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Design Considerations for Permanent Magnet Machine

Drives for Direct-Drive Electric Vehicles

K. Lakshmi Varaha Iyer, Student Member, IEEE, 2Shruthi Mukundan, Student Member, IEEE,
Himavarsha Dhulipati, Student Member, IEEE, 4Kaushik Mukherjee, Senior Member, IEEE,
Bruce Minaker and 6Narayan C. Kar, Senior Member, IEEE
5 and
1, 2, 3, 5, 6
University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada - N9B 3P4, 4Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, India

Abstract Understanding the need for improvement in effi- torque and copper loss are some of the major performance
ciency of an electric vehicle drivetrain system, this paper exclu- characteristics of the machine which pose as challenges in a
sively discusses various design aspects of a permanent magnet direct-drive machine [7]-[9]. Core loss in such machines is a
machine drive for direct-drive electric vehicles (EV). Firstly, the very small component compared to copper loss, due to low
motivation to employ a direct-drive configuration in EV is dis- frequency operation even at maximum speed.
cussed. Thereafter, initial electric machine rating design consid- According to the authors knowledge, there exists no com-
erations for a typical Supermini or B-segment EV employing a
direct-drive configuration is discussed. Furthermore, employing
mercial EV incorporating the direct-drive configuration using
an existing stator, investigations are performed through analyti- a single motor. Hence, this paper aims at investigating various
cal equations and designed machines to understand different design considerations for a permanent magnet (PM) machine
permanent magnet machine design aspects with regards to selec- drive based direct-drive EV.
tion of: number of poles, type of permanent magnet rotor, stator Section II presents the design considerations for fixing the
winding configuration and number of phases. The study per- initial ratings of the direct drive machine which has been illus-
formed here will assist in providing decision points on various trated by taking up a case study of a typical Supermini ICE
structural design indices of the machine before venturing into the that has been converted to a direct-drive EV. Section III of the
FEA based permanent magnet machine design and assessment paper discusses various design aspects of the machine to be
for the direct-drive EV application.
considered such as number of poles, winding configuration,
Index Terms Direct-drive, dq axis, electrified vehicle, finite el- magnet position in the rotor structure and the number of phas-
ement analysis, interior, permanent magnet, surface, synchro- es while designing a PM motor to alleviate challenges in a di-
nous machine. rect-drive motor. It also presents a numerical procedure to
compare and analyze parametric and structural aspects of vari-
I. INTRODUCTION ous configurations of PM motors which assists the designer in
arriving at certain decision points before designing the ma-
imited driving range in conjunction with overall cost of
L the electric vehicle (EV) are major incentives to advance
the existing EV drivetrain system technology [1]. Power
chine through finite element analysis.

electronics and electric machines, have their practical operat- II. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR FIXING THE INITIAL RAT-
ing efficiencies near 90% and research is being conducted to INGS OF THE DIRECT DRIVE MACHINE
optimize them in terms of weight, cost, materials, topologies, In a typical Supermini or B-Segment internal combustion
space, electrical, thermal and mechanical performances so that engine based vehicle, power output from engine is transmitted
advancements can be made towards their theoretical targets to the wheels through the clutch or torque converter, variable
and above. However, the power delivered by the motor is gearbox, fixed gearbox, differential and drive shaft. In a com-
transferred to the wheels through a mechanical transmission mercially available EV, the variable gear box is eliminated and
system in the EV [2] which is found to contribute to power power is transferred from the motor to the wheels through a
loss that constitutes to almost 2-20% of the rated output power clutch or torque converter, fixed gearbox, differential and
of the electric motor [3]. This leads to the concept of a direct- drive shaft. The proposed direct-drive EV eliminates either of
drive system where removing the transmission from an exist- the gears resulting in a direct transfer of motor power to the
ing EV powertrain is expected to improve motor-to-wheel ef- wheels through a clutch box and differential.
ficiency. The use of such a mechanical arrangement with per- As a preliminary step towards designing direct-drive per-
manent magnet synchronous motors has a number of ad- manent magnet motors for EVs, it is of paramount importance
vantages including lower component count, high torque densi- to develop a design methodology to fix the initial ratings of
ty of PM machines, less maintenance, reduced mechanical the electric motor that is to be designed for a typical B-
losses and noises in such a system [4]-[6]. However, the major segment electric vehicle, currently an ICE based vehicle. The
design challenges involved in such a gearless system is the objective is to fix the continuous and peak torque, rated and
tradeoff between the size and power capacity of the machine maximum speed and rated voltage of the machine to be used
as the torque required by the wheel shaft is completely provid- in the EV. In the existing ICE, knowing: 1) the maximum
ed by the motor which may result in an increase in motor size. torque capability of the engine Tp, 2) variable gear ratio at the
The motor is required to deliver high torque at the start and first gear and fixed gear ratio denoted as ig and io respectively,
maintain high efficiency in a large operating range within lim- and, 3) efficiency of the transmission system, , the maximum
ited space, weight and cost constraints. Torque ripple, cogging torque on the wheels, Tw can be calculated using (1) [2].

