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S GIO DC-OTO K THI CHN HC SINH GII TNH LP 12 THPT

H TNH NM HC 2015-2016
Mn : Ha hc
CHNH THC Thi gian lm bi: 180 pht
( thi c 02 trang, gm 10 cu)

Dung dch cht A


Cu 1:
a. Em hy trnh by cch trng mt lp
bc mng ln mt trong mt ng nghim.
Nu r ha cht cn dng v vit phng
trnh ha hc xy ra.
b. Cho bit b dng c trong hnh v bn Hp cht B
Bng tm cht C
c s dng iu ch cht no trong
s cc cht: HNO3, N2O, N2? Hy cho
bit cc hp cht A, B tng ng? Vit
phng trnh ha hc xy ra trong qu Nc

trnh iu ch, nu vai tr ca cht C?

Cu 2:
a. So snh lc baz ca cc cht c vng benzen sau: m-CH3C6H4NH2, p-CH3C6H4NH2,
o-CH3C6H4NH2, p-O2NC6H4NH2, p-ClC6H4NH2. Gii thch?
b. So snh lc axit ca cc cht sau:
(CH3)3CCOOH; CH3CH=CHCH2COOH; CH3CH2CH=CHCOOH; (CH3)2CHCOOH;
CH2=CHCH2CH2COOH. Gii thch?

Cu 3:
Hn hp A gm mt peptit X v mt peptit Y (mi cht c cu to t 1 loi aminoaxit, tng
s nhm CONH trong 2 loi phn t l 5) vi t l s mol n X:nY=2:1. Khi thy phn hon ton
m gam hn hp A thu c 5,625 gam glyxin v 10,86 gam tyrosin. Tnh gi tr m.

Cu 4:
Hn hp X gm ba hidrocacbon mch h, c t khi hi so vi H 2 l 21,2. t chy hon ton
4,24 gam X, thu c 6,72 lt kh CO 2 (ktc). Khi cho 2,12 gam hi X vo bnh kn dung tch 500
ml (c xc tc Ni vi th tch khng ng k), p sut bnh l p, 0 0C. Cho kh H2 vo bnh, p
sut bnh l 2p, 00C. Nung nng bnh, p sut gim dn n gi tr thp nht l p1, 00C. Lc ny
trong bnh ch cha hai kh khng lm mt mu dung dch nc brom. Bit rng trong X,
hidrocacbon c phn t khi nh nht chim 20% th tch ca hn hp.
a. Xc nh cng thc phn t v thnh phn % th tch cc cht trong X.
b. Tnh gi tr ca p, p1.

Cu 5:
un nng m gam hn hp X gm cc cht c cng mt loi nhm chc vi 600 ml dung dch
NaOH 1,15M, thu c dung dch Y cha mui ca mt axit cacboxylic n chc v 15,4 gam
hi Z gm cc ancol. Cho ton b Z tc dng vi Na d, thu c 5,04 lt kh H 2 (ktc). C cn
dung dch Y, nung nng cht rn thu c vi CaO cho n khi phn ng xy hon ton, thu c
7,2 gam mt cht kh. Tnh m.

Cu 6:
Hp cht A c cng thc phn t C7H6O2, tan t trong nc nhng tan tt trong dung dch NaOH
to thnh mui B (cng thc C7H5O2Na). B tc dng vi nc brom to ra hp cht D, trong phn
t D cha 64% Br v khi lng. Kh 6,1 gam hp cht A bng hidro (xc tc Pt) 20 0C thu
c 5,4 gam hp cht thm G.
a. Tnh hiu sut ca phn ng to ra G.
b. Xc nh cng thc cu to ca cc hp cht A, B, D, G.

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Cu 7:
Cho m gam hn hp gm hai kim loi Mg v Al c t l mol tng ng l 4:5 vo dung dch
HNO3 20%. Sau khi cc phn ng xy ra hon ton, thu c dung dch A v c 6,72 lt hn hp
kh X gm NO, N2O, N2 thot ra. Thm mt lng O2 va vo X, sau phn ng, thu c hn
hp kh Y. Dn t t Y qua dung dch NaOH d th c 4,48 lt hn hp kh Z thot ra. T khi hi
ca Z so vi H2 l 20. Mt khc, cho dung dch KOH vo dung dch A th lng kt ta thu c
ln nht l (m + 39,1) gam. Bit cc th tch kh u o iu kin tiu chun v lng HNO 3
ban u dng d 20% so vi lng cn thit. Tnh nng % ca mui Al(NO 3)3 trong dung dch
A.

Cu 8:
Ha tan ht 10,24 gam hn hp X gm Fe v Fe 3O4 bng 200 ml dung dch cha H2SO4 0,5M
v HNO3 2,5M thu c dung dch Y v hn hp gm 0,1 mol NO v a mol NO 2 (khng c sn
phm kh khc). Chia dung dch Y thnh hai phn bng nhau.
- Phn mt tc dng vi 500 ml dung dch KOH 0,4M, thu c 5,35 gam mt cht kt ta.
- Phn hai tc dng vi dung dch Ba(OH)2 d, thu c m gam kt ta.
Cc phn ng xy ra hon ton. Tnh m.

Cu 9:
Cho 20 gam hn hp A gm FeCO 3, Fe, Cu, Al tc dng vi 60 ml dung dch NaOH 2M, thu
c 2,688 lt kh H2. Sau khi kt thc phn ng, cho tip 740 ml dung dch HCl 1M vo hn hp
ri un nng, thu c hn hp kh B v cn mt phn cht rn cha tan (C). Sc kh B vo dung
dch Ca(OH)2 d th xut hin 10 gam kt ta. Cho cht rn C tc dng vi dung dch HNO 3 c,
nng, d, thu c dung dch D v 1,12 lt mt cht kh duy nht. Cho D tc dng vi dung dch
NaOH d, thu c kt ta E. Nung E n khi lng khng i c m gam cht rn. Tnh khi
lng cc cht trong A v tnh m. Cc kh o iu kin tiu chun, cc phn ng u xy ra
hon ton.

Cu 10:
Ho tan hon ton 0,812 gam mt mu qung st gm FeO, Fe 2O3 v 35% tp cht tr trong
dung dch H2SO4 (d), thu c dung dch X. Sc kh SO2 vo dung dch X, thu c dung dch
Y. Dung dch Y phn ng va vi 22,21 ml dung dch KMnO 4 0,1M. Mt khc, ho tan ht
1,218 gam mu qung trn trong dung dch H2SO4 (d) ri thm dung dch KMnO4 0,1M vo
dung dch thu c cho n khi phn ng xy ra hon ton, th ht 15,26 ml dung dch KMnO 4
0,1M.
a. Vit phng trnh ha hc ca cc phn ng xy ra.
b. Tnh th tch SO2 (ktc) dng v thnh phn phn trm theo khi lng ca FeO, Fe 2O3 c
trong mu qung.

------------------ HT-----------------

- Hc sinh khng c s dng ti liu (tr bng H thng tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc).
- Cn b coi thi khng phi gii thch g thm.
- H v tn th sinh: ............................................................................S bo danh:..........

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S GIO DC-O TO K THI HC SINH GII TNH CP THPT
H TNH NM HC 2015-2016
HNG DN CHM MN HO HC LP 12

Dung dch cht A


Cu 1:
a. Em hy trnh by cch trng mt lp
bc mng ln mt trong mt ng nghim.
Nu r ha cht cn dng v vit phng
trnh ha hc xy ra.
b. Cho bit b dng c trong hnh v bn
c s dng iu ch cht no trong Hp cht B Bng tm cht C
s cc cht: HNO3, N2O, N2? Hy cho
bit cc hp cht A, B tng ng? Vit Nc
phng trnh ha hc xy ra trong qu
trnh iu ch, nu vai tr ca cht C?

Hng dn chm
Cu 1 Ni dung im
* Ly mt t dung dch AgNO3 vo mt ng nghim sch, thm t t dung dch
NH3 n khi kt ta xut hin ri tan ht. Thm vo dung dch mt t dung dch
RCHO (hc sinh c th dng mt cht bt k khc c nhm -CHO). un nng
t t ng nghim mt thi gian ta thu c ng nghim c trng mt lp Ag 0,5
a. mng pha trong. im
* Cc phng trnh phn ng:
AgNO3 + NH3 + H2O Ag(OH) + NH4NO3
Ag(OH) + 2NH3 [Ag(NH3)2]OH 0,5
2[Ag(NH3)2]OH + R-CHO 2Ag + RCOONH4 + 3NH3 + H2O im
t0
B dng c cho dng iu ch HNO3. A l dung dch H2SO4 c, B l
KNO3 rn (hoc NaNO3 rn ...), C l baz kim dng trnh HNO3 thot ra
ngoi. 0,5
b. Phng trnh ha hc xy ra: im
KNO3(r) + H2SO4() KHSO4 + HNO3 0,5
t0
im
2KNO3(r) + H2SO4() K2SO4 +2 HNO3
t0

Cu 2:
a. So snh lc baz ca cc cht c vng benzen sau: m-CH3C6H4NH2, p-CH3C6H4NH2,
o-CH3C6H4NH2, p-O2NC6H4NH2, p-ClC6H4NH2. Gii thch?
b. So snh lc axit ca cc cht sau:
(CH3)3CCOOH; CH3CH=CHCH2COOH; CH3CH2CH=CHCOOH; (CH3)2CHCOOH;
CH2=CHCH2CH2COOH. Gii thch?

Hng dn chm
Cu 2 Ni dung im
a. Lc baz gim dn theo dy:
o-CH3C6H4NH2 > p-CH3C6H4NH2 > m-CH3C6H4NH2 > p-ClC6H4NH2 > 0,5
p-O2NC6H4NH2. im
Gii thch: CH3 l nhm y electron lm tng lc baz, v tr octo c nh
hng mnh nht, v tr para c nh hng mnh hn v tr meta (do hiu ng

3
octo v para); ring nhm NO2 c hiu ng C, ht electron mnh nht lm
gim mnh lc baz, nhm Cl c hiu ng I v +C lm gim t lc baz ca 0,5
NH2, t ta c th t nh trn. im
Lc axit gim dn theo dy:
CH3CH=CHCH2COOH > CH3CH2CH=CHCOOH > CH2=CHCH2CH2COOH > 0,5
(CH3)2CHCOOH > (CH3)3CCOOH im
Gii thch: Cc axit c cha lin kt C=C lm tng lc axit (do m in ca
b. cc nguyn t Csp2 kh cao), axit th 2 c cha lin kt
CH3-CH2-CH=CH-C(OH)=O
0,5
im
c hiu ng +C nn lc axit km hn so vi axit th nht, hai axit cui c cc
nhm CH3 y electron nn lm gim lc axit v s nhm CH3 cng nhiu th lc
axit cng gim

Cu 3:
Hn hp A gm mt peptit X v mt peptit Y (mi cht c cu to t 1 loi aminoaxit, tng
s nhm CONH trong 2 loi phn t l 5) vi t l s mol n X:nY=2:1. Khi thy phn hon ton
m gam hn hp A thu c 5,625 gam glyxin v 10,86 gam tyrosin. Tnh gi tr m.

Hng dn chm
Cu 3 Ni dung im
ngly=0,075 nTyr=0,06 nX=2a nY=a
TH1: Hn hp gm: 2a mol X (phn t c t nhm -CONH- c to ra t Gly) v
a mol Y (phn t c 5-t nhm -CONH- c to ra t Tyr) 1,0
2a*(t+1)=0,075 a*(5-t+1)=0,06 at=0,0236 a=0,0139 t=1,697 khng im
nguyn loi.
TH2: Hn hp gm: 2a mol X (phn t c t nhm -CONH- c to ra t Tyr) v
a mol Y (phn t c 5-t nhm -CONH- c to ra t Gly)
2a*(t+1)=0,06 a*(5-t+1)=0,075 at=0,015 a=0,015 t=1 tha mn 1,0
Hn hp gm 0,03 mol X (gm 2 gc Tyr) v 0,015 mol Y (gm 5 gc Gly) im
m=14,865 gam

4
Cu 4:
Hn hp X gm ba hidrocacbon mch h, c t khi hi so vi H 2 l 21,2. t chy hon ton
4,24 gam X, thu c 6,72 lt kh CO 2 (ktc). Khi cho 2,12 gam hi X vo bnh kn dung tch 500
ml (c xc tc Ni vi th tch khng ng k), p sut bnh l p, 0 0C. Cho kh H2 vo bnh, p
sut bnh l 2p, 00C. Nung nng bnh, p sut gim dn n gi tr thp nht l p1, 00C. Lc ny
trong bnh ch cha hai kh khng lm mt mu dung dch nc brom. Bit rng trong X,
hidrocacbon c phn t khi nh nht chim 20% th tch ca hn hp.
a. Xc nh cng thc phn t v thnh phn % th tch cc cht trong X.
b. Tnh gi tr ca p, p1.

