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Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.

Prof
Mak214-E

The effects of the alloying elements on


the properties of steels

Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E The effects of the alloying elements
Carbon (C): decreases the ductility, formability, weldability
increases the strength and hardenability.
Manganese (Mn): increases the strength, shock resistance,
toughness, hardenability, weldebility, hot formability, no change
in ductility. In addition Mn is a strong austenite former by
reducing the eutectoid temperature below to room temperature.
Handfield steel with 1% C and 12% Mn has strong deformation
hardening ability allowing increase in strength in service (helmets,
railway equipments, rock crushers jaws, shovel dippers, etc.)
Silicone (Si): increases strength, decreases the weldability,
magnetic losses, oxide formation affinity, no change in ductility.
In addition Si has higher affinity to O than carbon therefore used as
deoxizing agent (semi-killed steels). It is also austenite former
agent leading the nucleation of austenite grain in many size yielding
finer grain size. 2
Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E The effects of the alloying elements
Chromium (Cr): as the Cr content increases, strength, hardenability,
corrosion resistance, high temperature strength, decreases the oxide
formation tendency. (forms a very coherent oxide layer on the surface
preventing further oxidation-- in stainless steels).
It is also strong carbide former as an essential factor behaving as a strong
second phase particle, therefore, obstructs the dislocation motion
particularly at elevated temperatures. Also nitride former and used in
nitriding steels.
Nickel (Ni): increases the strength, toughness (even at sub zero
temperatures), hardenability, no change in ductility. It is an austenite
former, therefore, widely used in austenitic stainless steels.
Molybdenum (Mo): increases the hardenability, high temperature
strength, decreases the risk for temper embritterment (~0.5 % Mo).
Since the melting point of molybdenum carbide is very high, it provides
high temperature strength which is very useful in some HSS (high speed
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steel) tools.

Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E The effects of the alloying elements

Vanadium (V) and Tungsten (W): as the V and W content; increases


the strength, high temperature strength, wear resistance, since both
are strong carbide formers widely used in HSS tools.
Copper (Cu): restricted to max. 0.35%. Up to 0.2 % provides some
resistance against to atmospheric corrosion. Not desired in spring steels.
Aluminum (Al): used as a grain refinement agent especially in the
form of AlN particles. It is also deoxidizing agent used in killed steels.
Also increases nitridability (Used in nitriding steels).
Zirconium (Zr), Titanium (Ti), Niobium (Nb) and Tantalum (Ta):
Strong carbide formers even better than Cr. Therefore commonly used
in austenitic stainless steel to free the Cr and thus further increase the
corrosion resistance. Their even small concentration (~0.5 % ) can
forms small carbides at grain boundaries providing very fine grain size
which is the reason to high strength and ductility of low alloy (HSLA)
steel, commonly used in automotive industry. 4
Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E The effects of the alloying elements

Phosphorus (P): decreases the toughness, impact resistance, cold


formability, weldebility increase the corrosion resistance. Its contend
is limited 0.035% max. in quality steels.
Sulfur (S): The excess sulfur reduces the ability for hot (900oC)
deformation of steel forming the brittle FeS phase at the grain
boundaries (hot brittleness). The solubility of S is higher than C
therefore it restricts the formation of pearlite in the zones with higher S
contents, leading a banded structure of pearlite and ferrite. (Macroscopy
experiment: flow lines). This causes severe anisotropy in the
mechanical prop of steel therefore S content is limited 0.035%. However,
0.3% S may be added to free cutting steels to increase the chip
formation thus the machinability.
Oxygen (O): Produces iron oxide at grain boundaries leading high
brittleness in steels. Therefore steels are deoxidized with Si and Al to
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avoid the risk.

Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E The effects of the alloying elements

Hydrogen (H): It is smallest element therefore can penetrate inside


of the steels along their grain boundaries. The formation of H2
molecules creates pressure at the grain boundaries. When this is
associated with the external stresses acting on the material, brittle
fracture may occur which is called hydrogen embitterment. This
is particularly very harmful for high strength steels.
Nitrogen (N): Increases the tendency of aging and strain aging of
low carbon steels. Thus the distinct yield point becomes apparent
and the strength increase and ductility decrease. The nitrides of Cr,
Al etc. increases high temperature strength of steels. It is used in
PH (precipitation hardening) stainless steels for this purpose.

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Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E
Designation - Coding system Coding system
of Steels
1. Symbols based on the Processing method:
Carbon Reduction processes Turkish and German
Thomas Process (T)
Basic Oxygen (O)
Simens Martin (M)
Electric arc (E)
Induction Furnace (I) American
Solidification Process TS DIN
Rimmed (K) (U)
Semi killed (Si) (SY) (R)
Killed (Si + Al) (S)
American Standards
Symbols based on: Carbon and Low alloy (1040)
2. Mechanical Properties (Tensile) Stainless steel (316)
Tool steels (T1)
(construction steels) FeXX or StXX
3. Chemical Composition
a. Plain carbon (C35)
b. Low alloy (15CrMo5)
c. Free Cutting (22S20)
d. Alloy steels (X 50 CrMoW 9 11) 7

Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E
2. Construction Steels Fe XX (or St XX)
Minimum tensile
Constructional
Fe14 ??? strength in Kgf/mm2
Steel

St 37 (Tensile strength: minimum 37 kgf/mm2)

3. Chemical Composition C35


(a) Plain carbon steels C % content
Plain Carbon steel x 100

C 35 Plain Carbon Steel (S and P: lower than 0.050%)


Ck 35 Quality Steel (S and P: lower than 0.035%)
Cf 35 Surface Hardening grade Steel
Cq 35 Cold Forming grade Steel

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Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E

3. Chemical Composition
(b) Low alloy steels

C % content
x 100 % of the highest
Alloying element content element
ordered with x MF
respect to amount

Elements Multiplication Factor


Cr, Mn, Ni, Si, Al, Mo, Nb, W, etc 4
V, Zr 10
C, P, S, N, Ce 100
B 1000
No number if concentration is <1%

Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E
15 CrMo 5 1.25 % Cr
content
0.15 % C

Cr and Mo: Principal alloying


elements

Simens M S Ck45 Thomas T K St42


0.45 % C
Martin
42
Quality C Rimmed
Kgf/mm2
Killed Steel Steel Steel
Constructional
Steel
Basic O Sy C20 0.20 % C
Oxygen

Carbon
Semi Killed Steel 10
Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E

3. Chemical Composition
(c) Free cutting steels
S
C % content
x 100 Free cutting S % multiplied
Steel by 100
Alloying element
other than C and S
0.22 % C 22 S MnPb 36
22 S 20
Free
Cutting 0.22 % C
Steel 0.36 % S 0.2 % S

Mn and Pb other Free Cutting


than C ranked order Steel

11

Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E
3. Alloy steel: If total alloying element content is higer
than 5%.
X % Alloying
Simens elements
Martin without factors
Alloying
C % Content elements
x 100 other than C

No number if concentration <1%

High 18 % Cr
High 9% Ni
X 50 CrMoW 9 1 1 Alloy
Alloy <1% Ti
Steel
Steel
Main Alloying 9 % Cr
0.5 % C 1% Mo X 5 CrNiTi 18 9
elements Cr,
Mo, W 1% W

Cr, Mo, Ti
0.05 % C 12
Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof

American Standards
Mak214-E

First 2 digit: Second 2 digids: C


XXXX content X100
Main Alloying elements

Carbon and Low alloy Steels 4xxx Molibdenum St


1xxx Plain Carbon St. 41xx Mo + Cr St
11xx Free Cutting St (resulfurized) 43xx Mo + Cr + Ni St
12xx Free Cutting St. (Si added) 5xxx Chromium St
13xx Plain Carbon St (Mn added) 6xxx Vanadium St
2xxx Nickel steels 7xxx Tungsten St
3xxx Nickel+Chromium St. 86xx Ni + Cr + Mo Steels
92xx Si steels