Tw i g io KT p (1) Moreover, distributed winding was also found to be sufficient
to provide the required output characteristics of the machine in
Tw can be considered as the peak torque required on the the constant power and constant torque regions.
wheels which has to be produced solely by the motor in a di-
rect-drive configuration. The continuous torque can be consid- A. Number of Poles and winding configuration
ered half of the peak torque. Using (2) and (3) maximum Generally higher number of poles (P) greater than or equal
speed on the wheels, Nw, which will eventually be the maxi- to 8 is used in commercially available high speed permanent
mum speed of the motor, can be obtained by knowing the gear magnet machines. Deriving knowledge from conventional in-
ratio of the highest gear in the variable gear box and fixed gear dustrial motors which mostly have 4 poles and run at speeds
ratio, the maximum speed of the engine Np, and the specific corresponding to line frequencies, an effort was made to ana-
tire size in the vehicle and its radius, rd. The wheel speed, v lyze the number of poles keeping the low speed requirement of
can be represented in km/h using (3) [2]. the direct-drive motors similar to the industrial motors.
Np The slot/pole combination consideration has a significant
Nw (2) effect on the inherent cogging torque, sinusoidal emf distribu-
i g io tion and torque ripple involved in the machine [13]. For in-
3.6SN w rd stance, the choice of an even number slot/pole combination
v (3) causes high cogging torque due to the alignment of pole edges
with every slot [13]. The pole-pair number influences the ro-
The ratings of the motor determined above can be fine-
tor size and volume as the back iron in the rotor yoke is signif-
tuned if the dynamic performance characteristics such as tire-
icantly reduced as the magnet poles increase [13]. Further-
slip, acceleration, traction force, etc., of the direct-drive EV
more, as the number of poles increases, the number of stator
can be predicted using a vehicle model and torque-speed enve-
conductors per pole decreases thus creating a significant dis-
lope of the motor [10]. Corresponding to the DC bus voltage
tortion of the sinusoidal emf waveform and this increases the
and inverter modulation scheme, the maximum voltage that
torque ripple [14].
can be obtained from the inverter can be fixed as the rated
voltage of the machine. sin (4)
180 P
, kd 2
Ss J
Case study: Ratings of a direct-drive motor to be inserted in q sin
an EV, converted out of an existing ICE based Supermini ve-
hicle is calculated here. The technical specifications of a typi- In accordance with (4), the distribution factor (kd) and
cal Supermini vehicle are considered to set the initial ratings hence the winding factor (kw) is lower for a lower number of
of the motor. It has an engine capable of delivering a rated poles for a machine delivering the rated torque. q is the num-
power of 120 Hp with a maximum torque capability of 152 ber of slots per pole per phase and is the angle contributed
Nm at 6350 rpm. Assuming an efficiency of 100% on the by each slot per pole. In order to obtain a fixed rated speed of
transmission, the highest torque on the wheels can be deter- the machine, the frequency corresponding to the stator line
mined as 2388 Nm for a fixed gear ratio and variable gear currents increases with an increase in the pole number. Subse-
(first gear) ratio of 4.07 and 3.86, respectively, using the equa- quently, at higher speeds, the core losses associated with the
tions represented in the previous section. Similarly, maximum machine also increases thereby reducing the efficient perfor-
speed on the wheels was calculated to be 2064 rpm using mance of the designed motor. It was found that the 4 pole ma-
highest variable gear ratio of 0.75 and fixed gear ratio of 4.07. chine operates at a reduced frequency when compared to an 8
Using a tire size of 195/50 R16, the maximum wheel speed is pole machine of same ratings.
expected to be about 234km/hr. However, after vehicle dy- From (5), it is evident that for a lower number of poles, the
namics studies, taking conservative ratings, a continuous magnet size needs to be increased to obtain the required flux
torque of 875 Nm and maximum speed of 150-180km/hr were per pole, . The d- and q-axis inductance is a critical parame-
found to be sufficient for a typical Supermini direct-drive EV. ter when designing a permanent magnet machine. From the
expression to calculate the magnetizing inductance in (6), it is
seen that La is inversely proportional to the square of pole-pair
III. DESIGN CONSIDERATION FOR CHOOSING INITIAL STRUC- number. When compared to an 8 pole machine, a 4 pole ma-
TURAL DESIGN ASPECTS OF THE DIRECT-DRIVE MACHINE chine will have higher inductance for the same machine struc-
This section presents an analysis on various structural de- ture and configuration. Similarly, for the same magnet vol-
sign aspects of the PM machine such as the number of poles, ume, as the number of poles increases, the corresponding d-
rotor configuration and the number of phases through analyti- and q-axis inductances reduce.
cal closed form machine design equations and FEA based in- pI (5)
vestigations on the designed machines. The design equations SDL
mP o k wT ph DL
employed have been previously validated in literature and by
La (6)
the authors with FEA based results and they are found to yield SPp2 k c g o
satisfactory results when used for initial design of the machine
[11]-[14]. Keeping in mind that the equivalent inertia of the where, m is the number of phases, o is the permeability con-
drivetrain will be lower than a traditional vehicle, to have the stant, Tph is the number of turns/phase, kc is the Carters coef-
torque ripple within limit and obtain a near sine EMF, a dou- ficient and go is the air gap length.
ble layer distributed winding is chosen for this application. Further, in order to design the permanent magnet machine

