0 Up votes0 Down votes

8 views11 pagesFatigue Generation Mechanism in Touchdown Area of Steel Catenary Risers

Aug 31, 2017

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

Fatigue Generation Mechanism in Touchdown Area of Steel Catenary Risers

© All Rights Reserved

8 views

Fatigue Generation Mechanism in Touchdown Area of Steel Catenary Risers

© All Rights Reserved

- Neuromancer
- Hidden Figures: The American Dream and the Untold Story of the Black Women Mathematicians Who Helped Win the Space Race
- Fault Lines
- Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us
- The Path Between the Seas: The Creation of the Panama Canal, 1870-1914
- The Wright Brothers
- The Wright Brothers
- The Lean Startup: How Today's Entrepreneurs Use Continuous Innovation to Create Radically Successful Businesses
- A Jazzi Zanders Mystery
- Good to Great: Why Some Companies Make the Leap...And Others Don't
- The 6th Extinction
- The Great Bridge: The Epic Story of the Building of the Brooklyn Bridge
- The Power of Discipline: 7 Ways it Can Change Your Life
- The Right Stuff
- Zero to One: Notes on Start-ups, or How to Build the Future
- A Short History of Nearly Everything
- Hit Refresh: The Quest to Rediscover Microsoft's Soul and Imagine a Better Future for Everyone
- Made to Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die
- The Innovators: How a Group of Hackers, Geniuses, and Geeks Created the Digital Revolution

You are on page 1of 11

ISSN: 2040-7467

Maxwell Scientific Organization, 2012

Submitted: June 07, 2012 Accepted: June 09, 2012 Published: December 15, 2012

in Non-Linear Hysteretic Seabed

1

Kosar Rezazadeh, 2Hodjat Shiri , 1Liang Zhang and 1Yong Bai

1

Ship Building College, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001, China

2

Civil Engineering Department, Urmia University of Technology, Urmia, Iran

Abstract: The complex nature of seabed interaction with Steel Catenary Risers (SCR) in Touch Down

Zone (TDZ) and its vital impact on fatigue performance of SCRs makes serious difficulties against

proposing simplified and robust solutions for engineering design industry where the fatigue in touch down

zone is still considered as one the most challenging issues in riser design. In this study, authors have tried to

explore in deep the mechanism of fatigue generation in touchdown area with sophisticated numerical

simulations capturing the stress variation along the riser under complex load conditions in non-linear

hysteretic seabed. The results show interesting unknown stress variation trends which is believed to be

considerably useful in providing robust and simple solution for design industry.

Keywords: Fatigue, non-linear hysteretic seabed, Steel Catenary Riser (SCR), Touch Down Zone (TDZ)

damage generation, the area which is believed to be the

The complex riser-seabed interaction in touchdown main root of the subject and needs to be further

area is accepted today through ROV surveys where understood.

trenches with several diameters depth have been Various non-linear models have been presented in

observed (Bridge and Howels, 2007). Various literature for pipeline-seabed interaction (Bridge and

researches presented in literature have tried to Howels, 2007; Randolph and Quiggin 2009) but the

investigate the effect of trench formation on fatigue model proposed by Randolph and Quiggin (2009) is the

performance of SCRs, but the results show interesting model simulating gradual seabed soil stiffness

contradictions. Some authors report an increase in degradation which in turn models the gradual riser

fatigue damage due to trench creation (Giertsen et al., embedment into the seabed and trench formation due to

2004; Karunakaran et al., 2004) while others suggest soil softening under cyclic loading. The study has been

fatigue damage reduction (Clukey et al., 2007; Langner conducted through numerical simulations in which the

2003; Nakhaee and Zhang 2008). Shiri and Randolph complex non-linear hysteretic riser-seabed interaction

(2010) have performed numerical simulations and modeling the gradual soil stiffness degradation and soil

concluded that the source of contradiction is getting suction has been coupled with a full riser structural

back to the methodology undertaken for study. They model connected to a generic floating vessel. The

have proposed a study methodology letting the trench to vessel is excited by a generic wave spectrum

be gradually formed using a non-linear hysteretic throughout the displacement-controlled time domain

seabed interaction model. The final conclusion was analysis and then the fluctuations of riser in touchdown

showing the increasing of peak fatigue damage for area and its impact on stress variation along the riser is

deeper trenches. This totally different with findings of captured for detailed study. The seabed interactions and

Rezazadeh et al. (2012) where they showed that the gradual variation of boundary conditions in floating

implementing the effects of vessel slow drifts changes vessel has been coded in Fortran and linked to

the story to an unpredictable nature. Rezazadeh et al. ABAQUS. Post processing Excel macros have been

(2012) showed that depending on the load condition the developed to calculate the cumulative fatigue damage

peak fatigue damage in touchdown area can be and variation of von Mises stress range.

