Information contained in this book has been obtained by authors, from sources believes to be reliable. However,
neither Nodia nor its authors guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information herein, and Nodia nor its
authors shall be responsible for any error, omissions, or damages arising out of use of this information. This book
is published with the understanding that Nodia and its authors are supplying information but are not attempting
to render engineering or other professional services.
. i n
c o
As x increases, the temperature gradient ^dT/dx h will
(A) remain constant
.
(B) be zero
a
i
(C) increase (D) decrease
Q. 2
o d
Consider onedimensional steady state heat conduction along x axis ^0 # x # L h,
through a plane wall with the boundary surfaces ^x = 0 and x = L h maintained
.n
at temperatures of 0cC and 100cC . Heat is generated uniformly throughout the
w
wall. Choose the Correct statement.
(A) The direction of heat transfer will be from the surface at 100cC to the
w
surface at 0cC .
w
(B) The maximum temperature inside the wall must be greater than 100cC .
(C) The temperature distribution is linear within the wall.
(D) The temperature distribution is symmetric about the midplane of the wall.
Q. 4 Two large diffuse gray parallel plates, separated by a small distance, have surface
temperatures of 400 K and 300 K. If the emissivities of the surface are 0.8 and
the StefanBoltzmann constant is 5.67 # 108 W/m2 K 4 , the net radiation heat
exchanges rate in kW/m2 between the two plates is
(A) 0.66 (B) 0.79
(C) 0.99 (D) 3.96
GATE SOLVED PAPER  ME HEAT TRANSFER
. i n
o
YEAR 2012 ONE MARK
c
For an opaque surface, the absorptivity (a), transmissivity (t) and reflectivity (r)
.
Q. 7
are related by the equation :
(A) a + r = t
i a (B) r + a + t = 0
d
(C) a + r = 1 (D) a + r = 0
o
.n
Q. 8 Which one of the following configurations has the highest fin effectiveness ?
(A) Thin, closely spaced fins (B) Thin, widely spaced fins
w
(C) Thick, widely spaced fins (D) Thick, closely spaced fins
w
w
YEAR 2012 TWO MARKS
Q. 9 Consider two infinitely long thin concentric tubes of circular cross section as
shown in the figure. If D1 and D2 are the diameters of the inner and outer tubes
respectively, then the view factor F22 is give by
in
YEAR 2011 TWO MARKS
.
Q. 13 A spherical steel ball of 12 mm diameter is initially at 1000 K. It is slowly cooled
o
in surrounding of 300 K. The heat transfer coefficient between the steel ball and
. c
the surrounding is 5 W/m2 K . The thermal conductivity of steel is 20 W/mK.
a
The temperature difference between the centre and the surface of the steel ball is
i
(A) large because conduction resistance is far higher than the convective
d
resistance.
o
(B) large because conduction resistance is far less than the convective
. n
resistance.
(C) small because conduction resistance is far higher than the convective
resistance.
w
w
(D) small because conduction resistance is far less than the convective
w
resistance.
Q. 14
boundary layer thickness of flows of two fluids P and Q on a flat plate are 1/2
and 2 respectively. The Reynolds number based on the plate length for both the
flows is 10 4 . The Prandtl and Nusselt numbers for P are 1/8 and 35 respectively.
The Prandtl and Nusselt numbers for Q are respectively
(A) 8 and 140 (B) 8 and 70
(C) 4 and 40 (D) 4 and 35
Q. 15 A fin has 5 mm diameter and 100 mm length. The thermal conductivity of fin
material is 400 Wm1 K1 . One end of the fin is maintained at 130c C and its
remaining surface is exposed to ambient air at 30c C. If the convective heat
transfer coefficient is 40 Wm2 K1 , the heat loss (in W) from the fin is
(A) 0.08 (B) 5.0
(C) 7.0 (D) 7.8
GATE SOLVED PAPER  ME HEAT TRANSFER
Q. 16 A coolant fluid at 30cC flows over a heated flat plate maintained at constant
temperature of 100cC . The boundary layer temperature distribution at a given
location on the plate may be approximated as T = 30 + 70 exp ( y) where y (in
m) is the distance normal to the plate and T is in c C . If thermal conductivity of
the fluid is 1.0 W/mK, the local convective heat transfer coefficient (in W/m2 K
) at that location will be
(A) 0.2
(B) 1
(C) 5
(D) 10
Q. 17
. i n
In a parallel flow heat exchanger operating under steady state, the heat capacity
o
rates (product of specific heat at constant pressure and mass flow rate) of the
c
hot and cold fluid are equal. The hot fluid, flowing at 1 kg/s with c p = 4 kJ/kg K ,
.
enters the heat exchanger at 102c C while the cold fluid has an inlet temperature
a
i
of 15c C . The overall heat transfer coefficient for the heat exchanger is estimated
d
to be 1 kW/m2 K and the corresponding heat transfer surface area is 5 m2 . Neglect
o
heat transfer between the heat exchanger and the ambient. The heat exchanger
.n
is characterized by the following relations:
2e = exp ( 2 NTU)
w
The exit temperature (in c C ) for the cold fluid is
(A) 45
(B) 55
w
(C) 65
w
(D) 75
Q. 20 If plate 1 is also diffuse and gray surface with an emissivity value of 0.8, the net
radiation heat exchange (in kW/m2 ) between plate 1 and plate 2 is
(A) 17.0
. in
(B) 19.5
o
(C) 23.0
c
(D) 31.7
a .
YEAR 2008
d i ONE MARK
o
Q. 21 For flow of fluid over a heated plate, the following fluid properties are known
n
Viscosity = 0.001Pas;
.
Specific heat at constant pressure = 1 kJ/kg.K ;
w
Thermal conductivity = 1W/m  K
w
The hydrodynamic boundary layer thickness at a specified location on the plate
w
is 1 mm. The thermal boundary layer thickness at the same location is
(A) 0.001 mm
(B) 0.01 mm
(C) 1 mm
(D) 1000 mm
Q. 23 For the threedimensional object shown in the figure below, five faces are insulated.
The sixth face (PQRS), which is not insulated, interacts thermally with the
ambient, with a convective heat transfer coefficient of 10 W/m2 K . The ambient
temperature is 30c C . Heat is uniformly generated inside the object at the rate
of 100 W/m3 . Assuming the face PQRS to be at uniform temperature, its steady
state temperature is
i n
(A) 10c C
(B) 20c C
(C) 30c C
o.
