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Description

Physical characteristics of
the element in its pure form.

Element

expl
osiv
e
90% of atoms in the universe, sun
Hydro gas,
1 H gen light
and stars, H2O, life's organic
molecules
est
elem
ent
inert
gas,
seco
nuclear fusion in sun and
H Heliu nd-
2 stars, balloons, lasers, supercold
e m light
refrigerant
est
elem
ent
light
est
lightweight aluminum
met
L Lithiu alloys, batteries, impact-resistant
3 al,
i m soft,
ceramic cookware
(Corningware), mood stabilizer
reac
tive

B Beryll light non-sparking copper alloy


4
e ium weig tools, aerospace, X-ray
ht windows,beryl gems: emeralds and
met aquamarines
al
borax soap, fertilizer, stiff
hard
fibers, sports equipment (golf
blac
5 B Boron k
clubs, tennis rackets, skis), heat-
resistant borosilicate glass
solid
(Pyrex), semiconductors
hard
diam
basis of life's organic
Carbo ond,
6 C n soft
molecules, animals, plants, CO2, woo
d,paper, cloth, plastic, coal, oil
grap
hite
78% of air, organic
colo
Nitro molecules, protein, muscles, DNA,am
7 N gen rless
monia, fertilizer, explosives
gas
(TNT), refrigerants
21% of air, H2O, 65% of the
colo
Oxyg human body, organic
8 O en rless
molecules,blood, breathing, fire, half
gas
of Earth's crust, minerals, oxides
yello
wish
pois
on glowing
Flouri gas, fluorite, toothpaste, nonstick
9 F ne most cookware (Teflon),CFC
reac refrigerants (Freon)
tive
elem
ent
orange-red neon tubes for
1 N inert
Neon advertising signs, lasers,supercold
0 e gas
refrigerant
soft
Sodiu
met salt (NaCl), nerves, baking
1 N m
al, soda, antacids, lye, soap, soda
1 a (Natri
reac ash,glass, papermaking, street lamps
um)
tive
light
chlorophyll in green
weig
1 M Magn plants, talc, basalt, aluminum
ht
2 g esium met
alloys, cars,planes, bikes, flares, spa
rklers, antacids
al
light
weig
ht
common
non-
1 A Alumi metal, kitcheware, cans, foil, machin
corr
3 l num odin
ery, cars, planes,bikes, feldspar, gra
nite, clay, ceramics, corundum, gems
g
met
al
hard quartz, granite, sand, soil, clay, cera
1 S Silico met mics, glass, algae,diatoms, semicondu
4 i n alloi ctors, computer chips, silicone
d rubber
glowi
ng bones, DNA, energy-storing
1 Phosp whit phosphates
P horus e (ATP), fertilizer,acids, detergents,
5
wax matches
y
solid
(also
red
and
blac
k
form
s)
britt
skin, hair, eggs, onions, garlic, skunks
le
1 Sulfu , hot
S r yello
springs, volcanos,gypsum, rubber, aci
6 w
ds, papermaking
solid
gree
salt (NaCl), bleach, stomach
nish
1 C Chlori acid, disinfectant, drinking
pois
7 l ne on
water, swimming pools, PVC plastic
pipes and bottles
gas
1% of air, most abundant inert gas
1 A inert
Argon on Earth, light bulbs,"neon"
8 r gas
tubes, lasers, welding gas
soft
Potas
met salts, nerves, nutrient in fruits and
1 sium
K (Kaliu
al, vegetables, soap,fertilizer, potash,
9 reac matches, gunpowder
m)
tive
bones, teeth, milk, leaves, vegetable
soft
2 C Calciu s, shells, coral, limestone,chalk, gyps
met
0 a m al
um, plaster, mortar, cement, marble,
antacids
Scand soft aluminum alloys, racing
2 S ium light bikes, stadium lamps, furnace
1 c weig bricks,aquamarines
ht
met
al
stro
nges
t
light
weig
2 T Titani ht aerospace, racing bikes, artificial
2 i um met joints, white paint, blue sapphires
al,
heat
-
resis
tant
hard strong resilient
hard
2 Vanad steel, structures, vehicles, springs,d
V ium met
riveshafts, tools, aerospace, violet
3 al
sapphires
hard
stainless steel (Fe-Cr-
shin
2 C Chro Ni), kitchenware, nichrome
y
4 r mium met
heaters,car trim, paints, recording
tape, emeralds and rubies
al
hard hard tough steel, earthmovers, rock
2 M Mang
met crushers, rails, plows,axes, batteries
5 n anese al , fertilizer, amethysts
medi
Iron steel alloys are mostly
2 F um-
(Ferr iron, structures, vehicles, magnets,E
6 e hard
um) arth's core, red rocks, blood
met
al,
mag
neti
c
hard
met hard strong steel, cutting
2 C Cobal al, tools, turbines, magnets (Al-Ni-
7 o t mag Co), blue glass and
neti ceramics, vitamin B-12
c
medi
um-
hard stainless steel (Fe-Cr-
2 N Nicke met Ni), kitchenware, nichrome
8 i l al, heaters,coins, nicad
mag batteries, Earth's core
neti
c
colo
red
met
al,
Coppe cond
wires, cookware, brass (Cu-
2 C r ucts
Zn), bronze (Cu-
9 u (Cupr heat
Sn), coins, pipes,blue crab blood
um) and
elec
trici
ty
well

