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Electromechanical Sector

& Department Of Consulting Engineering


Technical Electro-mechanical Services



/
Contents
1. Introduction .1
2. Types of the Fire Alarm .2
Detectors
.3
3. Types of the Fire Alarm

Control Panels
.4
4. Commissioning & Testing of the

Fire Alarm systems
.5
5. Fire Alarm System Management
6. Fire Alarm Systems Design .6

Concepts .7
7. Review of a Fire Alarm Systems
Design .8
8. Fire Alarm Standards, samples
9. Case Study .9
10. Appendix .10
2
1. Introduction .1

3
FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS
*CODE OF PRACTICE *
1. Scope . 1
This Part provides
recommendations for the
planning, design, and servicing
of fire detection and alarm
systems in and around .
buildings.
This Part does not cover
systems whose primary
function to extinguish or
control the fire, such as
sprinkler or automatic
extinguishing systems, even
though they might have a
secondary alarm function; it
does cover the use of a signal
from an automatic
extinguishing element of a fire .
alarm system.

4
FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS
*CODE OF PRACTICE *

. 2- :
2. Definitions: -
2.1 Addressable System: 2.1 :
A system in which signals
from each detector and/or call point /
are individually identified at the
control panel. Hybrid systems are
possible in which groups of devices

on a circuit can be separately

identified, but not individual devices
within the group. .
2.2 Aspirating detector: : 2.2
A detector system in which a
sample of the atmosphere in the
protected space is sucked by a fan or
a pump into a detector which may
be remote from the protected space.
.

5
FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS
CODE OF PRACTICE* *

2.3 Automatic System: : 2.3

A system in which an alarm of fire


can be initiated automatically. .
2.4 Competent person:
: ( ) 2.4
A person competent to perform a
task.

.
2.5 Detector:
:) ( 2.5
A part of an automatic fire
detection system that contains at
least on sensor which constantly or
at frequent intervals monitors at -
least one suitable physical and/or
chemical phenomenon associated
with fire to the control panel and
/
indicating equipment.

.
6
Fire Detection: Scope :

Fire Detection Scope: :


The basic objectives of effective
fire detection (protection)
measures is to protect human ) (
lives, material assets and the
environment from dangers and
.
the effects of fire.
Specifically this means: :
1. Preventing danger to life and .1
health (Personnel protection )
) (
2. Preventing material damage
(Asset protection) ) ( .2
3. Preventing ecological damage ) ( .3
(environment protection)

7
Fire Detection Scope ( Continue ) : : ) (
To ensure adequate fire safety most
countries have enacted national and
regional regulations that allocate the
responsibility as follows:
Personnel protection is normally :
governed by laws and ordinances.
Asset protection is usually governed by
insurance companies which publish .
corresponding guidelines and
regulations. .
Such laws, ordinances, guidelines and
standards have in all cases precedence
over the recommendations in this
security guide and must be
conscientiously taken into consideration ( )
when planning a fire alarm (protection)
system.
.
In cases where no laws and ordinances
exist, the fire detection system should be
planned in accordance with sound fire
protection practice.
.
8
&
Fire Detection and Gas Warning Systems
Automatic fire detection :
systems:
An automatic fire detection
system is designed to detect a
fire in its incipient stage and to
automatically initiate
programmed control functions.
.
For example:
Alarming persons who are in :
danger.
.
Calling the fire fighting forces
and rescue teams. .
Activating devices for
restricting smoke and fire
propagation, for example,
closing fire doors, fire dampers,
and the like.
...
9
&
Fire Detection and Gas Warning Systems
Automatic fire detection systems( Continue )
:
Activating fixed extinguishing
systems, .

Activating smoke and heat venting ) (


systems, escape route
.
pressurization,
De-energizing technical systems .
(installations),
Controlling building services

systems, particularly heating and
ventilation systems and elevators. .

Activating the emergency lighting, .


Activating the evacuation systems,
....
and the like.

10
.2
2. Types of the Fire Alarm
Detectors

11
FIRE ALARM DETECTORS

( AUTOMATIC (
MECHANICAL

ELECTRONIC ELECTROMECHANICAL
/
&
MECH. & ELECT. A SOLID BODY
SMOKE FLAM E HEAT
MELTING / EXPANSION


A Liquid
VISIBLE S. ULTRAVIOLET
Evaporation
INVISIBLE S.

