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Power Point Tracking Control in a DC-DC Boost Converter for Grid-Connected Solar

Photovoltaic Applications

Abhisek Maiti#1, Kaushik Mukherjee #2, Prasid Syam #3,

Department of Electrical Engineering

Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur Howrah

#1

abhr4u.rs2013@ee.iiests.ac.in, #2kmukherjee@ee.iiests.ac.in,# 3ps@ee.iiests.ac.in

Abstract In this paper, a control scheme for tracking low PV panel voltage for connectivity with a higher AC grid

maximum power point for a solar photovoltaic (PV) panel voltage through an inverter. It also ensures that the current

feeding power to the three phase grid through an intermediate drawn from the PV panel is as continuous and ripple-free as far

boost converter followed by a grid-tie PWM inverter stage is as possible.

presented. The intermediate DC to DC boost converter small

signal model is derived considering the fact that its output

behaves as a constant DC voltage power sink. The selection

criteria for the inductor value for continuous current mode

operation and the capacitor at the PV panel output are discussed

at length. A separate controller, in addition to the maximum

power point tracking (MPPT) controller, is designed for the boost

converter based on its derived model to set the current value for

maximum power point tracking and presented. A method is also Fig.1. Block diagram representation of grid connected PV system

described here for choosing the sampling instances for getting

average inductor current in a cycle corresponding for MPPT

without using a filter. The analytical findings and simulation

results are well agreeing.

Current Perturb P&O algorithm .

INTRODUCTION

Sustainable energy sources are expected to play a

significant role in meeting the worlds energy demand, due to

their abundant availability and environment-friendly nature. Fig.2. Schematic of direct and indirect perturbation based PV system

Solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation is currently

considered as one of the most effective renewable energy The inverter stage between the DC link and the AC grid

source [1]. Based on application, solar PV systems are mainly helps in changing the form of the electrical power, controlling

of two types: grid connected and off-grid stand alone system. the DC link voltage and the active-reactive power transfer to

In both cases the main energy source is the PV array that the grid. In literature, different MPPT algorithm are

converts sunlight into a DC form of electrical energy. A PV introduced and among them the Perturb and Observe (P&O)

panel is an interconnected collection of cells combined as one and Incremental Conductance are mostly used [2,5].The

item. Multiple panels can be wired together either in parallel double-stage PV system presented in Fig.2 is typically

or in series or in both to form an array or module. A typical operated in two operating modes: (a)to track the PV Maximum

system block diagram for a grid connected system with Power Point (MPP)in each instant by perturbing the duty cycle

electrical isolation is shown in Fig.1 [2]. This is also known as of the dc/dc converter and calculate the power with previous

double stage configuration. instant. or(b) by perturbing the reference of a control loop

designed to regulate the PV voltage or current [6].The mode

The main disadvantage of solar energy based electrical (a) known as conventional method is simpler from the

power supply is that power generation is not constant implementation point of view because the MPPT is able to

throughout the day, as it always changes with atmospheric track the MPP for any uniform irradiance condition, but it is

conditions [3].Further, the efficiency of solar energy sensible to disturbances at the dc/dc converter output. Instead,

conversion to electrical energy is very low, only in the range mode (b) is able to reject load perturbations and this is

of 9-17%.Therefore, maximum power point tracking (MPPT) essential for grid connected system. But its controller design is

is an essential part of a grid-tied solar PV system to ensure difficult as it depends on the system parameters [3], [6]-[7].

that maximum available power is always extracted out of the

PV panel at all conditions and steered to the AC grid, In both mode (a) and mode (b) one of the basic challenges

considered as an infinite sink of power ideally [4]. for designing MPPT is that it should track the maximum

power without power oscillations around the operating point

Generally, the boost converter is used to maintain loading for a range of specific atmospheric condition. For that it is

of the photovoltaic sources to such a level so as to extract required to determine the optimized sample time interval Tafor

maximum power from the solar cells within a specific range of PV current or voltage sampling, so that, the converter reaches

practical atmospheric conditions. It helps in stepping up the

and TEQIP-II project for providing opportunity and infrastructural support to

carry out this research.