in the flux weakening region, the permanent magnet flux link-
age (Pm_fl) is to be calculated using the design and structural
parameters of the machine as given by (7) where kvg is the ra-
tio between the fundamental and average air gap flux density,
Bgo and i is the mechanical pole embrace. According to (7),
an 8 pole machine is expected to have a lower value of flux
linkage than that of a 4 pole machine For reasonable flux
weakening operation, the characteristic current is expected to
be below the rated current of the machine. Hence, when the (a)
constant power region is considered, an interplay between
Pm_fl and La results in a more favourable operation for an 8
pole machine than for a 4 pole machine of the same structure
and ratings.
k wT ph k vg D i Bg DL (7)
Pm _ fl o

The overall performance of a 4 pole machine can be im-
proved if an alternate winding configuration is chosen with
less end winding resistance as well as near sine-emf in order to
take care of the losses and torque ripple. The fractional slot (b)
concentrated winding configuration has shorter end windings
and results in enhanced flux weakening capability but is af-
fected by heavy rotor losses due to the presence of sub-
harmonic components of the stator mmf [13], [14].
B. Type of Rotor - Interior permanent magnet (IPM) vs. sur-
face permanent magnet (SPM) machines
Generally, interior permanent magnet (IPM) motors are
found to yield superior performance in terms of flux weaken-
ing operation and rugged rotor construction in PM motors. (c)
Moreover, interior permanent magnet synchronous machines Fig. 1. Relationships between output power, Lq-Ld, Ld and m in per-unit
quantities for both three-phase IPM and SPM motors considering voltage cur-
(IPMSMs) which have 8 poles or more are widely used in rent and speed = 1 pu. (a) P0 vs. m for SPMSM. (b) P0 vs. Lq-Ld with varying
commercially available EVs for traction. Such motors have a m for IPMSM. (c) Ld vs.Zmax with varying m for both SPMSM and IPMSM.
distributed winding configuration in the stator.
The motivation to investigate surface permanent magnet the rated power under a fixed frame size. Otherwise, generally
(SPM) motors for direct-drive applications emerges from the high permanent magnet flux linkage or low direct axis reac-
fact that the SPM motor in a direct-drive vehicle will have a tance result in limited power capability at high speed. Howev-
maximum speed much less than that of a SPM machine built er, these designs do provide the highest power capability at
for hybrid vehicles or conventional electric vehicles with fixed low speeds and hence it appears that a trade-off exists between
gear box. The fact that the maximum speed of the motor is power capability over a wide speed range and torque capabil-
limited for this application, favors the: 1) construction of the ity at low speeds [17].
surface permanent magnet synchronous machine (SPMSM) In a direct-drive motor due to the limited constant power
rotor whose mechanical integrity is feared to be poor in very speed ratio (CPSR) requirement, higher permanent magnet
high speed operation, 2) constant power region operation or flux linkage and lower direct axis reactance compared to the
flux weakening capability of the SPM machine with distribut- conventional PM motor designs can be accommodated and yet
ed winding which is conventionally found to be very poor fulfil the machine design targets for the direct-drive applica-