Hng dn chm
Cu 4 Ni dung im

Khi lng mol trung bnh ca hn hp l M = 21,2x2=42,4


s mol X = 0,1 mol.
S mol CO2 to ra = 0,3 mol. Gi cng thc chung ca 3 hidrocacbon l CxHy,
phn ng chy:
CxHy + (x+y/4)O2 xCO2 + y/2 H2O
T phn ng chy x = 3.
V bnh kn, nhit khng i m p sut gp i nn s mol kh tng gp i
s mol X = s mol H2= 0,05 mol.
V khi nung p sut gim nn c phn ng cng xy ra v sn phm kh l 2
ankan hoc 1 ankan v H2.
TH1: Nu trong bnh sau cng l ankan v H2 th 3 hidrocacbon ban u phi c
a. 0,5
cng s nguyn t C v bng 3. Vy ba hidrocacbon l C3H8, C3H6 v C3H4 im
%C3H8 = 20%; %C3H6 = %C3H4 = 40%
TH2: Nu trong bnh sau cng l 2 ankan khi lng 2 ankan = 2,12 +
0,05*2 = 22,2 gam
Gi 2 ankan l CnH2n+2 v CmH2m+2 c s mol tng ng l x, y, ta c h
(14n +2)x + (14m+2)y = 22,2
V s mol CO2 to ra khi t chy X cng bng s mol CO2 to ra khi t chy 2
ankan = 0,15 mol => t phn ng chy ca 2 ankan th ta c:
nx + my = 0,15 => x+y = 0,06
V phn ng hidro ha khng lm thay i s mol hidrocacbon nn s mol X = 0,5
0,05 <0,06 l khng tha mn. Vy ba hidrocacbon l C3H8, C3H6 v C3H4. im
p dng cng thc PV =nRT, ta c P = 0,05*0,082*273/0,5 = 2,2386 (atm)
Cc phn ng vi H2: C3H4 + 2H2 C3H8
C3H6 + H2 C3H8
Theo gi thit ta c s mol ca C3H4 = 0,01 mol. Gi x, y ln lt l s mol ca
C3H8 v C3H6 trc phn ng, ta c h:
b.
x + y = 0,04
44x + 42y = 2,12 - 0,01x40 = 1,72.
Gii h ta c x =0,02 v y = 0,02 1,0
T cc phn ng vi H2 trn ta tnh c s mol hn hp sau phn ng = 0,06 im
mol => p1 = 2,686 atm

5
Cu 5:
un nng m gam hn hp X gm cc cht c cng mt loi nhm chc vi 600 ml dung dch
NaOH 1,15M, thu c dung dch Y cha mui ca mt axit cacboxylic n chc v 15,4 gam
hi Z gm cc ancol. Cho ton b Z tc dng vi Na d, thu c 5,04 lt kh H 2 (ktc). C cn
dung dch Y, nung nng cht rn thu c vi CaO cho n khi phn ng xy hon ton, thu c
7,2 gam mt cht kh. Tnh m.
Hng dn chm
Cu 5 Ni dung im
S mol NaOH = 0,69 mol; s mol H2 = 0,225 mol
V X thy phn ra mui ca axit hu c v cht tc dng vi Na cho H2 X l
hn hp este. Gi este l (RCOO)nR, ta c 0,5
(RCOO)nR + nNaOH nRCOONa + R(OH)n (1) im
R(OH)n + nNa R(ONa)n + n/2H2 (2)
T (1) v (2) ta c s mol NaOH = 0,45 mol v s mol RCOONa = 0,45 mol
Mt khc ta c:
RCOONa + NaOH RH + Na2CO3 (3) 0,5
CaO, t0
im
Theo gi thit s mol NaOH cn (3) = 0,69 0,45 = 0,24, vy s mol RH =
0,24 mol => RH = 30 v R l C2H5 1,0
p dng bo ton khi lng ta tnh c im
m = 15,4 + 0,45x96 0,45x40 = 40,6 (gam)

Cu 6:
Hp cht A c cng thc phn t C7H6O2, tan t trong nc nhng tan tt trong dung dch NaOH
to thnh mui B (cng thc C7H5O2Na). B tc dng vi nc brom to ra hp cht D, trong phn
t D cha 64% Br v khi lng. Kh 6,1 gam hp cht A bng hidro (xc tc Pt) 20 0C thu
c 5,4 gam hp cht thm G.
a. Tnh hiu sut ca phn ng to ra G.
b. Xc nh cng thc cu to ca cc hp cht A, B, D, G.

Hng dn chm
Cu 6 Ni dung im
Do s nguyn t C gn bng s nguyn t H v kh nng ha tan km ca A
trong nc, tc dng vi H2 to ra hp cht thm G A l hp cht thm. A
tc dng c vi NaOH => c cha nhm -OH thuc phenol hoc nhm
COOH v u ch cha mt nhm (do to sn phm cha 1 nguyn t Na).
iu kin thng B tc dng vi dung dch nc brom nn B l mui ca
phenol nhm th cn li l CHO. Vy cng thc ca A l HO-C6H4-CHO. 0,5
Phn ng ca A vi H2 to HO-C6H4-CH2OH (G) im
Theo l thuyt, s gam G thu c l 6,1.124/122 = 6,2 gam
Hiu sut to ra G = 5,4/6,2 = 0,871 hay 87,1%
Gi sn phm ca B vi nc brom l HO-C6H4-nBrn-COOH ta c
80n/(138+79n) = 0,64 n =3. 0,5
Vy cng thc ca D l HO-C6HBr3-COOH im
Trong A cc nhm th phi v tr meta vi nhau v ch trng hp ny vng
benzen mi c 3 nguyn t H b thay th bi brom. T cng thc cu to
ca A, B, D, G ln lt l
ONa
ONa
OH ONa
Br Br

1,0
CHO
im
CHO CHO Br CH2OH

A B D G
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Cu 7:
Cho m gam hn hp gm hai kim loi Mg v Al c t l mol tng ng l 4:5 vo dung dch
HNO3 20%. Sau khi cc phn ng xy ra hon ton, thu c dung dch A v c 6,72 lt hn hp
kh X gm NO, N2O, N2 thot ra. Thm mt lng O2 va vo X, sau phn ng, thu c hn
hp kh Y. Dn t t Y qua dung dch NaOH d th c 4,48 lt hn hp kh Z thot ra. T khi hi
ca Z so vi H2 l 20. Mt khc, cho dung dch KOH vo dung dch A th lng kt ta thu c
ln nht l (m + 39,1) gam. Bit cc th tch kh u o iu kin tiu chun v lng HNO 3
ban u dng d 20% so vi lng cn thit. Tnh nng % ca mui Al(NO 3)3 trong dung dch
A.

Hng dn chm
Cu 7 Ni dung im
Hn hp Z gm N2 v N2O c M = 40, t s mol tng ng l a, b, ta c h:
a + b = 0,2 ; 28a + 44b = 8. Gii h ta a = 0,05, b= 0,15, t ta c s mol
NO = 0,1 mol.
Khi cho KOH vo dung dch A to kt ta ln nht gm Mg(OH)2 v Al(OH)3,
theo gi thit nu gi 4x v 5x ln lt l s mol ca Mg v Al th ta c tng s
mol OH trong kt ta l 23x = 39,1:17 = 2,3. Vy x = 0,1 0,5
tng s mol electron do Mg v Al nhng ra = 2,3 mol im
Mt khc t s mol kh trn th s mol electron do HNO3 nhn = 2 mol 0,5
sn phm c NH4NO3 = 0,0375 mol im
tng s mol HNO3 dng l: 2,3 + 0,05x2 + 0,15x2 + 0,1 + 0,0375x2 =
2,875 mol. V axit ly d 20% nn s mol HNO3 ly l:
3,45 mol => khi lng dung dch HNO3 = 1086,75 gam
khi lng dung dch sau phn ng = 1086,75 + 0,4x24 + 0,5x27 - 0,05x28
0,15x44 0,1x30 = 1098,85 gam; khi lng Al(NO3)3 = 106,5 gam 1,0
C% = 106,5x100 :1098,85 = 9,69%. im

Cu 8:
Ha tan ht 10,24 gam hn hp X gm Fe v Fe3O4 bng 200 ml dung dch cha H2SO4 0,5M v
HNO3 2,5M thu c dung dch Y v hn hp gm 0,1 mol NO v a mol NO 2 (khng c sn
phm kh khc). Chia dung dch Y thnh hai phn bng nhau.
- Phn mt tc dng vi 500 ml dung dch KOH 0,4M, thu c 5,35 gam mt cht kt ta.
- Phn hai tc dng vi dung dch Ba(OH)2 d, thu c m gam kt ta.
Cc phn ng xy ra hon ton. Tnh m.

Hng dn chm
Cu 8 Ni dung im
Tng s mol ion H+ = 0,7 mol; SO42- = 0,1 mol, NO3- = 0,5 mol
S phn ng: Fe, Fe3O4 + H+ + NO3- Fe3+ + NO + NO2 + H2O
Gi s hn hp Fe v Fe3O4 ch gm Fe v O c s mol tng ng l x, y
S cho nhn electron:
Fe 3e Fe3+
+
O +2e + 2H H2O
NO3- + 3e + 4H+ NO + 2H2O
NO3- + 1e + 2H+ NO2 + H2O
Bo ton e: 3x = 2y + 0,3 + a (1)
Khi lng: 56x + 16y = 10,24 (2)
T trn ta c s mol H+ cn d = 0,7 2y 0,4 2a = 0,3 2y 2a 1,0
Khi cho phn 1 tc dng vi 0,2 mol KOH, ta c im
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KOH + H+ H2O + K+
Fe3+ + 3OH- Fe(OH)3
Tng s mol OH- = 0,15 y a + 0,05x3 = 0,2 y + a = 0,1 (3)
Gii h (1), (2), (3) ta c x = 0,16; y = 0,08; a = 0,02
Vy khi cho dung dch Ba(OH)2 d vo phn hai th c cc kt ta l 1,0
Fe(OH)3 = 0,08 mol v BaSO4 = 0,05 mol m = 20,21 gam. im

Cu 9:
Cho 20 gam hn hp A gm FeCO 3, Fe, Cu, Al tc dng vi 60 ml dung dch NaOH 2M, thu
c 2,688 lt kh H2. Sau khi kt thc phn ng, cho tip 740 ml dung dch HCl 1M vo hn hp
ri un nng, thu c hn hp kh B v cn mt phn cht rn cha tan (C). Sc kh B vo dung
dch Ca(OH)2 d th xut hin 10 gam kt ta. Cho cht rn C tc dng vi dung dch HNO 3 c,
nng, d, thu c dung dch D v 1,12 lt mt cht kh duy nht. Cho D tc dng vi dung dch
NaOH d, thu c kt ta E. Nung E n khi lng khng i c m gam cht rn. Tnh khi
lng cc cht trong A v tnh m. Cc kh o iu kin tiu chun, cc phn ng u xy ra
hon ton.

Hng dn chm
Cu 9 Ni dung im
Gi x, y, z, t ln lt l s mol FeCO3, Fe, Cu, Al trong 20 gam X
Ta c: 116x + 56y + 64t + 27z = 20
PTPU vi NaOH
Al + H2O + NaOH Na AlO2 + 1,5H2
S mol H2 = 0,12 mol => S mol NaOH d = 0,04 mol
Vy Al ht v t=0,08 mol
Hn hp thu c gm: dung dch Na AlO2, NaOH v cht rn FeCO3, Cu, Fe
Khi tc dng vi HCl
HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O
4HCl + Na AlO2 AlCl3 + NaCl + 2H2O
2HCl + FeCO3 FeCl2 + CO2 + H2O
2HCl + Fe FeCl2 + H2
Kh B gm H2 v CO2: tc dng vi Ca(OH)2 d
CO2 + Ca(OH)2 CaCO3 + H2O
T cc phn ng trn ta c x = 0,1
Cht rn C c Cu v c th c Fe d, khng c FeCO3 v tc dng vi HNO3 ch 0,5
to mt kh NO2 = 0,05 mol im
+ TH1: Nu Fe ht, C ch c Cu
Cu + 4HNO3 Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO2 + 2H2O
z = 0,025 mol
Kt hp cc Ptpu trn ta c y = 0,08286
t = 0,08 0,5
Tng s mol HCl p = 0,7257 < 0,74 . Vy HCl cn d v Fe ht l tha mn. im
+TH2: Fe d v chuyn ht thnh Fe3+
Cu + 4HNO3 Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO2 + 2H2O 0,5
Fe + 6HNO3 Fe(NO3)3 + 3NO2 + 3H2O im
Gii h ta c: x = 0,1; y = 0,1; z = 0,01, t = 0,08 0,5
mFeCO3=11,6 (gam), mFe=5,6 (gam), mCu=0,64 (gam), mAl= 2,16 (gam) im
m=0,025*160+0,01*80= 4,8 (gam)

Cu 10:
Ho tan hon ton 0,812 gam mt mu qung st gm FeO, Fe 2O3 v 35% tp cht tr trong
dung dch H2SO4 (d), thu c dung dch X. Sc kh SO2 vo dung dch X, thu c dung dch
Y. Dung dch Y phn ng va vi 22,21 ml dung dch KMnO 4 0,1M. Mt khc, ho tan ht
1,218 gam mu qung trn trong dung dch H2SO4 (d) ri thm dung dch KMnO4 0,1M vo
8
dung dch thu c cho n khi phn ng xy ra hon ton, th ht 15,26 ml dung dch KMnO 4
0,1M.
a. Vit phng trnh ha hc ca cc phn ng xy ra.
b. Tnh th tch SO2 (ktc) dng v thnh phn phn trm theo khi lng ca FeO, Fe 2O3 c
trong mu qung.

Hng dn chm
Cu 10 Ni dung im
Cc phng trnh phn ng:
FeO + H2SO4 FeSO4 + H2O (1)
Fe2O3 + 3H2SO4 Fe2(SO4)3 + 3H2O (2)
Fe2(SO4)3 + 2H2O + SO2 2FeSO4 + 2H2SO4
a.
(3) 1,0
10FeSO4 + 2KMnO4+ 8H2SO4 5Fe2(SO4)3 + 2MnSO4 K2SO4+ 8 H2O im
(4)
5SO2 + 2KMnO4 + 2H2O 2H2SO4 + 2MnSO4 + K2SO4 (5)
T (1) v (4) ta c:
nFeO (trong 1,2180 gam) = n Fe2+ = 5. n MnO-4 = 5 . 0,10 . 15,26.10-3 = 7,63.10-3 (mol)
7,63.10-3 . 0,8120
nFeO (trong 0,8120 gam) = = 5,087.10-3 (mol)
1,2180
mFeO (trong 0,8120 gam) = 72 . 5,087.10-3 = 0,3663 (g)
v m Fe2 O3 (trong 0,8120 gam) = 0,8120 . 0,65 0,3663 = 0,1615 (g)
0,1615
n Fe2 O3 (trong 0,8120 gam) = 1,01.10-3 (mol)
160
Tng t, t (3) v (5) ta c: n SO2 = n SO2 (3) + n SO2 (5)

Trong : theo (3) th s mol SO2 = n Fe2O3 (trong 0,8120 gam) = 1,01.10-3 (mol)
b.
5 5 1
n SO2 (5) = n MnO- (5) = (n MnO- - n Fe2+ )
2 4
2 4
5
vi: n Fe2+ = nFeO (trong 0,8120 gam) + 2.n Fe2O3 (trong 0,8120 gam)
5 1
n SO2 (5) = (n MnO- - (n FeO (trong 0,8120 gam) + 2.n Fe2O3 (trong 0,8120 gam))
2 4
5
5 1
n SO2 (5) = 0,10 . 22,21.10-3 - (5,087.10-3 + 2 . 1,01.10-3 ) 2.10-3 (mol).
2 5
Vy: n SO2 = 3,01.10 (mol) VSO2 = 22,4 . 3,01.10 = 0,0674 (lit)
-3 -3

0,3663
% FeO = .100 = 45,11 %
0,8120 1,0
% Fe2O3 = 65 % 45,11 % = 19,89 % im

------------------ HT-----------------

S GIO DC-O TO K THI CHN HC SINH GII TNH LP 12 THPT


H TNH NM HC 2016-2017
MN THI: HA HC
Thi gian lm bi: 180 pht
( thi c 02 trang, gm 10 cu)

9
Cu 1:
X l hp cht ca nhm vi nguyn t Y. t chy X trong lng oxi va thu c oxit
nhm v kh Z, t khi ca Z so vi metan bng 4.
Ha tan hon ton 3 gam X trong 100 ml dung dch NaOH 1,4M, cc phn ng xy ra hpn
ton, thu c dung dch a v kt ta B. Dung dch A tc dng va vi m gam Br2.
1. Tnh nng mol cc cht c trong A.
2. Tnh khi lng kt ta B.
3. Tnh m.