2016 IEEE First International Conference on Control, Measurement and Instrumentation (CMI)

conduction mode(CCM) operation. Therefore, it needs proper

design of the passive components of the boost converter

properly. The other challenge is to design the controller for

efficient operation even under load voltage or load current

disturbances under transient condition for grid connected

system [5, 6]. Hence, analysis of converter dynamics using its

small signal model is required.

The current perturbed MPPT algorithm is considered

instead of voltage perturbation in this work for speeding up

the tracking [7]. The average current through the inductor is

the quantity to be controlled here according to the reference

current generated from MPPT controller. An external

capacitor has to be connected across the PV panel which Fig.3. System block diagram

provides a path for flowing the ripple current due to fast

switching of the device in the DC-DC boost converter and

maintains a reduce ripple voltage across the PV panel.

Additionally it will also ensure the initialization of the

controller from open circuit voltage condition. The boost

converter output voltage is maintained constant by the grid-

side inverter control as shown in Fig. 2.

In Section I, the details of proposed system are described

with block diagrams. In Section II, the basis of designing the

value of system components (input PV capacitor and inductor)

is addressed. In Section III, the system small signal modeling

is presented for determination of sampling time Ta essential for

implementing the MPPT algorithm and for deriving the boost

converters controller gains (Kp and Ki). In Section IV, current

perturbed P&O algorithm is described with simulation based

experimental verifications and Section V is devoted for

conclusions.

I. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

The block diagram of proposed system is shown in Fig.3.

A 5kW PV module is selected here. The PV array consists of

10nos. of single37Wpanel (Table1) connected in parallel and Fig.4. Boost converter (a) Inductor current ripple (b) voltage ripple of the

16 nos. are connected in series to get the above module. capacitor connected across the PV module

TABLE 1: SPECIFICATION OF SINGLE PANEL

voltage is maintained constant to appropriate level depending

Rated power 37.08W on the grid voltage with a separate controller used for the grid-

Voltage at maximum Power(Vmp) 16.56V tie inverter. For simulation purpose in this paper, a battery

Current at maximum power(Imp) 2.25A with a constant appropriate dc voltage is assumed to be

Open circuit Voltage(Voc) 21.24V connected at the output of the boost converter to mimic this

Short circuit Current(Isc) 2.55A

Total no. of cell in series(Np) 36

effect. This arrangement further emulates a condition where

Total no of cell in parallel(Ns) 1 the PV power can be extracted without any change of boost

The MPPT block takes the samples of PV voltage and current converter output voltage at the DC link. Hence, the output is

in each iteration and generates reference current Iref using not a physical load resistance, but for any operating point a

load resistance can be conceptualized as the ratio of voltage to

P&O algorithm. Comparator compares the reference current

the current flowing into the battery. Here the authors consider

with PV current which is eventually the average inductor

that the MPPT operates over irradiance(S) range of 1000-

current of the boost converter. A PI controller tries to 400W/m2and temperature (T) range of 90C-450C based on

minimize the error by adjusting the duty ratio of the switch local Eastern Indian weather conditions.

and brings the inductor current to the reference value. The

output of the PI block is compared with a fixed frequency II. SELECTION OF SYSTEM PARAMETERS

triangular wave signal which generates the required duty ratio The selection of inductor for boost converter plays a vital

of the PWM pulses for the boost converter. The proper value role for ensuring that for any duty cycle (D) within the

of the controller gain (Kp and Ki) is found out based on some considered range of weather conditions, the inductor current

performance criteria. In grid connected system, the boost always remains continuous (CCM) and is never discontinuous

converter output voltage is the DC input of the following grid- (DCM).

tie inverter stage.