Stainless Steels
Three digit designation
3xx Austenitic stainless steel 304, 316, 321, etc.
4xx Ferritic and/or Martensitic Stainless steel, 410, 430 (ferritic),
440 (martensitic), 13

Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof

Tool Steels
Mak214-E

Letter: Alloying elements,


Code Type of Tool Steel working cond., heat
M1 Molybdenum HSS treatment, etc.
T1 Tungsten HSS
H10 Chromium Hot work tool steel
H21 Tungsten Hot work tool steel
H42 Molibdenum Hot work tool steel
A2 Air Hardening Medium Alloy Cold work tool steel
D2 High C High Cr Cold work tool steel
O1 Oil Hardening Cold work tool steel Digits: Designation
S1 Shock resistant steel the Composition
L2 Low alloy special purpose tool steel
P2 Low C mold steel
W1 Water hardening tool steel

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Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E
Types of Steels
Constructional steels:
Profiles ( Fe37, Fe 42, Fe 50, 1010, 1020, 1040, etc.),
Sheet or plates -deep drawing quality ( low carbon, fine grain), thin plate, galvanize, plates for ship
buildings.
Heat treatable steels (for combination of strength and ductility)
Carbon steels
Low Alloy steels (alloyed less than 5%)
Carburizing steels (low carbon steels for case hardening)
Nitriding steels (alloyed with nitride formers such as Al and Cr)
Free cutting steels: (To be easiliy cut by tools: high machinability, high S content)
Spring steels (0.5-0.6 C and good hardenability and elastic properties)
Bolt steels (Good cold formability for thread rolling)
High temperature steels: For boilers and pipes
Sub zero steels (shows no DBTT, generally austenitic steels)
Valve steels (high strength, good toughness and ductility)
Stainless steel (Ferritic, Martensitic, Austenitic, Precipitation Hardening)
Tools steels (Hot work and Cold work Tool steel, High speed steels)
Ball bearing steels
Electrical steels Extra low C with Si up to 3%.
Non-magnetizable steels -austenitic steels
High strength low alloy steels (HSLA) micro alloyed with V or Nb etc. Common in automotive industry.
Dual phase steels (contains martensite in ferrite matrix, obtained with inter-critical range annealing and
quenching, widely demanded for transport vehicles)
Maraging steels ( ultra high strength as a result of martensitic transformation and following aging
treatment)
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Cast steels:

Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E
Designation - Coding system Coding system
of Steels
1. Symbols based on the Processing method:
Carbon Reduction processes Turkish and German
Thomas Process (T)
Basic Oxygen (O)
Simens Martin (M)
Electric arc (E)
Induction Furnace (I) American
Solidification Process TS DIN
Rimmed (K) (U)
Semi killed (Si) (SY) (R)
Killed (Si + Al) (S)
American Standards
Symbols based on: Carbon and Low alloy (1040)
2. Mechanical Properties (Tensile) Stainless steel (316)
Tool steels (T1)
(construction steels) FeXX or StXX
3. Chemical Composition
a. Plain carbon (C35)
b. Low alloy (15CrMo5)
c. Free Cutting (22S20)
d. Alloy steels (X 50 CrMoW 9 11) 16
Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E
2. Construction Steels Fe XX (or St XX)
Minimum tensile
Constructional
Fe14 ??? strength in Kgf/mm2
Steel

St 37 (Tensile strength: minimum 37 kgf/mm2)

3. Chemical Composition C35


(a) Plain carbon steels C % content
Plain Carbon steel x 100

C 35 Plain Carbon Steel (S and P: lower than 0.050%)


Ck 35 Quality Steel (S and P: lower than 0.035%)
Cf 35 Surface Hardening grade Steel
Cq 35 Cold Forming grade Steel