increased or decreased for deeper trench depths proving

more complexity of the subject. In this study, authors Global configuration of the model: The global

have tried to take a basic step and deeply explore the configuration of the numerical model which has been

nature of the relationship between the gradual constructed in ABAQUS is shown below in Fig. 1.The

Corresponding Author: Kosar Rezazadeh, Ship Building College, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, Heilongjiang

150001, China

5591

Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 4(24): 5591-5601, 2012

and is attached to Spar vessel in a point which is lower

than center of gravity. The riser-seabed interaction has

been considered from an area beyond the Touchdown

Point (TDP) until the anchor point throughout the riser

lay down on the seabed. The numerical model has been

constructed in ABAQUS finite element software

considering simple beam elements for riser. The riser-

seabed interaction has been modeled via User Defined

Elements (UEL) with the behavior coded inside the

Fortran which has been suitably coupled with main

model.

In this example, the Spar has been perturbed by 10

regular sinusoidal cycles and the responses show a

number of features such as suction force mobilization,

gradual increasing penetration depth, and gradually

reducing mobilization of soil resistance at maximum

penetration. The seabed model parameters and the

characteristics of the SCR are presented in Table 1 and

Fig. 1: Global configuration of modeled SCR 2.

The manipulated wave scatter diagram applied in

Table 1: non-linear model parameters analysis is based on typical conditions in the Gulf of

Parameter Symbol Value

Mudline shear strength su0 0.65 kPa

Mexico shown in Table 3.

Shear strength gradient 1.5 kPa/m

Power law parameter a 6 The Mechanism of fatigue generation in TDZ: It is

Power law parameter b 0.25 believed that fatigue damage is mostly derived in

Normalized maximum stiffness Kmax 200

Suction ratio fsuc 0.3

seabed trench mouth but still further explorations are

Suction decay parameter suc 0.5 required. It is worth mentioning that in this paper, since

Repenetration parameter rep 0.5 the main question is the fatigue derivation mechanism,

therefore the accurate estimation of the fatigue damage

Table 2: Riser pipe parameters itself is not a focus point. Hence for the cases that

Parameter Value

Outer diameter, Do 0.324 m (123/4 ) fatigue damage has been calculated some

Wall thickness, t 0.0205 m simplifications have been applied to facilitate the study.

Bending stiffness 4.67107 Nm2 As an instance, in non-linear plastic seabed since the

Submerged unit mass 100 kg/m hierarchy of the sea states can affect themagnitude of

Fatigue S-N curve DNV(2008), E Class:

the ultimate cumulative damage, so the validity of

SCF = 1.15, a = 1.0510-12 , m utilizing Miners rule for linear superposition of the

= 3.0

damages caused by various sea states is under question.

floating vessel type, the overall model dimensions and Shiri and Randolph (2010) showed that applying a

hydrocarbon field location (Gulf of Mexico) have been wave with higher significant height flatten the variation

selected as such to enable comparison with published of the von Mises stress range for the waves with less

results in the literature if required. height. This means if the biggest sea state hits to

Table 3: Manipulated wave scatter diagram for a 30 year service life in Gulf of Mexico

Sea State ID Hs (m) Tz (s) N applied Sea State ID Hs (m) Tz (s) N applied

1 0.5 4.2 18011291 16 8.0 9.1 3389

2 1.0 4.6 71370445 17 8.5 9.3 3011

3 1.5 5.0 4844608 18 9.0 9.5 1822

4 2.0 5.4 25187856 19 9.5 9.7 1395

5 2.5 5.8 13529335 20 10.0 9.9 1070

6 3.0 6.1 7473660 21 10.5 10.1 1246

7 3.5 6.5 3080495 22 11.0 10.2 566

8 4.0 6.9 1631014 23 11.5 10.4 928

9 4.5 7.3 583770 24 12.0 10.6 544

10 5.0 7.7 363725 25 12.5 10.7 813

11 5.5 8.0 114700 26 13.0 10.9 712

12 6.0 8.4 33676 27 13.5 11.0 8.77

13 6.5 8.5 16907 28 14.0 11.2 262

14 7.0 8.7 10864 29 14.5 11.3 343

15 7.5 8.9 5421 30 15.0 11.5 420

5592

Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 4(24): 5591-5601, 2012

8 0.000040

Fatigue

Shear far

6 Peak fatigue location 0.000030

Shear near

4 0.000020

Shear Force kN

Fatigue damage

2 Trench bottum point 0.000010

0 0.000000

-2 -0.000010

TDP Scaled trench profile

-4 -0.000020

-370 -360 -350 -340 -330 -320 -310 -300 -290 -280

Horizontal coordinate (m)