Cu 2:
Cho hn hp bt gm 54,8 gam kim loi Ba v lng va NH4NO3 vo bnh chn khng, ri
nung nng n khi phn ng xy ra hon ton, thu c hn hp sn phm (hn hp X) ch gm 3
hp cht ca bari. Cho X tan ht trong lng nc d, thu c hn hp kh Y v dung dch Z.
1. Vit phng trnh cc phn ng xy ra.
2. Cho ton b hn hp Y vo bnh kn (c xc tc thch hp) ri nung bnh mt thi gian, gi
nguyn nhit khi nung th thy p sut trong bnh tng 20% so vi p sut trc khi phn ng.
Tnh phn trm th tch cc kh trong hn hp sau khi nung.
3. Trn dung dch Z trn vi 200 ml dung dch hn hp Al2(SO4)3 1M v NaHSO4 1,5M, kt
thc cc phn ng thu c m gam kt ta. Tnh m?

Cu 3:
1. Ha tan hon ton 3,6 gam Mg trong 500ml dung dch HNO3 0,8M, phn ng kt thc thu
c 448 ml mt kh X ( ktc) v dung dch Y c khi lng ln hn khi lng dung dch
HNO3 ban u l 3,04 gam. phn ng ht vi cc cht c trong Y cn va V ml dung dch
NaOH 2M. Tnh V?
2. t chy hon ton 0,72 gam cacbon trong oxi nhit thch hp, phn ng kt thc, thu
c hn hp X (gm 2 kh), t khi ca X so vi H2 bng 20,5. Cho t t n ht lng kh X
trn li vo 100 ml dung dch hn hp gm NaOH 0,9M v BaCl2 0,4M, thu c kt ta. Hy v
th biu din s ph thuc ca khi lng kt ta theo s mol CO2 c trong X.

Cu 4:
1. Cho hn hp X gm m gam mt oxit st v 1,28 gam bt Cu vo dung dch H2SO4 long, d,
sau khi cc cht rn tan ht thu c dung dch X. Dung dch X lm mt mu va ht 200 ml
dung dch KMnO4 0,1M. Tnh m?
2. in phn (in cc tr, c mng ngn xp) 100 ml dung dch hn hp CuSO4 1M v NaCl CM
vi dng in c cng 5A, trong thi gian t giy, thu c dung dch X. Dung dch X phn
ng ti a vi 1,12 lit H2S ( ktc). Gi s hiu sut in phn 100% v qu trnh in phn
khng lm thay i th tch dung dch.
a. Cho bit th t cc ion v phn t b in phn mi in cc?
b. Tnh gi tr CM v t?

Cu 5:
1. t chy hon ton m gam mt hirocacbon X cn va 24,64 lit O2 (ktc), phn ng kt
thc thu c 14,4 gam H2O. T X, thc hin s cc phn ng sau:
XY Z T M N P Q
Hy xc nh cng thc cu to ca cc cht hu c ng vi cc k t trong s trn.
2. Cho cc gi tr pKb sau: 4,75; 3,34; 9,4; 3,27 v cc hp cht CH3-NH2, NH3, (CH3)2NH v
C6H5-NH2 (anilin). Hy gn cc gi tr pKb tng ng vi cc hp cht trn, gii thch ngn gn.

Cu 6:
Hp cht X ch cha chc este, t khi hi ca X so vi oxi bng 5,375. t chy hon ton
3,44 gam X, phn ng kt thc, cho ton b sn phm chy vo dung dch Ba(OH)2 d, thu c
31,52 gam kt ta, khi lng dung dch sau phn ng gim i 22,32 gam so vi khi lng
Ba(OH)2 ban u.
1. Lp cng thc phn t ca X.

10
2. Cho 3,44 gam X tc dng ht vi dung dch NaOH, un nng, thu c mui ca axit
cacboxylic v 1,84 gam ancol. Vit cng thc cu to c th c ca X.

Cu 7:
1. Phn ng tng hp glucoz ca cy xanh c phng trnh ha hc:
6CO2 + 6H2O + 675 kcal C6H12O6 + 6O2
Gi s, trong 1 pht, mi cm2 l xanh hp th 0,6 cal ca nng lng mt tri v ch c 15%
c dng vo vic tng hp glucoz.
Mt cy c 20 l xanh, c din tch trung bnh mi l l 12 cm2. Tnh thi gian cn thit cy
tng hp c 0,36 gam glucoz.
2. Hp cht X cha cc nguyn t C, H, O. Trong mt bnh kn dung tch khng i, cha hi
cht X v mt lng O2 gp i lng cn thit t chy ht X 136,5 oC, c p sut p1 (atm).
Bt tia la in t chy ht X v a nhit bnh v 0 oC, p sut trong bnh lc ny l p2 (atm).
Bit p1/p2 = 2,25. Xc nh cng thc phn t ca X, vit phng trnh phn ng tng hp
glucoz t X.

Cu 8:
Mt peptit X (mch h, c to t cc amino axit trong phn t c 1 nhm NH2 v 1 nhm
COOH) c khi lng phn t l 307 (u) v nit chim 13,7% khi lng. Khi thy phn khng
hon ton X thu c 2 peptit Y, Z. Bit 0,96 gam Y tc dng va vi 100 ml dung dch H2SO4
0,06M (un nng), cn 1,416 gam cht Z tc dng va vi 100 ml dung dch NaOH 0,12M
(un nng). Xc nh cng thc cu to c th c ca X v tn gi ca cc amino axit to thnh X.

Cu 9:
1. Hp cht X (C7H6O3) l dn xut ca benzen v cha 2 nhm chc v tr ortho vi nhau, tha
mn s cc phn ng sau:
X + Y A(C8H8O3, lm du xoa bp) + H2O
X + Z B(C9H8O4, lm thuc tr cm cm) + CH3COOH
Xc nh cng thc cu to ca X, Y, Z v hon thnh s trn.
2. xc nh hm lng ancol etylic trong hi th ca ngi li xe, cnh st giao thng yu cu
ngi li xe thi vo ng silicagen c tm hn hp CrO3 v H2SO4. Lng ancol etylic trong hi
th t l vi khong i mu trn ng th (t da cam sang xanh lc). Hy vit phng trnh ha
hc ca qu trnh trn.

Cu 10:
1. Trnh by cc ha cht, dng c cn thit v cch tin hnh iu ch etyl axetat trong phng
th nghim.
2. nng cao hiu sut to etyl axetat cn phi ch n nhng yu t no?
3. Khi tin hnh phn ng este ha ( iu kin thch hp) hn hp cng s mol CH3COOH v
C2H5OH th hiu sut este ha t cc i l 66,67%. Nu tin hnh phn ng este ha hn hp
gm 1 mol CH3COOH v 1,5 mol C2H5OH ( iu kin trn) th hiu sut este ha t cc i l
bao nhiu?

---------------Ht----------------

S GIO DC V O TO K THI CHN HC SINH GII VN HA LP 12 THPT


QUNG TR Kha thi ngy 05 thng 3 nm 2015
Mn thi: HA HC
CHNH THC Thi gian lm bi: 180 pht (khng k thi gian giao )
( thi gm 2 trang)

Cu 1. (4,0 im)
11
1. Xc nh cc cht v vit phng trnh phn ng xy ra trong cc s sau:
a) X1 + X2 + X3 HCl + H2SO4
b) A1 + A2 SO2 + H2O
c) B1 + B2 NH3 + Ca(NO3)2 + H2O
d) D1 + D2 + D3 Cl2 + MnSO4 + K2SO4 + Na2SO4 + H2O
e) Y1 + Y2 Fe2(SO4)3 + FeCl3
g) Y3 + Y4 Na2SO4 + (NH4)2SO4 + H2O + CO2
2. Ha tan hon ton m gam hn hp gm Na, Na2O, NaOH v Na2CO3 trong dung dch
H2SO4 40% (long, va ) thu c 8,96 lt hn hp kh c t khi i vi H2 bng 16,75
v dung dch Y c nng 51,449%. C cn ton b dung dch Y thu c 170,4 gam mui
trung ho khan. Vit cc phng trnh phn ng v tnh gi tr ca m.
3. Cho 18,5 gam hn hp A gm Fe v Fe 3O4 tc dng vi dung dch HNO3 long, un
nng v khuy u. Sau khi phn ng xy ra hon ton thu c 2,24 lt kh NO duy nht (ktc),
dung dch B v 1,46 gam kim loi. Vit cc phng trnh phn ng v tnh khi lng mui
trong B.

Cu 2. (4,0 im)
1. Vit cc phng trnh phn ng xy ra khi dng dung dch Ca(OH) 2 d loi b cc
kh c sau y ra khi khng kh: Cl2, SO2, H2S, NO2.
2. Vit cc phng trnh phn ng xy ra dng ion trong cc th nghim sau:
a) Ho tan CuS bng dung dch HNO3 d thu c dung dch X v kh Y khng mu ho
nu trong khng kh. Cho X tc dng vi dung dch NH3 d thu c dung dch Z.
b) Cho Ag2S tc dng vi dung dch NaCN thu c dung dch T. Cho T tc dng vi Zn.
3. Cho cc cht rn ring bit: MgO, Al, Al2O3, BaO, Na2SO4 v (NH4)2SO4. Nu ch dng
nc th c th phn bit c bao nhiu cht rn. Trnh by cch phn bit v vit phng trnh
ha hc xy ra.
4. Ha tan hon ton m gam hn hp gm Fe v MgCO 3 bng dung dch HCl d c hn
hp kh A gm H2 v CO2. Nu cng m gam hn hp trn tc dng vi dung dch H 2SO4 c nng
d, th thu c hn hp kh B gm SO2 v CO2, t khi hi ca B i vi A l 3,6875.
Vit cc phng trnh phn ng v tnh % khi lng mi cht trong hn hp u.

Cu 3. (4,0 im)
1. Cho X l mt mui nhm khan, Y l mt mui v c khan. Ha tan a gam hn hp cng
s mol hai mui X v Y vo nc c dung dch A. Thm t t dung dch Ba(OH) 2 vo dung
dch A cho ti d c dung dch B, kh C v kt ta D. Axit ha dung dch B bng HNO 3 ri
thm AgNO3 vo thy xut hin kt ta mu trng b en dn khi ngoi nh sng. Khi thm
Ba(OH)2 vo A, lng kt ta D t gi tr ln nht (kt ta E), sau t gi tr nh nht (kt ta
F). Nung cc kt ta E, F ti khi lng khng i thu c 6,248 gam v 5,126 gam cc cht rn
tng ng. F khng tan trong axit mnh.
a) Vit cc phng trnh phn ng dng ion v xc nh X, Y.
b) Tnh a v th tch kh C (ktc) ng vi gi tr D ln nht.
2. C hn hp M gm hai este A1 v B1. Cho a gam hn hp M tc dng va vi dung
dch KOH, sau phn ng thu c b gam ancol D 1 v 2,688 gam hn hp mui kali ca hai axit
hu c n chc lin tip trong dy ng ng. em nung tt c hn hp mui trn vi lng d
vi ti xt n phn ng hon ton th nhn c 0,672 lt hn hp kh E1 (ktc).
em t chy ton b lng ancol D 1 trn, thu c CO 2 v hi H2O theo t l khi
lng tng ng l 44:27. Mt khc cho tt c sn phm chy trn hp th ht vi 45 ml dung
dch Ba(OH)2 0,5M th thu c 2,955 gam kt ta.
a) Vit cc phng trnh phn ng xy ra.
b) Xc nh cng thc cu to ca A1, B1 v tnh cc gi tr a, b.

Cu 4. (4,0 im)
1. Vit cc phng trnh phn ng xy ra gia cc cht: HCOOH, CH3COOCH=CH2,
CH3COOC6H5 vi ln lt cc dung dch sau: NaOH (d), AgNO3/NH3 (d), Br2/H2O.
2. Hon thnh s chuyn ho sau:
12
A (C6H8O4) + NaOH X + Y + Z
X + H2SO4 E + Na2SO4
Y + H2SO4 F + Na2SO4
o
F H SO , 180 C
2 4 R + H2O
Cho bit E, Z u cho phn ng trng gng, R l axit c cng thc C3H4O2.
3. Thy phn hon ton 4,34 gam tripeptit mch h B (c to nn t hai a -amino axit
c cng thc dng H2NCxHyCOOH) bng dung dch NaOH d, thu c 6,38 gam mui.
Nu thy phn hon ton 4,34 gam B bng dung dch HCl d, thu c m gam mui.
Vit cc phng trnh phn ng xy ra v tnh gi tr ca m.
4. Hn hp D gm etan, etilen, propin. Cho 12,24 gam D tc dng vi lng d dung dch
AgNO3/NH3, phn ng xong thu c 14,7 gam kt ta. Mt khc 4,256 lt D (ktc) phn ng va
140 ml dung dch Br2 1M. Tnh s mol mi cht c trong 12,24 gam D.