/
/ Ficed -Temp. / Rate of Temp. Thermal Link
ULTRAVIOLET / INFRA RED change

12 Water, ... Sprinklers


ELECTRONIC DETECTOR


SMOKE FLAM E HEAT


INFRARED ULTRAVIOLET
Fixed Temp.
VISIBLE INVISIBLE
Rate of Temp.
RAY RAY
S.MOKE S.MOKE change



* FLICKERED FLICKERED
OPT ICAL
SMOKE IONIZATION INFRARED RAY ULTRAVIOLET RATE OF TEMP. RATE OF TEMP.
SMOKE DETECTOR RAY DETECTOR CHANGE
Detector CHANGE
Detector DETECTOR DETECTOR

* Ionization Smoke Detector not produced recently to *


13 avoid the misdumping of isotopes in the detectors. .

Duct Mounting Smoke Detector Ionization Smoke Detector


BASE
14

Ionization Smoke Detector

How do Ionization fire


?detectors work
The sensing part of the
detector consists of two
chambers: an open, outer
chamber and a semi- :
sealed reference chamber
within.
.
15

How do Ionization fire detectors work?
Mounted in the reference
chamber is a low activity
radioactive foil of Amercium
241helping current to flow )241(
between the two chambers
when the detector is powered up
As smoke enters the detector,
particles become attracted to .
the ions, causing a reduction in
current flow in the outer
chamber and an increase in
voltage measured between the
two chambers.
. ) (
The voltage increase is
monitored by the electronic
circuitry which triggers the
detector into the alarm state at
a preset threshold, lighting
externally visible red LED when
the detector changes to alarm
state.
.
16

Integrating Ionization Smoke Detector
This type of detector works on the
same principles as the ionization
smoke detector, but has a modified
signal processing circuitry which

allows an alarm threshold to be
) 20(
present for up to 20 seconds
without initiating an alarm. This
type of detectors is suitable for use
in areas where transient high levels
of smoke may be expected.
The integrating effect in Analogue .
Addressable Systems can be
mimicked in both ionization and
optical smoke detectors by

adjusting the control equipment
software to cause an appropriate

delay. .

17
( )
Optical ( Photo-electric ) Smoke Detector


LED
-











.
18
) (
Optical ( Photo-electric ) Smoke Detector
Optical smoke detectors utilize
a pulsing infrared LED located

in a chamber within the housing
of the detector. The chamber is
designed to exclude light from
any external source. At an angle
to the LED is a photo-diode

which normally does not
register the column of light

emitted by the LED. When a
smoke enter the chamber, the
above light pulse will be

scattered and hence registered
by the photo-diode.

19
( ) Beam Detector
A beam detector is designed to ()
protect large, open spaces and
is made up of three main parts:
:
1.The transmitter, which : .1
projects a beam of infra-red .
light. : .2
2.The receiver registers the
transmitted light and produces
an electrical signal. .
3. The interface, which processes : .3
the signal and generates alarm
or fault signals. .
When a fire develops, smoke
particles obstruct the beam of
light and, once a pre-set
threshold has been exceeded,
the detector will go into alarm. .

20
FLAME DETECTOR: - - :

A Flame detector is designed to
detect either ultraviolet (UV) or
infrared (IR) radiation emitted by
a fire. The flame detector is
sensitive to low-frequency,
flickering radiation. .
This means that the detector can
operate even if the lens is

contaminated by a layer of oil,

dust, water vapor or ice.
.
21
FLAME DETECTOR
FLAME DETECTOR: - - :

The flame detector has been designed

for use where open flaming fires may
be expected. Applications include
aircraft hangers, coal handling ,
paper manufacturing plants, and
wood working environments. .
The detector is: - :
Loop powered.
.
Sensitive to flickering IR/or UV. (
Able to detect open flames, and ) .
glowing embers.
Has a 90 or 360 field of view. .