Fig. 2: Peak fatigue position relative to trench and shear profile of near and far offsets

7 0.000040

wave 20 wave 15

6 0.000035

wave 10 0.000030

5

wave 5 0.000025

Shear Force kN

Fatigue damage

4

0.000020

3

0.000015

2

0.000010

1 0.000005

0 0.000000

-1 -0.000005

-370 -360 -350 -340 -330

Horizontal coordinate (m)

Fig. 3: Near and far offset shear profile compare with fatigure damage for various waves

the vessel first, for the rest of the sea states the von near and far offsets are crossing each other. This is

Mises stress range will not be varied which in turn exactly in agreement with basic mechanical rule, where

means the application of Miners rule is allowed. In this the bending moment is the gradient of shear force

paper the described hypothesis has been undertaken which reaches its maximum value when the gradient

simplifying the calculation of the cumulative fatigue becomes zero. The bending moment itself is the main

damage and enabling authors to focus on subtle component making the von Mises stress for riser

mechanisms rather than the value of ultimate damage. tubular section which in turn produce the fatigue

As apparently shown in Fig. 5 for a sample damage by its variation range.

analysis, the peak fatigue damage is interestingly Comparing the location of peak fatigue damage

located at the point at which the shear force profiles of with riser profile ( Fig. 2) shows that the fatigue is

5593

Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 4(24): 5591-5601, 2012

120 0.000040

wave 20

0.000035

100

wave 15

0.000030

80

0.000025

Fatigue damage

60 0.000020

wave 10 0.000015

40

0.000010

20 wave 5

0.000005

0

0.000000

-20 -0.000005

-370 -360 -350 -340 -330

Horizontal coordinate (m)

Fig. 4: Near and far offset bending moment profiles compared with fatigue damage for various waves

4.5 0.00004

4 wave 20 0.000035

3.5

wave 15 0.00003

Contact envelope, kPa

3

0.000025

2.5

Fatigue damage

2 0.00002

wave 10

1.5 0.000015

1

wave 5 0.00001

0.5

0.000005

0

-0.5 0

-1 -0.00000

-370 -360 -350 -340 -330

Horizontal coordinate (m)

Fig. 5: Contact envelope compared with fatigue damage for various waves

mostly derived in trench mouth where the TDP has study was performed and a wide range of parameters

longest travel courses. are examined. As expected, the wave characteristics,

As will be shown in coming section, the shear seabed stiffness and the trench depth were found having

force crossing points of the near and far offsets are considerable impacts on fatigue performance which will

gradually moved toward the vessel end by increasing be briefly reviewed in coming sections.

the number of load cycles but then stabilized for higher

number of cycles and it is due to stabilization of trench Influence of sea state characteristics: The sea states

profile, a fact that will be used for some evaluations No. 5, 10, 15 and 20 were selected and the initial

later in this study. analysis was repeated under selected loads. For easier

This starting analysis encouraged authors to deeply comparison of the results, only the near and far offset

explore the parameters affecting the shear force, profiles at cycle 20 (end of the analyses) where plotted

bending moment, riser and contact profile etc., in the against the fatigue damage profiles ( Fig. 3, 4 and 5). As

proximity of trench mouth over the various seen, the wave characteristics is directly affecting the

representative load cycles. Comprehensive parametric profile with a regular trend.

5594

Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 4(24): 5591-5601, 2012

7 0.000025

Near offset shear Fatigue Far offset shear

6

Su0 = 1.0 kPa 0.000020

5 Su0 = 1.5 kPa

4 0.000015

Fatigue damage

Shear force kN

3

0.000010

2

1 0.000005

0.000000

-1

-2 -0.000005

-370 -360 -350 -340 -330

Horizontal coordinate (m)

Fig. 5: Near and offset shear profiles compared with fatigue damage for different seabed stiffness

120 0.000025

Near offset bending Fatigue

100 0.000020

Su0 = 1.5 kPa

Bending Moment, kN.m

Fatigue damage

80

0.000015

Su0 = 1.0 kPa

60

Far offset bending 0.000010

40

Su0 = 0.65 kPa

0.000005

20

0 0.000000

-20 -0.000005

-370 -360 -350 -340 -330

Horizontal coordinate (m)

Fig. 7: Near and offset bending moment profile comared with fatigure damage for various seabed stiffness

For all of the sea states the peak fatigue damage is The contact envelope shown in Fig. 5 is in quite

about the location at which the shear profile of far and agreement with results above. An important point is that

near offsets are crossing. It is also interestingly seen the TDP location is gradually moved towards the vessel

that the variation of the peak shear force in near and far end by increasing the wave height. It means, the trench

offsets are following opposite trends, but the average mouth is still the most indicative area in which the

shear in initial position is gradually changing parallel to fatigue damage is derived, this is in absolute correlation

fatigue damage variation. This means though the near with Fig. 2 where the peak fatigue position is shown to

and far offset profiles are varying in relatively irregular be somewhere between the TDP and trench bottom

scheme but the initial average can still be considered as point.

