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AASHTO/NSBA Steel Bridge Collaboration

S 8.1 - 2006

Guide Specification for Application of Coating Systems


With Zinc-Rich Primers to Steel Bridges

AASHTO/NSBA Steel Bridge Collaboration


SSPC: The Society for Protective Coatings
Preface

This document is a standard developed by the AASHTO/NSBA Steel Bridge Collaboration. The
primary goal of the Collaboration is to achieve steel bridge design and construction of the
highest quality and value through standardization of the design, fabrication, and erection
processes. Each standard represents the consensus of a diverse group of professionals

It is intended that Owners adopt and implement Collaboration standards in their entirety to
facilitate the achievement of standardization. It is understood, however, that local statutes or
preferences may prevent full adoption of the document. In such cases Owners should adopt these
documents with the exceptions they feel are necessary.

Copyright 2006 by the AASHTO/NSBA Steel Bridge Collaboration


All rights reserved.

Disclaimer
The information presented in this publication has been prepared in accordance with recognized
engineering principles and is for general information only. While it is believed to be accurate,
this information should not be used or relied upon for any specific application without
competent professional examination and verification of its accuracy, suitability, and
applicability by a licensed professional engineer, designer, or architect.

The publication of the material contained herein is not intended as a representation or warranty
of the part of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
(AASHTO) or the National Steel Bridge Alliance (NSBA) or of any other person named herein,
that this information is suitable for any general or particular use or of freedom from
infringement of any patent or patents. Anyone making use of this information assumes all
liability arising from such use.

Caution must be exercised when relying upon other specifications and codes developed by other
bodies and incorporated by reference herein since such material may be modified or amended
from time to time subsequent to the printing of this edition. The authors and publishers bear no
responsibility for such material other than to refer to it and incorporate it by reference at the
time of the initial publication of this edition.

AASHTO Document No: NSBASBCS-2

Copyright 2006 by the AASHTO/NSBA Steel Bridge Collaboration.


All rights reserved.
AASHTO EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE
20062007

Voting Members

Officers:

President: Victor M. Mendez, Arizona

Vice President: Pete K. Rahn, Missouri

Secretary-Treasurer: Carlos Braceras, Utah

Regional Representatives:

REGION I: Allen Biehler, Pennsylvania, One-Year Term


David Cole, Maine, Two-Year Term

REGION II: Joe McInnes, Alabama, One-Year Term


Stephanie Kopelousos, Florida, Two-Year Term

REGION III: Carol Molnau, Minnesota, One-Year Term


Debra L. Miller, Kansas, Two-Year Term

REGION IV: Victor M. Mendez, Arizona, One-Year Term


vacant, Two-Year Term

Nonvoting Members

Immediate Past President: Harold E. Linnenkohl, Georgia

AASHTO Executive Director: John Horsley, Washington, DC

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Copyright 2006 by the AASHTO/NSBA Steel Bridge Collaboration.
All rights reserved.
AASHTO HIGHWAY SUBCOMMITTEE ON BRIDGES AND STRUCTURES
2006
Malcolm T. Kerley, Virginia Chair
James A. Moore, New Hampshire Vice Chair
M. Myint Lwin, Federal Highway Administration, Secretary
Firas I. Sheikh Ibrahim, Federal Highway Administration, Assistant Secretary

ALABAMA, William F. Conway, John F. Black, OHIO, Timothy J. Keller, Jawdat Siddiqi
George H. Connor OKLAHOMA, Robert J. Rusch, Gregory D. Allen
ALASKA, Richard A. Pratt OREGON, Bruce V. Johnson
ARIZONA, Jean A. Nehme PENNSYLVANIA, Thomas P. Macioce, Harold C.
ARKANSAS, Phil Brand Rogers, Jr.
CALIFORNIA, Kevin Thompson, Susan Hida, Barton PUERTO RICO, Jaime Cabr
Newton RHODE ISLAND, David Fish
COLORADO, Mark A. Leonard, Michael G. Salamon SOUTH CAROLINA, Barry W. Bowers, Jeff
CONNECTICUT, Gary J. Abramowicz, Julie F. Sizemore
Georges SOUTH DAKOTA, John C. Cole
DELAWARE, Jiten K. Soneji, Barry A. Benton TENNESSEE, Edward P. Wasserman
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA, Donald Cooney TEXAS, William R. Cox, David P. Hohmann, Ronald
FLORIDA, William N. Nickas, Marcus Ansley, Andre D. Medlock
Pavlov U.S. DOT, M. Myint Lwin, Firas I. Sheikh Ibrahim,
GEORGIA, Paul V. Liles, Jr., Brian Summers Hala Elgaaly
HAWAII, Paul T. Santo UTAH, Todd Jensen
IDAHO, Matthew M. Farrar VERMONT, William Michael Hedges
ILLINOIS, Ralph E. Anderson, Thomas J. Domagalski VIRGINIA, George M. Clendenin, Prasad L.
INDIANA, Anne M. Rearick Nallapaneni, Julius F. J. Volgyi, Jr.
IOWA, Norman L. McDonald WASHINGTON, Jugesh Kapur, Tony M. Allen, Bijan
KANSAS, Kenneth F. Hurst, James J. Brennan, Loren Khaleghi
R. Risch WEST VIRGINIA, Gregory Bailey, James W. Sothen
KENTUCKY, Allen Frank WISCONSIN, Finn Hubbard
LOUISIANA, Hossein Ghara, Tony M. Ducote WYOMING, Gregg C. Fredrick, Keith R. Fulton
MAINE, James E. Tukey, Jeffrey S. Folsom ALBERTA, Tom Loo
MARYLAND, Earle S. Freedman, Robert J. Healy NEW BRUNSWICK, Doug Noble
MASSACHUSETTS, Alexander K. Bardow NOVA SCOTIA, Mark Pertus
MICHIGAN, Steve P. Beck, Raja T. Jildeh ONTARIO, Bala Tharmabala
MINNESOTA, Daniel L. Dorgan, Kevin Western SASKATCHEWAN, Howard Yea
MISSISSIPPI, Mitchell K. Carr, B. Keith Carr GOLDEN GATE BRIDGE, Kary H. Witt
MISSOURI, Shyam Gupta, Paul Kelly, Paul Porter N.J. TURNPIKE AUTHORITY, Richard J. Raczynski
MONTANA, Kent M. Barnes N.Y. STATE BRIDGE AUTHORITY, William J.
NEBRASKA, Lyman D. Freemon, Mark Ahlman, Moreau
Hussam Fallaha PENN. TURNPIKE COMMISSION, Gary L.
NEVADA, William C. Crawford, Jr. Graham
NEW HAMPSHIRE, James A. Moore, Mark W. SURFACE DEPLOYMENT AND DISTRIBUTION
Richardson, David L. Scott COMMAND TRANSPORTATION
NEW JERSEY, Harry A. Capers, Jr., Richard W. ENGINEERING AGENCY, Robert D. Franz
Dunne U.S. ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS -
NEW MEXICO, Jimmy D. Camp DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, Paul C. T. Tan
NEW YORK, George A. Christian, Donald F. Dwyer, U.S. COAST GUARD, Nick E. Mpras, Jacob Patnaik
Arthur P. Yannotti U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE -
NORTH CAROLINA, Greg R. Perfetti FOREST SERVICE, Rosana Barkawi
NORTH DAKOTA, Terrence R. Udland