(D) 40c C
. c
Q. 24
i a
A hollow enclosure is formed between two infinitely long concentric cylinders of
d
radii 1 m and 2 m, respectively. Radiative heat exchange takes place between the
o
inner surface of the larger cylinder (surface2) and the outer surface of the smaller
.n
cylinder (surface1). The radiating surfaces are diffuse and the medium in the
enclosure is nonparticipating. The fraction of the thermal radiation leaving the
w
larger surface and striking itself is
w
w
(A) 0.25
(B) 0.5
(C) 0.75
(D) 1
Q. 25 Steady twodimensional heat conduction takes place in the body shown in the
figure below. The normal temperature gradients over surfaces P and Q can be
considered to be uniform. The temperature gradient 2T/2x at surface Q is equal
to 10 K/m. Surfaces P and Q are maintained at constant temperature as shown
in the figure, while the remaining part of the boundary is insulated. The body
has a constant thermal conductivity of 0.1 W/mK. The values of 2T and 2T at
2x 2y
surface P are
GATE SOLVED PAPER  ME HEAT TRANSFER
in
YEAR 2007 TWO MARKS
Q. 26
isothermal flat plate is given by
o.
The temperature distribution within the thermal boundary layer over a heated
T  Tw = 3 y  1 y 3 ,
T3  Tw 2 b dt l 2 b dt l
. c
i a
where Tw and T3 are the temperature of plate and free stream respectively, and y
o d
is the normal distance measured from the plate. The local Nusselt number based
on the thermal boundary layer thickness dt is given by
. n
(A) 1.33
(B) 1.50
(C) 2.0
w
(D) 4.64
w
Q. 27
w
In a counter flow heat exchanger, hot fluid enters at 60c C and cold fluid leaves
at 30c C . Mass flow rate of the fluid is 1 kg/s and that of the cold fluid is 2 kg/s.
Specific heat of the hot fluid is 10 kJ/kgK and that of the cold fluid is 5 kJ/kgK.
The Log Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) for the heat exchanger in cC is
(A) 15 (B) 30
(C) 35 (D) 45
Q. 28 The average heat transfer coefficient on a thin hot vertical plate suspended in still
air can be determined from observations of the change in plate temperature with
time as it cools. Assume the plate temperature to be uniform at any instant of
time and radiation heat exchange with the surroundings negligible. The ambient
temperature is 25c C , the plat has a total surface area of 0.1 m2 and a mass of
4 kg. The specific heat of the plate material is 2.5 kJ/kgK. The convective heat
transfer coefficient in W/m2 K , at the instant when the plate temperature is
225c C and the change in plate temperature with time dT/dt = 0.02 K/s , is
(A) 200 (B) 20
(C) 15 (D) 10
GATE SOLVED PAPER  ME HEAT TRANSFER
c o
a .
i
YEAR 2006 ONE MARK
Q. 31
o d
In a composite slab, the temperature at the interface (Tinter ) between two material
is equal to the average of the temperature at the two ends. Assuming steady one
.n
dimensional heat conduction, which of the following statements is true about the
w
respective thermal conductivities ?
w
w
(A) 2k1 = k2
(B) k1 = k2
(C) 2k1 = 3k2
(D) k1 = 2k2
Q. 33 A thin layer of water in a field is formed after a farmer has watered it. The
ambient air conditions are : temperature 20cC and relative humidity 5%. An
extract of steam tables is given below.
Temp(c C)  15  10  5 0.01 5 10 15 20
Saturation Pressure (kPa) 0.10 0.26 0.40 0.61 0.87 1.23 1.71 2.34
Neglecting the heat transfer between the water and the ground, the water
temperature in the field after phase equilibrium is reached equals
(A) 10.3cC (B)  10.3c C
(C)  14.5c C (D) 14.5c C
Q. 34 With an increase in the thickness of insulation around a circular pipe, heat loss
to surrounding due to
(A) convection increase, while that the due to conduction decreases
(B) convection decrease, while that due to conduction increases
(C) convection and conduction decreases
in
(D) convection and conduction increases
YEAR 2005
o. ONE MARK
Q. 35
. c
In a case of one dimensional heat conduction in a medium with constant properties,
i a
T is the temperature at position x , at time t . Then 2T is proportional to
2t
d
T 2 T
o
(A) (B)
x 2x
. n
2 2
(C) 2T (D) 2T2
2x2t 2x
Q. 36
w
The following figure was generated from experimental data relating spectral black
w
body emissive power to wavelength at three temperature T1, T2 and T3 (T1 > T2 > T3)
.
Q. 37 Heat flows through a composite slab, as shown below. The depth of the slab is
1 m. The k values are in W/mK. The overall thermal resistance in K/W is
i
(D) 39.2
. n
o
Q. 38 A small copper ball of 5 mm diameter at 500 K is dropped into an oil bath
c
whose temperature is 300 K. The thermal conductivity of copper is 400 W/mK
.
, its density 9000 kg/m3 and its specific heat 385 J/kgK. If the heat transfer
a
i
coefficient is 250 W/m2 K and lumped analysis is assumed to be valid, the rate
d
of fall of the temperature of the ball at the beginning of cooling will be, in K/s,
o
(A) 8.7 (B) 13.9
.n
(C) 17.3 (D) 27.7
w
Q. 39 A solid cylinder (surface 2) is located at the centre of a hollow sphere (surface 1).
The diameter of the sphere is 1 m, while the cylinder has a diameter and length
w
of 0.5 m each. The radiation configuration factor F11 is
w
(A) 0.375 (B) 0.625
(C) 0.75 (D) 1
Q. 40
Hot oil is cooled from 80 to 50cC in an oil cooler which uses air as the coolant.