17

Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E

3. Chemical Composition
(b) Low alloy steels

C % content
x 100 % of the highest
Alloying element content element
ordered with x MF
respect to amount

Elements Multiplication Factor


Cr, Mn, Ni, Si, Al, Mo, Nb, W, etc 4
V, Zr 10
C, P, S, N, Ce 100
B 1000
No number if concentration is <1%

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Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E
15 CrMo 5 1.25 % Cr
content
0.15 % C

Cr and Mo: Principal alloying


elements

Simens M S Ck45 Thomas T K St42


0.45 % C
Martin
42
Quality C Rimmed
Kgf/mm2
Killed Steel Steel Steel
Constructional
Steel
Basic O Sy C20 0.20 % C
Oxygen

Carbon
Semi Killed Steel 19

Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E

3. Chemical Composition
(c) Free cutting steels
S
C % content
x 100 Free cutting S % multiplied
Steel by 100
Alloying element
other than C and S
0.22 % C 22 S MnPb 36
22 S 20
Free
Cutting 0.22 % C
Steel 0.36 % S 0.2 % S

Mn and Pb other Free Cutting


than C ranked order Steel

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Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E
3. Alloy steel: If total alloying element content is higer
than 5%.
X % Alloying
Simens elements
Martin without factors
Alloying
C % Content elements
x 100 other than C

No number if concentration <1%

High 18 % Cr
High 9% Ni
X 50 CrMoW 9 1 1 Alloy
Alloy <1% Ti
Steel
Steel
Main Alloying 9 % Cr
0.5 % C 1% Mo X 5 CrNiTi 18 9
elements Cr,
Mo, W 1% W

Cr, Mo, Ti
0.05 % C 21

Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof

American Standards
Mak214-E

First 2 digit: Second 2 digids: C


XXXX content X100
Main Alloying elements

Carbon and Low alloy Steels 4xxx Molibdenum St


1xxx Plain Carbon St. 41xx Mo + Cr St
11xx Free Cutting St (resulfurized) 43xx Mo + Cr + Ni St
12xx Free Cutting St. (Si added) 5xxx Chromium St
13xx Plain Carbon St (Mn added) 6xxx Vanadium St
2xxx Nickel steels 7xxx Tungsten St
3xxx Nickel+Chromium St. 86xx Ni + Cr + Mo Steels
92xx Si steels

Stainless Steels
Three digit designation
3xx Austenitic stainless steel 304, 316, 321, etc.
4xx Ferritic and/or Martensitic Stainless steel, 410, 430 (ferritic),
440 (martensitic), 22
Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof

Tool Steels
Mak214-E

Letter: Alloying elements,


Code Type of Tool Steel working cond., heat
M1 Molybdenum HSS treatment, etc.
T1 Tungsten HSS
H10 Chromium Hot work tool steel
H21 Tungsten Hot work tool steel
H42 Molibdenum Hot work tool steel
A2 Air Hardening Medium Alloy Cold work tool steel
D2 High C High Cr Cold work tool steel
O1 Oil Hardening Cold work tool steel Digits: Designation
S1 Shock resistant steel the Composition
L2 Low alloy special purpose tool steel
P2 Low C mold steel
W1 Water hardening tool steel

23

Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E
Types of Steels
1. Constructional steels
2. Heat treatable steels
3. Carburizing steels
4. Nitriding steels
5. Free cutting steels
6. Spring steels
7. Bolt steels
8. High temperature steels
9. Sub-zero steels
10. Valve steels
11. Stainless steels
12. Tool steels
13. Bolt steels
14. Electrical steels
15. Non-magnetizable steels
16. HSLA steels
17. Dual phase steels
18. Maraging steels
19. Cast steels
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Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E
Coding systems of Steels

What should be the


characteristic feartures
of heat treatable steels?
Why a steel becomes a
heat treatable steel?

25

Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E

Describe the difference


between carburizing and
nitriding steels?