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Copyright 2006 by the AASHTO/NSBA Steel Bridge Collaboration.
All rights reserved.
AASHTO / NSBA Steel Bridge Collaboration
Task Group 8, Coatings
Eric Kline, KTA-Tator, Chair

Fred Beckmann Consultant


Tom Calzone Carboline Corporation
Dennis Dellarocca Golden Gate Bridge Authority
Mickey Dammann Texas Department of Transportation - retired
Denis Dubois Maine Department of Transportation
Jon Edwards Illinois Department of Transportation
Mike Friel Haydon Bolts
Heather Gilmer Texas Department of Transportation
Greg Girard Sherwin Williams Company
Rick Hiller Sherwin Williams Company
Bob Kase High Steel Structures
Scott Kring Kentucky Transportation Cabinet
Tom Langill American Galvanizers Association
Kelly Masten Grand Junction Steel
Dee McNeill Sherwin Williams Company
Bill Medford North Carolina Department of Transportation retired
Ronnie Medlock High Steel Structures
Michael MeLampy KTA-Tator
Bruce Nelson Maryland Sate Highway Administration
Todd Niemann Minnesota Department of Transportation
Russ Panico High Steel Structures
Skip Pendry Sherwin Williams Company
Walt Peters Oklahoma Department of Transportation
Scott Rice KTA-Tator
Paul Rimmer New York State Department of Transportation
Buck Roberds PDM Bridge, LLC
Andy Rogerson California Department of Transportation
Bill Shoup SSPC
Greta Smith Kentucky Transportation Cabinet
Brad Streeter The D.S. Brown Company
Lou Triandafilou Federal Highway Administration
Emile Troup American Iron & Steel Institute
John Weisner Maryland State Highway Administration

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Copyright 2006 by the AASHTO/NSBA Steel Bridge Collaboration.
All rights reserved.
Guide Specification for Application of Coating Systems with Zinc-Rich Primers to Steel Bridges

Table of Contents

Introduction..................................................................................................................................... 1

Section 1 Definitions ...................................................................................................................... 2


1.1 Applicator (Shop)........................................................................................................................ 2
1.2 Breaking the Corner (Corner Chamfering) ..................................................................................... 2
1.3 Checking ......................................................................................................................................... 2
1.4 Conformance Certification.............................................................................................................. 2
1.5 Corner ............................................................................................................................................. 3
1.6 Edge ................................................................................................................................................ 3
1.7 Edge Grinding (Edge Conditioning)............................................................................................... 3
1.8 Fastener........................................................................................................................................... 3
1.9 Faying Surfaces .............................................................................................................................. 3
1.10 Limited Access Areas ..................................................................................................................... 3
1.11 Mud Cracking ................................................................................................................................. 4
1.12 Qualified Product............................................................................................................................ 4
1.13 Sharp ............................................................................................................................................... 4
1.14 Spot Priming ................................................................................................................................... 4
1.15 Stripe Coat ...................................................................................................................................... 4
1.16 Visible Coating Defects .................................................................................................................. 4
1.17 Weld Spatter, Tight......................................................................................................................... 4
Section 2 Reference Standards ....................................................................................................... 5
2.1 American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) ...................... 5
2.2 American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).................................................................... 5
2.3 SSPC: The Society for Protective Coatings.................................................................................... 5
2.4 Research Council on Structural Connections (RCSC).................................................................... 6
2.5 American Institute for Steel Construction (AISC).......................................................................... 6
2.6 Related Reference Documents ........................................................................................................ 6
Section 3 General............................................................................................................................ 7
3.1 Qualification ................................................................................................................................... 7
3.2 Quality Control ............................................................................................................................... 7
3.3 Written Procedures ......................................................................................................................... 7
3.4 Miscellaneous ................................................................................................................................. 7
3.5 Protective Coating System.............................................................................................................. 8
3.6 Coating Repairs............................................................................................................................... 8
3.7 Paint Storage ................................................................................................................................... 9
3.8 Steel Storage After Painting ........................................................................................................... 9
3.9 Final Acceptance............................................................................................................................. 9
Section 4 Material Acceptance ..................................................................................................... 10
4.1 Paint .............................................................................................................................................. 10
4.2 Abrasive Media Condition.............................................................................................................. 10

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Copyright 2006 by the AASHTO/NSBA Steel Bridge Collaboration.
All rights reserved.
Guide Specification for Application of Coating Systems with Zinc-Rich Primers to Steel Bridges

Section 5 Surface Preparation....................................................................................................... 11


5.1 Material Anomalies....................................................................................................................... 11
5.2 Pre-Cleaning ................................................................................................................................. 11
5.3 Abrasive Blast Cleaning ............................................................................................................... 12
5.4 Bolts (Fasteners).. ......................................................................................................................... 12
Section 6 Paint Application .......................................................................................................... 15
6.1 General.......................................................................................................................................... 15
6.2 Coatings on Faying Surfaces ........................................................................................................ 16
6.3 Intermediate and Topcoat ............................................................................................................. 16

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Copyright 2006 by the AASHTO/NSBA Steel Bridge Collaboration.
All rights reserved.
Guide Specification for Application of Coating Systems with Zinc-Rich Primers to Steel Bridges