3 Z non- galvanized steel, brass (Cu-


Zinc
0 n corr Zn), batteries, white
odin paint,phosphors in TVs and
g lamps, fertilizer
met
al
soft
met
al,
semiconductors, light-emitting
3 G Galliu melt
diodes (LEDs) (GaAs), signal
1 a m s on
lights, tiny lasers
a
hot
day
britt
le semiconductors, transistors, rectifie
3 G Germ
met rs, diodes, photocells,lenses, infrare
2 e anium alloi d windows
d
britt
le poisons, semiconductors, light-
3 A Arsen
met emitting diodes (LEDs)
3 s ic alloi (GaAs),signal lights, tiny lasers
d
britt
semiconductors, photocopiers, laser
3 S Seleni le
printers, photocells, red
4 e um gray
glass, dandruff shampoo, rubber
solid
dark
disinfectant, pools and spas, photo
3 B Bromi red
film, flame retardant,leaded
5 r ne liqui
gas, sedatives
d
Krypt inert high-intensity
3 K on gas lamps, headlights, flashlights, lanter
6 r ns, "neon" tubes, lasers

soft
met
3 R Rubidi atomic clocks, global navigation
al,
7 b um reac
(GPS), vacuum tube scavenger

tive
red
soft
3 S Stron fireworks, flares, phosphors, nuclear
met
8 r tium al
batteries, medical diagnostic
tracer, nuclear fallout
soft phosphors in color TVs, lasers
3 Yttriu
Y m met (YAG, YLF), furnace bricks,high-
9 al temperature superconductors
non-
corr
odin
g
chemical pipelines, nuclear
4 Z Zirco neut
reactors, furnace
0 r nium ron-
bricks,abrasives, zircon gems
resis
tant
met
al
high
-
melt
ing- chemical
4 N Niobi
poin pipelines, superconductors, magnetic
1 b um t levitation trains, MRI magnets
non-
corr
odin
g
met
al
high
-
melt
Molyb hard steel, cutting tools, drill
4 M ing-
denu bits, armor plate, gun
2 o m poin
barrels,fertilizer
t
met
al
radi
oacti first human-made element, only
4 T Techn
ve, traces on Earth but found in
3 c etium long- stars, medical diagnostic tracer
lived
non-
corr
odin
4 R Ruthe electric contacts, leaf switches, pen
g
4 u nium hard
tips, catalyst, hydrogen production