Cu 5. (4,0 im)
1. Xc nh cc cht hu c A, B, C, D, E thch hp tha mn s phn ng sau:
HCN H O+ H SO a c,to CH OH,xt,to to,p,xt
A B 3 2
C 4 D 3 E F
F l poli(metyl metacrylat).
2. Hp cht X c cng thc C8H14O4. T X thc hin cc phn ng (theo ng t l mol):
a) X + 2NaOH X1 + X2 + H2O
b) X1 + H2SO4 X3 + Na2SO4
c) nX3 + nX4 nilon-6,6 + 2nH2O
d) 2X2 + X3 X5 + 2H2O
Hy vit cc phng trnh phn ng xy ra.
3. un nng m gam hn hp A1 gm cc cht c cng mt loi nhm chc vi 600 ml
dung dch NaOH 1,15M, thu c dung dch Y cha mui ca mt axit cacboxylic n chc v
15,4 gam hi Z gm cc ancol. Cho ton b Z tc dng vi Na d, thu c 5,04 lt kh H 2 (ktc).
C cn dung dch Y, nung nng cht rn thu c vi CaO cho n khi phn ng xy ra hon
ton, thu c 7,2 gam mt cht kh. Vit cc phng trnh phn ng v tnh gi tr ca m.
4. B1 l hp cht hu c tp chc, mch h, khng phn nhnh (cha C, H, O) v phn t
cha 2 loi nhm chc; khi tc dng vi nc brom to ra axit monocacboxylic tng ng. Cho mt
lng B1 tc dng vi lng d anhirit axetic trong iu kin thch hp, phn ng xong thu c
9,54 gam este v 7,2 gam axit axetic. Cng vi lng B 1 nh trn em phn ng vi lng d dung
dch AgNO3 trong NH3, un nng thu c 6,48 gam Ag; bit cc phn ng xy ra hon ton.
Vit cc phng trnh phn ng v xc nh cng thc cu to ca B1.

Cho: H=1, C=12, N=14, O=16, Na=23, Al=27, K=39, S=32, Cl=35,5; Fe=56, Cu=64, Ag=108, Ba=137.
.HT.
Th sinh khng c dng bng HTTH v tnh tan

13
S GIO DC V O TO HNG DN CHM
K THI CHN HC SINH GII VN HA LP 12 THPT
CHNH THC Kha thi ngy 05 thng 3 nm 2015
Mn thi: HA HC

Cu Ni dung im
1 1 Cht X1 X3 : SO2, H2O , Cl2.
SO2 + 2H2O + Cl2 2HCl + H2SO4
Cht A1,A2 : H2S v O2 ( hoc S v H2SO4 c )
2H2S + 3O2 2SO2 + 2H2O
Hoc S + 2H2SO4 c 3SO2 + 2H2O
Cht B1, B2 : NH4NO3 v Ca(OH)2.
2NH4NO3 + Ca(OH)2 2NH3 + Ca(NO3)2 + 2H2O
Cht D1, D2,D3 : KMnO4 , NaCl, H2SO4 c. 1,5
2KMnO4+10NaCl+8H2SO4 c 5Cl2+2MnSO4 +K2SO4+5Na2SO4+8H2O
Cht Y1 , Y2 l FeSO4 v Cl2

6FeSO4 + 3Cl2 2Fe2(SO4)3 + 2FeCl3

Cht Y3 ,Y4 l (NH4)2CO3, NaHSO4


(NH4)2CO3 + 2NaHSO4 Na2SO4 + (NH4)2SO4 + H2O + CO2
2 Phn ng: 2Na + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + H2 (1)
Na2O + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + H2O (2)
0,5
2NaOH + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + H2O (3)
Na2CO3 + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + H2O + CO2 (4)
Ta c: nNa2SO4=170,4/142=1,2 mol= nH2SO4
Khi lng dd H2SO4=(1,2x98)100:40=294gam
0,5
170, 4 51, 449
Da vo nng % : = m = 50,6 gam
294 + m - 0, 4.2.16, 75 100
3 2,24 0,75
S mol NO to thnh: nNO = 22,4 = 0,1 mol.

Fe + 4HNO3 Fe(NO3)3 + NO + 2 H2O (1)


3 Fe3O4 + 28HNO3 9 Fe(NO3)3 + NO + 14 H2O (2)
V kim loi d nn HNO3 ht nn B ch cha Fe(NO3)2 theo phn ng:
2 Fe + Fe(NO3) 3Fe(NO3)2 (3)

14
Cu Ni dung im
Gi x, y ln lt l s mol Fe v Fe3O4 phn ng theo (1) v (2)
Theo (1), (2) v bi ra ta c h phng trnh
x + y / 3 = 0,1
x = 0, 09
(x + 3y)
56[ x + ] + 232 y =17, 04 y = 0, 03
2 0,75
3(x + 3y) 3(0,09 + 3.0,03)
B cha Fe(NO3)2 c s mol l = = 0,27 mol
2 2
Vy: khi lng ca Fe(NO3)2 = 0,27 . 180= 48,6 gam
C th gii theo cch khc nh: bo ton, quy cht...
2 1 Cc phng trnh phn ng:
2Ca(OH)2 + 2Cl2 CaCl2 + Ca(ClO)2 + 2H2O
Ca(OH)2 + SO2 CaSO3 + H2O 1,0
Ca(OH)2 + H2S CaS + 2H2O
2Ca(OH)2 + 4 NO2 Ca(NO2)2 + Ca(NO3)2 + 2H2O
2 3CuS +8 H+ + 8NO3- 3Cu2+ + 3SO42- + 8NO + 4H2O
a) 2NO + O2 2NO2, H+ + NH3 NH4+ , Cu2+ + 4NH3 Cu(NH3)42+
0,5
Hoc Cu2+ +2NH3 + 2H2O Cu(OH)2 + NH4+
Cu(OH)2 + 4NH3 Cu(NH3)42+ + 2OH-
b) Ag2S + 4CN- 2[Ag(CN)2]- + S2-
0,5
2[Ag(CN)2]- + Zn 2Ag + [Zn(CN)4]2-
3 Cho ln lt 6 cht vo H2O
- Cc cht tan l BaO, Na2SO4, (NH4)2SO4
0,25
BaO + H2O Ba(OH)2
- Cc cht cn li khng tan
Ln lt nh dung dch cc cht tan vo 3 mu cht khng tan
- Cc dd khng c hin tng xy ra l Na2SO4, (NH4)2SO4
- Dung dch khi nh 3 mu cht rn thy
+ Mu cht rn tan, c kh bay ra th dd l Ba(OH)2, mu cht rn l Al
0,5
Ba(OH)2 + 2Al + 2H2O Ba(AlO2)2 + 3H2
+ Mu cht rn tan, khng c kh bay ra th mu cht rn l Al2O3
Ba(OH)2 + Al2O3 Ba(AlO2)2 + H2O
+ Mu cht rn khng tan l MgO
Dng dung dch Ba(OH)2 cho ln lt vo 2 dung dch Na2SO4, (NH4)2SO4 0,25
- Dung dch c kt ta trng v c kh bay ra l (NH4)2SO4
Ba(OH)2 + (NH4)2SO4 BaSO4 + 2NH3 + 2H2O
- Dung dch c kt ta trng nhng khng c kh bay ra l Na2SO4
Ba(OH)2 + Na2SO4 BaSO4 + 2Na2SO4

15
Cu Ni dung im
4 Gi nFe = x mol, nMgCO3= y mol trong m gam hn hp (C th chn x=1 mol)
Fe + 2HCl FeCl2 + H2 (1)
MgCO3 + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2O + CO2 (2) 0,5
2Fe + 6H2SO4 Fe2(SO4)3 + 6H2O + 3SO2 (3)
MgCO3 + H2SO4 MgSO4 + H2O + CO2 (4)
Theo (1 4) v bi ra ta c phng trnh
1,5x.64 + 44y 2x + 44y
: = 3, 6875
1,5x + y x+y
x
Bin i ta c: 84,9375X2 110,75X - 118,25 = 0 (X= )
y
0,5
x
Gii ra ta c: X1 = 2 (chn), X2 = -0,696 (loi) =2.
y
2.56.100
Vy: %(m)Fe= = 57,14% va%(m)MgCO3=42,86%
2.56 + 84

3 1 Do AgNO3 vo B to ra kt ta trng b ha en l AgCl, vy phi c mt trong 2 mui l


mui clorua
Tc dng vi Ba(OH)2 m c kh bay l NH3. Vy Y phi l mui amoni (mui trung ha
hoc mui axit).
Khi thm Ba(OH)2 ti d m vn cn kt ta mt trong 2 mui phi l SO42- Cc phn
+ -
ng: Ag + Cl AgCl
1,0
NH4 + OH-
+
NH3 + H2O
Al3+ + 3OH- Al(OH)3
-
Al(OH)3 + OH Al(OH)4-
2Al(OH)3
0
t Al2O3 + 3H2O

Ba2+ + SO42- BaSO4 (khng i khi nung)


S lch nhau v khi lng khi nung E, F l do Al2O3 to thnh t Al(OH)3. 1,0
6, 248 - 5,126 5,126
nAl2O3= = 0,011 mol, nBaSO4 = nSO42-= = 0,022 mol
102 233
Ta thy nSO42- = nAl3+ nn khng th c mui Al2(SO4)3. Do mui nhm phi l mui clorua
AlCl3 vi s mol = 0,011.2 = 0,022 mol v mui Y phi l (NH4)2SO4 hoc NH4HSO4 vi s
mol l 0,022 mol
Trng hp mui (NH4)2SO4:
a=0,022.133,5+0,022.132= 5,841 gam, n C = nNH4+ =0,044 VB = 0,9856 lt
Trng hp mui NH4HSO4:
a=0,022.133,5+0,022.115= 5,467 gam, nC = nNH4+ = 0,022 VB = 0,4928 lt

16
Cu Ni dung im
2 t cng thc chung ca 2 este l ( R COO)nR
t n R COOK + R(OH)n (1)
( R COO)nR + nKOH
0

0,03 mol 0,03/n mol


R COOK + NaOH CaO,t
0
R H + NaKCO3 (2) 0,75
0,03 mol 0,03 mol
R + 83 =2,688/0,03 R =6,6
Vy 2 axit to este l HCOOH v CH3COOH

Do t ancol to nH2O: nCO2 = (27:18)/(44:44) =1,5:1 D1: no, h CxH2x+2On


CxH2x+2On + (3x+1-n)/2 O2 xCO2 + (x+1) H2O (3)
0,5
0,03/n 0,03x/n
Ta c: (n+1)/n=1,5 n=2 C2H6On
Xc nh lng CO2
Phn ng: CO2 + Ba(OH)2 BaCO3 + H2O (4)
C th BaCO3 + CO2 + H2O Ba(HCO3)2 (5)
Do nBa(OH)2 = 0,0225 mol > nBaCO3=0,015 mol nn c 2 trng hp xy ra
TH1: Ba(OH)2 d, khng c (5)
nCO2 = 0,015 0,06/n=0,015 n=4 (loi)
TH2: Kt ta tan mt phn, c (5) 0,75
nCO2 = 0,0225+ (0,0225- 0,015) = 0,03 mol 0,06/n=0,03 n=2
Vy D1 l HOCH2CH2OH
Vy A1, B1 c th l (HCOO)2C2H4, (CH3COO)2C2H4, HCOOC2H4OOCCH3
Xc nh a, b
b=0,15.62/2=0,93 gam v a=2,688 + 0,93 56.0,03 = 1,938 gam
4 1
Cc phn ng xy ra:
HCOOH + NaOH HCOONa + H2O
t CH3COONa + CH3CHO
CH3COOCH=CH2 + NaOH
0

t CH3COONa + C6H5ONa + H2O


CH3COOC6H5 + 2NaOH
0
1,5
t (NH4)2CO3 + 2Ag +2 NH3 + H2O
HCOOH + 2Ag(NH3)2OH
0

HCOOH + Br2 CO2 + 2HBr


CH3COOCH=CH2 + Br2 CH3COOCHBrCH2Br
2 1,0
Hon thnh s chuyn ho sau:
t HCOONa+HOCH2CH2COONa+ CH3CHO
HCOOCH2CH2COOCH=CH2+NaOH
0

HCOONa + H2SO4 HCOOH + Na2SO4


HOCH2CH2COONa + H2SO4 HOCH2CH2COOH +Na2SO4
H SO , 180 C o
HOCH2CH2COOH
2 4 CH2=CH-COOH + H2O

17
Cu Ni dung im
3
t cng thc tripeptit l H(HNRCO)3OH : x mol (R l CxHy)
Phn ng:
H(HNRCO)3OH + 3NaOH H2HRCOONa + H2O (1)
x 3x x
0,75
H(HNRCO)3OH + 2H2O + 3HCl ClH3NRCOOH (2)
x 2x 3x

Ta c: 4,34 + 3x.40 = 6,38 + 18x x = 0,02


Vy: m = 4,34 + 0,04.18 + 0,06.36,5 = 7,25 gam
4
t s mol ca C2H6, C2H4, C3H4 trong 12,24 gam D ln lt l: x, y, z
2CH3 - C CH+ [Ag(NH3)2]OH 2CH3 - C CAg + H2O (1)
0,1 14,7/147 = 0,1 mol
C2H4 + Br2 C2H4Br2 (2)
C3H4 + 2 Br2 C3H4Br4 (3)
Nhn xt: C ( x+y+z) mol hn hp + ddBr2 cn (y + 2z) mol Br2 0,75
0,19mol hn hp cn 0,14mol Br2
Theo (1 3) v bi ra ta c h:


30x + 28y + 30z = 12, 24 x = 0, 2 mol

z = 0,1 y = 0, 08 mol
x + y + z : 0,19 = y + 2z : 0,14
(
) ( ) z = 0,1 mol

5 1 A: (CH3)2CO, B: (CH3)2C(OH)CN, C: (CH3)2C(OH)COOH 1,0


D: CH2=C(CH3)COOH, E: CH2=C(CH3)COOCH3
Hoc: (CH3)2CO + HCN (CH3)2C(OH)CN
(CH3)2C(OH)CN + H2O + H3O+ (CH3)2C(OH)COOH + NH4+
H2SO4ac,1800 C
(CH3)2C(OH)COOH CH2=C(CH3)COOH + H2O
2 4 H SO a
c, t0
CH2=C(CH3)COOH + CH3OH CH2=C(CH3)COOCH3 + H2O



xt,p,to CH3
n CH2=C(CH3)COOCH3 CH2 C n
COOCH3

18
Cu Ni dung im
2 Cc phng trnh phn ng xy ra.
C2H5OOC(CH2)4COOH + 2NaOH t 0 NaOOC(CH2)4COONa + C2H5OH + H2O
NaOOC(CH2)4COONa + H2SO4 HOOC(CH2)4COOH+ Na2SO4
nHOOC(CH2)4COOH + nNH2(CH2)6NH2 xt,p,t 0 1,0

