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# PMI PMP Exam Tips

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## PMP Formulas and Calculation for PMP

Certification Demystified
you will need to remember for the PMP Exam

## by Edward Chung November 25, 2015

Summary: Many consider the most difficult part of the PMP exam to be the calculations and
PMP formulas. Luckily PMP calculation is not quantum physics, you just need to
understand and memorize the following PMP Calculation formulas. Keep calm and study on!
(You can read more about my PMP exam and certification journey here.)
PMP Formulas mentioned in the PMBOK Guide 5th
Edition
NEW! Click here if you would like to have a more in-depth explanation of the Earned Value Management (EVM)
formulas.

PMP Formulas
Name
Formula Interpretation
(Abbreviation)
n should include the
project manager

## e.g. if the no. of team

No. of
Communication
n (n-1)/2 members increase
from 4 to 5, the
Channels increase in
n = number of members in the team
communication
channels:
5(5-1)/2 4(4-1)/2 =
4
< 1 behind
Schedule SPI = EV/PV schedule
Performance Index = 1 on schedule
(SPI) EV = Earned Value > 1 ahead of
PV = Planned Value schedule
<1 Over budget
=1 On budget
>1 Under budget

Cost Performance
CPI = EV/AC sometimes the term
Index (CPI) cumulative CPI
EV = Earned Value
would be shown,
AC = Actual Cost
which actually is the
CPI up to that
moment

Schedule Variance
(SV)
SV = EV PV < 0 Behind
schedule
= 0 On schedule
PMP Formulas
Name
Formula Interpretation
(Abbreviation)
EV = Earned Value > 0 Ahead of
PV = Planned Value schedule

## CV = EV AC <0 Over budget

Cost Variance (CV) =0 On budget
EV = Earned Value > 0 Within budget
AC = Actual Cost

## EAC = AC + New if the original

estimate is based on
Estimate at
Completion (EAC) ETC wrong
data/assumptions or
if original is flawed
circumstances have
AC = Actual Cost
changed
New ETC = New Estimate to Completion

## EAC = AC + BAC the variance is

Estimate at
Completion (EAC) EV caused by a one-time
event and is not
if BAC remains the
likely to happen
same AC = Actual Cost
again
BAC = Budget at completion
EV = Earned Value
if the CPI would
Estimate at
Completion (EAC)
EAC = BAC/CPI remain the same till
end of project, i.e.
if CPI remains the the original
BAC = Budget at completion
same estimation is not
CPI = Cost performance index
accurate

## EAC = AC + [(BAC use when the

Estimate at
Completion (EAC)
-EV)/(CPI*SPI)] question gives all the
values (AC, BAC,
if substandard EV, CPI and SPI),
AC = Actual Cost
performance otherwise, this
BAC = Budget at completion
continues formula is not likely
EV = Earned Value
to be used
CPI = Cost Performance Index
SPI = Schedule Performance Index
PMP Formulas
Name
Formula Interpretation
(Abbreviation)

## TCPI = (BAC EV)/

(BAC AC)
BAC = Budget at completion
EV = Earned value
AC = Actual Cost
To-Complete <1 Under budget
Performance Index =1 On budget
(TCPI) TCPI = Remaining >1 Over budget

Work
/Remaining Funds
BAC = Budget at completion
EV = Earned value
CPI = Cost performance index

Estimate to
ETC = EAC -AC
Completion
EAC = Estimate at Completion
AC = Actual Cost

Variance at
VAC = BAC EAC <0 Over budget
=0 On budget
Completion
BAC = Budget at completion > 0 Under budget
EAC = Estimate at Completion

(O + 4M + P)/6
PERT Estimation
O= Optimistic estimate
M= Most Likely estimate
P= Pessimistic estimate

Standard Deviation
(P O)/6 this is a rough
estimate for the
standard deviation
O= Optimistic estimate
PMP Formulas
Name
Formula Interpretation
(Abbreviation)
P= Pessimistic estimate

LS ES
LS = Late start
= 0 On critical
ES = Early start
path
Float/Slack
< 0 Behind
LF EF schedule

LF = Late finish
EF = Early finish

The above 17 PMP formulas are all that youll need for the PMP Exam. Learn them and
understand their application. You will be able to solve the calculation questions in the
certification exam.

However, if you are still struggling with PMP formulas or you want some more guided
descriptions on how to apply them with PMP practice questions, you are advised to explore the
PM Exam Formulas Study Guide authored by Cornelius Fichtner (the same author of the
acclaimed online PMP Exam Prep course which I used to clear my PMP exam the PM
PrepCast).