Introduction
This guide represents a consensus on best industry practice for shop application of zinc rich
primers to previously uncoated bridge steel and includes the proper preparation of the steel
surfaces and the mixing, application, and cure of coatings. To simplify the application
parameters for a system based on zinc-rich primers on new steel bridges, a series of charts have
been developed. These charts provide a convenient summary listing the detailed requirements for
surface preparation, environmental conditions, coating application, curing, and verification
testing. The guide addresses a three-coat system consisting of primer, intermediate coat, and
topcoat, but is appropriate for application of a two-coat system or primer only.
This document establishes and defines the functions, operations, requirements, and activities
needed to achieve consistent quality in steel bridge painting. It is based on a cooperative
approach to achieving quality, where both the Owners and Contractors representatives work
together with a clear understanding of their roles and responsibilities, resulting in steel bridges
completed in an efficient manner while meeting all contractual requirements. Its acceptance
does not in any respect preclude anyone, whether he has adopted the standard or not, from
manufacturing, marketing, purchasing, or using products or procedures not addressed in this
standard.
Environmental, containment, and safety issues referenced herein are outside the scope of this
guide and should be addressed in other documents.
This guide uses mandatory (imperative) language to assist owners and specifiers with
development of contract language.

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Copyright 2006 by the AASHTO/NSBA Steel Bridge Collaboration.
All rights reserved.
Guide Specification for Application of Coating Systems with Zinc-Rich Primers to Steel Bridges

Section 1
Definitions
1.1 Applicator (Shop)
Person or contractor who applies a coating.
1.2 Breaking the Corner (Corner Commentary:
Chamfering)
A process by which a sharp corner is flattened The breaking (flattening) of a sharp corner is
by passing a grinder or other suitable device sketched below:
along the corner, normally in a single pass.

Care should be taken to ensure that no new


sharp edges are raised by the grinding.
Extensive testing has proven shop grinding
of corners is unnecessary for improving
coating coverage and corrosion protection
when using ethyl silicate inorganic zinc-rich
primer systems with minimum zinc loading
of 83%. Limited testing has also shown that
while organic zinc-rich materials sometimes
tend to draw thin on square corners, they
cover well on corners that are merely
flattened (breaking the edge). Therefore,
when organic zinc-rich materials are applied
to corners that have been cut (sawed,
burned, or sheared), the corners must either
be broken or stripe coated per SSPC-PA
1, Section 6.6, Striping.
1.3 Checking
The fine cracking that develops in paint films
during prolonged curing and/or weathering that
does not penetrate to the underlying surface.
ASTM D 660 is the Standard Test Method for
Evaluating Degree of Checking of Exterior
Paints.
1.4 Conformance Certification
A verification issued by the coating
manufacturer confirming that a particular batch
of product was produced in accordance with the

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Copyright 2006 by the AASHTO/NSBA Steel Bridge Collaboration.
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Guide Specification for Application of Coating Systems with Zinc-Rich Primers to Steel Bridges

manufacturers standard. This standard of


performance for the product must have
previously been approved or accepted by the
Owner.
1.5 Corner
The intersection of two surfaces.
1.6 Edge
An exposed, through-thickness surface of a
plate or rolled shape, for example the as-rolled
side face of a beam flange, channel flange or
angle leg, or as a result of thermal cutting,
sawing, or shearing. Edges may be planar or
rounded, and either perpendicular or skewed to
adjacent faces.
1.7 Edge Grinding (Edge Conditioning) Commentary:
Very shallow grinding or other pre-blast Edge grinding can be used to remove
cleaning preparation of thermal cut edges martensite, a hardened form of steel that
(TCEs) to remove a thin, hardened layer left by may occur due to rapid resolidification
resolidification. It does not include grinding following thermal cutting. This layer is
required by the D1.5 Bridge Welding Code or typically very thin, about 0.01" to 0.02"
ASTM A 6 to remove cutting, handling or (0.25 to 0.50 mm) thick, and is dependent
material anomalies. upon the steels chemistry and thickness.
Light grinding is generally sufficient to
remove this material, and is only necessary
if the hardness interferes with achieving the
desired profile during blast cleaning. The
presence of martensite and/or the small
grooves normally left by thermal cutting are
not a fatigue or stress concentration
problem.
1.8 Fastener
A mechanical device used to attach two or more
items together; e.g., a bolt, nut and washer.
1.9 Faying Surfaces
Contacting surfaces where joints in steel
structures are fastened together, formed, for
example, by fastening devices.
1.10 Limited Access Areas
Partially or completely enclosed surfaces, the
majority of which are not visible without the use
of special devices such as mirrors, and not
readily accessible for coating by routine
methods.

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Copyright 2006 by the AASHTO/NSBA Steel Bridge Collaboration.
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Guide Specification for Application of Coating Systems with Zinc-Rich Primers to Steel Bridges

1.11 Mud Cracking


A coating defect resembling the irregular
cracking of drying mud that typically arises
during the curing of a relatively inflexible
coating applied too thickly.
1.12 Qualified Product
A coating product which has been approved
based on testing to a Federal, State, or regional
agency, or a test protocol (e.g., AASHTO,
NEPCOAT, NTPEP, or DOT protocol).
1.13 Sharp
An acute corner or prominence that is able or
appears to be able to cut human flesh.
1.14 Spot Priming
Application of primer paint to localized spots
where the substrate is bare or where additional
protection is needed because of damage to, or
deterioration of, a former coat.
1.15 Stripe Coat
A coat of paint applied only to edges or to welds
on steel structures before or after a full coat is
applied to the entire surface. The stripe coat is
intended to give those areas the required dry
film thickness (DFT) to resist corrosion.
1.16 Visible Coating Defects
Imperfections that may be detected by
examination without magnification. These
include runs, sags, lifting, chipping, cracking,
spalling, flaking, mudcracking, pinholing, and
checking.
1.17 Weld Spatter, Tight
Beads of metal produced during the welding
process with adequate thermal energy to adhere
on metal adjacent to the weld area. The droplets
retain their individual shape but have sufficient
fusion to resist removal by hand scraping with a
putty knife, per SSPC-SP 2.