The air temperature rises from 30 to 40cC . The designer uses a LMTD value of
26cC . The type of heat exchange is
(A) parallel flow (B) double pipe
(C) counter flow (D) cross flow
Q. 43 One dimensional unsteady state heat transfer equation for a sphere with heat
generation at the rate of q can be written as
q q
(A) 1 2 br2T l + = 1 2T (B) 12 2 br22T l + = 1 2T
r 2r 2r k a 2t r 2r 2r k a 2t
2
q 2
q
(C) 2T2 + = 1 2T (D) 22 (rT) + = 1 2T
2r k a 2t 2r k a 2t
in
is
(A) 0.94 W/m
.
(B) 9.44 W/m
o
c
(C) 944.72 W/m (D) 9447.21 W/m
Q. 45
a .
A spherical thermocouple junction of diameter 0.706 mm is to be used for the
i
measurement of temperature of a gas stream. The convective heat transfer co
d
efficient on the bead surface is 400 W/m2 K . Thermophysical properties of
o
thermocouple material are k = 20 W/mK , c = 400 J/kg K and r = 8500 kg/m3
n
. If the thermocouple initially at 30cC is placed in a hot stream of 300cC , then
.
time taken by the bead to reach 298cC , is
w
(A) 2.35 s (B) 4.9 s
w
(C) 14.7 s (D) 29.4 s
w
Q. 46 In a condenser, water enters at 30cC and flows at the rate 1500 kg/hr. The
condensing steam is at a temperature of 120cC and cooling water leaves the
condenser at 80cC . Specific heat of water is 4.187 kJ/kgK. If the overall heat
transfer coefficient is 2000 W/m2 K , then heat transfer area is
(A) 0.707 m2
(B) 7.07 m2
(C) 70.7 m2
(D) 141.4 m2
Q. 47 A plate having 10 cm2 area each side is hanging in the middle of a room of 100 m2
total surface area. The plate temperature and emissivity are respectively 800 K
and 0.6. The temperature and emissivity values for the surfaces of the room are
300 K and 0.3 respectively. Boltzmanns constant s = 5.67 # 108 W/m2 K 4 . The
total heat loss from the two surfaces of the plate is
(A) 13.66 W (B) 27.32 W
(C) 27.87 W (D) 13.66 MW
GATE SOLVED PAPER  ME HEAT TRANSFER
Q. 48 In a counter flow heat exchanger, for the hot fluid the heat capacity = 2 kJ/kgK ,
mass flow rate = 5 kg/s , inlet temperature = 150cC , outlet temperature = 100cC
. For the cold fluid, heat capacity = 4 kJ/kgK , mass flow rate = 10 kg/s , inlet
temperature = 20cC . Neglecting heat transfer to the surroundings, the outlet
temperature of the cold fluid in cC is
(A) 7.5
(B) 32.5
(C) 45.5
(D) 70.0
Q. 49 Consider a laminar boundary layer over a heated flat plate. The free stream
velocity is U3 . At some distance x from the leading edge the velocity boundary
layer thickness is dv and the thermal boundary layer thickness is dT . If the Prandtl
number is greater than 1, then
(A) dv > dT
. i n
(B) dT > dv
c o
(C) dv . dT + (U3 x) 1/2
a .
i
(D) dv . dT + x1/2
o d
.n
Common Data For Q. 50 and 51
Heat is being transferred by convection from water at 48c C to a glass plate
w
whose surface that is exposed to the water is at 40c C . The thermal conductivity
w
of water is 0.6 W/mK and the thermal conductivity of glass is 1.2 W/mK.
The spatial gradient of temperature in the water at the waterglass interface is
w
dT/dy = 1 # 10 4 K/m .
Q. 50 The value of the temperature gradient in the glass at the waterglass interface in
K/m is
(A)  2 # 10 4
(B) 0.0
(C) 0.5 # 10 4
(D) 2 # 10 4
Q. 52 For the same inlet and outlet temperatures of hot and cold fluids, the Log mean
Temperature Difference (LMTD) is
(A) greater for parallel flow heat exchanger than for counter flow heat
exchanger
(B) greater for counter flow heat exchanger than for parallel flow heat
exchanger
(C) same for both parallel and counter flow heat exchangers
(D) dependent on the properties of the fluids.
Q. 53 For the circular tube of equal length and diameter shown below, the view factor
F13 is 0.17. The view factor F12 in this case will be
. in
c o
i a.
(A) 0.17 (B) 0.21
d
(C) 0.79 (D) 0.83
Q. 54
n o
In descending order of magnitude, the thermal conductivity of (a) pure iron, (b)
.
liquid water, (c) saturated water vapour and (d) aluminum can be arranged as
(A) abcd (B) bcad
(C) dabc
w (D) dcba
w
w **********
GATE SOLVED PAPER  ME HEAT TRANSFER
SOLUTION
dx
b
d k dT = 0
dx dx
l
Integrating both the sides
# dxd bk dT
dx
i n
l = C where C is the integration constant.
.
k dT = C
dx
c o ...(i)
# ^k + bT hdT
0 = # Cdx
a .
d i
k0 T + bT = Cx + B where B is the integration constant.
2
2
o
.n
Let the boundary condition
(a) At x = 0 , T = 0 and (b) At x = 1, T = 100cC
w
From boundary condition (a), we get B = 0 .
and from (b),
w
k0 (100) + b (5000) = C
w
Now from Eq. (i), we obtain
dT = 100k0 + 5000b
...(ii)
dx k0 + bT
From this Eq. (ii), it is concluded that as T increases, the dT decreases because
dx
it is a function of temperature only and T2 > T1 .
Sol. 2 Option (B) is correct.
On integrating, we get dT =  qg x + C
1
dx k
GATE SOLVED PAPER  ME HEAT TRANSFER
qg x2
Again integrating, T = + C1 x + C 2 ....(i)
k 2
we can see that it is a parabolic equation. Thus statement (C) is false.