a reference index for fatigue damage estimation which It is accepted that the fatigue damage is increased

will be further discussed in later sections. Illustration of for seabed with higher stiffness. This has been

the bending moment variation in far and near vessel examined here to explore the effect of stiffness

offset over load cycles relative to fatigue damage in variation on fatigue derivation mechanism for seabed

Fig. 4 shows logic correlation with shear force profiles with stiffness in range of 0.65 to 1.5 kPa for undrained

as explained before in the current section. shear strength. As illustrated in Fig. 6, the peak values

5595

Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 4(24): 5591-5601, 2012

of near and far offset shear forces are increased for diameter (Bridge and Howells, 2007). This has been

stiffer seabed soil and this is same for fatigue damage examined hear using extreme soil model parameters to

itself. This in turn explains the main reason for such make a trench in initial stages of fatigue analysis. Two

ascending trend. The contact pressure is increased for trench depths have been examined here, 3D and 5D and

higher seabed stiffness which causes the increasing of the results are shown in Fig. 8 to 10. It is interestingly

shear force as seen above. This makes inverse change in seen that insertion of deep trenches stabilize the

bending moment particularly for near offset (Fig. 7) and variation of shear force and bending moment profiles

the results is wider clearance between far and near keeping the peak fatigue position still at the point that

bending moment profiles which means higher von near and far shear offsets are crossing. For the cases

Mises variation over load cycles and higher fatigue with presence of deep trenches most serious variations

damage accordingly. occur in near offset profiles and this is getting back to

the high contact pressure of the riser with seabed in this

Influence of trench depth: ROV surveys proves trench course. As a common trend in all of these analysis the

formation beneath the riser with couple of times of riser peak fatigue point is moved towards the vessel for

10 0.000035

Fatigue Far offset shear

8 5D Trench 0.000030

6 0.000025

3D Trench

Fatigue damage

Shear force kN

4 0.000020

2 0.000015

0 0.000010

-2 0.000005

Near offset shear

-4 0.000000

-400 -380 -360 -340 -320 -300 -280

Horizontal coordinate(m)

Fig. 8: Near and for offset profiled compared with fatigue damage for various trench depths

140 0.000035

120 Fatigue Far offset shear 0.000030

100

5D Trench 0.000025

Bending Moment kN.m

80

Fatigue damage

60 3D Trench 0.000020

40 0.000015

20

0.000010

0

0.000005

-20

Near offset shear

-40 0.000000

-400 -380 -360 -340 -320 -300 -280

Horizontal coordinate (m)

Fig. 9: Near and far offset bending moment profiles compared with fatigue damage for various trench depths

5596

Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 4(24): 5591-5601, 2012

8 0.000035

Fatigue Far offset shear

6 0.000030

5D Trench

Fatigue damage

0.000025

4

0.000020

2

3D Trench 0.000015

0

0.000010

-2 0.000005

Near offset shear

-4 0.000000

-400 -380 -360 -340 -320 -300 -280

Horizontal coordinate(m)

Fig. 10: Contact envelope compared with fatigue damage for various trench depths

deeper trenches, stiffer seabed soil and more severe sea As described by Barltrop et al. (1991) a standard

states. It is worth reminding hear that this for the cases form of S-N curves for marine structures to be used for

having no slow drift and only the wave action is fatigue calculations is:

implemented.

Figure 10shows contact pressure envelope in which m

by increasing the trench depth, the TDP moves towards

N = a . f (1)

the vessel end whilst the trench surface point in anchor

side dose not considerably changes. Since the nature of where,

fatigue is governed by changing in stress profiles, the

fatigue damage is derived in trench mouth where we N = Is the number of cycles to failure

have the maximum variations. a = Is an empirical coefficient

f = Is the factored stress variation range in MPa

Rough estimation of fatigue damage on non-linear

seabed without fatigue analysis: In a standard fatigue M = Is the inverse slope of the S-N curve

calculation, for an operating life that incorporates many

millions of cycles of various stress ranges, the For tubular elements as pipelines under bending

accumulated fatigue damage can be calculated using a moments, stress range variation is calculated in terms of

linear cumulative damage, according to the well-known von Mises stress. For SCRs the maximum von Mises