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Copyright 2006 by the AASHTO/NSBA Steel Bridge Collaboration.
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Guide Specification for Application of Coating Systems with Zinc-Rich Primers to Steel Bridges

Section 2
Reference Standards
Unless otherwise noted in the contract, the latest edition of the following standards and
regulations in effect at the time of contract letting form a part of this guide. A copy of applicable
reference standards shall be available at the painting facility.
2.1 American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO)
2.1.1 AASHTO M 160, Standard Specification for General Requirements for Rolled Steel
Plates, Shapes, Steel Pilings, and Bars for Structural Use
2.1.2 AASHTO M 300, Standard Specification for Inorganic Zinc-Rich Primer
2.1.3 AASHTO R 31, Standard Practice for Evaluation of Coating Systems with Zinc-Rich
Primers
2.2 American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
2.2.1 ASTM A 6, Specification for General Requirements for Rolled Structural Steel Bars,
Plates, Shapes, and Sheet Piling
2.2.2 ASTM D 3359, Standard Test Methods for Measuring Adhesion by Tape Test
2.2.3 ASTM D 4138, Standard Test Method for Measurement of Dry Paint Thickness of
Protective Coating Systems by Destructive Means
2.2.4 ASTM D 4285, Standard Test Method for Indicating Oil or Water in Compressed Air
2.2.5 ASTM D 4414, Standard Practice for Measurement of Wet Film Thickness by Notch
Gages
2.2.6 ASTM D 4417, Standard Test Methods for Field Measurement of Surface Profile of Blast
Cleaned Steel
2.2.7 Standard Test Method for Pull-Off Strength of Coatings Using Portable Adhesion Testers
2.2.8 ASTM D 4752, Standard Test Method for Measuring MEK Resistance of Ethyl Silicate
Zinc-Rich Primers by Solvent Rub
2.3 SSPC: The Society for Protective Coatings
2.3.1 SSPC-Paint 29, Zinc Dust Sacrificial Primer, Performance-Based
2.3.2 SSPC-Paint 30, Weld-Through Inorganic Zinc Primer
2.3.3 SSPC-PS 12.00, Guide to Zinc-Rich Coating Systems
2.3.4 SSPC-QP 1, Standard Procedure for Evaluating Painting Contractors (Field Application
to Complex Industrial Structures
2.3.5 SSPC-AB 1, Mineral and Slag Abrasives
2.3.6 SSPC-AB 2, Cleanliness of Recycled Ferrous Metallic Abrasives
2.3.7 SSPC-AB 3, Ferrous Metallic Abrasive
2.3.8 SSPC Guide 13, Guide for the Identification and Use of Industrial Coating Material in
Computerized Product Databases
2.3.9 SSPC-PA 1, Shop, Field, and Maintenance Painting of Steel
2.3.10 SSPC-PA 2, Measurement of Dry Coating Thickness with Magnetic Gages
2.3.11 SSPC-Paint 20, Zinc-Rich Coating, Type IInorganic, and Type IIOrganic)
2.3.12 SSPC-QP 3, Standard Procedure for Evaluating Qualifications of Shop Painting
Contractors
2.3.13 SSPC-SP 1, Solvent Cleaning
2.3.14 SSPC-SP 2, Hand Tool Cleaning
2.3.15 SSPC-SP 3, Power Tool Cleaning
2.3.16 SSPC-SP 10/NACE No. 2, Near-White Blast Cleaning
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Guide Specification for Application of Coating Systems with Zinc-Rich Primers to Steel Bridges

2.3.17 SSPC-SP 11, Power Tool Cleaning to Bare Metal


2.3.18 SSPC-SP 15, Commercial Grade Power Tool Cleaning
2.3.19 SSPC-SP COM, Surface Preparation and Abrasives Commentary, SSPC Painting
Manual, Volume 2, Systems and Specifications
2.3.20 SSPC-Guide 15, Field Methods for Retrieval and Analysis of Soluble Salts on Steel and
Other Nonporous Substrates
2.3.21 SSPC-VIS 1, Guide and Reference Photographs for Steel Surfaces Prepared by Dry
Abrasive Blast Cleaning
2.4 Research Council on Structural Connections (RCSC)
2.4.1 Specification for Structural Joints Using ASTM A325 or A490 Bolts, Section 5(b),
endorsed by the Research Council on Structural Connections.
2.5 American Institute for Steel Construction (AISC)
2.5.1 Sophisticated Paint Endorsement (SPE)
2.6 Related Reference Documents
2.6.1 Applicable Ordinances and Regulations
2.6.2 Equipment and Coating Manufacturers Published Instructions and Product Data Sheets
(PDS).

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Guide Specification for Application of Coating Systems with Zinc-Rich Primers to Steel Bridges

Section 3
General

3.1 Qualification
When the contract requires painting more than
1,500 square feet of steel surface, the
organization(s) performing coating application
must demonstrate qualification by obtaining
SSPC QP 1 certification for field painting or
either SSPC-QP 3 certification or the AISC
Sophisticated Paint Endorsement (SPE) for shop
painting. This qualification must be maintained
throughout the painting portion of the project. If
it expires or is revoked for any reason, notify
the owner, who may require that a qualified
organization complete the coating portion of the
project.
3.2 Quality Control
Conduct and document quality control
inspection of the cleaning and painting
operations including, at a minimum,
measurements of ambient conditions, surface
profile, surface cleanliness, coating material
acceptability, dry film thicknesses, and visual
inspection for coating continuity and defects.
Record the data and make it available for the
Owners review.
3.3 Written Procedures
Maintain written standard procedures, submitted
to the Owner upon request, covering such items
as verifying and maintaining paint manufacturer
data, measuring and recording dry film
thickness and cure time, protection and
treatment of faying surfaces, and other
information needed to successfully document
and apply all coats of paint.
3.4 Miscellaneous
Surfaces to be painted and the coating system to
be used shall be as indicated on plans and/or
contract documents. Unless otherwise noted,
paint is not required on flange surfaces that will
be embedded in concrete, or inside bolt holes,
although overspray is permitted on flange
surfaces and inside bolt holes.