37

2016 IEEE First International Conference on Control, Measurement and Instrumentation (CMI)

Considering average inductor current be Il and IL is peak III. SYSTEM MODELLING AND DESIGN

current ripple as shown in Fig.4, L is inductance of the

inductor, R is the said conceptual load resistance, D is duty A. Converter modelling:

cycle and Ts(fs=1/Ts)is switching period. Ensuring continuous In control system modeling of the PV-converter system,

conduction (Fig.4.) and analysis discussed in [8],it can be voltage across input capacitance (at the PV output) and current

concluded, through the inductor are considered as state variables. The PV

current and the voltage across the conceptual load at the output

(1) of the converter are considered as input variables. Assuming

continuous conduction mode operation, circuit (Fig.5) can be

Where, =Rcrit analyzed to find small signal inductor current to duty ratio

transfer function Gi(s)and inductor current to DC link voltage

Hence, (2) transfer function Go(s).Hence,

Now, to maintain the constant d.c. link voltage of 400V,

Here the output voltage of Boost converter is maintained

with insolation varies from 400W/m2 to 1000W/m2 and

constant from inverter side and also no second harmonic

temperature varies from 90C to 450C, corresponding minimum

oscillation is expected to appear in DC link voltage as AC grid

inductor values are given in Table-2. The switching time

is assumed to be a balanced three phase system. Hence effect

period is chosen as Ts=0.0002 second(f=5kHz). For a value of

of Go(s) has been neglected here.

, the lesser the switching time period, less is the

inductance value needed [9]. During Switch-ON, from Fig.5(a),

TABLE 2: INDUCTOR VALUES FOR DIFFERENT CONDITIONS

Insolatio T Pmax Vpv IPV Duty Vout R=Vo2/P L

n. (0C) (W) (V) (A) (D) (V) () (mH)

(W/m2)

400 9 2311 158. 14.5 0.6 400 69.29 1.02

7 5 5

400 45 2235 153. 14.6 0.61 400 71.58 1.06

2 6 7

1000 9 5738 157. 36.5 0.60 400 27.88 0.41

2 6 7 3 (a) (b)

1000 45 5550 152. 36.3 0.62 400 28.82 0.42 Fig.5. PV converter model (a) Switch on (b) Switch off condition

7 5 6

From the table it is clear that 1.1(>1.06) mH is sufficient

for MPPT in different operating region ensuring CCM in all (8)

duty ratio. (9)

Ci is designed to keep out the inductor ripple current to

flow through PV. Ripple component in inductor current

(10)

flow through the capacitor and its average component Il

flow through PV. Let, is allowable peak to peak ripple (11)

voltage across capacitor and is the average PV output (12)

voltage as illustrated in Fig.4.b. Therefore, the incremental (13)

charge on capacitor Rewriting the dynamic equations (11) and (12) in state space

form in (14)

(3)

(4)

Again,

(5) (14)

During switch-ON, inductor current get changed il1 to il2

and =(il2-il1) and voltage across inductor which is the During Switch-OFF, from Fig.5 (b),

voltage across the PV panel can be expressed as, (15)

(16)

(6)

Using the value in equation (5)

(7)

Rewriting the dynamic equation (16) in state space form in

Considering, =0.01 at Dmax=0.6, L =1.1mH and =0.0002 (17),

sec. the value of Ci is calculated to be =272F.

38

2016 IEEE First International Conference on Control, Measurement and Instrumentation (CMI)

(17)

by multiplying the state and input matrrixes by the two

switched intervals duty ratios. The state and

a input matrixes

are averaged over a period by multiplying the

t state and input

matrixes by the two switched intervals duty ratios.

(18)

After averaging, the system is perturbed arround a quiescent

operating point

( ;

. Fig.6. Bode plot forward pathh transfer function in open loop

Applying the Laplace transform annd separating the

equilibrium and perturbed components wiith neglecting the

second order terms, the following equationns for the steady-

state operating point for the dynamic or smalll-signal model are

obtained [9].

(19)

(20)

As the boost converter will operate undeer direct duty ratio

control to regulate the inductor current, the trransfer function of

incremental inductor current to incremenntal duty ratio is

Fig.7. closed loop control

c system model

obtained by considering the variations of thhe input matrix ()

to be equal to zero. The said transfer functtion is obtained as

follows.