Now Applying the boundary condition on Eq.(i)
T ^0 h = 0 : 0 = C1 ^0 h + C2 & C2 = 0 and
 qg L2
T ^L h = 100cC : 100 = + C1 L
2k
q L
or C1 = 100 + g
L 2k
 qg x2 q L
So that T = + c 100 + g m x
2k L 2k
For maximum temperature
dT = 0 :  qg # 2x 100 qg L
+ + =0
dx 2k L 2k
q L
or x = k c 100 + g m
qg L 2k
in
or x = 100k + L ...(ii)
.
qg L 2
o
Also d T =  qg (Negative)
2
c
dx2 k
a .
From Eq. (ii), it means the maximum temperature is inside the wall and it must
i
be greater than 100cC .
Sol. 3 Option (D) is correct.
We have
o d
d = 60 mm, Ti = 1030 cC , Ta = 30 cC , h = 20 W/m2 K , T = 430 cC
. n
r = 7800 kg/m2 , k = 40 W/m2 K , c = 600 J/kg K
w
The characteristic length is
4
pr 3
w
l = Volume = 3 2 = r = 0.030 = 0.010 m
Surface area 4pr 3 3
w
(20) (0.01)
Biot number Bi = hl = = 0.005 < 0.1
k 40
Thus, applying the lumped analysis formula
T  Ta = exp  hAt = exp  ht
Ti  Ta c rvc m c rlc m
o p ^Tout  Tin h
L
Now # qll 2prdx
0
w = qwll2prL = mc
qwllpdL
or o p + Tin = Tout
mc
Tout = 20 + 5000 # 3.14 # 0.05 # 3 = 76.36 K
n
or
i
0.01 # 4.18 # 103
.
Now for wall temperature at outlet
qwll = h ^Tw  Tout h
c o
.
qwll
or Tw = + Tout = 5000 + 76.36 = 81.36cC b 81cC
a
h 1000
Sol. 6 Option (B) is correct.
d i
o
We have qwll = 2500 x
.n
w
w
w
Now
Due to heat transfer from wall, the enthalpy changes, from inlet to outlet.
qwlldA = mco p dTm
Where dTm = Bulk mean Temperature
2500x # 2prdx = mc o p dTm
Integrating both the sides, we get
o p ^Tout, m  Tin, m h
L
5000pr # xdx = mc
o p # dT
m = mc
0
or 5000 pdL2 = mc
o p ^Tout, m  20h
2 2
1250 # p # 0.05 # ^3h2
or Tout, m = 20 +
^0.01 # 4.18 # 103h
= 20 + 42.27 = 62.27cC b 62cC
Sol. 7 Option (C) is correct.
The sum of the absorbed, reflected and transmitted radiation be equal to
a+r+t = 1
a = Absorpivity, r = Reflectivity , t = Transmissivity
For an opaque surfaces such as solids and liquids t = 0,
Thus, a+r = 1
GATE SOLVED PAPER  ME HEAT TRANSFER
. in
The view factor F22 is determined by applying summation rule to surface 2,
o
F21 + F22 = 1
c
F22 = 1  F21 = 1  b D1 l
.
Thus
D2
Sol. 10 Option (C) is correct.
i a
d
Given : th1 = 80cC , tc1 = 30cC , m
o h = 0.5 kg/ sec , m
oc = 2.09 kg/ sec., e = 0.8
n o
.
w
w
w
Capacity rate for hot fluid Ch = 4.18 # 0.5 = 2.09 kJ/Ksec.
Cc = 1 # 2.09 = 2.09 kJ/K sec.
So, Ch = Cc
Qo (t  t ) C
Effectiveness e = o = h1 h1 h
Q max (th1  tc1) Cc
0.8 = 80  th2
80  30
or, 80  th2 = 40 & th2 = 40cC
From energy balance,
Ch (th1  th1) = Cc (tc 2  tc1)
80  40 = tc2  30
tc2 = 70cC
Now LMTD qm = q1 qq2 ...(i)
ln q 1
2
GATE SOLVED PAPER  ME HEAT TRANSFER
q1 = th1  tc 2 = 80  70 = 10cC
q2 = th 2  tc1 = 40  30 = 10cC
q1 = q2 ...(ii)
So LMTD is undefined
Let q1 = x & q1 = xq2
q2
q (x  1)
Put in equation (i), so qm = lim xq2  q2 = lim 2
x"1
ln x q2 x"1 ln x
q2
It is a : 0 D form, applying LHospital rule
0
q (1  0)
qm = lim 2 = lim xq2
x"1 1 x"1
x
qm = q2 = q1 From equation (ii)
i n
qm = q1 = th1  tc 2 = 80  70 = 10cC
Sol. 11 Option (B) is correct.
o.
. c
i a
o d
.n
w
w
w
Given : th1 = th2 = 60c C , tc1 = 30c C , tc2 = 45c C
From diagram, we have
q1 = th1  tc1 = 60  30 = 30c C
And q2 = th2  tc2 = 60  45 = 15c C
rc = k = 0.05 = 0.01 m
h 5
rc < r0 or r0 > rc ...(i)
So, from equation (i) option a and b is incorrect. The critical radius is less than
the outer radius of the pipe and adding the insulation will not increase the heat
loss. Hence the correct statement is adding the insulation will reduce the heat
loss.
Sol. 13 Option (D) is correct.
Given : D = 12 mm = 12 # 103 m , h = 5 W/m2 K , k = 20 W/m K
3
For spherical ball, = 12 # 10 = 2 # 103 m
6
4 pR 3
l = volume = 3 2 =D
surface area 4pR 6
The nondimensional factor (hl/k) is called Biot Number. It gives an indication of
the ratio of internal (conduction) resistance to the surface (convection) resistance.
A small value of Bi implies that the system has a small conduction resistance
in
i.e., relatively small temperature gradient or the existence of a practically uniform
.
temperature within the system.
o
3
Biot Number, Bi = hl = 5 # 2 # 10 = 0.0005
c
k 20
.
Since, Value of Biot Number is very less. Hence, conduction resistance is much
a
i
less than convection resistance.
d
Sol. 14 Option (A) is correct.
o
dH 1 dH
b dTh l = 2 and b dTh l = 2
n
Given :
.
