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Chapter 1

Introduction

Indeed, there is no denying that the internet plays an important and major role in people's

lives in todays society. Social media are forms of electronic communication (such as websites for

social networking and microblogging) through which users create online communities to share

information, ideas, personal messages, and other content (Webster, 2017). Social networking is

one of the most pervasive Web 2.0 tools available. It is all about making connections and

participating in online communities. A Web 2.0 website may allow users to interact and collaborate

with each other in a social media dialogue as creators of user-generated content in a virtual

community, in contrast to the first generation of Web 1.0-era websites where people were limited

to the passive viewing of content (Wikipedia, 2017). Social media has changed the way individuals

interact with technology and one another. In addition, invention of smartphones has drastically

changed the way people communicate. Mobile technology is fast becoming the preferred method

of accessing the Internet and its social media platforms. According to Internet Usage and World

Population Statistics, as of March 31, 2017, it is estimated that 3,739,698,500 are internet users,

or almost half of the world's population. This includes Asia, having the highest number of users

which equates to around 1.8 billion users. In the Philippines alone, in a recent study conducted by

Rappler, mobile internet penetration rate is growing at a rate of 1.5x or 30 million users per year.

A study by On Device Research revealed that out of 97 million Filipinos, 70% are netizens under

29 years old and 96% are on social media. An average Filipino spends 3.2 hours on mobile and

5.2 hours on desktop and tablet. The use of social media ranks 47% in top online activities. In fact,

there are now 47 million active Facebook accounts in the Philippines. Nowadays, seldom do we

see a person who doesnt use the internet for various reasons.

Thus, people from all walks of life, millennials or not utilize technology for a myriad of

reasons and the possibilities of utilizing it are endless. In the aspect of Nursing Education,

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) opens up new possibilities for introducing

innovative teaching and learning methods to deliver education in different educational areas(Lahti,

Haapaniemi-Kahala, & Salminen, 2017). Learning institutions can motivate students with the use
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of ICT tools to make learning more relatable, enjoyable, and sustainable. Through the years, the

use of internet and social media has grown rapidly and has become major sources of information

among nursing students. Nowadays, in order to cope with a fast expanding nursing knowledge

base and advances in Science and Technology, nursing students need to look for more ways to

keep themselves updated and adept .The rate of technological evolution in healthcare is

progressing. Student nurses, and those already in practice, should be offered ongoing educational

opportunities to enhance a wide spectrum of professional informatics skills. (Elsevier, 2016).

Social media are the most accessible tools online that permits cooperation, collaboration

and relationship building. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) opens up new

opportunities for introducing innovative learning methods to deliver education in Nursing. The use

of internet and social media has grown rapidly and plays an important role in how student nurses

find information. The lack of adequate study depicting the perceived usefulness of Social Media

as a learning tool among undergraduate nursing students prompted the researcher to focus on this

topic considering that perceived usefulness is a determinant of social media use.

Rationale

There is now an abundance of professional and scientific information on both Facebook

and Twitter. Social media websites are having a relevant impact on how collaborative relationships

are formed and information is disseminated throughout the world. Although there is a large body

of literature devoted to the ways in which the general public is making use of social media, there

is less research regarding how such trends are impacting the nursing education. This study aims to

know the perceived usefulness of social media as a learning tool in nursing education among

undergraduate nursing student in the College of Maasin, Southern Leyte.

There are several new and advanced ways of using ICT and creating alternative teaching

methods, which can be applied to nursing and health care education. Not even trying to adopt these

tools in the healthcare field would mean not being in step with the present world and giving up the

advantages offered by these new media.(Arrigoni, Alvaro, Vellone, & Vanzetta, 2016).The use of

Web 2.0 tools in general, and of social media in particular, is no longer under debate. However,

the question lies on whether or not students perceive social media useful as a learning tool in

Nursing Education. What causes nursing students to accept or reject social media as a learning
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tool? Among the many variables that may influence social media use, the proponent will use

perceive usefulness. People tend to use or not use social media to the extent they believe it will

help them perform the task which is learning. Thus, this study aims to find out the perceived

usefulness of social media among undergraduate nursing students. The degree to which a person

believes that using social media is useful can enhance his/her social media utilization. Thus,

maximizing the full potential of social media as a learning tool.

Theoretical/Conceptual Framework

Self-Efficacy Theory

According self-efficacy theory, self-efficacy is defined as judgments of how well one can

execute courses of action required to deal with prospective situations (Bandura, 1987). This theory

also distinguishes self-efficacy judgments from outcome judgments, the latter concerned with the

extent to which a behaviour, once successfully executed, is believed to be linked to valued

outcomes. The outcome judgement variable is similar to perceived usefulness. Self-efficacy theory

provides a theoretical perspective suggesting that perceive usefulness functions as a basic

determinant of behaviour.