90 . 360
22


HEAT DETECTOR

23
HEAT DETECTOR
Most conventional heat detectors
operate by using a matched pair of
thermistors to sense heat. One
thermistor is exposed to the

ambient temperature, the other is
sealed. In normal conditions the

two thermistors register similar
temperatures, on the development
of a fire the temperature recorded
by the exposed thermistor will
increase rapidly, resulting in an
imbalance of the thermistors,
causing the detector to change into
alarm state. .

24
HEAT DETECTOR
Externally, the heat detectors
are distinguishable from the
smoke detectors by having wide

openings to the surroundings to
allow good movement of air
around the external thermistor. .
A heat detector may be more
appropriate than a smoke
detector where the environment

is dirty or smoky under normal
conditions. It must be
recognized, that any heat
detector will respond only when
a fire is well established and
generating a high heat output.
.
25
Linear Heat Detector

26


27

( )
28


) Distributed Temperature Sensing ( DTS

Features & Benefits


Conventional systems have & :
limitations. .
Fiber optic systems provide
intelligent solutions.
Real time temperature :
profiles
.
& Fire location
direction of propagation
Programmable .
functions
.
Break detection and
recovery remote
interrogation .
29


) Distributed Temperature Sensing ( DTS

Distributed Temperature
Sensing (DTS) using optical
fibers established since 1986. 1986
Used in a number of safety
critical applications: :
Temperature profiling of
power cables. .
Hot spot location on process
plant.
.
Cryogenic leak detection in

storage tanks.
.
Subsurface temperature
monitoring of oil production
wells. .
Advanced linear heat fire
detection for tunnels. .
30


) Distributed Temperature Sensing ( DTS

DESIGN CRITERIA
Multiple loop capability
up to 8 km 8.
Fire authority approval
Loop design for high .
integrity & fast response
.
Wide temperature range:
Acrylate: range 40 c to +
:
90c 8 0 +/ 40 - :
Polyimide : range 185 c 300 +/ 185 - :
to + 300 c

: & :
31


) Distributed Temperature Sensing ( DTS

DESIGN CRITERIA
)(continued

Metal jacket for best


- :
results
316 .
316 stainless steel
3
3 mm diam tube factory .
inserted fiber 6
6 mm diam tube field blown .
fiber
Emc immunity & hazardous
area safety
.

Safe for human exposure
.
32


) Distributed Temperature Sensing ( DTS

MULTIPLE
FUNCTIONALITY
Separate determination of
()
peaks & averages
.
Differentiation between fire

and ambient conditions
:
Average temperature for

ventilation control
.
peak temperature for fire
control .
& Post data processing
condition monitoring
.

33
In conclusion
In order to enhance safety,
fire detection systems need
to provide a higher level of
information and continue to
operate throughout the
emergency situation .
Fiber optic based
distributed linear heat
detection is a cost effective
intelligent heat detection
that provides the features .
required.

34
Multisensor Detector

Multisensor detectors
are general purpose
()
detectors which

respond well to a
wide range of fires. .
35
Carbon Monoxide (CO) ) )

Carbon Monoxide (CO) is a
poisonous gas produced by a
combustion and a (CO) fire
detector is used to indicate the
outbreak of a fire by sensing the
level of (CO) in the air. The
detector has an electrochemical cell
which senses (CO), not smoke or
other combustion products. The
cells do not require much power, so - ...
the detector can be made
electrically compatible with
ordinary smoke and heat detectors. .
(CO) detectors are particularly
good at detecting deep-seated
smoldering fires. .

36

Carbon Monoxide Detectors


Carbon Monoxide Detectors

37

Combustible Gas Detectors

38
& /
Pneumatic / Heat Fire Detectors & Extinguishers

39
& /
Pneumatic / Heat Fire Detectors & Extinguishers

40
& /
Pneumatic / Heat Fire Detectors & Extinguishers


Pneumatic Control Head


Pneumatic Heat Fire Detector

) (
Fire Extinguisher (Pressurized Type)