(21)

Here, (22)

(23)

= (24)

(24) can be rewritten in matrix form,

(25)

Finally,

(a)

Gi(s)

(26)

Here the ESR of input capacitor and innductor values are

considered 50m and 100 m respecttively [9]. Fig.6.

illustrates the nature of Gi(s)for different quuiescent operating

points using Bode plots. For next analysiiss, two extreme

conditions of operating range are considered c here.

Condition1:S=400W/m2,T=450C; Conditioon2:S=1000W/m2,

T=90C.

For Condition1, it is shown that the openo loop transfer

function Gi(s)having Phase margin of 89.90 with Gain cross

over frequency 32 krad/sec. and in Conditioon2, phase margin

of 89.90 with gain cross over frequency 80.099 krad/sec. In both

cases positive gain and phase margin are inddicating stability of

the system in open loop. The form of the trransfer function of (b)

the system suggests that a PI controller em mployed with this Fig.8. Closed loop Bode plot of syystem: (a) condition1 (b) condition2

open loop system in the closed loop with negative

n feedback

and fed from a step reference inductor curreent input will lead B. Kp and Ki design:

to zero steady state error. To design the clossed loop controller Step-1: Considering that a repetitive triangular waveform

gain (Kp and Ki) following steps have been implemented and having peak magnitude of 12V V is compared with the control

can be explained through Fig. 7. signal ic to generate the duty ratio d(Fig.7).Now, finding out

39

2016 IEEE First International Conference on Control, Measurement and Instrumentation (CMI)

Po(S), where,

(27)

For good transient response in closed loop to have less or

practically no oscillations, the phase marginn (PM) at the cut-

off frequency is desired to be within (450-6000), preferably 600

[9].Where,

(28)

Step-2: Finding out the magnitude (M M) of closed loop

transfer function Gcl at cut-off frequency c. Where,

(29) (a) (b)

here, assumed as 1/10th of the switching frequency, i.e. Fig.9. Closed loop step response of the current controller (a) System1 (b)

500 Hz. System2

A second criterion is that the magnitude (M) of the closed

loop transfer function is -3dB(0.707) at cut--off frequency. As

magnitude should be as high as possible for fast transient

response [9]

(30)

Step-3: To determine PI controller gains i.e. Kp and Ki , the

open loop response of system having two extreme

e conditions

of the operating environmental range are connsidered.

Step3: A Matlab program is written to solve the equations (28)

and (30) obtained from Step-1 and Step-2.. Using the above

criteria, Kp=0.046 and Ki=842.18. The closedd loop response of

system for both condition1 and condition22 with their Bode

plots is shown in Fig. 8a. and8b. with Kp and Ki gain.

C. Determination of sampling time for inducctor current:

Rapid variation in irradiance can occurr approximately at

the rate of 600 W/m2 per 0.1 sec [5]. Now the sampling time

for inductor current is chosen such a way thatt between each Fig.10. Current peerturbed P&O algorithm

MPPT perturbation cycles the converter with w PI controller

dynamics get over satisfactorily [6].To deterrmine sample time

for inductor current a step response off system in both

condition1 and condition2areanalyzedin closed c loop. The

results indicate that with a step input in eachh case, the system

settles in0.001sec. as shown in Fig.9a and Fig.9b. Assuming a

factor of safety of 8, the, sampling time (T ( a) employed for

sensing the inductor current by the MP PPT controller is

considered here as 0.008sec. Although a fixed duty ratio

perturbation (D=0.005) is considered in thhis paper, which is

eventually controlled by the fixed I comm mand (Fig.10), yet,

an optimized magnitude of the duty cycle peerturbation (D) is

often required [6]. A fixed small D reducees the steady-state

losses caused by the oscillation of the arraay operating point Fig.11. Strategic time instantt of inductor current sampling

around the MPP. On the other way, thiss sometimes may

increase the tracking time. To overcome this, an adaptive IV. CURRENT SAMPLING

GTECHNIQUE FOR MPPT

optimized variable step size (D) baased duty cycle In current perturbed MPP PT algorithm, PV voltage and