Miners rule. The fatigue analysis itself is considered stress can be written as follows:

as a time consuming process with extensive number of

analysis for various load conditions. In the early stages H M TDP . D (2)

f Max = +

of a project, designers usually wish to have a rough As 2I

estimation of riser fatigue life in TDZ as a red line of

riser projects based on seabed soil characteristics, where,

because, the seabed stiffness governs the bed response

to riser through contact pressure, which in turn makes H = Is tension force in riser

the shear force distribution. The shear force itself is the As = Is riser section area

gradient of bending moment, the key parameter to D = Is riser diameter

calculate von Mises stress range which in turn produce I = Is section moment of inertia

the fatigue damage and fatigue life accordingly. Since MTDP = Is bending moment in TDP

the mechanism of fatigue derivation in TDZ was

relatively explored in the previous section, we are going The fatigue damage is calculated using the von

to propose an approximation methodology enabling a Mises stress range f within a load cycle, i.e., a

rough estimation of peak fatigue damage of the riser in

TDP on a non-linear hysteretic seabed, which can be cycle of vessel perturbation. Ignoring the minor

quite valuable for designers in early stages of projects. changes in horizontal force in the Touchdown Zone

5597

Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 4(24): 5591-5601, 2012

can be approximated by the following relation:

M .D (3)

f Max TDP

2I

gradient, i.e., the product of average shear force and the

TDP relocation, as:

f Max ave

2I

variation

xTDP =is the maximum TDP relocation under a sin i

si = zi (5)

vessel perturbation cycle 1 cos i

V = is the initial/static maximum shear force in the

max

TDZ si zi (6)

ds i = dz i d i

zi 1 cos i

To avoid complex finite element analysis we would

need to propose closed form solutions for quick arcsin h (tan i ) cos i

x TDPi = z i (7)

calculation of the main parameters defined in equation 1 cos i

above. This can be done by combination of classical

catenary equations for estimation of TDP relocation and

x TDPi z x TDPi tan i (8)

an efficient boundary layer method for rough dx TDPi = dz i + i d i

calculation of average shear force in TDP. zi 1 cos i

TDP Relocation: Every change in vessel position due The change in hang-off angle can be written as

to load cycles applied by sea states will cause cyclic below using catenary equations:

relocation of the touchdown point, which will in turn

affect the SCR profile and stress distribution at the

seabed. In a 2-Dimensional (2D) planar system, the 1 cos i x s i (9)

= r i = b TDPi a

vessel can have vertical (heave) and horizontal (surge) 2 z i x TDPi tan i z i

motion and the vessel rotation (pitch) can be converted

into equivalent vertical and horizontal displacements -

taking into account the position of the attachment point substituting the change in vessel vertical and horizontal

of the riser, relative to the centre of gravity of the position, the TDP relocation can be written as below:

vessel. Figure 11 shows a schematic configuration of

the SCR as the vessel moves from its initial position s xTDPi si zi

(denoted by subscript i) to a new relocated position xTDP = sr si = i + a + b

(denoted by subscript r) under environmental loading. zi 2zi xTDPitani 2zi xTDPitani

The positive and negative sign of the heave and surge (10)

offsets (a, b) are determined based on the designated

TDZ peak shear force in initial configuration: Thus

coordinate system. The catenary length of the SCR

far, a range of different boundary layer methodologies

hanging part, the horizontal distance of the TDP from

have been to predict the analytical riser-seabed

vessel and the distance of the vessel from the seabed are

interaction overcoming the discontinuity of shear force

taken to be always positive. and bending moment along the riser in the touchdown

According to traditional catenary equations the area (Palmer et al., 1974; Pesce et al., 1998; Croll,

horizontal offset and the arc length in initial position 2000; Lenci and Callegari, 2005). Such models are

are the functions of depth and hang off angle, so the aimed to precisely evaluate SCR curvature in the

TDP relocation can be expressed based on changes of touchdown zone, and also to ensure continuity of

these 2 parameters: displacement gradient and shear force. As an example

5598

Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 4(24): 5591-5601, 2012

(16)

V max =

(1998) is selected and used in this work to find the in

2 + K 0 . 25

applied a standard boundary layer technique to 1 (17)

construct local consistent analytical solutions for the X v max in = 0 . 25 K

0 . 25

2 + K 0 . 25

K

static/dynamic curvature problems, with the aim of

smooth matching of the corresponding outer ideal As shown before in this paper in parametric study

cable solution. A non-dimensional soil rigidity

of the effect of load cycles and sea state characteristics

parameter is defined as:

on shear force distribution, the peak shear force in TDZ

for initial vessel configuration is gradually varied for

K = k 4 / EI = k 2 / H = kEI / H 2

(11)

cyclic loading on non-linear seabed. These effects shall

be implemented on analytical estimation of peak shear

where,

force, but before that we need to examine the accuracy

= Is the soil rigidity per unit area of the proposed methodology for a given configuration.