41
FIRE ALARM DETECTORS

MECHANICAL DETECTOR

/
A LIQUID A SOLID BODY MELTING /
EVAPORATION EXPANSION

Water, ... Sprinklers Thermal Link

T= 75C F

42
Listed Fusible Links

43
Upright Pendent

Concealed



Water, ... Sprinklers
Quick-Response
Recessed
44
.3

3. Types of the Fire Alarm
Control Panels

45

Addressable Control Panel

46
( 8)
47

48
Integrated Fire Alarm System
.4

4. Commissioning & Testing of
the Fire Alarm systems

49
.4
4. Commissioning & Testing

1- SYSTEM NETWOK: - - : .1
1.1 Make final review and check the
network circuitry characteristics 1.1
according to the final approved*
design, and prepare the as-built
drawings. .
1.2 Take care to keep the documents
related system network 1.2
preventive maintenance program
in good order, and enough copies .
too.
2- SYSTEM COMPONENTS : - : .2
2.1 Start to make the initial visual 2.1
and conformity inspection of the
system components according to
the manufacturer instructions,

for example dont store more 24
than 30 ionization detectors
particularly in adjacent packages .

Final approved* design: i.e. it is complying with relevant codes, and clients demands
50
.4

2. SYSTEM COMPONENTS: - : .2
2.2 Take care to keep the related 2.2
components catalogues in good
order, and enough copies too. .
2.3 Take care to keep the related 2.3
commissioning & testing
components catalogues in good .
order, and enough copies too.
2.4 Take care to keep the related 2.4
running & maintenance
components catalogues in good .
order, and enough copies too.
2.5 Take care to keep the related 2.5
spare components in good order,
and enough numbers according
to the manufacturer instructions. .

51 Final approved* design: i.e. it is complying with relevant codes, and clients demands
.4

3. SYSTEM INSTALLATION :
: .3

3.1 Make sure to attend each zone 3.1


commissioning and testing
according the related BS*,
NPFA, and Egyptian codes,
including individual detectors
testing, manual alarm stations,
audible and visual components
etc, and any related auto- ...
programmed ancillaries.
.
3.2 Perform entire system
commissioning and testing
3.2
according the related BS, NPFA,
and Egyptian codes, including .
individual detectors testing,
manual alarm stations, audible
and visual components etc, and
any related auto-programmed
ancillaries.

52 BS* : 5839 Part 1


.5
5. SYSTEM MANAGEMENT

53
/

5. SYSTEM .5 :
MANAGEMENT: - 5.1
(
5.1 Adopt the system manufacturer
technical advices for running and )
maintaining the system. .
5.2 Initiate all standards and 5.2
manufacturer recommended
technical recommended log-books
for the installed system. .

5.3 Keep a copy of the system 5.3


guarantee certificates.
.
5.4 Keep all the related system
documents in an orderly file 5.4
showing all relevant data.

.

BS* : 5839 Part 1


54
.6
6. Fire Alarm Systems Design
Concepts

55

Overall Fire Protection Concept
.5 /
5. Structural fire protection / containment
.4
4. Automatic and manual suppression systems
.3
3. Evacuation of building occupants

.2
2. Automatic and manual fire detection

.1
...
1. Area of Protection
buildings, room, processetc
...
Smoking prohibition, fire load reduction etc


Smoke detection, occupant warning, calling the fire department

Exit signs, emergency lighting, intercom etc

Fire resistive architecture, compartmentation

56
Multilevel fire protection concept
57

Choosing a suitable detector system
Choosing a suitable detector system: - - :
Which detectors need to be specified, where, depends

on the :
:
Monitoring category or the general

monitoring objectives of the fire detection .
system.
.
Room height.
Environmental conditions, including

) (
deceptive phenomena.
I. Choosing a detector for normal .I
applications: - :
Normally a smoke detector can be chosen
based on the following table, provided that
disturbance variables are minor and occur
only rarely. The principle criteria for :
choosing a detector and parameter set or sensitivity

are the monitoring objective and the assessment of
the fire risk exposure.
.

58
Monitoring Projection / Detectors /
Category Monitoring Objective Opto Poly Thermo

I - Flaming incipient fire I -

II - Flaming incipient fire II -


- Smoldering incipient -
fire (desired)

III - Flaming incipient fire III -


- Smoldering incipient -
fire

Optimally suited Suited

Conditionally suited Un suited

Influence of the room height: - - :


With increasing of room height the influence

of fire phenomena weakens which means
that more sensitive detectors must be

installed. .