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Guide Specification for Application of Coating Systems with Zinc-Rich Primers to Steel Bridges

3.5 Protective Coating System


3.5.1 Use only Owner-approved coating
systems meeting the applicable slip,
creep, and other contract requirements.
3.5.2 Coating products suitable for use shall
meet the test requirements of AASHTO
M 300, AASHTO R 31, SSPC-Paint 20
(Type II Inorganic, Type I B or Type
IC), SSPC-Paint 29 (Type II Inorganic,
Type I B or Type IC) or SSPC-Paint 30,
or other acceptable qualified product
testing protocols meeting owner
acceptable criteria. SSPC-PS Guide
12.00 provides additional information
about selecting coating materials.
3.5.3 All coatings shall be supplied by the
same coating manufacturer and
designated by the coating manufacturer
for use as a recommended system, unless
otherwise approved by the Owner.
3.5.4 Coating thickness shall be as specified Commentary:
by the Owner and within the Dry film coating thicknesses (DFT)
manufacturers published allowable in excess of those permitted,
thickness ranges. Coating thickness although constituting a specification
ranges on faying surfaces are limited to nonconformance, should be considered on a
the maximum allowable thickness case-by-case basis. Occasional excursions,
defined in the test certification according especially at inside corners and other areas
to RCSC (see Section 2.4) for the given prone to high DFT due to pattern overlap,
product may be acceptable if the coating is well
adhered and free of the deficiencies listed
in Section 6.1.3. Attempting to reduce DFT
in an otherwise acceptable coating may
result in significant problems or extensive,
unnecessary rework. The applicator should
be notified of the problem and amend
procedures to avoid recurrences. QC and
QA inspectors should document the
deficiencies noted, any corrections
required, and resulting changes in the
applicators practices, consistent with the
resolution of any other nonconforming
item.
3.6 Coating Repairs
Submit repair procedures in accordance with the
manufacturers written recommendations for the

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Guide Specification for Application of Coating Systems with Zinc-Rich Primers to Steel Bridges

Owners approval. Repairs to the final coat must


result in an acceptable, uniform gloss and color
on visible surfaces. The Owner shall have final
authority concerning the coatings uniformity
and acceptable appearance.
3.7 Paint Storage
Paint shall be stored in accordance with SSPC-
QP 3, SSPC-PA 1 and manufacturers Product
Data Sheet (PDS).
3.8 Steel Storage After Painting Commentary:
Handle steel members with care to minimize Naturally, while members may be moved
damage to or contamination of the coating. from the paint skids when the coating is
Handle large members with synthetic slings, dry to handle, the coating must be
padded chains and lifting clamps, or other non- thoroughly cured prior to bundling, storing
injurious methods, and store them on padded or and shipping to minimize damage from the
otherwise protected blocking. Small assemblies handling during these processes.
may be bundled utilizing cushioners (e.g.,
cardboard, template paper, carpeting, etc.) or
other means to avoid or minimize metal-to-
metal contact of painted areas. Paint must be
dry-to-handle in accordance with the coating
manufacturers PDS before lifting or placing on
supports to avoid paint damage or foreign
material adhering to painted surfaces.
3.9 Final Acceptance Commentary:
After all shop coats have been applied, repaired Although the Owner (through the QA
as required and cured, the Owner may Inspector) may accept the shop-painted
conditionally accept the coating. Final coating fabricated items before shipment to the job
acceptance will be given at the jobsite. Shop site, final acceptance of the paint system by
coatings will be evaluated upon arrival for the Owner on fabricate and erect or field
fabricate and deliver contracts. After steel is painting contracts will typically occur
erected, damaged coatings are repaired, and following erection of the structure, after all
field bolted or welded connections are fully field coats and paint repairs have been
coated, assessment of the entire paint system for completed. The Owner may elect to check
fabricate and erect contracts or the field the coated member at the fabrication/paint
applied coat(s) for erection and field painting shop prior to shipping and approve the
contracts will be completed. item, waiving field inspection and
approval, especially on Type 1 (three shop
coat) contracts, for the shop painting
requirement of fabricate and deliver
contracts, and on pieces with limited access
after erection, and prior to field coating.

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Guide Specification for Application of Coating Systems with Zinc-Rich Primers to Steel Bridges

Section 4
Material Acceptance
4.1 Paint
4.1.1 Verify that all paint materials satisfy Commentary:
composition and testing requirements, are The issues surrounding the testing and
in conformance with the owner-approved selection of actual coating materials are
Qualified Products List or other applicable not addressed in this document because
requirements, and will not exceed the AASHTO maintains a testing protocol
manufacturers specified shelf life before and database of testing results as part of
use. AASHTO NTPEP (National
Transportation Product Evaluation
Program) initiative.
4.1.2 Instruct the coatings supplier to provide
batch samples of all coating material
components to the Owner as required or
requested.
4.1.3 Materials will be rejected if the material
arrives at the application site in other than
original, unopened containers; if a
container has a break in the lid seal or a
puncture; or if the coating materials have
begun to polymerize, solidify, gel, or
deteriorate in any manner.
4.2 Abrasive Media Condition
Verify that abrasive cleaning material meets the
requirements of SSPC-AB 1, Mineral and Slag
Abrasives; SSPC-AB 2, Cleanliness of Recycled
Ferrous Metallic Abrasives; or SSPC-AB 3,
Ferrous Metallic Abrasive. The condition and
cleanliness of recycled abrasives shall be
confirmed in accordance with the applicators
approved quality control program as per SSPC-QP
3 and/or AISC Sophisticated Paint Endorsement.