P Q
w
(Re) P = (Re)Q = 10 4
w
(Pr) P = 1
8
(Nu) P = 35
For thermal boundary layer prandtl Number is given by, (For fluid Q)
(Pr)Q1/3 = b dH l = 2
dTh Q
(Pr)Q = (2) 3 = 8
For laminar boundary layer on flat plate, relation between Reynolds Number,
Prandtl Number and Nusselt Number is given by,
Nu = hl = (Re) 1/2 (Pr) 1/3
k
Since, Reynolds Number is same for both P and Q .
(Nu) P (Pr) 1P/3
So, =
(Nu)Q (Pr)Q1/3
(Pr)Q1/3 (8) 1/3 2
(Nu)Q = # (Nu) P = # (35) = 1/2 # 35
(Pr) 1P/3 (1/8) 1/3
= 140
GATE SOLVED PAPER  ME HEAT TRANSFER
. i n
o
Sol. 16 Option (B) is correct.
Given : T1 = 30c C , T2 = 100c C , k = 1.0 W/mK ,
. c
T = 30 + 70 exp ( y) ...(i)
i a
o d
.n
Under steady state conditions,
w
Heat transfer by conduction = Heat transfer by convection
w
 kA dT = hADT A " Area of plate
dy
Solving above equation, we get
 kA ( 70ey) = hADT
At the surface of plate, y = 0
Hence 70kA = hADT
Coh = mo h c ph = 4 kJ/sK
The heat exchanger is characterized by the following relation,
1  exp ( 2NTU)
e= ..(i)
2
For parallel flow heat exchanger effectiveness is given by
1  exp [ NTU (1 + C)]
e= ...(ii)
1+C
Comparing equation (i) and equation (ii), we get capacity ratio
C = Cc = C min = 1 ...(iii)
Ch C max
Applying energy balance for a parallel flow
Ch (th1  th2) = Cc (tc2  tc1)
Cc = th1  th2 = 1 From equation(iii)
Ch tc2  tc1
th1  th2 = tc2  tc1
Number of transfer units is given by,
in
NTU = UA = 1 # 5 = 1.25
C min 4
Effectiveness, e=
1  exp ( 2 # 1.25)
2
o.
= 1  0.0820 = 0.46
2
Maximum possible heat transfer is,
. c
a
Q max = C min (th1  tc1)
i
= 4 # 6(273 + 102)  (273 + 15)@ = 348 kW
d
o
But Actual Heat transfer is,
n
Qa = eQ max = 0.46 # 348 = 160 kW
And
. Qa = Cc (tc2  tc1)
w
tc2 = 40 + 15 = 55c C
w
Sol. 18 Option (C) is correct.
Req = 1 + L1 + L2 + 1
h i A k1 A k 2 A h 0 A
Req # A = 1 + L1 + L2 + 1 = 1 + 0.3 + 0.15 + 1
h i k1 k 2 h 0 20 20 50 50
GATE SOLVED PAPER  ME HEAT TRANSFER
i n
Again from equation(i),
.
k (T  T)
q = 1 1
o
L1
.
250 = 20 (7.5  T)
0.3
c
i
3.75 = 7.5  T
a & T = 3.75c C
d
Alternative :
o
Under steady state conditions,
.n
Heat flow from I to interface wall = Heat flow from interface wall to O
(T3, i  T) (T  T3,o)
w
=
1 + L1 L2 + 1
h i A k1 A k2 A h0 A
w T3, i  T
=
T  T3, o
w
1 + L1 L2 + 1
h i k1 k2 ho
(20  T) T  ( 2)
=
1 + 0.3 0.15 + 1
20 20 50 50
(20  T) T + 2
=
1. 3 1.15
20 50
(20  T) = 2.826 (T + 2) = 2.826T + 5.652
T = 14.348 = 3.75c C
3.826
Sol. 19 Option (D) is correct.
GATE SOLVED PAPER  ME HEAT TRANSFER
in
And fraction of energy reflected from surface 2 is,
o.
= (1  a) E1 = (1  a) sT 14
= 5.67 # 108 (1  0.7) # (1000) 4 = 17010 W/m2
.
Now, Total energy incident upon plate 1 is,
c
i a
E = E2 + (1  a) E1 = 2480.625 + 17010
d
= 19490.625 W/m2 = 19.49 kW/m2 , 19.5 kW/m2
o
Sol. 20 Option (D) is correct.
. n
Given : e2 = 0.8 , e1 = 0.7
As both the plates are gray, the net heat flow from plate 1 to plate 2 per unit
time is given by,
w
w
Q12 = e1 e2 s (T 4  T 24) = 1 s (T 4  T 24)
e1 + e2  e1 e2 b 1 1 + 1 1 b 1
w
e2 e1
1
8
= 5.67 # 10 [(1000) 4  (500) 4]
1 + 1 1#
0. 8 0. 7
= 1 # 5.67 # 9375 = 31640.625 W/m2
1.68
 31.7 kW/m2
Sol. 21 Option (C) is correct.
Given : m = 0.001 Pa s , c p = 1 kJ/kg K , k = 1 W/m K

c
Energy balance for counter flow is,
a .
Heat lost by hot fluid = Heat gain by cold fluid
i
mo h c ph (th1  th2) = m
oc c pc (tc2  tc1)
c ph
o
(t  t ) = m
c pc h1 h2
oc
d
o h (tc2  tc1)
.n
m
2 (th1  th2) = 2 (tc2  tc1)
w
th1  tc2 = th2  tc1
w
q1 = q2 ...(iii)
qm = q1  q2
w
And ...(iv)
ln b q1 l
q2
Let
Substituting the equation (iii) in equation (iv), we get undetermined form.
q1 = x ,
q2
& q1 = q2 x ...(v)
Substitute q1 in equation(iv),
q (x  1)
qm = lim q2 x  q2 = lim 2 ...(vi)
ln b q2x ln x
q2 l
x"1 x"1
0
: 0 D form, So we apply LHospital rule,
q (1  0)
qm = lim 2 = lim x q2
x"1 1 x"1
x
qm = q2 = q1 From equation(iii)
Now we have to find exit temperature of cold fluid (tc2),
So, qm = q1 = th1  tc2
tc2 = th1  qm = 100  20 = 80c C
Sol. 23 Option (D) is correct.