(-OC[CH2]4CO-NH[CH2]6CO-)n + 2nH2O
2 4 H SO a
- c, t0
-
2C2H5OH+ HOOC(CH2)4COOH
C2H5OOC (CH2)4 COOC2H5 + 2H2O


3 V khi thy phn to ancol v mui ca axit hu c Hn hp A1 l cc este
Gi cng thc chung (RCOO)n R
(RCOO)n R + nNaOH t nRCOONa + (OH)n (1)
0
R 0,5
R (OH)n + Na R (ONa)n +n/2H2 (2)
CaO,t
RCOONa + NaOH
0
Na2CO3 + RH (3)
Theo (1,2): nOH(ancol) =2nH2= nOH(NaOH) = nNaOH(p) = 0,45mol
nNaOH(d)= 0,69-0,45 = 0,24 mol
Theo (3): nNaOH(d)=0,24 mol<0,045 mol MR = 7,2/0,24 = 29 l C2H5-
0,5
mui l C2H5COONa
Theo LBTKL: m + m(NaOH p) = m(mui) + m(ancol)
m= 0,45.96 + 15,4 - 0,45.40 = 40,6 gam
4 V B1 c phn ng trng bc v b oxi ha bi nc brom to ra axit monocacboxylic tng ng
nn phn t c 1 nhm CHO
B1 + (CH3CO)2O Este + CH3COOH C cha nhm OH
t cng thc ca B1 l (HO)nCxHy CHO (n x)
Phn ng: (HO)nCxHy CHO + Br2 + H2O (HO)nCxHy COOH + 2HBr (1)
o
(HO)nCxHyCHO+2[Ag(NH3)2]OH t
2Ag+3NH3+H2O+ (HO)nCxHyCOONH4 (2)
0,03 mol 0,06 mol 1,0
(HO)nCxHyCHO+n(CH3CO)2O (CH3COO)nCxHyCHO+ nCH3COOH (3)
0,03 mol 1,2 mol 1,2 mol
0,03n = 0,12 n = 4
T: mB1= (9,54 + 7,2)0,12.102 = 4,5 gam MB1 = 4,5: 0,03 = 150 g/mol
Ta c: (HO)4CxHy CHO = 150 CxHy = 53 x = 4; y = 5
Cng thc cu to ca B1 l HO - CH2 - CHOH CHOH CHOH - CHO
- Th sinh c th lm cch khc, nu ng vn t im ti a trong mi cu. Nu thiu iu kin hoc thiu
cn bng hoc thiu c hai th tr mt na s im ca PTHH .
- Lm trn n 0,25 im.
HT.

S GIO DC V O TO K THI CHN HC SINH GII LP 10, 11, 12 THPT


H NAM NM HC 2015 - 2016
Mn : Ha hc - Lp 12
CHNH THC Thi gian lm bi: 180 pht
( thi c 02 trang)

Cu I (3,5 im)

19
Ch dng qu tm, hy phn bit cc dung dch sau: axit axetic, etanal, natri cacbonat, magie clorua, natri
clorua.
Nu hin tng xy ra v vit phng trnh ha hc (nu c) cho cc th nghim sau:
Nh vi git dung dch HNO3 c vo ng nghim ng dung dch lng trng trng.
Cho vo ng nghim 2 ml dung dch K2Cr2O7 (kali icromat) thm dn tng git dung dch hn hp FeSO4
v H2SO4 long.
Cho mu Na nh vo cc nc c ha tan vi git dung dch phenolphtalein.
Cho mt tha ng knh (saccaroz) vo cc thy tinh. Nh vi git H2SO4 c vo cc.
Ln men m gam glucoz thu c 500 ml ancol etylic 46 o v V lt kh CO2 (ktc). Bit hiu sut phn ng ln
men ru t 80% v khi lng ring ca ancol etylic l 0,8 g/ml.
a) Tnh m, V.
b) Hp th ton b lt CO 2 thu c trn vo x lt dung dch cha ng thi KOH 0,2M v NaOH 0,2M
thu c dung dch cha 58,4 gam cht tan. Tnh x.
Cu II (4,0 im)
Hy gii thch:
Khi kh mi tanh ca c ngi ta thng dng cc cht c v chua.
Trong y m un nc, phch ng nc si khi dng vi nc cng thng c lp cn vi.
Nhit si ca etanol thp hn axit axetic v cao hn metyl fomat.
iu ch HCl trong cng nghip ngi ta cho tinh th NaCl un nng vi H 2SO4 c. Khi iu ch HBr
li khng th cho tinh th NaBr tc dng vi H2SO4 c.
Vit phng trnh phn ng cho s chuyn ha sau y (ghi r iu kin nu c):
A X X1 polietilen

Y Y1 Y2 poli(metyl metacrylat).
Bit A l este n chc, mch h.
Cn bng cc phn ng oxi ha kh theo phng php thng bng electron:
Al + HNO3 Al(NO3)3 + N2O + NO + H2O. Cho bit t l mol:
FexOy + H2SO4 Fe2(SO4)3 + SO2 + H2O.
Cu III (3,0 im)
Nung vi n khi phn ng xy ra hon ton thu c cht rn B v kh C. Sc n d kh C vo dung dch
NaAlO2 (Na[Al(OH)4]) thu c kt ta hidroxit D v dung dch E. un nng dung dch E thu c dung
dch cha mui F. Nung D n khi lng khng i thu c cht rn G. in phn nng chy G thu c
kim loi H. Cho cht rn B vo nc c dung dch K. Cho kim loi H vo dung dch K thu c mui T.
Cho dung dch HCl d vo dung dch mui T. Xc nh cc cht A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, K, T v vit cc
phng trnh ha hc.
Phn tch nguyn t hp cht hu c A cho kt qu: 60,869%C; 4,348%H; cn li l oxi.
a) Lp cng thc phn t ca A. Bit MA < 200u
b) Vit cc cng thc cu to c th c ca A. Bit:
1 mol A tc dng vi Na d thu c 0,5 mol H2.
1 mol A tc dng c vi ti a 3 mol NaOH.
Cu IV (3,0 im)
Tng s ht proton, ntron v electron trong ion X 3+ bng 73. Trong X3+ s ht mang in nhiu hn s ht
khng mang in l 17.
Vit cu hnh electron ca X, X2+, X3+.
Xc nh v tr ( , chu k, nhm) ca nguyn t X trong bng tun hon. Gii thch.
Tin hnh in phn V lt dung dch cha ng thi BaCl2 0,3M v NaCl 0,6M (vi in cc tr, c mng ngn
xp) n khi c hai in cc u c kh khng mu bay ra th dng li; thi gian in phn l 50 pht, cng
dng in dng in phn l 38,6A thu c dung dch X.
Tnh V. Bit cc phn ng in phn xy ra hon ton.

20
Cho dung dch X tc dng vi 200 ml dung dch cha ng thi AlCl3 aM v HCl 0,15M thu c b gam kt
ta. Mt khc, cho dung dch X tc dng vi 200ml dung dch cha ng thi AlCl3 aM v HCl 0,15M
cng thu c b gam kt ta. Bit cc phn ng xy ra hon ton. Xc nh gi tr ca a, b.
Cu V (3,0 im)
Hn hp A gm Fe v Zn. Chia hn hp A thnh 2 phn bng nhau:
Phn 1: Ha tan ht vo dung dch HCl d thu c 26,88 lt kh (ktc).
Phn 2: Ha tan ht vo 8,0 lt dung dch cha ng thi HNO 3 0,2M v HCl 0,2M; thu c 8,96 lt hn hp
kh B ch c N2O, NO (ktc) v dung dch Y ch c cht tan l mui. Bit t khi ca B so vi kh hidro bng
16,75. Cho dung dch AgNO3 d vo dung dch Y sau khi phn ng xy ra hon ton thu c 262,00 gam
kt ta.
Tnh % khi lng ca 2 kim loi trong hn hp A.
Cho hn hp A trn vo 2,0 lt dung dch Cu(NO3)2 xM sau khi phn ng xy ra hon ton thu c 74,0 gam
kim loi. Tnh x.
Cu VI (3,5 im)
Cho 0,2 mol hn hp X gm metylamin v mt - amino axit (mch cacbon khng phn nhnh) tc dng va
vi 1,0 lt dung dung dch HCl 0,2M thu c dung dch A. Dung dch A tc dng va vi 2,0 lt dung
dch NaOH 0,2M thu c dung dch B cha 30,8 gam mui. Bit cc phn ng xy ra hon ton.
Xc nh cng thc cu to v gi tn thay th ca - amino axit.
Cho hn hp gm tristearin v mt este n chc, no, mch h X tc dng vi 2,0 lt dung dch NaOH 0,3M sau
khi phn ng xy ra hon ton thu c dung dch A, trung ha dung dch A bng dung dch HCl va thu
c dung dch B cha a gam hn hp ancol v b gam hn hp mui. t chy hon ton a gam hn hp
ancol trn trong kh oxi d thu c 35,20 gam CO 2 v 18,00 gam nc. Mt khc, t chy hon ton b
gam mui trong oxi d thu c 32,90 gam cht rn khan; 334,80 gam hn hp CO 2 v H2O. Xc nh cng
thc phn t ca este X.

Cho: H=1; O=16; N=14; S=32; Cl=35,5; P=31; Br=80; C=12; Na=23; K=39; Ca=40; Mg=24;
Fe=56;Zn=65; Al=27; Ag=108; Cu=64; Ba=137; Si=28; Mn=55; Cr=52; Ni=59; Sn=119.
Th sinh khng s dng bng h thng tun hon cc nguyn t ha hc
-------------------- HT-----------------
H v tn th sinh..................................................S bo danh.....................................................
Ngi coi thi s 1.................................................Ngi coi thi s 2.............................................
S GIO DC V O TO HNG DN CHM MN : HA HC
H NAM NM HC 2015 2016
( p n c 04 trang)
***
Cu hi p n im
Cu I 1. 0, 5
3,5 im + Dng qu tm
Qu tm chuyn sang mu : CH3COOH, MgCl2 (nhm A)
Mu xanh: Na2CO3
Qu tm khng i mu: CH3CHO, NaCl (nhm B)
+ Dng Na2CO3 nhn ra nhm A: C kh bay ra l CH3COOH, kt ta l 0,25
MgCl2.
2CH3COOH + Na2CO3 2CH3COONa + CO2 + H2O
MgCl2 + Na2CO3 MgCO3 + 2NaCl2
+ Nhm B: C cn bay hi ht l CH3CHO, c cht kt tinh l NaCl. 0,25
2.
a) C kt ta mu vng 0,25
b) dung dch da cam xanh lc 0, 25
K2Cr2O7 + 6FeSO4 + 7H2SO4 K2SO4 + Cr2(SO4)3 + 3Fe2(SO4)3 + H2O

21
c) Na nng chy phn ng mnh lit to dung dch chuyn sang mu hng: 0,25
2Na + 2H2O 2NaOH +H2
d) ng knh chuyn dn sang mu en, c bt kh y cacbon tro ra ngoi. 0, 25
C12H22O11 12C + 11H2O
C + 2H2SO4 CO2 + 2SO2 + 2H2O
0,5
3. a)

C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2


2 4 4
V =4.22,4 = 896 l

b) V/10 (0,4mol CO2) 0,5


Xt trng hp ch to mui trung ha, theo bo ton nguyn t C ta c m
cht tan = 48,8 gam.
Xt trng hp ch c mui axit, theo bo ton nguyn t C ta c m cht tan
=36,8.
Chng t kim d. dung dch cha: K+, Na+, OH-, CO32-
0,2x 0,2x y 0,4
Ta c h: 0,5

Cu II 1. 0,25
4 im a) Mi tanh ca c ch yu l do trimetylamin. Dng cc cht c v chua l
chuyn amin thnh mui khng bay hi.
b) M(HCO3)2 MCO3 + CO2 + H2O 0,25
c) Nhit si C2H5OH<CH3COOH do lin kt H ca axit bn hn. 0,25
Nhit si ca HCOOCH3 < C2H5OH do gia cc phn t este khng c
lin kt H.
d) do 2HBr + H2SO4 SO2 + Br2 + 2H2O. 0,25
A: CH2=C(CH3)COOC2H5; X: C2H5OH; X1: C2H4; 0,25/1p
Y: CH2=C(CH3)COONa; Y1CH2=C(CH3)COOH; t
Y2: CH2=C(CH3)COOCH3
CH2=C(CH3)COOC2H5 + NaOH CH2=C(CH3)COONa + C2H5OH
C2H5OH C2H4 + H2O
nC2H4 -(C2H4)-n
CH2=C(CH3)COONa + HCl CH2=C(CH3)COOH + NaCl
CH2=C(CH3)COOH + CH3OH CH2=C(CH3)COOCH3 + H2O
nCH2=C(CH3)COOCH3 -(CH2=C(CH3)COOCH3)-n
3. 0,75
a) 22168Al + 84642HNO3 22168Al(NO3)3 + 6045N2O + 6048NO +
42321H2O
Cho bit t l mol:

b) 2FexOy + (6x-2y)H2SO4 xFe2(SO4)3 + (3x-2y)SO2 + (6x-2y)H2O. 0,75

22
Cu III 1. CaCO3 CaO + CO2 2
3 im CO2 + H2O + NaAlO2 Al(OH)3 + NaHCO3 (0,25/pt)
2NaHCO3 CO2 + H2O + Na2CO3
2Al(OH)3 Al2O3 + 3H2O
2Al2O3 4Al + 3O2
CaO + H2O Ca(OH)2
2Al + 2H2O + Ca(OH)2 Ca(AlO2)2 + 3H2
Ca(AlO2)2 + 8HCl CaCl2 + 2AlCl3 + 4H2O
2. 0,25
a) nC:nH:nO = 7:6:3 => CTGN l C7H6O3; Vy CTPT: C7H6O3
b)
Vit ng 3 CTCT 0,75

Cu IV 1. 0,5
3 im a) Gi ht trong nguyn t X: p = e =x; n =y
Ta c h: x=24; y =28.