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Guide Specification for Application of Coating Systems with Zinc-Rich Primers to Steel Bridges

Section 5
Surface Preparation
5.1 Material Anomalies
5.1.1 Corner Condition Remove all sharp Commentary:
corners prior to painting with either Some corner softening (flattening) occurs
organic or inorganic zinc-rich primer by during blast cleaning; however, blast
creating a small chamfer. With inorganic cleaning alone will not sufficiently break a
zinc rich primers, corners less acute than sharp corner. Corners in the as-rolled
the definition of sharp need no further condition are not normally in need of any
treatment prior to final cleaning treatment. See further discussion in
(profiling) and painting. Sharp corners Section C1.2.
may usually be removed by a single pass
with a grinder. For organic zinc-rich
primer-based systems, all corners
resulting from sawing, burning, or
shearing operations must be broken or a
primer stripe coat shall be applied to
those corners.
5.1.2 Preparation of Thermal Cut Edges
Before blast cleaning, condition (by
lightly grinding) thermal cut edges
(TCEs) to be painted, if conditioning is
necessary to achieve proper blast
cleaning profile.
5.1.3 Base Metal Surface Irregularities
Remove all visually evident surface
defects in accordance with ASTM A 6
or AASHTO M 160 prior to blast
cleaning steel. When material defects
exposed by blast cleaning are removed,
restore the blast profile either by blast
cleaning or by using mechanical tools in
accordance with SSPC-SP 11 or SP 15.
5.1.4 Weld Irregularities or Spatter Remove Commentary:
or repair all sharp weld prominences, While the removal of all weld spatter is
and all heavy, sharp, or loose weld recommended, it is recognized that absolute
spatter. Occasional individual particles compliance would present difficulties, often
of rounded tight weld spatter may leading to unnecessary rework. As a
remain, but widespread, sharp, or practical matter, occasional tightly adhered
clustered particles of tight weld spatter spatter may remain as long as paint coverage
must be removed. and adhesion are not adversely affected
5.2 Pre-Cleaning
Remove all oil, grease, and other adherent
deleterious substances, including bolt lubricant

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Guide Specification for Application of Coating Systems with Zinc-Rich Primers to Steel Bridges

and excess dye, from areas to be painted, in


accordance with SSPC-SP 1, prior to abrasive
blast cleaning.
5.3 Abrasive Blast Cleaning
5.3.1 Abrasive blast clean the entire surface to
be coated in accordance with the
cleanliness and profile required by the
manufacturers PDS and the owners
specifications.
5.3.2 If the material for the project is heavily
rusted or pitted, or as directed by the
Owner, measure the non-visible
contaminant and remove to a level in
accordance with owners specifications,
or as required by Table 5.2, Row 4.
5.3.3 Assess the profile per ASTM D 4417,
Method C (Replica Tape).
5.4 Bolts (Fasteners)
5.4.1 When bolts are to be installed and final- Commentary:
tightened before priming, prepare them The extra cleaning specified in Section 5.4.2
as necessary so that after the steel is may be required because of surface
abrasive blast cleaned, exposed bolt hardness, limited blast media access, etc.
surfaces will satisfy the requirements
outlined in Table 5.1.
5.4.2 Black bolts, nuts and washers, including
flat faces of nuts and bolt heads facing
adjacent material, may require spot blast
cleaning or other surface preparation
before general blast cleaning in order to
assure that the proper surface profile to
obtain adhesion of the primer, has been
achieved.
5.4.3 If the zinc coating on mechanically or
hot-dip galvanized bolts is damaged
during abrasive blast cleaning or
tightening, it may be left as is if the
entire coating system (including the
zinc-rich primer) will be applied over
the fasteners.
5.4.4 Obtain the identity of solvents and Commentary:
methods needed to remove the lubricant. Removal of the lubricant wax and non-
Supply to the General Contractor, shop absorbed dye (blue for mechanically
and field painters, the Owner, and other galvanized and green for hot dip galvanized)
interested parties the information has been easily accomplished with an
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Guide Specification for Application of Coating Systems with Zinc-Rich Primers to Steel Bridges

concerning the lubricant removal and alkaline household cleaner such as ammonia.
the cleanliness necessary for Care should be taken to ensure that no
intermediate coat adhesion. Perform residue from the cleaner remains after
periodic evaluation to ensure that cleaning that may affect subsequent coating
lubricant and excess dye are adequately adhesion; typically ammonia will evaporate
removed. by the time the coating is applied. Any dye
coloring remaining on galvanized nuts after
weathering or the required surface
preparation is not believed to be detrimental
to subsequent coating performance or
appearance. A white cloth wipe test with no
color transfer can be used to confirm that all
lubricant and non-absorbed dye has been
removed, leaving only the residual stain
on the surface.
5.4.5 When zinc-coated twist-off tension-
control or lock-pin-and-collar fasteners
are used, completely seal the sheared
end of each fastener with non-silicone-
type sealing compound conforming to
the provisions in Federal Specification
TT-S-230, Type II.
Apply the sealant to the non-rusted
surface on the same day that the bolt is
installed. The sealant shall be
compatible with the subsequently
applied coating.

Table 5.1 Surface Preparation Requirements for Fasteners

Fasteners Installed Prior to


Cleaning & Primer Application Fasteners Installed After Primer Application

Item Coating System Surface Prep Coating System Surface Prep


OZ, IOZ SSPC-SP 1, 10
Black Iron SSPC-SP 1 and as required
OZ or IOZ Section 5.4.1 to achieve the proper
Bolts Other Specified
degree of cleaning
specified
Galvanized
(Mechanical
OZ or IOZ SSPC-SP 1 Intermediate Coat SSPC-SP 1, 2, 3, and/or 12
or
Hot Dip)

OZ= Organic Zinc-Rich Coating IOZ= Inorganic Zinc-Rich Coating

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Guide Specification for Application of Coating Systems with Zinc-Rich Primers to Steel Bridges

5.5 Summary
Table 5.2 summarizes the requirements for pre-cleaning, cleaning, profile, and surface
cleanliness of structural steel.
Table 5.2 Surface Preparation Summary Table
Basis for
Requirement Acceptance Minimum Maximum Frequency/Extent
1. Pre-Clean Visual SSPC-SP 1 N/A 100%
2. Degree of Cleaning Visual PDS N/A 100%
once every shift for automated
3. Profile operations and twice per shift per
Test PDS PDS
(ASTM D 4417) nozzle, and whenever the operating
media mix is changed
4. Surface Cleanliness per owner 1
Test N/A Varies
(SSPC-Guide 15)2 requirements
Test
Black Iron SP 1, SP 10 SP 1, SP 10 100%
6. Fasteners
Mechanically
or Hot Dip SP 1 SP 1 100%
Galvanized

1 Only needed on heavily rusted or pitted steel as described in SSPC-VIS 1 Conditions C and D.
2 The test methods indicated in SSPC-Guide 15 vary in their sensitivity and the particular test
method used should be selected by the Owner.