Given : h = 10 W/m2 K , Ti = 30c C , qg = 100 W/m3
Five faces of the object are insulated, So no heat transfer or heat generation
by these five faces. Only sixth face (PQRS) interacts with the surrounding and
generates heat.
GATE SOLVED PAPER  ME HEAT TRANSFER
in
A1 F12 = A2 F21
.
F21 = A1 = pD1 L = D1 = 1 = 0.5
A 2 pD 2 L D2 2
o
and from the conservation principal, for surface 2, we have
c
.
F21 + F22 = 1
i a
F22 = 1  F21 = 1  0.5 = 0.5
d
So, the fraction of the thermal radiation leaves the larger surface and striking
o
itself is F22 = 0.5 .
n
Option (D) is correct.
.
Sol. 25
w
2x Q
Direction of heat flow is always normal to surface of constant temperature.
w
So, for surface P ,
w
2T = 0
2x
Because, Q = kA (2T/2x) and 2T is the temperature difference for a short
perpendicular distance dx . Let width of both the bodies are unity.
From the law of energy conservation,
Heat rate at P = Heat rate at Q
 0.1 # 1 # c2T m = 0.1 # 2 # b2T l
2y P 2x Q
Because for P heat flow in y direction and for Q heat flow in x direction
2T 0.1 # 2 # 10 = 20 K/m
c2y m = 0.1
P
Sol. 26 Option (B) is correct.
The region beyond the thermal entrance region in which the dimensionless
temperature profile expressed as b T  Tw l remains unchanged is called thermally
T3  Tw
fully developed region.
Nusselt Number is given by,
Nu = hL = c2T m ...(i)
k 2yl at yl = 0
GATE SOLVED PAPER  ME HEAT TRANSFER
y
Here, T = T  Tw and yl =
T3  Tw 2t
y y 3
Nu = 2 ; 3 b l  1 b l E = 2 3 yl  1 (yl) 3D
2 dt yl = 0 2y :2
So,
2yl 2 dt 2 yl = 0
3 3 y 3
= ;  b lE
2
= = 1.5
2 2 dt yl = 0 2
Sol. 27 Option (B) is correct.
The counter flow arrangement of the fluid shown below :
. i n
Given: for hot fluid : th1 = 60c C , m
c o
o h = 1 kg/ sec , ch = 10 kJ/kg K
And for cold fluid : tc2 = 30c C , m
.
oc = 2 kg/ sec , cc = 5 kJ/kg K
Heat capacity of Hot fluid,
i a
d
Ch = m o h ch = 1 # 10 = 10 kJ/k. sec
o
And heat capacity of cold fluid,
.n
Cc = moc cc = 2 # 5 = 10 kJ/k sec
By energy balance for the counter flow
m
w
o h ch (th1  th2) = m
oc cc (tc2  tc1)
w
Ch (th1  th2) = Cc (tc2  tc1) Ch = Cc
w
th1  tc2 = th2  tc1
q1 = q2
LMTD,
qm = q1  q2
ln b q1 l
q2
...(i)
in
Let the location of maximum temperature occurs at the distance x from the
.
22 T + qg = 0
c ...(i)
a
2x 2 k
d i
Here qg = Heat generated per unit volume and per unit time,
Given : qg = 80 MW/m2 = 80 # 106 W/m2 , k = 200 W/m K
o
Substituting the value of qg and k in equation (i), we get
n
.
22 T + 80 # 106 = 0
200
w
2x2
22 T + 4 105 = 0
w
#
2x2
w
Integrating the above equation,
2T + 4 105 x + c = 0 ...(ii)
# # 1
2x
Again integrating, we get
2
T + 4 # 105 # x + c1 x + c2 = 0 ...(iii)
2
Applying boundary conditions on equation (iii), we get
(1) At x = 0 , T = 160c C
160 + c2 = 0
c2 = 160 ...(iv)
(2) At x = 20 mm = 0.020 m , T = 120c C
(0.020) 2
120 + 4 # 105 # + c1 # 0.020 + ( 160) = 0 c2 = 160
2
120 + 80 + 0.020c1  160 = 0
0.020c1 + 40 = 0
c1 = 40 = 2000 ...(v)
0.020
To obtain the location of maximum temperature, applying maximaminima
GATE SOLVED PAPER  ME HEAT TRANSFER
n
Tinter = T1 + T2
i
Given :
2
Heat transfer will be same for both the ends
o.
c
k A (T  Tinter ) k A (T  T2)
Q = 1 1 1 = 2 2 inter
.
So,
2b b
a
Q = kA dT
i
dx
d
There is no variation in the horizontal direction. Therefore, we consider portion
o
of equal depth and height of the slab, since it is representative of the entire wall.
.n
So, A1 = A2 and Tinter = T1 + T2
2
w k1 ;T1  bT1 + T2 lE
2
= k2 :T1 + T2  T2D
w
So, we get
2 2
k 1 [T  T ] = k [T  T ]
2 1 2 2 1 2
k1 = 2k2
Sol. 32 Option (D) is correct.
Given : P = 100 W , n = 2.5 # 3 # 3 = 22.5 m3 , Ti = 20c C
Now Heat generated by the bulb in 24 hours,
Q = 100 # 24 # 60 # 60 = 8.64 MJ ...(i)
Volume of the room remains constant.
Heat dissipated, Q = mcv dT = rncv (Tf  Ti) m = rv
Where, Tf = Final temperature of room
r = Density of air = 1.2 kg/m3
cv of air = 0.717 kJ/kg K
Substitute the value of Q from equation (i), we get
8640000 = 1.2 # 22.5 # 0.717 # 103 (Tf  20)
8640 = 1.2 # 22.5 # 0.717 (Tf  20)
(Tf  20) = 446.30
Tf = 446.30 + 20 = 466.30c C  470c C
GATE SOLVED PAPER  ME HEAT TRANSFER
0.16
. in
= 15 + 5 # 0.017 = 14.47  14.5c C
c o
.