perturbation technique is suggested in literrature [5], [7]. In average inductor current are sampled

s with sampling time of

each of these cases, however, high samplee rate needs to be 0.008s to compute power suppplied by the PV panel in steady

ensured [5]. state. Here, ripple voltage acrosss PV capacitor is assumed to be

negligible, so the instantaneouss voltage and the average voltage

are nearly equal. But, althoughh inductor current attains steady

state, high switching frequencyy ripples are present in inductor

current which makes instantaneeous inductor current not equal

to the average inductor current for all time instants in a

switching cycle. However, as solar

s PV I-V characteristics can

be considered as almost static compared to much faster boost

converter dynamics, the averagge value of the inductor current

40

2016 IEEE First International Conference on Control, Measurement and Instrumentation (CMI)

per switching cycle, instead of its instantaneous value should 1. Finding out the small signal model of dc-dc boost

be considered for tracking MPPT. Employing a low-pass filter converter considering the fact that a grid connected

to extract this average component will call for extra controlled inverter will maintain a constant voltage

hardware/software and create a phase lag. To overcome this sink at the dc-dc converters high voltage side and the

problem, a triangular carrier wave is chosen in this work as the boost converter will always operate under continuous

modulator so that one inductor current sampling instant can be conduction as discussed and detailed in subsection

found where the sampled current is equal to the average III.

current. This assumes that in one switching cycle, the PV 2. Proposing a technique to determine the value of

output DC value does not change and the inductor has

inductance of the DC-DC boost converter, based on

negligible ESR so that the inductor current waveform is also

continuous conduction for the practical operating

triangular. The selection of the strategic time instant for

sampling is illustrated in Fig. 11. The control signal (vr) range.

generated from PI controller is compared with a triangular 3. Proposing a methodology to determine the gains of

waveform and sampling is done at the strategic instant shown the PI controller used to set the inductor current as

in Fig.11, which is the starting instant of the triangular wave dictated by the MPPT.

carrier having fixed time period (0.0002s). Eventually, the 4. Proposing a methodology to justify the choice of the

selected sampling time (.008s) is also the integer multiple of sampling time

strategic time instant so that it remains synchronized. 5. Proposing a sampling technique to determine the

average inductor current online by avoiding

V. RESULTS additional low pass filter in the control circuit which

Current perturbed P&O MPPT algorithm is used here. would have introduced phase delays, as discussed in

Here, ripple voltage across PV capacitor is assumed to be subsection IV.

negligible, and same sampling time are selected for Voltage However, the presented MPP tracking does not consider

vci(k) and current il(k). After sampling both are multiplied to the partial shading of the large panel for which multiple

obtain the PV power P(k) at kth sampling instant. maximum power points (local maxima) can emerge [10].

The error between P(k) and P(k-1) determine the sign of Work is continuing to propose a new solution to this problem.

perturbation step size for duty cycle. The flowchart of the REFERENCES

proposed MPPT method is shown in Fig.10.

[1] IEA-PVPS, Trends in Photovoltaic Applications. Survey report of

The complete system consisting of PV module, boost selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2008, International Energy

converter, current controller and MPP tracking controller in Agency - Photovoltaic Power SystemsProgramme, Tech. Rep. IEA

two different operating conditions are examined in simulation PVPS T1-17:2008, August 2008.

In system1: VMPP=158V, IMPP=36.5A, PMPP=5.7kW and in [2] Sera, D., Mathe, L.; Kerekes, T.; Spataru, S.V.; Teodorescu, R. "On the

system2: VMPP=153V, IMPP=15A, PMPP=2.29kW.The results Perturb-and-Observe and Incremental Conductance MPPT Methods for

indicate that the system tracks the MPP in each case as PV Systems", IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, On page(s): 1070 - 1078

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illustrated in Fig.12.a and 12.b.

[3] Maria C mira, Arnold Kott, Ole C Yhomsen, Michael A E Andersen,

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Fig.12. Settling of PMPP, VMPP and IMPP (a) System1 (b) System2

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VI. CONCLUSIONS

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The significant contributions are:

41

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