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Guide Specification for Application of Coating Systems with Zinc-Rich Primers to Steel Bridges

Section 6
Paint Application

6.1 General
6.1.1 Apply coatings in accordance with the
Contract requirements, SSPC-PA 1, and
the manufacturers instructions.
6.1.2 Conduct and document an on-going
quality control inspection of the
materials, prepared surfaces, and the
prime, intermediate, and topcoat
painting per Tables 6.1 to 6.3 (presented
at the end of Section 6).
6.1.3 Record the daily storage temperature
range for coating materials and verify
conformance with the coating
manufacturers product data sheet. Use
inventory control to ensure that
components are used within the shelf life
prescribed by the manufacturer. Record
the coating batch numbers from the
mixed components, the amount and type
of thinner used, and the date applied in
the application log.
Verify that the coating has been applied
to provide a continuous, uniform film of
the specified thickness; is well bonded to
the metal or previously applied coating;
is free of laps, streaks, sags, or other
visually evident defects; and was applied
within the manufacturers specified pot
life.
6.1.4 Areas that fail any required test(s) shall
be subject to the nonconformance
disposition procedure outlined in
Section 3.6.
6.1.5 Tables 6.1, 6.2 and 6.3 show information
related to ambient conditions; surface
cleanliness; and mixing, application, and
cure. The charts show the specific
source of relevant control information,
as well as minimum and maximum
tolerances. Also indicated are inspection
frequency requirements.

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Guide Specification for Application of Coating Systems with Zinc-Rich Primers to Steel Bridges

6.2 Coatings on Faying Surfaces


Coatings or coating systems applied to contact
surfaces of bolted connections between primary
members shall satisfy RCSC requirements for
the specified slip friction coefficient (see
Section 2.4) and the temperature-adjusted cure
time. Prior to bolting, verify that the coating on
faying surfaces is properly cured in accordance
with the manufacturer's requirements. Verify
that the dry film thicknesses and the
temperature-adjusted cure time for slip critical
bolted faying surfaces are within the range
previously validated by testing of the coating or
coating system.
6.3 Intermediate and Topcoat Commentary:
The color of the topcoat shall be as specified in Under extreme exposure conditions, the
the contract documents. If an intermediate coat Owner may specify stripe coating for
is used, its color shall contrast with both the intermediate and/or topcoat.
primer and final coat, as approved by the
Owner. Coating materials used to apply
piecemarks shall be compatible with the
existing and any subsequent coats or the piece
marks shall be removed as a contaminant.

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Guide Specification for Application of Coating Systems with Zinc-Rich Primers to Steel Bridges

Table 6.1 Zinc-Rich Prime Coat Inspection


Basis for
Requirement Acceptance Minimum Maximum Frequency/Extent
As Required
1. Current Painter
Applicator QC Plan by SSPC/ N/A Every painter/project
Qualification Verified
AISC
2. Ambient Temperature Product Data Sheet As Required As Required Every 4 hours1
3. Dew Point & Relative
Product Data Sheet As Required As Required Every 4 hours1
Humidity
4. Surface Temperature Product Data Sheet As Required As Required Every 4 hours1
5. Primer Component Owner Approved
N/A N/A Every Paint Kit
Batch Number Batch Numbers2
24 hrs and Examine visually and
6. Verification of Surface
SSPC-SP 10 N/A before Flash with cloth w/in 1 hour
Cleanliness
Rust prior to priming
7. Date and Time N/A N/A N/A Each Lot of Work3
8. Piece Mark or Bundle N/A N/A N/A Each Lot of Work3
9. Temperature of Mixed When mixing
Product Data Sheet As Required As Required
Primer components4
10. Proper Mixing and
Product Data Sheet As Required N/A Every Pot Mix4
Straining
11. Primer Induction
Product Data Sheet N/A N/A Every Pot Mix4
Time5
12. Primer Pot Life5 Product Data Sheet N/A As Required Every Pot Mix4
13. Primer Stripe Coat6,7 Product Data Sheet N/A N/A N/A
14. Primer Recoat
Product Data Sheet As Required Acceptable7 Each lot of work
Window Time
15. Primer Cure Time Product Data Sheet As Required As Required Each Lot of Work
Product Data Sheet
16. Primer Cure Test6 As Required As Required Daily or Once / Shift
or Owner Spec
Product Data Sheet
17. Dry Film Thickness As Required As Required SSPC-PA 2
or Owner Spec
18. Visual Inspection SSPC-PA 1 No defects N/A 100%
19. Primer Coat SSPC PA 1 & Visual, 100% of each
As Required N/A
Evaluation and Repair9 Approved Procedure element
20. Primer Recoat Time Product Data Sheet As Required Acceptable6 Each lot of work

Footnotes follow Table 6.3.


Commentary: Table 6.1, Requirement 13. Stripe coating, when specified, is normally
performed as outlined in SSPC-PA 1 subsection 6.6, Striping, and in accordance with the
coating manufacturers recommendations. The purpose of the stripe coat is to assure that
adequate coating thickness is deposited on designated surfaces. Apply the stripe coat either
before or after the full prime coat, by spray application or by brush or roller in accordance with
the coating manufacturers recommendation. The stripe coat can be applied as allowed by the
coating manufacturers recommendation.

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Guide Specification for Application of Coating Systems with Zinc-Rich Primers to Steel Bridges

Table 6.2 Intermediate Coat Inspection


Basis for
Requirement Acceptance Minimum Maximum Frequency/Extent
As required
1. Current Painter
Applicator QC Plan by SSPC/ N/A Every painter/project
Qualification Verified
AISC
2. Ambient Temperature Product Data Sheet As Required As Required Every 4 hours1
3. Dew Point & Relative
Product Data Sheet As Required As Required Every 4 hours1
Humidity
4. Surface Temperature Product Data Sheet As Required As Required Every 4 hours1
5. Intermediate Coat
Owner Approved
Component Batch N/A N/A Every Paint Kit
Batch Numbers2
Number
6. Primer Coat Evaluation SSPC PA 1 & Visual, 100% of each
As Required N/A
and Repair6 Approved Procedure element
7. Primer Recoat Time Product Data Sheet Full Cure6 Acceptable6 Each Lot of Work3
8. Verification of Primer Initial and Every 4
SSPC-SP 1 As Required N/A
Surface Cleanliness Hours of Painting
9. Date and Time N/A N/A N/A Each Lot of Work3
10. Piece Mark or Bundle N/A N/A N/A Each Lot of Work3
11. Temperature of Mixed When mixing
Product Data Sheet As Required As Required
Inter. Coat components4
12. Intermediate Coat
Product Data Sheet As Required N/A Every Pot Mix4
Mixing &/or Straining
13. Intermediate Coat
Product Data Sheet N/A N/A Every Pot Mix4
Induction Time5
14. Intermediate Coat Pot
Product Data Sheet N/A As Required Every Pot Mix4
Life5
15. Intermediate Coat DFT Owner spec or PDS8 As Required As Required SSPC-PA 2
16. Visual Inspection SSPC-PA 1 No Defects N/A 100%
17. Intermediate Coat SSPC PA 1 & Visual, 100% of each
As Required N/A
Evaluation and Repair9 Approved Procedure element
18. Intermediate Coat
Product Data Sheet Full Cure As Required Each Lot of Work3
Recoat Time