when compared to a IPM motor [15]. Furthermore, the near- tion. This can in fact improve the efficiency of the machine
sine emf that can be obtained in a SPMSM when compared to which is seen favorable for a direct-drive motor [15].
the IPM machine due the magnets position in both the ma- In an effort to assist the designer to consider an IPM ma-
chines is yet another reason for interest in investigating SPM chine or SPM machine with distributed windings in the stator
machines for direct-drive application in an effort to mitigate for direct-drive applications, a generalized comparative analy-
some of the challenges in realizing direct-drive motors [16]. sis of both the machine types in terms of per-unit quantities of
The authors would like to emphasize the fact that in an IPM various variables and parameters in the machine was conduct-
or SPM motor that is designed for conventional electrified ve- ed. The objective of the machine design and analysis was to
hicles, in order to obtain an extended flux weakening region, satisfy a particular maximum speed (Zmax_pu) in the machine in
keeping the stator dimensions fixed, the d-axis inductance in the flux weakening region, particular rated power output
the machine needs to be designed large enough and the per- (P0_pu) at rated speed (Zr_pu) under voltage and current con-
manent flux linkage has to be limited to favour flux- straints as in the case of MTPA and flux weakening control
weakening performance [15]. This can limit the magnet di- schemes in PM synchronous motors [18]. This analysis con-
mensions causing lower efficiency of the machine due to in- siders that the rated voltage, current, and speed of both the
creased current flow requirement in the stator side to deliver machines are the same and hence the base values of current,

speed and power, torque and voltage are the same [19], [20].
Considering the d-axis inductance (Ld_pu) equal to the q-
axis inductance (Lq_pu) for SPM motors, the relation between
P0_pu and open-circuit permanent flux linkage (m_pu) is pre-
sented in Fig. 1(a) and considering Ld_pu not equal to Lq_pu for
IPM motor, the relation between P0_pu and Lq_pu - Ld_pu in terms
of pu quantities for varying m_pu is presented in Fig. 1(b). Fig.
1(c) presents the variation of Zmax_pu with Ld_pu for varying
m_pu values for both three-phase SPM and IPM machines [18]. (a) (b)
Fig. 2. Cross-section of both SPMSM and IPMSM considered in this paper.
Now employing the Figs. 1(a) and (c) one can design the (s) IPMSM. (b) SPMSM.
parameters of an SPM motor for a desired rated power. Fig.
1(a) will decide the m_pu that is required to obtain a specific
desired power in the SPM motor. Thereafter, Fig. 1(c) can be
used to fix the inductance value (Ld =Lq) corresponding to de-
sired maximum speed requirement in the flux weakening re-
gion and for a previously fixed value of m_pu. Zmax_pu is the
speed at which the power becomes zero in the flux weakening
region [18].
Similarly Figs. 1(b) and (c) can be employed to design the (a) (b)
parameters of an IPM motor for a desired rated power. Based Fig. 3. Re-wound PMSM stator. (a) Distributed winding. (b) Overall stator
with tight end-windings.
on the desired power, a m_pu can be fixed for a particular Lq_pu
- Ld_pu value. It was found that, as one goes higher in the order calculated incorporating a leakage inductance value 13-26% of
of Lq_pu - Ld_pu and lower in the order of m_pu value, the current Ld_pu [11].
angle () keeps increasing. After fixing a m_pu value, Ld_pu can
0.5u103 K c K sq _ i M s Tph_ s