met
al
non-
corr
odin
g labware, reflectors, electric
4 R Rhodi
hard contacts, thermocouples,catalyst, po
5 h um shin llution control
y
met
al
non-
corr
odin
g
hard labware, electric
4 P Pallad
met contacts, dentistry, catalyst, polluti
6 d ium al, on control
abso
rbs
hydr
ogen
soft
shin
y
met
al,
cond
Silver
ucts
4 A jewelry, silverware, coins, dentistry,
elec
7 g (Arge trici
photo film
ntum)
ty
best
of
all
elem
ents
non-
corr
odin electroplated steel, nicad
4 C Cadmi
g batteries, red and yellow
8 d um soft paints,fire sprinklers
met
al,
toxi
c
solders, glass seals, glass
soft
4 I Indiu coatings, liquid crystal displays
met
9 n m al
(LCD), semiconductors, diodes, photo
cells
non-
corr
Tin odin solders, plated food cans, bronze
5 S
(Stan g (Cu-Sn), pewter
0 n um) soft cups,glassmaking, fire sprinklers
met
al
britt
Antim solders, lead
le
5 S ony hardener, batteries, bullet, semicon
met
1 b (Stibi ductors,photocells, matches, flame
alloi
um) retardant
d
britt
le alloys, semiconductors, photocopiers,
5 T Tellur
met computer disk, thermo-electric
2 e ium alloi coolers and generators
d
viole
t- disinfectant for wounds and
5 Iodin
I e blac drinking water, added to salt to
3 k prevent thyroid disease, photo film
solid
high-intensity
5 X inert lamps, headlights, stadium
Xenon
4 e gas lamps, projectors,strobes, lasers, sp
acecraft ion engines
soft
met
al,
melt
s on
a
hot
5 C Cesiu day, atomic clocks, global navigation
5 s m reac (GPS), vacuum tube scavenger
tive,
larg
est
stab
le
atom
s
soft
met
al, stomach X-ray contrast
5 B Bariu
abso enhancer, green fireworks, whitener
6 a m rbs and filler for paper
X-
rays
soft optical glass, telescope
5 L Lanth
met eyepieces, camera lenses, lighter
7 a anum al flints, arc lamps
most abundant rare earth
soft
5 C Ceriu metal, lighter flints, arc lamps,gas
met
8 e m al
lamp mantles, self-cleaning
ovens, glass polishing