59

Choosing a suitable detector system

Room Suitable detector Suitability


Height type Flaming Fire Smoldering +

6m Heat detector (Cl .2) - 6m ( Cl .2) -


7.5 m Heat detector (Cl .1) - 7.5 m ( Cl .1) -
12 m Smoke detector 12 m

12-20 m Smoke detector / or


12-20 m /
Linear Smoke
detector

20 m Flame detector - 20 m -

Optimally suited Suited


-- Un suited

* See appendix I & II

60

Choosing the appropriate detector
Three different detector series are available:
Interactive detector system
Analog PLUS detector system
Collective detector system
Each of these systems has its own special characteristics and is suited to specific applications

System Characteristics Applications


Interactive - Freely programmable adjustment - Demanding system engineering of any size
the response behavior
- Optimum detector reliability - Where transit or continuous interference is
- Also usable under critical ambient conditions present which could cause a false alarm
- High immunity to soiling - With direct alarm link to the fire department
- Immune to electromagnetic, electrical and - Wherever the prevention of false alarm has
optical interference signals top priority
- Individual addressing
- Microprocessor controlled electronics
- Transmits 4 danger levels
- Automatic self test
- Remote diagnostic capability
- Loop line with T branches

61

) (
Choosing the appropriate detector

System Characteristics Applications

Analog PLUS Evaluation of two response sensitivities - Normal system engineering


- Very good detector reliability - Large systems
- Immune to ambient influences - For rarely occurring deceptive
- Electronics with integrated circuit (ASIC) phenomena that can cause false alarms
- Individual addressing - Alerting of the fire department with
- Drift signals CAC
- Detector monitoring
- Loop line with module for T branches

Collective - One response sensitivity for a wide - Easy system engineering


application range - Small easily manageable system
- Optimum detector reliability - Few potential interference that
- Good detection reliability could cause false alarms
- Monitored line - No direct alerting to the fire department
- Compatible with existing control units
- Electronics with integrated circuit (ASIC)
- Stub line
- Favorably priced

62
63
64
.7

7. Review of a Fire Alarm
Systems Design

65
Review a Design of a Fire Alarm System

Data Required to Review a Design of


a Fire Alarm System
1. Complete set of Alarm system design .1
drawings for the project building in +
details, if possible - + specifications
and bill of quantities book. .
2. Sufficient description for nature of .2
users and occupants of the areas to be
protected. .
3. Architectural and decoration ( .3
drawings ( To determine the
volumes, ceilings heights and types, ...
and any projected slabs- if existing
as far ceilings heights are reversely
proportional to the protected areas,
also the upper volumes of the fall
ceilings should be protected too,
finally the falling slabs are forming a
delaying obstacles to the smokes
currents.

.

66
Review a Design of a Fire Alarm System

4. Air-conditioning and ventilation ( .4


drawings ] To ensure early smoke
detection for the air sucked by the
air-conditioning ... etc hence
special duct smoke detectors must
be employed ( or a continuous air (
sample must be drawn for early
smoke detection ). Moreover it )
enables the design reviewer to
determine the dimensions and ducts .
roots to ensure that it forms no
obstacles similar to the falling slabs.
5. A primary design review to the . 5
available fire alarm detectors :
distribution. .
a. The number and types of the
detectors according to E.S , B.S. .
& NFPA. .
b. The fire alarm zones according .
to E.S., B.S. & NFPA.
67
Review a Design of a Fire Alarm System

Review the cables and


wires types, specifications,
and the connectors too. ....
Review the conduits
types and specifications
too. .
Review the
communication link with
other intelligent systems (
e.g. Auto-fire fighting ...)
systems.
Review the evacuation .
plans and techniques.

68
Review a Design of a Fire Alarm System

ALARM ZONES
When a signal of fire in ALARM
ZONES released, it is necessary


that there should be no

confusion about the zone from
which it is received. To facilitate
response by persons providing
assistance, the zone should be .
small enough for a fire to be
located quickly.
The search distance should not 30
exceed 30m. .
()
Remote indicator lamps outside

doors , etc., may be helpful,
especially if doors are likely to .
be locked
69
.8

8. Fire Alarm Standards,
samples

70

Standards for fire detection systems

European standards: :
CEN
In Europe the standards are defined CENELEC ) (
by CEN )European committee for ) )
standardization), and CENELEC
(European committee for Electro-technical
Standardization).
Number Title EN54-1
EN54-1 Components of automatic fire detection :
systems: Introduction. EN54-2
EN54-2 Control and indicating equipment. EN54-3
EN54-3 Audible fire alarm devices. EN54-4
EN54-4 Power supplies. EN54-5
EN54-5 Heat sensitive detectors point detectors
containing a static element.

