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,

sin( ) = sin()cos() cos()sin


()
sin ( ) = cos() || =
2


cos( ) = cos()cos() sin()sin() = cos() + isin(k)
cos ( ) = sin()
2 tan()tan()
tan( ) = = ||
1tan()tan()
sin( ) = sin()

cos( ) = cos() sin(2) = 2sin()cos() (, ) = () = 1
3
sin ( ) = cos() cos(2) = 2 () 2 ()
= ()
2
2 tan()
3 tan(2) = , + +
cos ( ) = 12 () 4 2 2 2 = ()( )2 = 2
2
sin()
+
sin() + sin() = 2sin ( ) cos ( ) ()|() = () ()
sin() = sin() 2 2

+
cos() = cos() sin() sin() = 2cos ( ) sin ( ) ()|() = ()|()
2 2
()|1 1 () + 2 2 () = 1 ()|1 () +
+
cos() + cos() = 2cos ( ) cos ( ) 2 ()|2 ()
2 2
2
+ 1 1 () + 2 2 ()|() = 1 1 ()|() +
22 cos() cos() = 2sin ( ) sin ( )
() = 2 2 2 2 ()|()
2

f f f f
C (cost) 0
1 : =
x 1 ln x

x2 2x (a>0) log
1 1 1 : =

2 ( > 0, 1)
log
2
1
> 0 Sh x Ch x : + ()
2
2
x x-1 Ch x Sh x
( ) =
sin x cos x 1
arcsin x
cos x -sin x 1 2

1+ 2
( ) = 0 (, ) = (0) ()
1
tg x 1 arccos x (,)
= 1 2 = (, )
=
()2 ||

(1 + 2 )
cotg x 1 arctg x
1
= 1 + 2
2 2 2 2
=


+ 2 () =
1
2 ()
2 2 2 !2
+
() = () =
2 2 1 1
= = ( + ) = ( + )
2 2
|


+1 () = 2 () 21 (), > 0
= [, ] =


0 = 1;1 = 2;2 = 42 2;3 = 83 12
() = = ()|| () = , = ,

1, = =
= ( )
| = , = { }
{ =

= ( )
0,
, = ()|| () =
= ( )

= , [ , ] = [ , ] =
(, ) = () ()

() = ()|(, ) [ , ] =
2

22

= 2
2
1
()2 = 2 = 2 = 2
2 22 2 2 4
( ) =
2


, =
0 sin ( ) sin ( ) = , = {2
2
}
2
0, = ( + 1) 2 = ( + 1)
2 2, = 0
0 = 2,0 = { } , (, ) = , (, )

0, 0
()
(, ) = 0 = cos() + 1 (, )

2 2 1 2 1
0 2 () = 0 2 () = = 22 = 2 2
0

0 2 () = 2 2
= =
20 322 02 2
2 2
0 2 () = 4
()
3 3
0 2 2 () =
6

4 2 2
2
2
,, = ( + + )
8 2 2 2
!
0 = ! =0
!


= 0 = 0 () = 0 ()


2 |, = ( + 1)2 |,
|, = 0
= , |

|, = |,
= + | | +
|, = ( + 1) ( 1)|, 1

=
= (1 )
2 + |, = ( + 1) ( + 1)|, + 1
()
= [( + 1) ( + 1) ( + 1)] + = + =
2

= 1 1
= (+ + ) = (+ )
, = { = 1 = 2 2

0
=iA=qL/2m=qrp/2m=L momento di dipolo magnetico
Numero di microstati: (L+1)(2S+1) C2 E=energia di interazione mu*B
B=e/2me (L=) magnetone di Bohr
2 2 ee/2me rapporto giromagnetico di e-
cos ( ) sin ( ) 0
1 0 0 )L -(ge)S mom magn tot idrogeno (orbit+spin)
() = [0
1 0] 2 2 HZ=E=-B0Lz ge)B0Sz hamilt Zeeman
0 0 1 sin ( ) cos ( ) 0 NNI => emp=gNnuclei
[ 0 0 1]
+
= 1 + = 1 +
1+ 1
8) Bosoni spin intero o nullo (h O16 D2 N14) simmetrica
= + Fermioni semi-intero (e- C13 N15) antisimmetrica



=
2
10)
HSO=(A/)LS Hamiltoniano di accoppiamento spin-orbita

9)