Footnotes follow Table 6.3.

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Guide Specification for Application of Coating Systems with Zinc-Rich Primers to Steel Bridges

Table 6.3 Top Coat Inspection


Basis for
Requirement Acceptance Minimum Maximum Frequency/Extent
As Required
1. Current Painter
Applicator QC Plan by SSPC/ N/A Every painter/project
Qualification Verified
AISC
2. Ambient Temperature Product Data Sheet As Required As Required Every 4 hours1
3. Dew Point & Relative
Product Data Sheet As Required As Required Every 4 hours1
Humidity
4. Surface Temperature Product Data Sheet As Required As Required Every 4 hours1
5. Top Coat Component Owner Approved
N/A N/A Every Paint Kit
Batch Number Batch Numbers2
6. Intermediate Coat SSPC PA 1 & Visual, 100% of each
As Required N/A
Evaluation and Repair9 Approved Procedure element
7. Intermediate Coat
Product Data Sheet Full Cure Acceptable Each Lot of Work
Recoat Time
8. Verification of Int. Coat Initial and Every 4
SSPC-SP 1 As Required N/A
Surface Cleanliness Hours of Painting
9. Date and Time N/A N/A N/A Each Lot of Work3
10. Piece Mark or Bundle N/A N/A N/A Each Lot of Work3
11. Temperature of Mixed When mixing
Product Data Sheet As Required As Required
Top Coat components4
12. Top Coat Mixing &/or
Product Data Sheet As Required N/A Every Pot Mix4
Straining
13. Top Coat Induction
Product Data Sheet N/A N/A Every Pot Mix
Time5
14. Top Coat Pot Life5 Product Data Sheet N/A As Required Every Pot Mix4
15. Topcoat Dry Time Product Data Sheet Full Cure N/A Each Lot of Work3
16. Top Coat DFT Owner Spec or PDS8 As Required As Required SSPC-PA 2
17. Visual Inspection SSPC-PA 1 No Defects N/A 100%
18. Paint System Final SSPC PA 1 & Visual, 100% of each
As Required N/A
Evaluation and Repair9 Approved Procedure element

Footnotes:
1 Based on weather conditions, more or less frequent testing may be stipulated by the Owner
2 Owner approval may be based on sampling and testing or the manufacturers certification
acceptance that batch compositions conform to previously approved standards. Primer for
faying (contact) surfaces of high strength bolted connections (for slip-critical, frictional
transfer of load) must satisfy RCSC requirements for a Class B rating, based on certified
tests by the coating manufacturer or applicator.
3 All items in each lot that were coated with the same batch of paint must be identified. Small
items may be identified by bundle or shipping container number.
4 Every pot mixed should be verified. QC must document acceptance by initials or signature,
and form must include time/date and batch component numbers.

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Guide Specification for Application of Coating Systems with Zinc-Rich Primers to Steel Bridges

5 Upon addition of the activator. Does not apply to single or multiple component coatings not
utilizing a catalyst or other activator that reacts to modify the mixed coating and/or limit pot
life.
6 Cure testing of primer is required prior to shop application of intermediate or stripe coat, or
if adding extensive organic zinc primer to increase initial DFT. (Not required for spot
priming.) See manufacturers thinning requirements if repriming previously coated surface.
For field-applied intermediate coat, the cure test is not required, but adequate primer cure
must be verified before handling and shipping. For inorganic zinc, if the PDS does not have
a specified cure test, then ASTM D 4752 shall apply.
7 Stripe coat(s) may be applied either before or after the full coat to ensure adequate coverage
on outside corners, edges and other areas specified in the applicators coating plan. Note that
striping IOZ is not normally recommended.
8 Based on difference between average DFT of coats applied and previous readings for similar
areas. For example, webs, stiffeners, flanges, cross frames, and bearings may each have
different averages due to application patterns.
9 All repairs shall meet the requirements of Section 3.6. The recoat window shall follow the
guidelines of this guide, the coating manufacturers recommendations, and good painting
practice as dictated by SSPC.

Commentary: Footnote 7. Stripe coating, when specified, is normally performed as outlined in


SSPC-PA 1 subsection 6.6, Striping, and in accordance with the coating manufacturers
recommendations. The purpose of the stripe coat is to assure that adequate coating thickness is
deposited on designated surfaces. Apply the stripe coat either before or after the full prime coat,
by spray application or by brush or roller in accordance with the coating manufacturers
recommendation. The stripe coat can be applied as allowed by the coating manufacturers
recommendation.
Commentary: Table 6.3, Requirement 18. The adhesion test confirms that the coating system
achieves satisfactory adhesion. The test is destructive, but the value inherent in assuring system
adhesion outweighs the cost of performing and repairing occasional adhesion test sites.
Due to the destructive nature of adhesion testing, alternate approaches are permitted to satisfy
the requirement. For example, if a steel coupon is affixed to a member and cleaned and painted
along with the member, the coupon can be the location of the adhesion test, avoiding coating
damage and repairs on the permanent member.
Alternately, by attaching a dolly to the coated member and applying only enough pull on the
dolly to reach a predetermined stress, and then removing the test equipment and leaving the dolly
in place, the test does not have to be destructive. The dolly can be coated the same color as the
structure.

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AASHTO Document No: NSBASCBS-2-OL
Printed December, 2006