E= Is the SCR Youngs Modulus

I= Is the SCR second moment of inertia Examination of proposed method: The vessel has

= Is the horizontal tension force at the TDP been exited by one cycle of sea state No. 20 on a non-

is a flexural length parameter that provides the linear seabed with undrained shear strength of 0.65 kPa

boundary layer length scale, with a significant role in at mudline and a gradient of 1.5 kPa per meter in depth.

local solution. Its value is also interpreted as the Figure 12 shows the shear force distribution for far and

distance between the actual and ideal cable TDP - given near offsets of the vessel comparing with vessel initial

by: configuration, the hang-off angle and water depth is as

per the configuration illustrated in Fig 1. The

EI magnitude of TDP relocation (XTDP) for Wave No.20

= (12)

H based on the Equation 10 extracted from traditional

catenary equations in last section is about 6.2 m. To

Pesce et al. (1998) gives the following equations calculate the maximum shear force by boundary layer

for the shear force distribution in the TDZ: method the linear seabed stiffness is required; for the

riser not deeply penetrated into the seabed this value

ms g .K 0.25 K 0.25 K 0.25 K 0.25 can be roughly taken as about ten times of undrained

V = exp ( f ) cos ( f ) sin ( f )

2 + K 0.25 2 2 2 shear strength in mudline which is 0.65 kPa in this

(13) analysis, then the seabed stiffnes, k will be about 5.2

kPa. Using the boundary layer equation given before

if < f

the magnitude of parameter K will equals to 1.4, so the

maximum shear force for initial configuration can be

or calculated as below (Eq.16):

m g . K 0 .25 100 9 . 81 10 . 59 (1 . 4 ) 0 . 25

V = s exp( ( f )) (14) V max in = = 4 . 52 kN

1000 ( 2 + (1 . 4 ) 0 . 25 )

2 + K 0 .25

if f

The calculated value is almost equal to the peak

shear force value obtained from finite element analysis

where, msg is the weight of the riser unit length, f is shown in Fig, 12.

the ideal position of the TDP, defined as: Using the Eq. 5 the von Mises stress range can be

calculated as below:

1 1 (15)

= 0 . 25

K 0 . 25

2 + K

f 0 . 25

K 4 . 52 6 . 2 0 . 324

f Max = 20 . 1 MPa

1000 2 0 . 000226

and = f is the non-dimensional form of actual TDP

as shown in Fig. 13 the peak magnitude of von Mises

position (x/ ).

variation is about 18 MPa. This means the closed form

The peak value of shear force and its distance for solution has an accuracy about 90% which is quit

ideal TDP can be obtained by differentiation of Eq. (13) interesting. In another word, the fatigue life can be

and (14) which occurs, as expected, at = f : estimated by analytical solution without performing

5599

Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 4(24): 5591-5601, 2012

Initial peak

and a wide range of parameters are examined. As

5 expected, the wave characteristics, seabed stiffness and

4 the trench depth were found having considerable

Far offset

Shear force, kN

Near offset Be side that an approximation methodology was

2

proposed to estimation of peak fatigue damage of the

1 riser in TDP on a non-linear hysteretic seabed, which

Initial can be quite valuable for designers in early stages of

0

projects. The fatigue life can be estimated by analytical

-1

solution without performing extensive fatigue analysis

-400-390-380-370-360-350-340-330-320-310-300-290-280

with a tolerance of about 10% which can be very

Horizontal coordinate (m)

appealing for design engineers.

Fig. 12: Initial, near and far offset shear profiles REFERENCES

20 Peak von Mises Range Dynamics of Fixed Marine Structures.

10 Butterworth-Heinemann, London, pp: 764, ISBN:

0750610468.

Voin Mises, MPa

0

-10

Bridge, C.D. and H.A. Howells, 2007. Observations

Von Mises Range and modeling of steel catenary riser trenches.

-20

Proceedings of the 17th International Offshore and

-30 Max von Mises

Polar Engineering Conference, Lisbon, Portugal,

-40 Min von Mises July, 1-6, 2007, pp: 803, ISBN: 978-1-880653-68-

-50 5.

-60 Clukey, E., R. Ghosh, P. Mokarala and M. Dixon, 2007.

-400-390-380-370-360-350-340-330-320-310-300-290-280 Steel Catenary Riser (SCR) design issues at touch

Horizontal coordinate (m) down area. Proceedings of the Seventeenth

International Offshore and Polar Engineering

Fig. 7: Von Mises stress envelope and variation range Conference, Lisbon, Portugal, July, 1-6, 2007, pp:

814, ISBN: 978-1-880653-68-5.

extensive fatigue analysis with a tolerance of about Croll, J.G.A., 2000. Bending boundary layers in

10% which can be very appealing for design engineers. tensioned cables and rods. Appl. Ocean Res.,

Now it is time to implement the influence of 22(4): 241-253.

number of wave cycles as the parameter gradually Giertsen, E., R. Verley and K. Schroder, 2004.

vitiating the shear force distribution along the riser in CARISIMA a catenary riser/soil interaction model

TDZ. Combining the curve fits proposed before in for global riser analysis. Proceedings of the

parametric study the Equation 16 can be written as International Conference on Offshore Mechanics

below: and Arctic Engineering OMAE2004, June 20-25,

Vancouver, BC, Canada, pp: 633-640.