5 P Prase soft torchworkers' didymium


9 r odymi met eyeglasses, lighter flints, arc
um al lamps,magnets, yellow glass
soft strong magnets (Nd-Fe-B), electric
6 N Neod
met motors, speakers and
0 d ymium al headphones, lasers, lighter flints
radi
oacti human-made, small traces in
6 P Prome
ve, nature, luminous dials, sheet
1 m thium long- thickness gauges
lived
magnets (Sm-Co), electric
soft
6 S Sama motors, speakers and
met
2 m rium al
headphones,infrared
sensors, infrared-absorbing glass
soft phosphors in color TVs and
6 E Europ
met trichromatic fluorescent
3 u ium al lamps,luminous paint, lasers
soft
met
al,
best
neut magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
6 G Gadoli ron contrast
4 d nium abso enhancer,phosphors, neutron
rber radiography
,
mag
neti
c
phosphors in color TVs and
soft
6 T Terbi trichromatic fluorescent
met
5 b um al
lamps,computer
disks, magnetostrictive "smart"
materials (Fe-Dy-Tb) (Terfenol-
D)
nuclear control rods, MRI
soft phosphors, computer
6 D Dyspr
met disks,magnetostrictive "smart"
6 y osium al materials (Fe-Dy-Tb) (Terfenol-
D)
soft infrared lasers, laser surgery, eye-
6 H Holmi
met safe laser rangefinders,computer
7 o um al disks, yellow glass filters
fiber optic signal
soft
6 E Erbiu amplifiers, infrared lasers, laser
met
8 r m al
surgery,pink
glass, sunglasses, vanadium alloys
soft rarest stable rare earth
6 T Thuliu
met metal, infrared lasers, laser
9 m m al surgery, phosphors
soft fiber optic signal
7 Y Ytter
met amplifiers, infrared fiber
0 b bium al lasers, stainless steel alloys
soft
met
al,
dens
est
7 L Luteti and cancer-fighting photodynamic
1 u um hard (light-activated) medicine
est
rare
eart
h
met
al
non-
corr
odin
g
nuclear reactor control rods in
7 H Hafni met
submarines, plasma torch
2 f um al,
electrodes
abso
rbs
neut
rons
high
-
melt
ing-
poin
7 T Tanta t labware, surgical tools, artificial
3 a lum non- joints, capacitors, mobile phones
corr
odin
g
met
al
high
est-
melt
Tungs ing-
7 ten poin filaments in lamps and TVs, cutting
W (Wolf t tools, abrasives,thermocouples
4
ram) met
al,
dens
e
high
-
melt
ing-
rocket engines, heater
7 R Rheni poin
coils, laboratory filaments, electric
5 e um t
contacts, thermocouples, catalyst
dens
e
met
al
non-
corr
odin
g
high
-
melt
ing-
poin
7 O Osmiu t electric contacts, pen
6 s m hard tips, needles, fingerprint powder
met
al,
dens
est
elem
ent
(sam
e as
Ir)
non-
7 I Iridiu labware, spark plugs, pen
corr
7 r m odin
tips, needles
g
hard
met
al,
dens
est
elem
ent
(sam
e as
Os)
non-
corr
odin labware, spark
7 P Platin g plugs, catalyst, pollution
8 t um dens control, petroleum
e cracking, processing fats
met
al
most
mall
eabl
e
elem
ent,
Gold
7 A dens jewelry, coins, ultra-thin gold
(Auru
9 u m) e leaf, electric contacts
non-
tarni
shin
g
colo
red
met
al
liqui
Merc
d
ury thermometers, barometers, thermos
8 H met
(Hydr tats, street lamps,fluorescent
0 g al,
argiu lamps, dentistry
toxi
m)
c
soft
low-melting-point mercury
met
8 T Thalli alloys, low-temperature
al,
1 l um toxi
thermometers, undersea
lamps, photocells
c
dens
e,
soft,
non-
Lead corr weights, solders, batteries, bullets,
8 P
(Plum odin crystal glass, old plumbing, radiation
2 b bum) g shield
met
al,
toxi
c
low
melt
ing
8 B Bismu poin solders, fuses, fire sprinklers (plugs
3 i th t, melt when hot),cosmetics pigment
britt
le
met
al
radi
oacti first radioactive element
8 P Poloni
ve, found, small traces in nature, anti-
4 o um
long- static brushes, tobacco
lived
radi
oacti
8 A Astat ve, small traces in nature, cancer
5 t ine shor medicine
t-
lived
radi
oacti
ve
8 R environmental hazard, surgical
Radon gas,
6 n implants for cancer treatment
shor
t-
lived
radi
oacti
ve,
shor
t-
lived
8 F Franc small traces in nature, studied in
,
7 r ium atom
laser atom traps

s
larg
er
than
cesi
um
radi
oacti luminous watches (now
8 R Radiu
ve, banned), medical radon
8 a m long- production,radiography, radwaste
lived
radi
oacti
8 A Actini small traces in nature, cancer
ve,
9 c um long-
medicine, neutron source,radwaste

lived
radi
most abundant radioactive
oacti
9 T Thori element, nuclear reactor fuel, gas
ve,
0 h um long-
lamp mantles, tungsten
filaments, radwaste
lived
radi
Prota oacti
9 P small traces in nature, no
ctiniu ve,
1 a uses, radwaste
m long-
lived
radi
oacti
ve,
nuclear reactor fuel, nuclear
9 Urani long-
U um lived
weapons, counterweights,armor-
2 piercing bullets
,
dens
e
radi small traces in nature, neutron
9 N Neptu
oacti detectors, dosimeters,possibly
3 p nium ve, nuclear weapons, radwaste
long-
lived
radi
oacti small traces in nature, nuclear
9 P Pluton
ve, reactor fuel, spacecraft
4 u ium
long- power, nuclear weapons
lived
radi
oacti never found in nature, smoke
9 A Ameri
ve, detectors, sheet thickness
5 m cium long- gauges, radwaste
lived
radi
oacti never found in nature, scientific
9 C Curiu
ve, instruments, mineral
6 m m long- analyzers, radwaste
lived
radi
oacti
9 B Berke never found in nature, no
ve,
7 k lium long-
uses, radwaste

lived
radi
oacti never found in nature, scientific
9 C Califo
ve, instruments, mineral
8 f rnium long- analyzers, radwaste
lived
radi
Einst oacti
9 E
einiu ve, never found in nature, no uses
9 s m shor
t-
lived
radi
1 oacti
F Fermi ve,
0 never found in nature, no uses
m um shor
0 t-
lived
radi
1 oacti
Mend
M ve,
0 eleviu
shor
never found in nature, no uses
d m
1 t-
lived
radi
1 oacti
N Nobel ve,
0 never found in nature, no uses
o ium shor
2 t-
lived
radi
1 oacti
L Lawre ve,
0 never found in nature, no uses
r ncium shor
3 t-
lived
radi
1 oacti
Ruthe
R ve,
0 rfordi
shor
never found in nature, no uses
f um
4 t-
lived