Cu hnh e ca X: [Ar]3d54s1; X2+: [Ar]3d4; X3+: [Ar]3d3 0,5


b) X 24( v c 24e); chu k 4 (v c lp e); nhm VIB (nguyn t d v c 0,5
6e ha tr)
2.
a) (-): 2H2O +2e H2+ 2OH (+): 2Cl- Cl2 + 2e 0,25
Thi im hai in cc u c kh khng mu bay ra l lc Cl- ht
dung dch X c Ba(OH)2, NaOH.
Theo cng thc Faraday ta c: 0,25
Ta c: 1,2V = 0,6.2 V = 1,0 (l)
b) 0,25
Dng 1/20 dung dch X:
H+ + OH- H2O 0,5
0,03 0,03
3+ -
Al + 3OH Al(OH)3
0,01 0,03 0,01
Vy b = 0,78 gam
Dng 3/40 dung dch X:
0,25
H+ + OH- H2O
0,03 0,03
3+ -
Al + 3OH Al(OH)3
0,01 0,03 0,01
3+ - -
Al + 4OH AlO2 + 2H2O
0,0075 0,03
Vy a = 0,0175:0,2= 0,0875 M.
23
Cu V 1. 0,5
3,0 im t s mol trong 1 phn ca Fe l x; Zn l y
Phn 1:
Fe + 2HCl FeCl2 + H2
Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2
Ta c phng trnh: x +y = 1,2(1)
Phn 2: S cho cho hn hp kh kt hp vi mol hn hp kh ta c: 0,5
2+ 3+
Dung dch Y c th cha c mui Fe , Fe ,
Theo bo ton e
S oxi ha S kh
2+ +
Zn Zn + 2e 4H + + 3e NO +2H2O
y 2y 1,2 0,9 0,3
2+ +
Fe Fe + 2e 10H + 2 + 8e N2O +5H2O
z 2z 1,0 0,8 0,1
3+ +
Fe Fe + 3e Do H ht nn c phn ng to mui
x-z 3x-3z amoni
+
10H + + 8e +3H2O
1,0 0,8 0,1

Ta c phng trnh i s: 3x z +2y = 2,5 (2)


Dung dch Y tc dng vi dung dch AgNO3 d 0,5
+ 2+ + 3+
Ag + Cl AgCl Fe + Ag Fe + Ag
1,6 1,6 z z

Ta c: 1,6.143,5 + 108z = 262 z = 0,3 (mol)


x= 0,4; y = 0,8 0,5
% mZn = 69,89%; %Fe=30,11%.
2. Cho hn hp A c 0,8 mol Zn v 0,4 mol Fe 0,25
Phn ng:
Zn + Cu2+ Zn2+ + Cu
Fe + Cu2+ Fe2+ + Cu
Xt trng hp Zn ht, Fe cha phn ng khi lng kim loi thu c 73,6
gam.
Xt trng hp Zn ht, Fe ht khi lng kim loi thu c 76,8 gam.
Khi lng kim loi thc t thu c l 74 gam, chng t bi ton c 2
trng hp:
TH1: Zn phn ng v d 0,25
Gi s mol Zn phn ng l a
mgim = mZn mCu 0,4 = 65a -64aa =0,4
TH2: Zn, Fe phn ng v d, gi s mol Fe phn ng b 0, 5
mgim = mZn + mFe p mCu
65.0,8 + 56b 64(0,8+b) = 0,4b =0,005

24
Cu VI 1. 0,2 mol X tc dng va vi 0,2 mol HCl amino axit c mt nhm NH2. 0,5
3,5 im Coi nh: 0,2mol X + 0,2mol HCl + 0,4mol NaOH
Nu amino axit c mt nhm COOH V l
amino axit c 2 nhm COOH ( v X c mch C khng phn nhnh)
CH3NH2 + HCl CH3NH3Cl 0,25
a a a
H2NR(COOH)2 + HCl ClH3NR(COOH)2
b b b
CH3NH3Cl + NaOH CH3NH2 + H2O + NaCl
a a a
ClH3NR(COOH)2 + 3NaOH H2NR(COONa)2 + NaCl + 2H2O
b 3b b b
0,5

Vy cng thc ca A: HOOC-CH2-CH2-CH(NH2)-COOH 0,25


Axit 2-aminopentadioic.
2. 0,25
(C17H35COO)3C3H5 + 3NaOH 3C17H35COONa + C3H5(OH)3
a 3a 3a a

RCOOR + NaOH RCOONa + ROH
b b b b
HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O
c c c
3a + b +c = 0,6 (1)
t ancol thu c: 0,8mol CO2 v 1mol H2O 0,25
C3H8O3 3CO2 + 4H2O
a 3a
CnH2n+2O nCO2 + (n+1)H2O
b nb
nhn hp ancol = = 0,2 (mol) a + b = 0,2 (2)
t hn hp mui D (3amol C17H35COONa, bmol CmH2m+1COONa, c mol 0,5
NaCl):
2C17H35COONa 35CO2 + Na2CO3 + 35H2O
3a 105a/2 1,5a 105a/2
2CmH2m+1COONa (2m+1)CO2 + Na2CO3 + (2m+1)H2O
b (2m+1)b/2 0,5b (2m+1)b/2
(1,5a +0,5b).106 + 58,5c = 32,9 (3)
T (1), (2), (3) ta c h: 0,25
a=b=0,1; c=0,2

T phn ng t chy ancol ta c: 3a + nb = 0,8 n=5 ancol C5H11OH 0,25


T phn ng t chy mui ta c: [(105a/2 +(2m+1)b/2].62 = 334,8 0,5
m=1 Cng thc ca ests CH3COOC5H11 (C7H14O2)
Ch : HS gii ton theo cch khc ng cho im ti a bi ton , phng trnh phn ng ca s chuyn ha
khng ghi k tr s im ca phng trnh .
---HT---

25
S GIO DC V O TO HI DNG K THI CHN HC SINH GII TNH
LP 12 THPT NM HC 2013-2014
CHNH THC Mn: Ha hc
Thi gian lm bi: 180 pht
( thi c 5 cu v gm 2 trang)

Cu I (2,0 im)
1. Nu hin tng v vit phng trnh phn ng minh ha:
a. Cho t t dung dch HCl n d vo dung dch Na2CO3.
b. Cho t t dung dch HCl n d vo dung dch KMnO4.
c. Cho m ure vo dung dch nc vi trong.
d. Sc kh H2S vo dung dch hn hp gm (Br2, BaCl2).
2. Xc nh cc cht v hon thnh s chuyn ha sau:
FeS + O2 (A) + (B) (G) + NaOH (H) + (I)
(B) + H2S (C) + (D) (H) + O2 + (D) (K)
(C) + (E) (F) (K) (A) + (D)
(F) + HCl (G) + H2S (A) + (L) (E) +(D)
3. Trnh by phng php ha hc v vit phng trnh phn ng (nu c) tinh ch cc cht trong cc trng
hp sau:
a. Tinh ch kh Cl2 c ln kh HCl c. Tinh ch kh NH3 c ln kh N2, H2.
b. Tinh ch kh CO2 c ln kh CO d. Tinh ch NaCl c ln Na2HPO4, Na2SO4

Cu 2 (2,0 im)
1. Xc nh cng thc cu to cc cht v hon thnh s cc chuyn ha sau:
A A1 A2

C3H8 B1 B2 CH3COOH

B
B3 A1

2. Ch dng dung dch HBr c th nhn bit c nhng cht no trong s cc cht cho sau y (cht lng hoc
dung dch trong sut): ancol etylic, toluen, anilin, natri hidrocacbonat, natri phenolat. Vit phng trnh ha hc
cc phn ng xy ra.
3. Cho ln lt cc cht: axit acrylic; p-crezol; tristearin; glucoz; tinh bt ln lt tc dng cc cht nhit
thch hp: dung dch HCl; dung dch NaOH; Cu(OH) 2 ( nhit thng). Vit phng trnh phn ng xy ra (nu
c).

Cu 3 (2,0 im)
1. Cho 11,2 gam Fe vo 300 ml dung dch cha (HNO 3 0,5M v HCl 2M) thu c kh NO (sn phm kh duy
nht) v dung dch X. Cho dung dch X tc dng vi lng d dung dch KMnO 4 / H2SO4 long. Bit cc phn ng
xy ra hon ton.
a. C cn dung dch X thu c bao nhiu gam cht rn khan.
b. Tnh khi lng KMnO4 b kh.
2. Cho hn hp A gm 3 hirocacbon X, Y, Z thuc 3 dy ng ng khc nhau, hn hp B gm O 2 v O3. Trn A v
B theo t l th tch tng ng l 1,5 : 3,2 ri t chy hon ton thu c hn hp ch gm CO 2 v hi H2O theo t l
th tch l 1,3 : 1,2. Bit t khi ca kh B i vi hiro l 19. Tnh t khi ca kh A i vi hiro?
3. Bnh kn cha mt ancol no, mch h A (trong phn t A, s nguyn t C nh hn 10) v lng O 2 gp i so vi
lng O2 cn t chy hon ton A. Ban u bnh c nhit 1500C v 0,9 atm. Bt tia la in t chy hon
ton A, sau a bnh v 1500C thy p sut bnh l 1,1 atm. Vit cc ng phn cu to ca A v gi tn.

26
Cu 4 (2 im)
Ha tan hon ton 11,6 gam hn hp A gm Fe v Cu vo 87,5 gam HNO 3 50,4%, sau khi kim loi tan ht thu
c dung dch X v V lit (ktc) hn hp kh B (gm hai cht kh c t l s mol 3:2). Cho 500ml dung dch KOH 1M
vo dung dch X thu c kt ta Y v dung dch Z. Lc ly Y ri nung trong khng kh n khi lng khng i thu
c 16,0 gam cht rn. C cn dung dch Z c cht rn T. Nung T n khi lng khng i thu c 41,05 gam
cht rn. Bit cc phn ng xy ra hon ton.
1. Tnh % khi lng mi kim loi trong A?
2. Tnh C% mi cht tan trong X?
3. Xc nh cc kh trong B v tnh V.
Cu 5 (2 im)
Hp cht hu c A ch cha mt loi nhm chc, ch cha 3 nguyn t C, H v O. un nng 0,3 mol A vi
lng va dung dch NaOH 20%. Sau khi kt thc phn ng, c cn dung dch thu c hn hp cht rn gm 3
cht X, Y, Z v 149,4 gam nc. Tch ly X, Y t hn hp cht rn.
Cho hn hp X, Y tc dng vi dung dch HCl d thu c 31,8 gam hai axit cacboxylic
X1; Y1 v 35,1 gam NaCl. t chy hon ton hn hp gm X 1 v Y1 thu c sn phm chy gm H2O v CO2 c t
l s mol l 1:1.
t chy hon ton lng Z trn cn dng va 53,76 lt kh O2 (ktc) thu c 15,9 gam Na2CO3; 43,68
lt kh CO2 (ktc) v 18,9 gam nc.
1. Lp cng thc phn t ca A, Z?
2. Xc nh cng thc cu to A bit rng khi cho dung dch Z phn ng vi CO 2 d thu c cht hu c Z1
v Z1 khi phn ng vi brom (trong dung dch, lng d) theo t l mol 1:3.

Cho nguyn t khi ca cc nguyn t: C = 12; Cl = 35,5; Cu = 64; H=1; K =39; Na = 23;
N = 14; Mn =55; O =16; Fe =56 ; S =32.

------------------- Ht ---------------------

H v tn th sinh... S bo danh: ..

Ch k gim th 1:... Ch k ca gim th 2:

27
S GIO DC V O TO HI DNG K THI CHN HC SINH GII TNH
LP 12 THPT NM HC 2013-2014
HNG DN CHM Mn: Ha hc
Thi gian lm bi: 180 pht
( thi c 5 cu v gm 2 trang)

Cu HNG DN CHM im
1. (0,5 im)
a. Ban u cha c kh, sau mt lc mi thot ra bt kh khng mu 0,25
H+ + CO32- HCO3-
H+ + HCO3- H2O + CO2
b. Thot ra kh mu vng lc v dung dch b mt mu tm
16HCl + 2 KMnO4 5Cl2 + 2 KCl + 2MnCl2 + 8H2O
c. C kh mi khai v c kt ta trng 0,25
1 (NH2)2CO + H2O (NH4)2CO3
(2 im) (NH4)2CO3 + Ca(OH)2 2 NH3 + CaCO3 + 2H2O
d. Mu vng ca dung dch (Br2, BaCl2) nht dn, ng thi xut hin kt ta trng
H2S + 4Br2 + 4H2O H2SO4 + 8HBr
H2SO4 + BaCl2 BaSO4 + 2HCl
2. (1,0 im) 0,25
to
4FeS + 7O2 2Fe2O3 +4SO2
(A) (B)
SO2 +2H2S 3S + 2H2O
(B) (C) (D)
S + Fe to
FeS 0,25
(C) (E) (F)
FeS +2HCl FeCl2+ H2S
(F) (G)
FeCl2 +2NaOH Fe(OH)2 +2NaCl 0,25
(G) (H) (I)
4Fe(OH)2 +O2+2H2O 4Fe(OH)3
(H) (D) (K)
2Fe(OH)3 to
Fe2O3 +3H2O 0,25
(K) (A) (D)
to
Fe2O3 +3H2 2Fe +3H2O
(A) (L) (E) (D)
Lu : Nu hc sinh thng k cc cht A, B, .. ri vit phng trnh phn ng
cng cho im ti a.
3. (0,5 im) 0,25
a. Tinh ch kh Cl2 c ln kh HCl:
Sc hn hp kh vo dung dch NaCl bo ha ( hp th HCl), dn kh thot ra
qua dung dch H2SO4 c s thu c Cl2 kh.
b. Dn hn hp kh qua ng ng bt CuO d nung nng
CO + CuO CO2 + Cu