The variation of heat transfer with the outer radius of the insulation r2 , when
a
r1 < rcr
d i
n o
.
w
w
w
The rate of heat transfer from the insulated pipe to the surrounding air can be
expressed as
Qo = T1  T3 = T1  T3
Rins + Rconv. r
ln a k
2
r1 1
+
2pLk h (2pr2 L)
The value of r2 at which Qo reaches a maximum is determined from the requirement
dQo
that = 0 . By solving this we get,
dr2
rcr, pipe = k ...(i)
h
From equation (i), we easily see that by increasing the thickness of insulation,
the value of thermal conductivity increases and heat loss by the conduction also
increases.
But by increasing the thickness of insulation, the convection heat transfer co
GATE SOLVED PAPER  ME HEAT TRANSFER
efficient decreases and heat loss by the convection also decreases. These both
cases are limited for the critical thickness of insulation.
Sol. 35 Option (D) is correct.
The general heat equation in cartesian coordinates,
22T + 22T + 22T = 1 2T
2x2 2y2 2z2 a 2t
For one dimensional heat conduction,
22T = 1 2T = rc p 2T a = k = Thermal Diffusitivity
2x2 a 2t k 2t rc p
For constant properties of medium,
2T \ 22T
2t 2x2
Sol. 36 Option (D) is correct.
. i n
c o
a .
d i
o
.n
w
w
Given : T1 > T2 > T3
From, Wiens displacement law,
lmax \ 1
T
If T increase, then lm decrease. But according the figure, when T increases,
then lm also increases. So, the Wiens law is not satisfied.
Sol. 37 Option (C) is correct.
Assumptions :
(1) Heat transfer is steady since there is no indication of change with time.
(2) Heat transfer can be approximated as being onedimensional since it is
predominantly in the x direction.
(3) Thermal conductivities are constant.
(4) Heat transfer by radiation is negligible.
Analysis :
There is no variation in the horizontal direction. Therefore, we consider a 1 m
deep and 1 m high portion of the slab, since it representative of the entire wall.
Assuming any crosssection of the slab normal to the x  direction to be isothermal,
the thermal resistance network for the slab is shown in the figure.
GATE SOLVED PAPER  ME HEAT TRANSFER
R1 = L1 = 0.5 = 25 K/W
k1 A1 0.02 (1 # 1)
R2 = L2 = 0.25 = 5 K /W
k2 A2 0.10 # (1 # 0.5)
R3 = L3 = 0.25 = 12.5 K/W
k 3 A 3 0.04 # (1 # 0.5)
Resistance R2 and R 3 are in parallel. So the equivalent resistance Req will be
1 = 1 + 1
Req R2 R3
1 = R3 + R2
Req R2 R 3
in
Req = R2 R 3 = 5 # 12.5 = 3.6 K/W
.
R2 + R 3 5 + 12.5
o
Resistance R1 and Req are in series. So total Resistance will be
. c
R = R1 + Req = 25 + 3.6 = 28.6 K/W
i a
Sol. 38 Option (C) is correct.
d
Given : D = 5 mm = 0.005 m , Ti = 500 K , Ta = 300 K , k = 400 W/mK ,
o
r = 9000 kg/m3 , c = 385 J/kg K , h = 250 W/m2 K ,
n
Given that lumped analysis is assumed to be valid.
.
T  Ta = exp  hAt = exp  ht
So, c rnc m c rlc m ...(i)
w
Ti  Ta
4 pR 3
w l = n = Volume of ball = 3 2
A Surface Area 4pR
l= n
A
w = R = D = 0.005 = 1 m
3 6 6 1200
On substituting the value of l and other parameters in equation. (i),
T  300 = exp 
500  300
250 # t
c 9000 # 1 385 m
1200
0.08658t
T = 300 + 200 # e
On differentiating the above equation w.r.t. t ,
dT = 200 ( 0.08658) e0.08658t
dt # #
Rate of fall of temperature of the ball at the beginning of cooling is (at beginning t = 0
)
dT
b dt l = 200 # ( 0.08658) # 1 = 17.316 K/sec
t=0
Negative sign shows fall of temperature.
Sol. 39 Option (C ) is correct.
Given : d1 = 1 m , d2 = 0.5 m , L = 0.5 m
The cylinder surface cannot see itself and the radiation emitted by this surface
falls on the enclosing sphere. So, from the conservation principle (summation
GATE SOLVED PAPER  ME HEAT TRANSFER
n
A1 F12 = A2 F21
F12 = A2 # F21 = A2
. i ...(ii)
o
A1 A1
c
For sphere, F11 + F12 = 1
F11 = 1  F12
a . ...(iii)
i
From equation (ii) and (iii), we get
d
F11 = 1  A2 = 1  2pr22l = 1  2r22l
o
A1 pd 1 d1
.n
= 1  2 # 0.250 # 0.5 = 1  1 = 0.75
12 4
Sol. 40 Option (D) is correct.
w
w
The figure shown below are of parallel flow and counter flow respectively.
(t  t )  (th2  tc1)
qmc = q1  q2 = h1 c2
q
ln b l
1
ln b th1  tc2 l
q2 th2  tc1
(80  30)  (50  40)
= = 40 = 28.85cC
50
ln b l ln (5)
10
Now for defining the type of flow, we use the correction factor.
qm = Fqmc = Fqmp ...(i)
Where F = correction factor, which depends on the geometry of the heat exchanger
and the inlet and outlet temperatures of the of the hot and cold streams.