1 Karunakaran, D., K.A. Farnes and E. Giertsen, 2004.

V max var = V max in ( ) 0 .08 (18) Analysis guidelines and application of a riser-soil

n c ycle interaction model including trench effects.

Proceedings of the International Conference on

This equation implements the invers influence of Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering

number of wave cycles on peak shear force in initial OMAE2004, June 20-25, 2004, Vancouver, BC,

configuration. Canada, ASME, NY, USA, pp: 955-962.

Langner, C.G., 2003. Fatigue Life Improvement of

CONCLUSION Steel Catenary Risers due to Self-Trenching at the

Touchdown Point. Offshore Technology

The mechanism of fatigue generation in TDZ was Conference, Houston, Texas, USA, pp: 11, ISBN:

studied through use of the hysteretic non-linear seabed. 978-1-55563-250-2.

The nature of the relationship between the gradual Lenci, S. and M. Callegari, 2005. Simple analytical

embedment of the riser into the seabed and fatigue models for the j-lay problem. Acta Mechanica,

178(1-2): 23-39.

damage generation was investigated and the parameters

Nakhaee, A. and J. Zhang, 2008. Effects of the

affecting the shear force, bending moment, riser and

interaction with the seafloor on the fatigue life of a

contact profile was deeply explored in the proximity of

SCR. International Offshore and Polar Engineering

trench mouth over the various representative load

5600

Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol., 4(24): 5591-5601, 2012

Conference, Vancouver, BC, Canada, July 6-11, Engineering OMAE 2009, Honolulu, Hawaii,

pp: 87, ISBN: 978-1-880653-70-8. USA, pp: 1-10.

Palmer, A.C., G. Hutchinson and J.E. Ells, 1974. Rezazadeh, K., H. Shiri, L. Zhang and Y. Bai, 2012.

Configuration of submarine pipelines during Seabed trench formation and its impact on fatigue

laying operation. ASME J. Engng. Indust., 96: life of steel catenary risers in touchdown area. The

1112-1118. 22th International Offshore and Polar Engineering

Pesce, C., J. Aranha and C. Martins, 1998. The soil Conference ISOPE2012, Rhodos, Greece, pp:

rigidity effect in the touchdown boundary-layer of 20051.

a catenary riser: Static problem. Proceedings of the Shiri, H. and M. Randolph, 2010. Influence of seabed

8th International Offshore and Polar Engineering response on fatigue performance of steel catenary

Conference, International Society of Offshore and risers in touchdown zone. Proceeding of the 29th

Polar Engineers, Montreal, Canada, No. 207. International Conference on Offshore, Ocean and

Randolph, M.F. and P. Quiggin, 2009. Non-linear Arctic Engineering OMAE2010, Shanghai, China,

hysteretic seabed modelfor catenary pipeline pp: 63-72.

contact. Proceedings of the 28th International

Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic

5601

- SACS_5.2 ManualUploaded byKengin
- Crane Supporting Steel Structures-Design GuideUploaded byNopporn Wiseschat
- Strength of Materials Course PlanUploaded bySuraj
- Bolt_Prestress_Force_Fatigue.pdfUploaded byYadava Jaffa
- vpi-18Uploaded by55312714
- Ch_9_slides_PDF(1)Uploaded by陳昱豪
- Bridge Fatigue GuideUploaded byaapennsylvania
- 4146.1.VincentBonniolUploaded bybooraj007
- OSIM April 2008 - Revised Pages OnlyUploaded byNelly Buquiron
- unmc_H2_2008_H22HG2E1-08Uploaded byFatmah El Wardagy
- Torsion SpringsUploaded byBiswa Bikash Singh
- Pile FatigueUploaded byAdilhakimin Anwar
- 982350Uploaded byAkash Sood
- Course Plan SomUploaded byAmitGupta
- Lecture-8 (Laterally Unsupported Beams-Crane Girders)Uploaded bySeifeldin
- MC_EA121Uploaded byPeja Jusoh
- Ngice Sacs Training ContentUploaded byNirbhay Tiwary
- A_Study_of_the_Behavior_of_Shell_Footings.pdfUploaded bykaykaysoft
- bardella_paper27.pdfUploaded byrs0004
- Welding Quality and Structural Life Enhancement of High Strength Low Alloy Steel S460Uploaded byNoridzwan Nordin
- Analysis of Cabin Mounting Bracket of Truck Using ANSYSUploaded bytheijes
- NOE0415380416%2Ech077.pdfUploaded byUmed Abd-alsatar
- Failure Analysis of a Titanium Plate Heat Exchanger Mechanical Fatigue2019Engineering Failure AnalysisUploaded byGiovani Martins
- 1-s2.0-S0168874X10001599-mainUploaded byjoy
- Science__Determination of Flexibility Factors in Curved PipUploaded byav8b
- Chapter Five,Torsion of BeamsUploaded byHaftom Gebreegziabiher
- Direct Shear Test_lab ManualUploaded bymm
- Direct Shear Test_lab ManualUploaded byEr Venkat
- mrzyg-ziel-3-06Uploaded byMustapha Bello
- WCEE2012_1145Uploaded byhahaer