28
c. Dn hn hp (NH3, H2, N2) qua dung dch axit (VD: dd HCl), NH3 b gi li. Tip 0,25
n cho dung dch baz d (VD dd Ca(OH) 2) v un nng nh, kh thot ra cho i
qua ng ng CaO d s thu c NH3 kh
NH3 + H+ NH4+
NH4+ + OH- NH3 + H2O
d. Tinh ch NaCl c ln Na2HPO4 v Na2SO4
Cho hn hp vo dung dch BaCl2 d
Na2HPO4 + BaCl2 2 NaCl + BaHPO4
Na2SO4 + BaCl2 2NaCl + BaSO4
lc b kt ta, dung dch thu c cho vo bnh cha Na2CO3 d
BaCl2 + Na2CO3 2 NaCl + BaCO3
lc b kt ta, thm lng d dung dch HCl vo dung dch thu c, sau c cn
ri nung nng nh thu c NaCl khan.
1 (1,0 im)
Cu 2 A: C2H4; A1: CH3CHO; A2: C2H5OH 0,25
(2 im) B: CH4; B1: HCHO B2: CH3OH
B3: C2H2 B4: CH3CHO
C3H8 t 0 , xt
C2H4 + CH4 0,25
t 0 , xt
2CH2=CH2 + O2 2CH3CHO
t 0 , Ni
CH3CHO + H2 CH3CH2OH
CH3CH2OH + O2 men giam
CH3COOH + H2O 0,25
0
CH4 + O2 t , xt
HCHO + H2O
t 0 , Ni
HCHO + H2 CH3OH
t 0 , Ni
CH3OH + CO CH3COOH
2CH4
1500 C 0
C2H2 + 3H2 0,25
san pham lam lanh nhanh
0
C2H2 + H2O
t , xt
CH3CHO
t 0 , xt
2CH3CHO + O2 2 CH3COOH
2 (0,5 im) 0,25
C th nhn bit tt c cc cht v chng gy ra cc hin tng khc nhau khi cho
cc cht vo dung dch HBr:
+Nu to thnh dung dch ng nht => mu l C2H5OH
+ Nu c hin tung phn tch thnh 2 lp => mu l C6H5CH3 (toluen)
+ Nu ban u c hin tng tch lp, sau tan dn to dung dch ng nht
=> Mu l C6H5NH2 (anilin)
C6H5NH2 + HBr C6H5NH3Br

+ Nu c si bt kh khng mu, khng mi => mu l NaHCO3: 0,25


NaHCO3 + HBr NaBr + CO2 + H2O
+ Nu to cht khng tan, vn c mu trng => mu l C 6H5ONa (Natri
phenolat):
C6H5ONa + HBr C6H5OH + NaBr

29
3 (0,5 im) 0,25
+ Phn ng ca axit acrylic
CH2=CH-COOH + HCl ClCH2CH2COOH v CH3CHClCOOH
CH2=CH-COOH + NaOH CH2=CH-COONa + H2O
2CH2=CH-COOH + Cu(OH)2 (CH2=CH-COOH)2Cu + 2H2O
+ Phn ng ca p-crezol:
p-HO-C6H4-CH3 + NaOH p-NaO-C6H4-CH3 + H2O

+ Phn ng ca tristearin: 0,25


HCl , t 0
(C17H35COO)3C3H5 + 3H2O 3C17H35COOH + C3H5(OH)3
(C17H35COO)3C3H5 + 3NaOH (dd) 3C17H35COONa + C3H5(OH)3
+ Phn ng ca glucoz:
2 C6H12O6 + Cu(OH)2 (C6H11O6)2Cu + 2H2O
+ Phn ng ca tinh bt:
HCl , t 0
(C6H10O5)n + n H2O n C6H12O6
Cu 3 1 (1,0 im) 0,25
(2 im) a. (0,5 im)
nFe = 0,2 mol;
nHNO3 = 0,15; nHCl = 0,6 => nH + = 0,75, nNO3- = 0,15; nCl - = 0,6
Fe + 4H+ + NO3- Fe3+ + NO + 2 H2O
0,15 0,6 0,15 0,15
Fe + 2Fe3+ 3Fe2+
0,05 0,1 0,15
Dung dch X c Fe2+ (0,15 mol); Fe3+ (0,05 mol); H+ (0,15 mol); Cl- (0,6 mol) 0,25
C cn dung dch X c 2 mui: FeCl2 (0,15 mol) v FeCl3 (0,05 mol)
=> mmui = 27,175 gam
b. (0,5 im) 0,25
Cho lng d KMnO4 / H2SO4 vo dung dch X:
Fe+2 Fe+3 + 1e Mn+7 + 5e Mn+2
-
2Cl Cl2 + 2e
Dng bo ton mol electron ta c: 0,25
nFe2+ + n Cl - = 5n Mn+7
S mol KMnO4 = S mol Mn+7 = 0,15 mol
m (KMnO4) = 23,7 gam.

2 (0,5 im) 0,25


t cng thc cht tng ng ca hn hp A l C x H y
M B = 19.2 = 38 => t l s mol O2 v O3 l 5:3
Trn A vi B theo t l th tch 1,5: 3,2.
Chn nB = 3,2 mol => n (O2) = 2 mol; n (O3) = 1,2 mol
nO = 7,6 mol
Khi nA = 1,5 mol. Khi t chy A ta c th coi:
C x H y + (2 x + y ) O x CO2 + y H2O
2 2
y y
Mol 1,5 1,5(2x+ ) 1,5 x 1,5
2 2

30
y 0,25
Ta c: nO = 1,5(2x+ ) =7,6 (*)
2
y
V t l th tch CO2 : H2O = 1,3:1,2 => x : = 1,3:1,2 (**)
2
Gii h (*), (**) ta c: x = 26/15; y = 16/5 = 3,2
M A = 12x + y = 24 => dA/H2 = 12
3 (0,5 im) 0,25
t cng thc phn t ca A l CnH2n+2Ok (k n); gi s mol A bng 1 mol
3n + 1 - k
CnH2n+2Ok + O2 n CO2 + (n+1) H2O
2
3n + 1 - k
Mol 1 n n+1
2
=> S mol O2 ban u l (3n+1-k) mol
Trong cng iu kin nhit v th tch, p sut t l thun vi s mol kh
P1 n1 1 + 3n + 1 - k 0,9
Do , = hay = => 3n-13k+17 = 0
P2 n2 n + n + 1 + (3n + 1 - k ) / 2 1,1
0,25
Vi n1 = nA + n(O2 ban u)
n2 = n (CO2) + n (H2O) + n (O2 d)
k 1 2 3 4 5
n -0,4/3 3 7,33 11,66 16
Chn c nghim k=2, n=3 => Cng thc phn t ancol: C3H8O2

C 2 ng phn: HO-CH2-CH2-CH2-OH: propan-1,3-iol


CH2OH-CHOH-CH3 propan-1,2-iol
Cu 4 1 (1,0 im) 0,25
(2 im) 87,5.50, 4
n HNO3 = = 0, 7 mol ; nKOH = 0,5mol
100.63
t nFe = x mol; nCu = y mol.
Ha tan ht kim loi bng dung dch HNO 3 X c Cu(NO3)2, mui ca st
(Fe(NO3)2 hoc Fe(NO3)3 hoc c 2 mui ca st), c th c HNO3 d.
X + dd KOH c th xy ra cc phn ng
HNO3 + KOH KNO3 + H2O (1)
Cu(NO3)2 +2KOH Cu(OH)2 + 2KNO3 (2)
Fe(NO3)2 + 2KOH Cu(OH)2 + 2KNO3 (4)
Fe(NO3)3 + 3KOH Fe(OH)3 + 3KNO3 (5)
C cn Z c cht rn T c KNO3, c th c KOH d 0,25
Nung T:
2KNO3 2KNO2 +O2 (6)
0
t

+ Nu T khng c KOH th
Theo phn ng (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6) n KNO2 = n KNO3 =nKOH =0,5 mol
m KNO = 42,5 gam 41,05 gam (Loi)
2

+ Nu T c KOH d:
t n KNO3 = a mol n KNO2 = amol; nKOH phn ng = amol;
85.a + 56.(0,5-a) = 41,05
a = 0,45 mol

31
Nung kt ta Y 0,25
Cu(OH)2 CuO + H2O
0
t

Nu Y c Fe(OH)3: 2Fe(OH)3 Fe2O3 +3H2O


0
t

Nu Y c Fe(OH)2 4Fe(OH)2+ O2 2Fe2O3 +4H2O


0
t

1 x 0,25
p dng BTNT i vi st ta c: n Fe O = nFe = ;
2 3
2 2
p dng BTNT i vi ng ta c: nCuO = nCu= y mol
x
160. + 80.y = 16 (I)
2
mhh kim loi = 11,6 gam 56.x + 64.y = 11,6 (II)
Gii h (I) v (II) x= 0,15 v y= 0,05.
0,3.56
% mFe = 23,2 .100% = 72,41% ; %mCu = 100-72,41= 27,59%
2 (0,5 im) 0,25
p dng BTNT i vi Nit: nN trong X = n N trong KNO2 = 0,45 mol.
TH1: Dung dch X c HNO3 d, Cu(NO3)2, Fe(NO3)3
Ta c: nCu ( NO3 ) 2 = nCu = 0,05 mol; n Fe ( NO3 )3 = nFe = 0,15 mol
Gi n HNO = b mol b+0,05.2+0,15.3= 0,45 b= -0,1 (loi)
3

TH2: Dung dch X khng c HNO3 ( gm Cu(NO3)2, c th c mui Fe(NO3)2 hoc


Fe(NO3)3 hoc c Fe(NO3)2 v Fe(NO3)3 )
n Fe ( NO3 ) 2 = z mol (z 0); n Fe ( NO3 )3 = t mol (t 0)
Theo BTNT i vi Nit 2z+3t +0,05. 2 = 0,45 (III)
Theo BTNT i vi st z + t = 0,15 (IV)
Gii h (III) v (IV) z = 0,1 v t=0,05.

Khi kim loi phn ng vi HNO3 0,25


nN trong hn hp kh = nN trong HNO3 ban u- nN trong mui = 0,7-0,45=0,25mol
Gi s oxi ha trung bnh ca Nit trong hn hp kh B l +k (k0)
Fe Fe3+ + 3e N+5 + (5-k).e N+k
0,05 0,15 0,25 0,25(5-k) 0,25
2+
Fe Fe + 2e
0,1 0,2
2+
Cu Cu + 2e
0,05 0,1
p dng bo ton electron: 0,15+0,2+0,1=0,25(5-k) k =3,2

- Xc nh s mol O trong hn hp kh.


Tng s oxi ha ca cc nguyn t trong mt hn hp =0 nn
0,25.(+3,2) + (-2). nO = 0.
nO = 0,4mol.
Bo ton khi lng: mdd sau = m ddaxit + m 2kim loi m hh kh
mdd sau= 87,5+11,6- (0,25.14+0,4.16)= 89,2 gam
0, 05.188
C % Cu ( NO3 ) 2 = .100% = 10,5%
89, 2
0,1.180
C % Fe ( NO3 ) 2 = .100% = 20, 2%
89, 2
0, 05.242
C % Fe ( NO3 )3 = .100% = 13, 6%
89, 2

32
3 (0,5 im) 0,25
V k = 3,2 nn phi c mt kh m s oxi ha ca N ln hn 3,2. Vy kh l NO2
Gi kh cn li l kh A v s oxi ha ca kh cn li l x
Gi s kh A trong thnh phn c 1 nguyn t N
TH1: nu t l s mol (NO 2) : s mol A = 3:2, da vo s ng cho suy ra
x = 2. Vy kh A l NO
TH2: nu t l s mol (NO2) : s mol A = 2:3 => x l: Loi
Nu A c 2 N, trng hp ny cng tnh c x l => loi
Tnh V: 0,25
t n (NO2) = 3a => n(NO) = 2a mol
ne nhn = n (NO2) + 3n (NO) = 3a + 3.2a = 0,45 => a= 0,05
=> nkh = 5a = 0,25 => V = 5,6 lit
Cu 5 1 (1,5 im) 0,25
(2 im) S 1 phn ng: A + NaOH X + Y + Z + (trong sn phm c th c nc).
X + HCl X1 + NaCl;
Y + HCl Y1 + NaCl
V t chy hai axit X1; Y1 thu c sn phm chy c s mol H 2O = s mol CO2 =>
hai axit X1 v Y1 u l axit no, mch h, n chc (c cng thc tng qut l
CnH2n+1COOH).
Gi cng thc trung bnh ca hai mui X, Y l: C n H 2n +1COO Na. 0,25
Phng trnh:
C n H 2n +1COO Na + HCl C n H 2n +1COO H + NaCl
S mol NaCl = 0,6 mol
=> s mol C n H 2n +1COO H = s mol C n H 2n +1COO Na = 0,6 mol
=> (14 n +46).0,6 = 31,8 => n = 0,5.
=> m (hn hp X, Y) = m ( C n H 2n +1COO Na) = 0,6.(14 n +68) = 45 gam
S t chy Z + O2 Na2CO3 + CO2 + H2O 0,25
S mol Na2CO3 = 0,15 mol;
s mol CO2 = 1,95 mol;
s mol H2O = 1,05mol.
p dng bo ton khi lng
mZ = m (Na2CO3) + m (CO2) + m (H2O) - m (O2) = 43,8 gam.
p dng bo ton nguyn t ta tnh c trong hp cht Z: 0,25
s mol C = 0,15 + 1,95 = 2,1 mol;
s mol H = 2.1,05 = 2,1 mol;
s mol Na = 0,3 mol
=> s mol O = 0,6 mol
=> s mol C : H : O : Na = 2,1 : 2,1 : 0,6 : 0,3 = 7 : 7 : 2 : 1
=> Cng thc n gin nht ca Z l C7H7O2Na. (M = 146) (*)
p dng bo ton nguyn t Na cho s (1) ta c 0,25
s mol Na(NaOH) = s mol Na (X, Y, Z) = 0,6 + 0,3 = 0,9 mol.
=> m dung dch NaOH = 180 gam.
=> m H2O (dung dch NaOH) = 144 gam < 149,4 gam
=> s 1 cn c nc v m (H2O) = 5,4 gam => s mol H2O = 0,3 mol.
p dng bo ton khi lng:
mA = m (X, Y, Z) + m (H2O) - m (NaOH)
= 45 + 43,8 + 5,4 - 36 = 58,2 gam.
=> MA = 194 g/mol. (**)

33
T (*);(**) =>Z c cng thc phn t trng vi CTG nht l C7H7O2Na. 0,25
A phn ng vi NaOH theo t l mol 1:3 to ra 3 mui v nc;
s mol nc = s mol A.
A l este 2 chc to bi hai axit cacboxylic v 1 cht tp chc (phenol - ancol).
CTCT ca A HCOOC6H4CH2OCOR'. => R' = 15 => R' l -CH3.