1 D Dubni radi never found in nature, no uses


0 b um oacti
ve,
5
shor
t-
lived
radi
1 oacti
Seab
S ve,
0 orgiu
shor
never found in nature, no uses
g m
6 t-
lived
radi
1 oacti
B Bohri ve,
0 never found in nature, no uses
h um shor
7 t-
lived
radi
1 oacti
H Hassi ve,
0 never found in nature, no uses
s um shor
8 t-
lived
radi
1 oacti
M Meitn ve,
0 never found in nature, no uses
t erium shor
9 t-
lived

1 Darm radi
D
1 stadti oacti never found in nature, no uses
s um ve,
0
shor
t-
lived
radi
1 oacti
Roent
R ve,
1 geniu
shor
never found in nature, no uses
g m
1 t-
lived
radi
1 oacti
C Coper ve,
1 never found in nature, no uses
n nicium shor
2 t-
lived
radi
1 oacti
N Nihon ve,
1 never found in nature, no uses
h ium shor
3 t-
lived
radi
1 oacti
F Flero ve,
1 never found in nature, no uses
l vium shor
4 t-
lived
radi
1 oacti
M Mosc
1 ve, never found in nature, no uses
c ovium shor
5
t-
lived
radi
1 oacti
Liver
L ve,
1 moriu
shor
never found in nature, no uses
v m
6 t-
lived
radi
1 oacti
T Tenne ve,
1 never found in nature, no uses
s ssine shor
7 t-
lived
radi
1 oacti
never found in nature, no uses
O Ogan ve,
1 (heaviest element yet made when
g esson shor
this was written)
8 t-
lived
The history of the United Kingdom as a unified sovereign state began in 1707 with the political
union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland, into a united kingdom called Great Britain.

When was the United Kingdom discovered?

On 1 May 1707, the united Kingdom of Great Britain came into being, the result of Acts of Union
being passed by the parliaments of England and Scotland to ratify the 1706 Treaty of Union and
so unite the two kingdoms.

What is the United Kingdom made up of?

The United Kingdom is in itself a country that is made up of England, Scotland Wales and
Northern Ireland. It's official name is "United Kingdom of Great Britainand Northern Ireland".Jan
24, 2009

Beautiful Places In The U.K.


1. Whiteless Pike, Lake District.

2. Hope Valley, the Peak District.

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3. The Giant's Causeway, Antrim.

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4. Portmeirion, Gwynedd, North Wales.
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5. Windemere, Cumbria.

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6. The White Cliffs of Dover.

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7. Tresco Abbey Gardens, the Isles of Scilly.

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8. Stonehenge, Wiltshire.

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9. Chatsworth House, Derbyshire.

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10. York Minster, York.

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11. Llanberis Pass, Snowdonia.

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12. Loch Ness, Scottish Highlands.

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13. Polperro, Cornwall.

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14. Glenfinnan, Scottish Highlands.


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15. The Royal Pavillion, Brighton.


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16. Llanthony Priory, Monmouthshire, Wales.

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17. Glen Nevis, Scottish Highlands.

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18. The Needles, the Isle of Wight.

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19. Smoo Cave, Scottish Highlands.

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Fli. Minack Theatre, Cornwall.

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20

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21. Brecon Beacons, South Wales.

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22. Durdle Door, Dorset.

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23. Dartmoor, Devon.

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24. Fingal's Cave, Staffa, the Inner Hebrides.

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25. Kew Gardens, London.

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26. Penshaw Monument, Sunderland.

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27. Isle of Skye.

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28. Mourne Mountains, County Down.

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