be determined depending on the required Zmax_pu.
Such a process of obtaining the pu values of the parameters Lmq _ s K sq _ s M i T (9)
ph_ i
and variables of both IPM and SPM motors to deliver the
Lmq _ i Pr
same output characteristics will enable the designer to under-
0.75u103 P K  g
stand the structural design of both the motors and hence com- r c m_ s
pare the magnet dimensions and turns per-phase required in
the machine using the numerical procedure explained below. Lmd _ s 0.5u103 P r K c  0.5 g m _ i K sd _ i M sTph2 _ s (10)
This will indirectly provide decision points regarding the
winding resistance, back-emf and efficiency in the stator and Lmd _ i 0.75u103 P r K c  g m _ s K sd _ s M iTph2 _ i
amount of magnet usage which ultimately determines the where, Ksd is the d-axis saturation coefficient usually between
magnet cost. 1.1-1.3 [11]. Ksd is found to be on the lower order for SPMSM
The numerical analysis presented below considers that both when compared to that of IPMSM. Ksq is the q-axis saturation
SPMSM and IPMSM will be built using the same stator whose coefficient usually between 1.1-1.3 for SPMSM and it is hard
number of slots, poles, dimensions of the stator and the distri- to predict for IPMSM [11]. However, the authors have found
bution factor are fixed. Fig. 2 gives the cross-sections of both it to be between 1.3 and 1.7. Kc is the Carters coefficient
the SPM and IPM machines considered in this paper. which can be estimated from [14]. Ms and Mi are the number
Considering: 1) the ratio between the amplitude of the fun- of phases in the respective machines. r is the relative perme-
damental wave and the average value under one pole-pitch (W) ability of the permanent magnet used in the rotors.
of the air-gap flux density for SPMSM and IPMSM as /2 and Considering: 1) the permanent magnet leakage coefficient
4/, and, 2) the average flux density (Bav) for IPMSM and as 0.9 for IPMSM, and 1 for SPMSM, and, 2) nominal value
SPMSM as 0.7 T and 0.8 T respectively [21]; the ratio of turns for the mechanical pole embrace () i.e., pole arc/pole pitch as
per-phase (Tph) in both the machines can be calculated using 0.85 for IPMSM and 2/3 for SPMSM respectively [11]; the ra-
(8). Hereafter, in equations (8) (11), subscripts s and i re- tio of width of the magnet (hm) in both the machine types can
late to SPMSM and IPMSM respectively. Moreover, the pu be calculated using (10) applying the value of gm previously
values for various parameters fixed previously in this paper calculated for both the machine types. D is the stator inner di-
have to be used in (1)-(4) wherever applicable [11]. ameter in meters.
Om _ s 1.4Tph _ s gm _ i
6.12hm _ i  2.67hm _ s D
Om _ i Tph _ i hm _ i (11)
hm _ sP r K c P
Considering: 1) a practical minimum air-gap of 0.75 mm
gm _ s
3.96u103 gm _ s  4.34u103 gm _ i
and 0.5 mm for SPMSM and IPMSM respectively for direct-
drive application, and, 2) a magnet with the same characteris-
tics to be used in the rotor of both the machine types, the Case study: In order to compare both the rotor types as stated
magnet thickness (gm) for SPMSM and IPMSM can be found above, the stator frame size, number of slots and the winding
using (9) and (10), knowing the ratio of turns per-phase of type was kept identical in both the machines. An existing sta-
both the machines as found in (8). Lmq and Lmd can be tor in the laboratory, as shown in Fig. 3, was utilized to design