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Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E

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Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E

What would be the


mechanism to make a
steel appropriate for
high T applications?

Why subzero?
Which elements
are improtant?

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Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E

Which elements
should be dominant?

Which elements are


needed for martensitic
stainless steels? Why?

Which elements
should be dominant?

How can a PH SS be
strenghtened?

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Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E

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Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E

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Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E

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Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E

Materials Type Application


Ck45
X50CrNiMo8 5 1
Fe14
Fe37 or St37
15CrMo4
AISI 304

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Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E

How the properties of steels can be


changed based on the properties
desired for specific engineering
application?

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Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E

Heat treatments!!!!

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Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof

Heat Treatments of Steel


Mak214-E

A Simple Heat Treatments


Full Annealing
Normalizing
Spheroidizing
Process Annealing
Stress Releif Annealing
Homogenizing
Isothermal Heat treatments
Austempering
Isothermal Annealing
Diffusionless Transformation Treatments
Quenching
Tempering
Martempering
Ausforming
Surface Hardenning Treatments
Carburizing
Nitriding
Carbonitriding
Induction or Flame Hardening
Age Hardening Treatments
Precipitation Hardening Treatment 36
Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
The mechanical properties are strongly dependent on both the carbon content and on the type of
Mak214-E
heat treatment. Steels and cast iron can therefore be used in a very wide range of applications.

37

Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E
A Basic Heat Treatment Cycle
800
Treatment
Important Process Temperature
Temperature (C, F, K, etc.)

Parameters 600
Heating rate
Holding time
Holding temperature 400
Holding time
Cooling rate 200
Cooling rate

0
Heating rate 0 1 2 3
Time (day, hr, min, sec, etc.)

Depending on the Cooling rate:


Slow Cooling rate  Diffusional phase transformations.
Fast Cooling rate  Diffusionless phase transformations.
(Quenching)
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Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E

TTT
(Time temperature transformation)
Diagrams

39

Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E TTT diagrams
Fs: Ferrite start temp.
Ps: Pearlite start temp.
Pf: Pearlite finish temp.
Bs: Bainite start temp.
Bf: Bainite finish temp.
Ms: Martensite start temp.
Mf: Martensite finish temp.
Phase areas

Coarse Pearlite
Fine Pearlite
Upper Bainite
Lower Bainite

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Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E

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Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E
TTT diagrams: Isothermal heat treatment curves.
Hypoeutoctoid Steel 

Wing for ferrite start
temperatures.

Hypoeutectoid steels has a wing for ferrite start temperature whereas


hypereutectoid steels, a wing for cementite start temperatures.

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Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E
TTT diagrams: Isothermal heat treatment curves.

Fe3C

Hypereutoctoid Steel Wing for cementite
start temperatures.

+ Fe3C

Hypereutectoid steels, a wing for cementite start temperatures.


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Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E

Phase transformation

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Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E

TTT Curves

The cooling rate just


touches the noise is
called Critical
Cooling rate.

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Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E
Kritik souma hz
Scaklk (oC)

Perlit +
Martenzit nce perlit Kaba perlit
Martenzit

Zaman (s)
The cooling rate that just misses the nose is called the critical cooling rate (CCR).
46
If we cool at the critical rate, or faster, the steel will transform to 100% martensite.
Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E

Cooling curves on TTT Diagrams

Isothermal cooling
Because C-curves are determined by quenchholdquench
sequences they can, strictly speaking, only be used to predict the
microstructures that would be produced in a steel subjected to a
quenchholdquench heat treatment. But the curves do give a pretty
good indication of the structures to expect in a steel that has been
cooled continuously.

Continues cooling
For really accurate predictions, however, continuous cooling
diagrams are available (see the literature of the major steel
manufacturers).