71

( )
Standards for fire detection systems

Number Title

EN54-6
EN54-6 Heat sensitive detectors rate of rise point
detectors without static element. .
EN54-7 Smoke detectors - point detectors using EN54-7
scattered light, transmitted light, or .
ionization. EN54-8 .
EN54-8 High Temperature heat detectors. EN54-9 .
EN54-9 Fire Tests for smoke detectors. EN54-10 .
EN54-10 Flame detectors. EN54-11 ( ).
EN54-11 Manual call points EN54-12 .
EN54-12 Optical beam detectors. EN54-13 .
EN54-13 System requirements. EN54-14
EN54-14 Guidelines for planning design,
installation, commissioning, use and .
maintenance. EN54-15
EN54-15 Point type multi-sensor fire detectors
incorporating a smoke sensor in .
combination with a heat sensor.

72
) (

) (
UL standards ) Underwriters Laboratories Inc. USA(

UL521 Heat detectors for fire protection UL521


signaling systems.
UL268 Smoke detectors for fire protection UL268
signaling systems.
UL268A Smoke detectors for duct application. UL268A
UL38 Manual call point. UL38
UL864 Control units for fire protection UL864
signaling systems
UL827 Central station for watchman, fire alarm UL827
and supervisory systems.
UL217 Single and multiple-station smoke UL217
detectors.

UL985 Household fire warning system unit UL985

73
) (
Testing laboratories

The major testing laboratories are : :

1. ANPI: Association Nationale pour la


: ANPI .1
Protection contre Iincendie
( Belgium )
:CNPP .2
2. CNPP: Centre National de Prvention et de
Protection ( France )
3. DELTA: DELTA Electronics Testing : DELTA .3
(Denmark(
4. LPC Lab: Loss Prevention Council : LPC Lab .4
laboratories ( UK )
5. VDS Lab: Verband der Schadenversicher : VDS Lab .5
e.V. (Germany )
6. ULI: Underwriters Laboratories Inc. : ULI .6
(USA)
7. ULC: Underwriters Laboratories of
: ULC .7
Canada
8. FMRC: Factory Mutual Research
Corporation (USA) : FMRC .8

74
.9
9. Case Study

75
... &
] - [
Design a Special profile Detection System for Mains & Control
Panelsetc, at Al-Maliah Towers Project, Abbasia, Cairo
This case study are briefed as the :
following: -
1. The above mentioned panels are .1
shown on the attached schematic .
drawing.
2. The consultant demanded to .2
utilize Ceiling Detector / ( /
Extinguisher Modular CO2 type ) &
(i.e. Sprinkler is the heat .
detector).
3. Instead, pneumatic detector was
proposed to be looped within the / .3
panels, Polymer pressurized tube, -
rather than above mentioned -
sprinkler, for much earlier alarm,
faster and reliable extinguishing.
.

76
& CO2
CO2 Extinguisher &
Pneumatic Detector

&

Distribution &
Control Panels

77
5

10



1 5

78
Appendices

I- Effect of Beams on Detectors Distribution.


II- Area of Protection for the Smoke Detector.

79
Effect of beams on detectors distribution

For smoke detectors

for ceiling heights of 3.66 m(12 ft) or less and
beam depths of 300mm (1ft) or less, spot type ) 12( 366 -
detectors shall be permitted to be located ) 1( 300
either on the ceiling or on the bottom of the
beams. .
For beam depths exceeding 300mm (1ft) or for ) 1( 300 -
ceiling heights exceeding 3.66 m(12 ft), spot 12( 366
type detectors shall be located on the ceilng in
)
every beam pocket.
.

For heat detectors


In the case of beam construction where beams 12( 300 -
are less than 300mm (12 in.) in depth and less
) 8( 2.4 )
than 2.4 m (8 ft) on centre , detectors shall be
permitted to be installed on the bottom of
beams. .
Where the beams project more than 460mm 18( 460 -
(18 in.) below the ceiling and are more than 2.4 )
2.4m (8 ft) on center , each bay formed by the ) 8(
beams shall be treated as a separate area. .