## 1. An Introduction to PMBOK Guide 5th Edition: Knowledge Areas, Processes

and Process Groups
2. How to Study for PMI PMP? Learn PMI-ism First!
3. PMP Certification Study Notes 1 - Terms and Concepts
4. PMP Certification Study Notes 2/3 - Project Management Processes and
Knowledge Areas
5. PMP Certification Study Notes 4 - Project Integration Management
6. PMP Certification Study Notes 5 - Project Scope Management
7. PMP Certification Study Notes 6 - Project Time Management
8. PMP Certification Study Notes 7 Project Cost Management
9. PMP Certification Study Notes 8 - Project Quality Management
10. PMP Certification Study Notes 9 - Project Human Resource
Management
11. PMP Certification Study Notes 10 - Project Communication
Management
12. PMP Certification Study Notes 11 - Project Risk Management
13. PMP Certification Study Notes 12 - Project Procurement Management
14. PMP Certification Study Notes 13 - Project Stakeholder Management
15. PMP / PMI-ACP Certification Study Notes - Professional and Social
Responsibility
16. PMP Formulas and Calculation for PMP Certification Demystified
17. Are You PMP Exam Ready? List of Free PMP Sample Exam Questions
with Benchmarks
18. PMP Earned Value Management (EVM) Calculation Explained in Simple
Terms
19. Top Tips for Tackling PMP EVM Questions (20+ Practice Questions
Included)
20. PMP Exam Glossary Flashcard [A,B]
21. PMP Exam Glossary Flashcard [C,D]
22. PMP Exam Glossary Flashcard [E,F,G]
23. PMP Exam Glossary Flashcard [H,I,J,K,L]
24. PMP Exam Glossary Flashcard [M,N,O]
25. PMP Exam Glossary Flashcard [P]
26. PMP Exam Glossary Flashcard [Q,R]
27. PMP Exam Glossary Flashcard [S]
28. PMP Exam Glossary Flashcard [T,V,W]

* Hope this PMP Exam Formulas Guide will help you with your PMP Exam. If you find PM
Exam Formulas Study Guide suitable and if you enjoy my PMP articles, please consider
to sustain my website costs. Thank you.

will help this website grow! THANKS!

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Edward Chung

Edward Chung aspires to become a full-stack web developer and project manager. In the quest to
become a more competent professional, Edward studied for and passed the PMP Certification,
ITIL v3 Foundation Certification, PMI-ACP Certification and Zend PHP Certification. Edward
shares his certification experience and resources here in the hope of helping others who are
pursuing these certification exams to achieve exam success.

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52 Responses

Pingbacks0

1. Shane Bridges

## May 22, 2016 at 09:22

First, thanks for posting your notes and formula sheet. I hate reinventing something the
wheel. Anyway, for the formula sheet the note next to VAC is incorrect. If VAC > 0 then
you are under budget. If its < 0, you are over budget. Probably a typo.

o Edward Chung

## May 24, 2016 at 14:18

Hi Shane,
Thanks for your comment. Since VAC is the difference between the original
estimate and recent estimate, if the recent estimate is smaller (i.e. VAC is
positive), the project would be under budget and vice versa.

2. Meena Kumar

## April 7, 2016 at 13:06

the formulas. Would you kindly send them via my email address? Thank you!

3. Trish

## March 17, 2016 at 10:29

the link. I dont know if its not showing up because Im using my iPad, but I feel a bit
silly. Could you provide me with the link to the .pdf? Thanks!

4. Cynthia VanRenterghem

## January 12, 2016 at 22:08

Im having the same issue with the PDF of the formulas that it looks like a number of
people are. I liked this post on FB and the PDF appeared but when I opened it, there was
just one page. Can you please send me the full PDF asap this is my second request.
Thank you.

5. arif ali

## December 23, 2015 at 14:41

Edward,
I am a person who prints and write notes on side. Is there a way to print your study notes
without all these ads (I dont want to get distracted and waste paper)? Is there a separate
your notes upto date with latest PMBOK?

o Edward Chung

## December 23, 2015 at 16:25

Download this post as PDF at the end of every article. Simply share the post and

Yes, the PMP notes are for PMBOK Guide 5th Edition (i.e. the latest edition).

## Wish you PMP success!

6. Fouzi
December 6, 2015 at 16:37

Hi Edward,
Ive just shared on my tweeter but dont see where the downloadable formula sheet can
be found.

Thanks,
FZI

7. Samantha

## November 7, 2015 at 05:16

the1 page formula sheet. Can you please email it to me?

Thanks!
Samantha

8. Lily

## October 14, 2015 at 12:58

Hi Edward,

I shared this post and do not see a link to the PDFs file for the formulas. Can you email it

Thank you.