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Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E
Continuous Cooling curves (CCC) vs. Isothermal Cooling curves

TTT Diagrams

Transformation along Transformation along


Continuous cooling curve isothermal curve

Bainite can only be obtained by isothermal trasnformation


in plain carbon steels without having a bay area!!! 48
Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E

zet

Yava
Mechanical Prop vs.
Austenite Souma
Peartlite (+Fe3C) Microstructure
Yaynmal
Ferrite

Hardness 
Coarse Pearlite
zotermal
Dnm Fine Pearlite
Austenite Bainite (+Fe3C)
Yaynmal Upper Bainite
Lower Bainite
ok hzl Martensite
Souma
Austenite Martensite (single)
Yaynmasz

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Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E

Effect of Alloying Elements on hardening

1. Increase the hardenability: Alloying elements increase the


hardenability of steel. Martensite can form through the large
thickness of the parts even very slow cooling rates.
2. Change the shape of Fe-Fe3C phase diagram: (Mn and Ni,
austenite stabilizer agent ( at room T), Cr; ferrite stabilizer)
3. Introduce a bay area in the TTT Diagram; (Ausforming (austenite
+ forming) becomes possible);
4. Improve the respone toTempering treatment: Alloying elements
reduce the rate of tempering compared with that of a plain-carbon
steel. Secondary hardening becomes possible.
5. Other: solid solution strengthening, alloy carbides, corrosion
resistance, etc. can be obtained.
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Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E

Effect of Alloying Elements


Effect of C
on Ms and Mf

As C content increases in the steel,


The martensite start temperature, Ms
The finish temperatures, Mf decrease.
So, amount of retained austenite (not demanded), the residual stresses due
to the increase in the temperature difference between austenite and Ms
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increase, thus the quench cracking risk increases.

Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E
Hardenability Curves and
Jominy Tests
Jominy test - The test used to evaluate
hardenability. An austenitized steel bar is
quenched at one end only, thus producing a
range of cooling rates along the bar.
Hardenability curves - Graphs showing the
effect of the cooling rate on the hardness of as-
quenched steel.
Jominy distance - The distance from the
quenched end of a Jominy bar. The Jominy
distance is related to the cooling rate.

Jomminy distance for various steels can be


seen in the figure. Plain carbon steels have
shallow jomminy distance while alloyed
steels may have very deep. However, C
provides higher surface hardness compared
to the other alloying elements. 52
Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E
The cooling rates provided by various quenchants
(quenching media)

The cooling rate provided by the


quenchants are represented by a
constant value H.

the relation between the diameter


of the work piece and jomminy
distance in the Figure for a given
H values.

In order to get fast enough quenches,


thin specimens are quenched into baths
of molten salt kept at the various hold
temperatures. 53

Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E
A Practical Result of Cooling Rate:
Weldability of Steel
Figure 12.29 The
development of the
heat-affected zone
in a weld: (a) the
structure at the
maximum
temperature, (b) the
structure after
cooling in a steel of
low hardenability,
and (c) the
structure after
cooling in a steel of
high hardenability. 54
Example 12.8
Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E
4340
Structures of Heat-
Affected Zones
Compare the structures in
the heat-affected zones
of welds in 1080 and
4340 steels if the cooling
rate in the heat-affected
zone is 5oC/s.
1080

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Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof
Mak214-E

Example 12.8 SOLUTION


The cooling rate in the weld produces the following
structures:
1080: 100% pearlite
4340: Bainite and martensite
The high hardenability of the alloy steel reduces the
weldability, permitting martensite to form and embrittle
the weld.

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Dr.C.Ergun, Asst.Prof

Heat Treatments of Steel


Mak214-E

A Simple Heat Treatments


Full Annealing
Normalizing
Spheroidizing
Process Annealing
Stress Releif Annealing
Homogenizing
Isothermal Heat treatments
Austempering
Isothermal Annealing
Diffusionless Transformation Treatments
Quenching
Tempering
Martempering
Ausforming
Surface Hardenning Treatments
Carburizing
Nitriding
Carbonitriding
Induction or Flame Hardening
Age Hardening Treatments
Precipitation Hardening Treatment 57