(NFPA Hazard of Content)
(Hazard Classification)
1- (Light Hazard)
Flammable materials and do not cause the fire to -1
spread quickly, such as materials commonly found
in mosques, schools, hospitals, museums, nursing
homes, offices and residential apartments and
dining halls
2 - (Ordinary Hazard)
-2
Flammable materials and emit large amounts of
smoke and is divided into three groups as follows:
Group I: include the goods stacked high to 2.4 :
meters, and materials and equipment available in 2.4 :
car parks and in the bakeries and in the milk
factories and beverage and packaging and
electronics, in laundries and in the places of service .
in restaurants.
3.6 :
Group II: includes goods stacked to more than 3.6
meters and materials found in book stores and
commercial centers and workshops, factories and .
printing presses and spinning and weaving and :
Almenachr.
Group III: includes materials found in dangerous .
goods of warehouses, factories of paper & wood,
tires and auto repair shops.
3- (Extra Hazard) (Extra Hazard)
Flammable materials and help the fire to spread quickly, which
could lead to explosions and is divided into two groups and are: :
:
Group I: Includes materials found in plants and mulch Wood chip
and plastic factories and workshops, metal casting and rubber

factories.
Group II: flammable or explosive liquids such as paint and solvents :
and detergents, oil and paint in workshops and factories.

4 - (High piled storage system)


(High piled storage system)
Divided into four types of goods
Type I: goods does not ignite and packed in boxes of cardboard :
with flammable protective padding
Type II: goods does not ignite and packed in wood boxes with :
flammable padding or without protective padding inside the box

Type III: flammable goods and contain little amount of plastic.
Type IV: flammable goods and contain large amounts of plastic. :
:
5 - combustible dust (Combustible Dust) .
Includes combustible dust such as dry crust of agricultural crops (Combustible Dust)
such as husks of wheat grains and other stored grains, coal
particles and fly ash and particles resulting from the volatility of

the chemicals, pharmaceuticals, dyes and metals, fertilizers and
pest control poisons and plastics.

6 - Chemicals and explosives (Chemicals & Explosives) (Chemicals & Explosives)
Include chemicals such as acids, carbon, radioactive chemicals,
phosphor, oxides and include flammable materials such as main
and secondary explosive, explosive materials used in the Payment

and explosives used in breaking the rocks.
.
Area of protection for the smoke detector

Area of protection for the


2
detector (m2) depending on the Room
hazard classification Height )(
Extra Ordinary Light )meter(
Hazard Hazard Hazard 10 - 40 40 - 60 60 - 85 2.5
10 - 40 40 - 60 60 - 85 Till 2.5 10 - 40 45 - 70 70 - 95 2.5 - 3.5
10 - 40 45 - 70 70 - 95 2.5 - 3.5 20 - 45 65 - 90 85 - 105 3.5 - 5
20 - 45 65 - 90 85 - 105 3.5 - 5
60 - 90 85 - 110 100 - 120 5 - 7.5
60 - 90 85 - 110 100 - 120 5 - 7.5
- 110 - 120 120 - 130 7.5 - 10
- 110 - 120 120 - 130 7.5 - 10
- 130 140 10 - 15 - 130 140 10 - 15
- 140 150 15 - 20 - 140 150 15 - 20

Hazard classification & the table of the


area of protection for the smoke
detector according to the classification

of materials was mentioned to increase . 5.3
the accuracy in design, but in general
the radius of the protection zone of the
detector can be taken as 5.3 meters.
Function of each Module in fire alarm system (As example)

1 Monitor Module :shall be used for monitoring of fire fighting systems, etc.
Control Module: provide command signal to non addressable connected devices & systems
2
such as electrical panels.
Fault Isolator Module: helps FACP to allocate break in communication wiring, the isolators are
3
used one isolator for every (10-15) device in the loop.
Signal Control Module: used for connecting supervised audible/visible alarm devices to their
4
respective power inputs upon command from the FACP.

:) (

. : -1
. : -2
(10-15) : -3
.
. / : -4
References

National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)

90