inductance and obtain a CPSR of 2.6. Changing the permanent
flux linkage was not effective in providing the desired CPSR
and rated conditions in the SPM motor. Fig. 4(b) presents the
torque, power and efficiency characteristics of the modified
SPM motor with different magnet dimensions when compared
to that of the IPM motor. Finally, considering 200C operation,
the magnet thickness in IPM and SPM rotors were 2.54 mm
and 2 mm respectively. The near sine-wave EMF in the SPM
would be favorable for this application, however, fractional-
slot concentrated windings have to be used for optimal flux
weakening which deviates significantly from conventional si-
nusoidal distributions [22]. Otherwise, increasing the Ld in
SPM motor for achieving higher CPSR will lead to increased
Tph or thinner magnets for the same distributed winding stator
which result in lower efficiency when compared to its IPM
counterpart. The magnet dimensions may increase and prove
feasible in an SPM motor when the power rating of the motor
C. Number of Phases 3 phase vs. 6 phase
Multi-phase machines are expected to solve some of the
Fig. 4. Performance characteristics of SPM and IPM machines under the
challenges of direct-drive motors by yielding improved fault
same stator frame. (a) IPMSM. (b) SPMSM. tolerance, reduced torque-ripple, temperature rise and harmon-
ics, increased regen power capture efficiency and overall mo-
the stator for both the machines and the stator winding design toring efficiency [23]. Moreover, it is also expected that a mul-
was also implemented to validate the practicality of the design. ti-leg inverter would reduce the ripple current, increase the
A 60 % slot fill factor was obtained with double layer distrib- longevity of the DC link capacitor and improve fault tolerance
uted winding. Designing a downscaled direct-drive motor with capability of the motor drive. This ensures capacitors with
ratings of 4.25kW, 575 rpm, 275 V, 11A with a CPSR over longer life time and lower capacitance value instead of bulky
2.5 was set as the design goal. A rated speed of 575 rpm will electrolytic capacitors in the DC link. The possibility of split-
correspond to nearly 65 km/hr for a direct-drive vehicle with a ting the motor power across a higher number of phases and
tire size of 16 inches. Moreover, a CPSR of 2.5 will provide a thus reducing the per-phase (per switch) converter rating is
maximum speed of 150km/hr in a direct-drive vehicle. another benefit that is expected.
Fig. 4 presents torque, power and efficiency characteristics Moreover, from the torque equation in a six-phase IPM
of the IPM motor designed in both constant power and con- machine [24], the ratio of reluctance torque component to the
stant torque regions obtained from FEA. Considering 20 deg C magnet induced torque component in a six-phase machine is
operation, with a magnet dimension of 25.4 mm width and twice that in a 3-phase machine. Hence this may lead to :1)
2.54 mm thickness, it can be seen in From Fig. 4(a), that the lesser magnet volume for the same torque delivering capabil-
IPM motor was able to deliver the rated power and rated ity; 2) Better flux-weakening capability and optimal current
torque at the rated speed. It was also found that considering angle for the same d-axis inductance, when compared to a
120 deg C operating temperatures, the magnet thickness would three-phase IPM machine. Further details of multi-phase syn-
need to be increased to nearly 4mm in order to obtain the same chronous machines are discussed in [23].
performance as in Fig. 4(a). However, the comparative per- This sub-section analyses various design aspects of three
formance analysis performed in this paper henceforth, will on- and six-phase IPM and SPM motors employing a process
ly take 20 deg C operations of the machines. similar to the one in the previous sub-section. Firstly, a gener-
SPM motors were designed with the same magnet dimen- alized analysis of both the SPM and IPM machines, with
sions and stator as that of the IPM motor with 1mm and three-and six-phases in terms of per-unit quantities of various
0.75mm air-gaps. It was found that the permanent magnet flux variables and parameters in the machine was conducted. The
linkage, d-axis inductance and applied voltage play an im- three-phase and six-phase machines considered here have the
portant role in deciding the rated speed point. Moreover, with same base values for voltage, current, rated speed, impedance,
these magnet dimensions and air-gap as minimum as 0.75 mm, m and inductance. However, the base values of input power,
the desired CPSR of 2.5 was not achievable. A limit on the torque, and actual value of power output of a six-phase ma-
magnet thickness was placed at 2 mm as practically at higher chine is twice that of the three-phase machine. Hence a power
operating temperatures the magnets may become vulnerable to output of 0.8 pu in a three-phase machine corresponds to 0.4
demagnetization. Moreover, thinner magnets with a thickness pu in a six-phase machine.
as low as 1.5mm are also prone to mechanical damage and Fig. 2(a) is valid for a six-phase SPM motor as the figure
manufacturing difficulties. represents output power and m in terms of pu quantities. Fol-
It was harder to match the desired CPSR characteristics in lowing the procedure explained for a three-phase IPM and
the SPM machine, hence, the number of turns in the stator had SPM machines in section IIIB, various parameters such as
to be increased from 224 to 256 in order to increase the d-axis P0_pu, m_pu, Lq_pu - Ld_pu, Ld_pu and Zmax_pu can be obtained us