Lily

9. Rhonda

## September 28, 2015 at 08:53

Hi Edward,

Ive shared on my social media platform but dont see where the downloadable formula
sheet can be found. Could you please email it to me?

Many Thanks,

Rhonda

10. Max

## September 6, 2015 at 23:18

Hi Edward,

Should the formula for the Estimate at Completion (EAC) if substandard performance
continues actually be the following:

## EAC = AC + [ (BAC -EV)/(CPI*SPI) ]

Notice the use of the square brackets. The way you have it written could imply that the
the AC is included as part of the divisor rather then added to the result of the division part
of the equation.

o Edward Chung

## September 9, 2015 at 15:16

Hi Max,
and I have amended it in the post. Thanks!

11. Bonney

## August 28, 2015 at 23:31

Edward I posted your formulas to my Facebook page but there is no PDF that Im able

12. Ray

## August 21, 2015 at 05:34

me PDF in email?
Thanks

13. Cornald Orjiako

## August 14, 2015 at 07:24

I expected to see formulas for Point of Total Assumption (PTA) for different contract
types in the list. This would have increased the number of formulas from 17.

o Edward Chung

## August 14, 2015 at 16:00

Hi Cornald,

Thanks for your comment. Yes, the formulas for Point of Total Assumption
(PTA) are mentioned in some PMP Exam Prep books. However, it seems that not
many PMP exam takers have reported having questions on PTA calculations in
their PMP Exam paper. In the interests of simplicity, the PTA formulas are
intentionally left out. Thanks!

14. Jim

## August 7, 2015 at 18:43

Edward,

Thank you for your time and patience in helping so many prepare for the exam. I am
testing on 8/13. Can you send me the formula PDF? I wrote out the processes and am
writing them again. Some stick better than others, can you give me something to help me
here? The mind maps might help, memorization is probably not the best tool for me to
remember these things. Thank you for your help! Best regards, Jim

o Edward Chung

## PTA=((Ceiling Price Target Price)/ Share Ratio) + Target Cost

you do not mention it with PMP Formulas. why?

o Edward Chung

## July 27, 2015 at 16:05

Thanks for raising this question. It seems that Point of Total Assumption
calculation is not mentioned in PMBOK 5th Edition and therefore it is not
included here. However, since the PMP exam is not just about the PMBOK
Guide, you may encounter questions about Point of Total Assumption in the real
PMP Exam. Thanks!

## July 21, 2015 at 10:22

Hi Edward,
I did share on my facebook and did see the pdf link, but the contents did not have the
formulas. Can you please email the formula sheet?

17. Scott

18. Scott

## July 6, 2015 at 22:14

Hello,

Thank you for the great information. After liking your site on Google +, I was not able to

19. sb

## Hi Edward, your sites been very helpful. Thank you so much!

I have a question for you, when you signed up for language aid, was it more of a
distraction for you?
Im having a hard time trying to decide if I should sign up for language aid or not.
English is not my first language but Im Ok for the most part. the trouble is that my
reading speed is very slow and understanding the question takes couple of passes. If I
were to read my own language, I can read faster but may not be able to recognize PM
vocabulary. I just wanted to get an idea if it would be more of a distraction for me or not.
thx

o Edward Chung

## June 10, 2015 at 14:22

The language aid will never be an distraction. You just scroll down to read the
language aid if needed, other than that, you will have to answer questions
normally (i.e. you will have to mark the answer on the English version of the
question NOT the language aid).

Hint: the translated question is usually a bit shorter and more direct in its
presentation, this is especially useful for longer questions!

20. Hamish

## June 8, 2015 at 12:54

Hi Edward,

Great site!! Are these formulas provided in any form within the exam, or do their
application AND forms need to be committed to memory? Thanks very much!

o Edward Chung

## June 10, 2015 at 14:23

You will have to memorise all the PMP formulas as these will not be shown on
the exam paper but you will have to use them to calculate the answers. It is

## May 29, 2015 at 20:29

Great resource! I shared with my friends on Facebook but was unable to find the pdf

22. Eugene Ng

## May 27, 2015 at 09:24

Hi Edward, I have shared in tweeter but I cant download the document. Appreciate if you
can email it to me.

Thanks so much.

24. Udayakumar

## May 13, 2015 at 20:13

Hi,

I shared in tweeter, can you share the document in email since i could not get the

25. Russ F.

## May 5, 2015 at 20:40

A great resource. Just finished Knowledge Acadamy Online and just bought Dummies
book but your notes help me figure most important areas for studying.