Vy cng thc phn t ca A l C10H10O4; Z l C7H7O2Na.


2 (0,5 im)
HCOOC6H4CH2OCOCH3 + 3NaOH HCOONa + NaOC6H4CH2OH + 0,25
CH3COONa + H2O
NaOC6H4CH2OH + CO2 + H2O HO-C6H4CH2OH + NaHCO3
V Z1 c phn ng vi brom theo t l mol 1:3 => Z1 l m - HO-C6H4CH2OH. 0,25
Phng trnh:
m - HO-C6H4CH2OH + 3Br2 mHO-C6HBr3-CH2OH + 3HBr.
Vy cu to ca A l m-HCOOC6H4CH2OCOCH3
hoc m - CH3COOC6H4OCOH.

S GIO DC V O TO K THI CHN HC SINH GII TNH


HI DNG LP 12 NM HC 2016 2017
MN THI: HA HC
D B Thi gian lm bi: 180 pht
Ngy thi: 08/10/2016
( gm c 02 trang)

Cu 1: (2,0 im)
1) Sc kh H2S vo dung dch cha CuCl2, FeCl3, AlCl3, NH4Cl (mi cht c nng 0,1M) ti d thu c
kt ta A v dung dch B. Tip tc sc t t NH3 n d vo dung dch B. Vit phng trnh ha hc ca cc phn ng
(c th xy ra) di dng ion rt gn.
2) Cho cc s phn ng:
(1) (A) + H2O (B) + (X); (4) (A) + NaOH + H2O (G) + (X);
o
(2) (C) + NaOH t , xt
(X) + (E); (5) (E) + (D) + H2O (B) + (H) + (I);
(3) (A) + HCl (D) + (X); (6) (G) + (D) + H2O (B) + (H).
Bit X l hp cht ca cacbon, B l hp cht c tnh lng tnh. Xc nh cc cht A, B, C, D, E, G, H, I, X. Vit
cc phng trnh ha hc xy ra.
Cu 2: (2,0 im)
1) C 4 cht hu c A, B, D, E u mch h (cha C, H, O) v u c t khi i vi hiro l 37. A ch tc
dng vi Na, B tc dng vi Na, Na 2CO3 nhng khng tham gia phn ng trng bc. Khi oxi ha A iu kin thch
hp c ng ng k tip ca B. D tc dng vi NaOH nhng khng tc dng vi Na v khng tham gia phn ng
trng bc. E tc dng vi Na2CO3, vi Na v tham gia phn ng trng bc. Xc nh cng thc phn t, cng thc cu
to ca A, B, D, E v vit cc phn ng ha hc minh ha.
2) Nu hin tng v vit phn ng ha hc xy ra trong cc th nghim sau
a. Nh dung dch NaOH vo ng nghim c cha phenol, sau nh tip dung dch HCl vo.
b. Sc kh axetilen n d vo dung dch KMnO4.

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Cu 3: (2,0 im)
1) Cho 9m gam Fe vo 400 ml dung dch cha Cu(NO 3)2 0,25M v HCl 1M thu c 7m gam hn hp kim
loi, kh NO (sn phm kh duy nht) v dung dch A. Thm dung dch AgNO 3 d vo dung dch A, thu c a gam
kt ta. Bit cc phn ng xy ra hon ton. Tnh gi tr ca m v a.
2) Ha tan ht 5,36 gam hn hp FeO, Fe 2O3 v Fe3O4 trong dung dch cha 0,03 mol HNO 3 v 0,18 mol
H2SO4 thu c dung dch X v 0,01 mol kh NO (sn phm kh duy nht). Cho 0,04 mol Cu vo X thy c kh NO
tip tc thot ra, c cn dung dch sau phn ng thu c m gam mui khan. Tnh gi tr ca m.
Cu 4: (2,0 im)
1) t chy hon ton 2,7 gam hp cht hu c A (c C, H, O) cn va 2,016 lt O 2(ktc) thu c CO2 v
H2O theo t l mol 1: 1.
a. Xc nh cng thc n gin nht ca A.
b. Khi cho cng mt lng cht A nh nhau tc dng ht vi Na v tc dng ht vi NaHCO 3 th s mol H2 v
s mol CO2 thu c l bng nhau v bng s mol cht A phn ng. Tm cng thc phn t ca cht c khi lng
phn t nh nht tha mn cc iu kin ca A. Vit cc cng thc cu to c th c ca A.
2) Hn hp X gm hai cht hu c A v B u cha vng benzen l ng phn ca nhau, c cng thc n
gin nht l C9H8O2. Ly 44,4 gam X (s mol ca A v B bng nhau) tc dng va vi 300ml dung dch NaOH 1,5
M un nng. Kt thc phn ng thu c cht hu c D v ba mui (trong c mt mui natriphenolat). Bit A to
mt mui v B to hai mui. Xc nh cng thc cu to ca A, B, D v vit cc phng trnh phn ng xy ra.
Cu 5: (2,0 im)
1) Hp cht hu c X c cha cc nguyn t C , H , O.
Khi cho X tc dng vi NaOH th t l mol X v NaOH lun lun l 1:1.
Khi cho 2,12 gam X tc dng ht vi NaOH th thu c 2,56 gam mui, sn phm cn li l nc.
Mt khc khi cho X tc dng ht vi Na th s mol H2 to ra lun gp 1,5 ln s mol X tham gia phn ng .
Xc nh cng thc cu to ca X .
2) Cho m gam hn hp X gm 2 kim loi kim thuc 2 chu k lin tip tc dng vi 180 ml dung dch
Al2(SO4)3 1M thu c 15,6 gam kt ta, kh H2 v dung dch A. Nu cho m gam hn hp X tc dng vi 240 gam
dung dch HCl 18,25% thu c dung dch B v H 2. C cn dung dch B thu c 83,704 gam cht rn khan. Tnh
phn trm khi lng ca kim loi kim c nguyn t khi nh hn.

Cho nguyn t khi ca cc nguyn t: H=1; C=12; N=14; O=16; S=32; K=39; Na=23;Ca=40; Ba=137; Al=27;
Mg =24; Fe = 56; Ag = 108; Cu=64; Ni=59; Zn=65; Cl=35,5
....................HT...............

H tn th sinh:.........................................................S bo danh.........................
Ch k gim th 1:.......................................Ch k gim th 2...............................

UBND TNH QUNG TR K THI CHN HC SINH GII VN HA LP 12 THPT


S GIO DC V O TO Nm hc: 2012 2013
Kha thi ngy: 06/03/2013
THI CHNH THC Mn thi: HA HC
Thi gian lm bi: 180 pht (khng k thi gian giao )

Cu 1. (4,0 im)
1. Hon thnh cc phng trnh phn ng sau y:
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a) NaI + H2SO4 c, nng b) NaBr + H2SO4 c, nng
c) KNO3 + S + C d) FeSO4 + H2SO4 + HNO2
e) KMnO4 + H2SO4 + HNO2 f) NaNO2 + H2SO4 long
2. Trn 100ml dung dch HCl aM vi 150ml dung dch NaOH 1,5M thu c dung dch D. Dung dch D ha
tan c ti a 0,05 mol Al. Tnh a.
3. Cho hn hp gm Al v FeS2 tc dng vi dung dch HNO3 c nng d, thu c mt cht kh mu nu
(sn phm kh duy nht) v dung dch X. Cho dung dch X tc dng vi dung dch hn hp Ba(OH) 2 v NaOH (d),
phn ng hon ton thu c kt ta.
Vit cc phng trnh phn ng xy ra dng ion rt gn.
4. Ha tan hn hp bt gm m gam Cu v 4,64 gam Fe 3O4 vo dung dch H2SO4 (long, rt d), sau khi cc
phn ng kt thc ch thu c dung dch Y. Dung dch Y lm mt mu va 100 ml dung dch KMnO 4 0,1M. Vit
cc phng trnh phn ng xy ra v tnh gi tr m.
Cu 2. (4,0 im)
1. Cho ln lt cc dung dch sau: Na2CO3, FeCl3, KI, Al2(SO4)3, AgNO3 ln lt tc dng vi cc cht: NH3,
Na2S, FeCl2. Vit cc phng trnh phn ng xy ra dng ion rt gn.
2. Cho 2,2 gam hn hp A gm 2 mui NaX, NaY (X v Y l 2 halogen hai chu k lin tip, Z X< ZY) tc
dng vi dung dch AgNO3 d thu c 4,749 gam kt ta.
Tnh % theo khi lng NaX trong hn hp.
3. Cho bit gi tr nng lng ion ho th nht I1 (kj/mol) ca cc nguyn t thuc chu k 2 nh sau:
Chu k 2 Li Be B C N O F Ne
I1 (kj/mol) 520 899 801 1086 1402 1314 1681 2081
Nhn xt s bin thin nng lng ion ho th nht ca cc nguyn t trn. Gii thch?
4. Ha tan mt hn hp gm 0,01 mol Fe v 0,02 mol Fe 2O3 trong dung dch c cha 0,14 mol HCl thu c
dung dch B. Cho B tc dng va vi dung dch KMnO4 0,2M c axit ha bng dung dch H2SO4 long d.
Vit phng trnh phn ng dng ion v tnh th tch dung dch KMnO4 0,2M dng.
Cu 3. (2,0 im)
1. Ha tan hon ton 2,36 gam hn hp M gm 2 kim loi X v Y trong dung dch cha ng thi hai axit
HNO3 v H2SO4 m c, un nng. Sau khi phn ng kt thc, thu c 0,896 lt (ktc) hn hp kh Z ch gm T v
NO2, dung dch G c cha ion X2+, Y+. Bit t khi ca Z so vi metan l 3,15625.
a) Tnh khi lng mui khan thu c sau khi c cn cn thn dung dch G (Gi thit khng xy ra qu trnh
nhit phn cc mui trong dung dch G).
b) Xc nh khong gi tr thay i ca khi lng mui khan khi thay i t l kh T v NO2.
2. Ha tan hon ton m gam hn hp gm Zn, FeCO 3, Ag bng dung dch HNO3 long, thu c hn hp A gm
2 kh khng mu, trong c mt kh ha nu trong khng kh, t khi ca A so vi hiro bng 19,2 v dung dch B.
Cho B tc dng vi dung dch NaOH d, lc kt ta, nung n khi lng khng i, phn ng hon ton, thu c
2,82 gam cht rn. Bit rng mi cht trong hn hp ch kh HNO 3 to thnh mt sn phm kh v trong hn hp s
mol Zn bng s mol FeCO3. Xc nh sn phm kh cho v tnh s mol mi cht trong m gam hn hp ban u.

Cu 4. (3,0 im)
1. Hy cho bit ng vi cng thc phn t CnH2nO2 s c nhng loi ng phn no? Ly C3H6O2 vit cc
loi ng phn .
2. Mt hn hp lng gm 4 cht: C6H5OH, C6H6, C6H5NH2, C2H5OH. Nu phng php tch ring tng cht ra
khi hn hp v vit cc phng trnh phn ng xy ra.
3. Hon thnh s chuyn ho sau:

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+NaOH HNO2
A B C D Cao su Buna
CaO, to
+NaOH
C4H12N2O2
HNO2 +CuO, to +HCl
E F G H CO2
Cu 5. (4,0 im)
1. Cht A c cng thc phn t C11H20O4. A tc dng vi dung dch NaOH to thnh mui ca axit hu c B
mch h, khng nhnh v hai ancol l etanol v propan-2-ol.
a) Vit cng thc cu to ca A, B v gi tn chng.
b) Cho B tc dng vi cht C to thnh t nilon-6,6. Vit phng trnh phn ng xy ra.
c) Hy gii thch ti sao t nilon-6,6 v t enang d b axit v kim phn hy.
2. Khi oxi ha etylen glicol bng dung dch HNO3 thu c sn phm gm 5 cht hu c.
Vit cng thc cu to 5 cht trn, sp xp chng theo th t tng dn nhit si v gii thch ngn gn v
sao c s sp xp .
3. C 4 dung dch: C6H5ONa, (NH4)2CO3, BaCl2, Na2SO4 v 3 cht lng: C2H5OH, C6H6, C6H5NH2. Hy nhn bit
cc cht trn ch bng 1 thuc th v vit cc phng trnh phn ng xy ra.
4. Hirocacbon A c: 150 vC < MA < 170 vC. t chy hon ton a gam A thu c a gam H 2O. Cho A tc
dng vi dung dch AgNO3/NH3 d thu c cht hu c B. A tc dng vi H2O, xc tc HgSO4, un nng thu c
cht C. un nng C vi dung dch KMnO4 trong H2SO4 sinh ra cht D c cng thc cu to:
CH3 CH2 COOH

H3C C CH2 CH CH COCH3


CH3 COOH
L lun xc nh cng thc cu to ca A, B, C (Khng cn vit cc phng trnh phn ng).
Cu 6. (3,0 im)
Este A to bi 2 axit cacboxylic X, Y u mch h, khng phn nhnh v ancol Z. X phng ha hon ton a
gam A bng 190 ml dung dch NaOH xM, trung ha NaOH d sau phn ng cn dng 80ml dung dch HCl 0,25M,
thu c dung dch B. C cn dung dch B thu c b gam hn hp mui khan M, nung M trong NaOH khan d, c
xc tc CaO, thu c cht rn R v hn hp kh K gm 2 hirocacbon c t khi so vi O 2 l 0,625. Dn kh K li
qua dung dch nc brom d thy c 5,376 lt mt cht kh thot ra. Cho ton b lng cht rn R thu c trn tc
dng vi dung dch H2SO4 long d, c 8,064 lt kh CO2 thot ra. Cho cc phn ng xy ra hon ton, cc kh o
iu kin tiu chun.
1. Xc nh cng thc cu to ca X, Y, Z, A. Bit rng t chy hon ton 2,76 gam ancol Z cn dng
2,352 lt O2 (ktc), sau phn ng kh CO2 v hi nc to thnh c t l khi lng tng ng l 11:6.
2. Tnh gi tr a, b v x.
Cho: H=1, C=12, N=14, O=16, F=19, Na=23, Mg=24, Al=27, S=32, Cl=35,5; Fe=56; Cu=64, Zn=65, Br=80,
Ag=108, I=127.
-----------------------Ht-----------------------
Th sinh khng c s dng bng HTTH cc nguyn t ha hc v tnh tan.

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