Fig. 5. Relationships between output power, Lq-Ld, Ld and m in per-unit quan-
tities for both six-phase IPM and SPM motors. (a) Ld vs.Zmax with varying m
for both SPMSM and IPMSM. (b) P0 vs. Lq-Ld with varying m for IPMSM.

Fig.7. Designed 3-phase and 6-phase Interior permanent magnet machines
with 48 slots and distributed double layer winding. (a) 3-phase IPM machine
characteristics at Gamma angle = 0 and speed = 530rpm. (b) 6-phase IPM ma-
chine characteristics at Gamma angle = 0 and speed = 530rpm.

six-phase machine. At this condition the six-phase machine

can deliver 0.8 pu of output power corresponding to 8.4kW at
a current angle of 400 satisfying a Zmax_pu of 9.
In another case, a six-phase IPMSM was also designed us-
(a) (b) ing the same stator, 8 poles and double layer winding configu-
Fig.6. Designed 3-phase and 6-phase Interior permanent magnet machines ration with the same rotor as in three phase machine. The
with 48 slots and distributed double layer winding. (a) 3-phase IPM machine. cross-section of the six-phase machine designed and the six-
(b) 6-phase configuration used. (c) 6-phase machine.
phase configuration used are given in Figs. 6(a), (b). From
Figs. 7(a) and 7(b), it can be seen that the six-phase machine
ing Figs. 5(a) and (b) for six-phase IPM and SPM machines. delivers the same torque as the three-phase machine with al-
After obtaining the pu value of various parameters and varia- most half the voltage as the three-phase machine. With this
bles as mentioned above, the structural design analysis can be design of the six-phase machine, it was found that a constant
performed using equations (8) (11). However, Ms and Mi power speed region near 7 could be obtained when compared
need to be carefully considered as 3 or 6 since they represent to 3 in the three phase IPM motor.
the number of phases in the machine.

Case study: Considering design targets for both six-phase and IV. CONCLUSION
three-phase IPM motors as 4.25 kW, 575rpm, 70 Nm, 275V Various design aspects for a PM based direct-drive motor
(Vrms/L-L), 11A (Irms/phase), P0_pu is 0.4 pu for six-phase machine were discussed such as fixing the ratings of the machine, se-
and 0.8 pu for the three-phase machine at Zr_pu=1 correspond- lecting the number of poles, winding configuration, type of
ing to 575 rpm. Zmax_pu of 9 is also set as the target. A three- PM rotor and number of phases. A numerical procedure to
phase IPMSM is also designed through FEA packages taking conduct a preliminary comparative analysis incorporating the
help of the relations in Fig. 1(b) and (c). Various per-unit structural and parametric design of various machine configura-
quantities of the designed three-phase machine are Ld_pu = 0.5, tions was also provided. The authors have taken a neutral ap-
Lq_pu= 1.1, m_pu= 0.6 in order to meet a Zmax_pu of 9 and this proach and put an effort to assist the machine designer to ar-
resulted in a = 300. rive at major decision points before designing a PM machine
However, since the base values for inductance, impedance for the direct-drive application.
and m are the same, the capability of the six-phase machine
with the same rotor but half the turns per-phase in the stator V. REFERENCES
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