Theory of Constructiveness

In the theory of constructiveness by Jerome Bruner, the objective reality of the outside

world transferred from the learner has not been granted and it is not assumed that the learner keeps

a version of this world in mind by learning. Educational approach based on constructive theory or

building the tendency of learning must be emphasized on the activity of the learner during the

construction of knowledge and it is commonly apprentice-based. Therefore, it can be said that in

nursing education, this theory can be used as well and it is very useful in giving the learners actively

to participate in discussions.

A major theme in the theoretical framework of Bruner is that learning is an active process

in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge. The

learner selects and transforms information, constructs hypotheses, and makes decisions, relying on

a cognitive structure to do so.


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Technology-enhanced learning in nursing and health care education spans instructivist to

constructivist approaches, as set out in the E-learning ladder (Moule 2007). Instructivist learning

theory, is a teachercentered model of learning that suggests knowledge exists independently of

the learner, and is transferred by the teacher, to the student, who is viewed as a passive recipient.

Constructivist theory is student, rather than teacher focused. The student constructs new

knowledge through analysis of information and reference to experience and understanding. The

ladder base identifies e-learning applications that provide access to instructional material through

to supporting constructivist approaches to learning. Opportunities for social learning and the

construction of knowledge, where learners are active in creating their own knowledge and

understanding, can be offered through Web 2.0 technologies, discussion boards and other social

networking sites. The ladder also identifies the key supports needed for engagement in e-learning.

The ladder presents a range of technologies that exist with the potential to enhance learning and

teaching, and a number of factors that impact on their adoption and use

The ladder also identifies the key supports needed for engagement in e-learning. Despite

difficulties e-learning is reported to offer the advantages of studying at a self-directed pace,

affording greater flexibility and convenience of use across the international health care workforce.

Statement of the Problem

The study would want to know the perceived usefulness of social media as a learning tool

in Nursing education among undergraduate nursing students enrolled in The College of Maasin,

Maasin City Southern Leyte. This study will answer the following questions:

1. Do nursing students find social media a useful learning tool in Nursing Education?

a. Which social medium/ia is/are commonly used by undergraduate nursing

students in studying?

b. How many hours do nursing students spend on using social media in a day?

c. How useful are social media as a learning tool among nursing students?

2. Is there a relationship between nursing student demographics and the use of social

media as a learning tool?


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Statement of Hypothesis

Social media is not perceived as a useful learning tool in Nursing education among nursing

students.

Scope and Delimitations

The study will include first year to fourth year nursing students of The College of Maasin,

Tunga-tunga, Maasin City, Southern Leyte. It will include nursing students who own devices or

gadgets (e.g. laptop, smartphones, tablets, ipads etc.) which can access the Internet and or social

media. This will not include nursing students who dont use such devices for various reasons (i.e.

personal choice, inability to buy due to insufficient funds, etc.)

There were some limitations in this study. First, the questionnaire was developed for this

study. However, the questionnaire was feasible and should be tested and validated in the future

with larger sample sizes. This study can be seen as a preliminary study that calls for further studies.

Second, the sample size was small and collected from one university and this may affect to the

generalization of the results. Third, in this study only a few forms of social media were studied,

even though they were the most used social media tools.

Significance of the Study

The aim of this study was to focus on nursing students perception the usefulness of social

media as a learning tool in Nursing education. Perceived usefulness of social media is said to be a

determinant of social media use. This would benefit the nursing educators in identifying new ways

in increasing awareness of the need to utilize social media as a learning tool and identifying

strategies in teaching through the use of Information Communication Technology particularly

Social media. Consequently, the development of new teaching strategies can benefit the nursing

students in acquiring and learning evidenced-based knowledge.

Hypotheses

Social media is not perceived as a useful learning tool in Nursing education among nursing

students.

There is no relationship between nursing student demographics and the use of social media

as a learning tool.
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Definition of Terms

Social Media-forms of electronic communication through which users create online communities

to share information, ideas, personal messages and other content such as videos. It can include but

not limited to websites for social networking (e.g. Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Youtube) and

microblogging (e.g. Blogspot/Blogger, Wordpress).

Learning Tool-A means or a device for acquiring a particular body of knowledge in this context,

concepts related to nursing

Undergraduate nursing students-identified as undergraduate students taking up the Nursing

baccalaureate currently enrolled at the College of Maasin at the time when the data collection has

been started

Usefulness-the extent to which social media functions allows users to complete a set of tasks and

achieve specific goals in a particular context of use

Perception- an attitude or understanding based on what is observed or thought

Perceived Usefulness- Perceived usefulness is defined here as the degree to which a person

believes that using a particular social medium would enhance his learning experience.