- lesson-27-lagrange-multipliers-i-1196344276560681-4 (1)Uploaded byKrixvic
- ot - CopyUploaded bygaurav503050
- Optimization of Catenary RisersUploaded byKrixvic
- Lesson22 Optimizationproblemsws Sol 100615222902 Phpapp01Uploaded byKrixvic
- Lesson 19 Optimization Problems 1206031972293251 4Uploaded byKrixvic
- Optimization MethodologyUploaded byKrixvic
- OTC 17768 the Future for Flexible Pipe Riser Technology in Deep WaterUploaded byKrixvic
- New Touch Down Zone (TDZ) Solutions for Steel CatenaryUploaded byKrixvic
- Mechanics of Deepwater Steel Catenary RiserUploaded byKrixvic
- Oss-302_2009-04 Offshore Riser SystemsUploaded byhedy
- Optimization in Structure DesignUploaded bydeeptishpawar
- Comparative Study Applied to Riser OptimizationUploaded byKrixvic
- Cob09-0629 -Comparative Design and Analysis for Catenary RigidUploaded byKrixvic
- FLFS PR 10121 4401 02 Ultra Deepwater Riser Concepts High Motion Vessels Royer 05-29-13Uploaded byKrixvic
- EVNT-PR-2014-OTC 3 25297 Assessment UDW Riser Concepts High-Motion Vessels-Royer-05!06!14Uploaded byKrixvic

- 305-Farshad Fayyaz Jahani-paper (1)Uploaded byanar
- Book_sUploaded byfranklaer-2
- Astronomy for Schools; Upon the Basis of Mons.Uploaded byDorin Molodozhan
- Lab2_Anglemeasurement.pdfUploaded byNasir Hadran
- Matlab CheatsheetUploaded bythehendrix
- LCS in MATLAB.pptxUploaded byAbdul Sami Soomro
- Earthquake Resistant Design Of Open Ground Storey Framed BuildingUploaded byravikumar4101
- Influence Maximization in Complex Networks Through Optimal PercolationUploaded byAndrés Tobelem
- Mechanics of Coastal Sediment TransportUploaded byKrakozyabra
- Form 4 Sem 1 Addmath p2 2017Uploaded byHuiying Chieng
- Vladimir E. Fortov and Igor V. Lomonosov- Thermodynamics of extreme states of matterUploaded byDeez34P
- High Hydrostatic Processing Pressure in CheeseUploaded byPuspa
- Rpt 2017 Fizik Form 4Uploaded byshshshchin
- Main Idea - Ben FranklinUploaded byYanny Wong
- Coordinate TransformationsUploaded byDeepak Radhakrishnan
- Indian Standard is 456 2000 for Print SECTIONS 1 2 3Uploaded byKalasekar M Swamy
- Solution Manual for an Introduction to the Physics of Nuclei and Particles 1st Edition by Dunlap Chapters 3 17Uploaded bya493332442
- 07-0012Uploaded bykellydelgado41
- skemaUploaded bySalwana Salim
- semi1098tab2-1a.pdfUploaded bymikecostantini
- Converting Rifle Trajectory TablesUploaded byJordan Kitchens
- Metric UnitsUploaded byNamelezz Shadoww
- THE EFFECT OF WATER CONTENT ON DOUGH RHEOLOGY.pdfUploaded byMădălina Ștefan
- 5090_s08_qp_6Uploaded bymstudy123456
- Steel FIbersUploaded byAli Arsalan
- d Review of Solubility Principles and Calculations 2013Uploaded byAnonymous KePCfOM
- Lab 9 NaBH4 ReductionUploaded byAlison Nguyen
- hw_8Uploaded bymuzammilshadab
- Fault Detection of Electrical Equipment. Diagnostic MethodsUploaded bySEP-Publisher
- powertrain.pdfUploaded bygio_flores_4

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.