and low
voltage side.
6.8 Short circuit strength:
Distribution transformers need to be designed to with stand the effects of external
short circuits without damage.
6.9 Steady state R.M.S short circuit current I.K:
The short circuit current Ik of a transformer is the steady state R.M.S. value of
current at the terminals following on all phases short circuit on the terminals of the
outgoing side and when the D.C component has decayed with constant rated
voltage applied to the input terminals.
6.10 Calculation of steady state R.M.S short circuit current :
For transformer operating at rated voltage & rated frequency and tapings adjusted
to the principal tap, the continuous short circuit current Ik can be calculated from
the rated current IN & the rated impedance voltage UKN.

IK = R.M.S short circuit current in A

IN = rated current in A
UKN = rated impedance voltage in %
For the calculation of short circuit currents of installation systems, the resistance
of the system must be taken into consideration. For calculation of short circuit
current in three phase systems.

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6.11 Maximum permissible duration of short circuit:

For values of Ik and time duration see table (6) the peak short circuit current is
important in considering the dynamic stresses in the transformer & other
operating equipment affected by the fault.
The peak short circuit current IS.C of a transformer is the first peak maximum
transient value of current at the terminals of the outgoing side . The first peak
value of current Ik is the 2 multiple of the R.M.S short circuit current IK
Trans former Permissible Rated impedance Maximum
Rated power Steady state voltage Permissible
PN Short-circuit Usc Duration of the
Current Short circuit
Isc
KVA A Second
%
Up to 630 25 IN 4 2
Over 630
Up to 1600 16.7 IN 6 4

Table no (6)
Values of Ik and time of duration

6.12 Calculation of the peak short circuit current Is :

The permissible peak short circuit current Is of a transformer is:

IS.C IK 2

Where:
IS peak short circuit current in A ( peak value ) .
I K maximum permissible R.M.Sshort circuit current in A .

2 impulse factor .

Impulse factor: the impulse factor 2 is dependent on the ratio of the reactance (X)
to the Ohmic resistance (R), (i.e.) dependent on the ratio of the reactance voltage
Ux to the resistive voltage drop UR of the transformer.

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Maintenance work is permitted only when the transformer is switched off and the
terminals earthed.
7.1 Dry type transformers:
Dry type transformers must be kept dust free & protected against pollution. At
regular intervals these should be cleaned with bellows or a vacuum cleaner.
Terminals and bolted joints should also be checked regularly.
7.1.1 Drying out:
The insulation resistance between windings & also windings to earth provides good
indication of the condition of the insulation especially when a transformer has been
out of service over a long period and many have absorbed moisture. Subsequent
drying out may therefore be necessary.
The insulation resistance at room temperature should not less than
For operating voltage:
- Up to 1000 v 15 m. ohm.
- Above 1000 v 25 m. ohm
- Above 5000 v 40 m. ohm
The insulation resistance is normally measure with 1000 V or 2000 V instrument
If the insulation resistance is below the above recommended values it can be
assumed that moisture has been observed by the insulation.
7.1.2 The winding can be dried out as follows :

1. By heating in a drying oven at a temperature of approx. 80C or with heaters such


as incandescent lamps, resister elements or radiators. The surface of the windings
must not exceed 100C when using direct radiation.

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2. Heating under short circuit conditions with a maximum rated current the output
side of the transformer is short circuited and the input side connected to a voltage
approximately equal to the impedance voltage.
This voltage is adjusted such that the current flowing does not exceed the rated
current stated on the nameplate is exceeded during drying the room must be well
ventilated during dying process. The value of insulation resistance should be
measured repeatedly.
7.1.3 Renovation of the operating room:

During renovation work in the transformer room the transformer should be


switched off and earthed.
It is important, particularly with dry type transformer to cover carefully to protect
from dust, paint, humidity and other pollution, when building and painting work is
in process, the room must be well ventilated and if necessary heated.
Cast resins transformers are largely maintenance free and do not require drying.
7.2 Oil immersed transformers:

The type of fluid used is stated on the rating plate .the maintenance of this type of
transformer includes:
- Checking the level of fluid at the sight glass.
- Checking effectiveness of gaskets and quality of paint finish.
- Testing the insulating fluid of moisture content and checking or reactivating
the silica gel in the breather.
To check the moisture content of the insulating fluid a sample must be taken to
ensure that the measurement corresponds to the actual conditions of the fluid
within the transformer, special care the highest degree of clean lines is required
when taking samples.

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1. A specimen bottle with large opening and glass stopper (not cork) is required.
2. The bottle must be cleaned with clean alcohol and well dried.
3. The drain cook must be carefully cleaned and dried before taking a test sample.
4. The specimen bottle should be approximately half filled with the fluid and rinsed
with this fluid before a test sample is taken.
7.3 Break down voltage:

Eleven samples should be taken and a break down voltage test made with electrodes
having a 2 5 mm gap for each sample the break down voltage test is repeated six
times with a 2 minute interval between each. The break down voltage is the mean
value of the results of tests from 2 to 6 times.

The transformers of insulation rating up to 30 KV the mean value acceptable is for


new oil or a skarel 60 KV minimum and for used oil 30 KV minimum.

If the measured values fall below the above mentioned minimum values the
insulating fluid must be changed or re conditional by use of special filter presses or
for small trans formers the complete transformer can be dried under vacuum the
manufacturers of transformers and the electricity boards have the necessary plant and
devices for the conditioning and drying of the insulating fluid.

For refilling is necessary the fluid used must be identical to the original it is
recommended to test the new fluid for break down voltage before refilling.

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References

.DIN
( / )
.
.

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