26. Nil

## May 3, 2015 at 13:52

Good summary of the required formula. I was struggling to grasp the formula required to
pass the PMP. good job!

## April 27, 2015 at 00:39

yesterday, but now I cant see it in the comments section. So, I hope you receive this. I
shared on my G+ acct so could you please email me the PDF? Thank you.

## April 26, 2015 at 03:03

Hi! I shared via my Google+ acct but cant seem to access the download (not sure if its
because Im using Chrome) so can you email me the link to it please? thanks!!

29. Felicia
April 25, 2015 at 04:39

30. Tone

## April 22, 2015 at 21:20

Hi,
great site, congratulations
.
I think you are missing one formula for TCPI: PMBOK page 224 last formula in the table
TCPI= (BAC-EV)/(EAC-AC).

31. Nag

32. Sheryl

## March 12, 2015 at 23:16

Edward your site is awesome. Our study group is really benefitting from your posts.
Just a note: you mention that you had a .pdf formula sheet download but we cant seem
to find it.

o Edward Chung

## March 13, 2015 at 10:21

Hi Sheryl,

Thanks for your comment. There is a box below the formula table which will

## February 12, 2015 at 14:48

Scenario 1: If the exam state that you (meaning PM) have 4 team members. So, in this
case the N = 4+1 = 5, correct?
Scenario 2: There are 7 stakeholders in the team. In this case, N = 7, correct?
Scenario 3: You have 3 team members and 8 stakeholders. In this case, N=11, correct?

o Edward Chung

## February 13, 2015 at 12:17

The question I encountered on the real PMP exam is more or less like scenario 1.

I would agree scenario 1 and 2 are correct. But for scenario 3, I would take N as
12 as it is said that you have 8 stakeholders, i.e. you is not counted as a
stakeholder.

Do you agree?

Massimo

## PM is not counted as a stakeholder, but he is included as a team

member 8+3 = 11 where does the extra communication channel (12)
come from Edward?

Edward Chung

## February 26, 2015 at 13:38

Hi Massimo,

For questions like this, you need to read the question *very* carefully.
You have 3 team members and There are 3 members in your team are
DIFFERENT.

You have 3 team members meaning that there are 4 members in the team.

## 34. Dave Murphy

February 12, 2015 at 08:16

## My understanding is, by default PM is included only when stakeholders # are mentioned

since PM is one of the stakeholders. For anything else, unless or otherwise explicitly
stated about the PM we should always add PM to the number. Could you help me to get
more details on this please? There are number of questions in the exam, at least 2-4
questions are sure, depending on this. If one question goes wrong all the questions in this
area would probably go wrong because of this confusion. All i need to know when to add
PM and when not to add PM to the given number.

o Edward Chung

## As fas as I know, PM is NOT considered as a stakeholder in the PMBOK Guide

as the PM is responsible for stakeholder management / communication (though
by definition, stakeholder can include the PM as well as the team members). I did
encounter 1 questions on my PMP exam about communication channel and I
included the PM as a team member in the calculation. Hope this clarify your
doubts.

## February 11, 2015 at 08:21

In your first formula about the no. of comm. channel, should it not be 6 * 5 / 2 5*4 / 2 =
5

Assumingthe team number is not included PM. Its kind of confusing when to add PM
or not to add PM in the given number. Can you clarify?

o Edward Chung

## February 11, 2015 at 11:24

From my experience, if the question mentions the number of team members, the
PM is included.
I do agree sometimes the PM is not considered as team members, but for
calculation of communication channels, the PM is always included.

## December 16, 2014 at 15:40

Hi Robert,
I have reviewed Figure 7-12 of the PMBOK Guide and found that the figure is for a
project that is over budget (the VAC is negative in this case and would require the use of
management reserve). The figure and the VAC formula are telling the same thing.
Thanks!

## October 11, 2015 at 20:38

Hi,in your coment you say when VAC is negative then it is over budget.However,
in your formula explanation you have < 0 under budget.Thanks for sharing your
materials.

37. Robert

## December 15, 2014 at 23:54

For the VAC formula, isnt your interpretation the opposite of Figure 7-12 on p. 219 of
PMBOK 5e? That is, if as in the figure the EAC is greater than the BAC then the VAC is
negative and the project is running over budget. Please clarify.

Follow:

## Hi, I am Edward Chung a busy professional pursuing career

advancements through certifications. Here I share my experience and resources on getting the
PMP Certification, PMI-ACP, ITIL v3 Foundation and Zend PHP.
I got these certifications while taking care of my full-time job and my family with 3 kids.
Hope you will find my exam tips useful!

them ASAP. You may find the answers to questions here.

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