F < 1, for cross flow and F = 1, for counter and parallel flow
So, From equation (i),
F = qm = 26 = 0.90 < 1
qmc 28.85
and also F = qm = 26 = 1.04 > 1
qmp 24.85
. in
So, cross flow in better for this problem.
o
Sol. 41 Option (C) is correct.
c
Given : A duct of rectangular cross section. For which sides are
a = 1 m and b = 0.5 m
a .
i
T1 = 30cC , T2 = 20cC , V = 10 m/ sec , k = 0.025 W/m K
d
Viscosity = 18 mPas , Pr = 0.73 , r = 1.2 kg/m3 , Nu = 0.023 Re0.8 Pr0.33
o
Hence, For a rectangular conduit of sides a and b,
Hydraulic diameter,
. n DH = 4A
p
w
Where, A is the flow cross sectional area and p the wetted perimeter
w
DH = 4ab = 2ab
2 (a + b) (a + b)
w = # 1 # 0.5 = 1 = 0.666 m
2
(1 + 0.5) 1.5
rVDH
Reynolds Number, Re =
m
= 1.2 # 10 # 06.666 = 4.44 # 105
18 # 10
Sol. 42 Option (D) is correct.
From the first part of the question,
Re = 4.44 # 105
Which is greater than 3 # 105 . So, flow is turbulent flow.
Therefore, Nu = 0.023 Re0.8 Pr0.33
hL = 0.023 4.44 105 0.8 (0.73) 0.33 Nu = hL
k ^ # h # k
= 0.023 # 32954 # 0.9013 = 683.133
h = 683.133 # k
L
= 683.133 # 0.025 = 25.64 W/m2 K
0.666
DH = L = 0.666 m
GATE SOLVED PAPER  ME HEAT TRANSFER
n
n = 1, For cylindrical coordinates
. i
n = 2 , For spherical coordinates
o
Further, while using rectangular coordinates it is customary to replace the r
. c
variable by the x variable.
a
For sphere, substitute r = 2 in equation (i)
r22r : 2r D k
d i
1 2 r22T + q = rc 2T
k 2t
o
q
1 2 r22T + = 1 2T a = k = thermal diffusivity
r22r : 2r D k
.n
a 2t rc
Option (C) is correct.
w
Sol. 44
w
w
Let Length of the tube = l
Given : r1 = d1 = 2/2 cm = 1 cm , r2 = 5 cm = 2.5 cm
2 2
Radius of asbestos surface, r3 = d2 + 3 = 2.5 + 3 = 5.5 cm
2
ks = 19 W/mK , ka = 0.2 W/mK
And T1  T2 = 600c C
From the given diagram heat is transferred from r1 to r2 and from r2 to r3 . So
Equivalent thermal resistance,
loge (r2 /r1)
SR = 1 ln a r2 k + 1 ln a r3 k For hollow cylinder Rt =
2pks l r1 2pka l r2 2pkl
1 r 1 r
2pks a r1 k 2pka a r2 k
SR # l = ln 2
+ ln 3
1 ln 2.5 + 1 ln 5.5
2 # 3.14 # 19 b 1 l 2 # 3.14 # 0.2 b 2.5 l
=
in
Bi < 0.1
.
The value of Biot Number is less than one. So the lumped parameter solution for
o
transient conduction can be conveniently stated as
c
T  Ta = ec hAt  ht n =l
.
rcn m = e c rcl m
Ti  Ta A
i
30  300a
298  300 = exp  400t
b 8500 400 1.176 104 l
d
# # #
o
 2 = et
 270
. n 2 = et
270
w
Take natural logarithm both sides, we get
w
Option (A) is correct.
Given : tc1 = 30cC , dm = m o = 1500 kg/hr = 1500 kg/ sec = 0.4167 kg/ sec
dt 3600
th2 = th1 = 120c C , tc2 tc2 = 80cC , cw = 4.187 kJ/kg K , U = 2000 W/m2 K .
Figure for condensation is given below :
. i n
c o
a .
d i
o
.n
w
Total heat loss from one surface of the plate is given by,
If small body is enclosed by a large enclosure, then F12 = 1 and from Stefans
Boltzman law Eb = sT 4 . So we get
s (T 14  T 24) 5.67 # 108 [(800) 4  (300) 4]
(Q12) = =
1  e1 + 1 + 1  e2 1  0.6 + 1 + 1  0.3
A1 e1 A1 A2 e2 103 # 0.6 103 100 # 0.3
In counter flow, hot fluid enters at the point 1 and exits at the point 2 or cold
GATE SOLVED PAPER  ME HEAT TRANSFER
in
dv = (Pr) 1/3
.
dT
o
(i) When Pr = 1 dv = dT
c
(ii) When Pr > 1 dv > dT
(iii) When Pr < 1 dv < dT
a .
So for Pr > 1, dv > dT
Option (C) is correct.
d i
o
Sol. 50
n
Given for water : Tw = 48c C , kw = 0.6 W/mK
.
And for glass : Tg = 40c C , kg = 1.2 W/mK
Spatial gradient
w dT
c dy m = 1 # 10 K/m
4
w
w
Heat transfer takes place between the water and glass interface by the conduction
w
and convection. Heat flux would be same for water and glass interface. So, applying
the conduction equation for water and glass interface.
dT
dT dT Q  kA dx
kw c = k dT
dy mw
= kg c
dy mg
q= =
A A dx
dT kw dT 0. 6
c dy m = kg c dy m = 1.2 # 10 = 0.5 # 10 K/m
4 4
g w
n
(th1  tC2)  (th2  tC1) (t  t )  (th2  th1) 2 (th1  th2)
i
qmc = = h1 h2 = ...(i)
  ln :th1  th2 D
.
t t
ln : h1 C2 D t t
ln : h1 h2 D
th2  tC1 t h2  t h1 t h2  t h1
(B) For parallel flow given : th1 = tC 2 , th 2 = tC 1
c o
LMTD , qmp = q1  q2
a
ln b q1 l.
i
q2
d
(t  t )  (th2  tC2) (t  t )  (th2  th1) 2 (th1  th2)
= h1 C1 = h1 h2
o
qmp = ...(ii)
h1  tC1 h1  t h2
ln : t
D ln :t
D ln :th1  th2 D
.n
th2  tC2 t h2  t h1 t h2  t h1
From equation (i) and (ii), we get
w qmc = qmp
w
Option (D) is correct.
Sol. 53
w
Given : F13 = 0.17
Applying summation rule :
***********
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