7 views

Uploaded by rakeshee2007

real

real

© All Rights Reserved

- Beee Unit III
- AC Technical Reference
- Simulation of Induction Motor Using Matlab
- Quan Trong Day 2C 1100-1200 John Allen EASA Rewind Study1203!02!82
- Induction Motor Parameter Measurement
- ENTC4335_Hw2
- Core Loss Testing
- Motor Book
- Method for In-Field Evaluation of the Stator Winding Connection of Three-Phase Induction Motors to Maximize Efficiency and Power Factor
- As 1359.102.1-1997 Rotating Electrical Machines - General Requirements Methods for Determining Losses and Eff
- 16515 A Synchronous Motor
- hosinger
- Electrical Drives and Controls
- Effect of Harmonics on Induction Motor
- jntukak09_w8 (1)
- Motor Acceleration
- PEDS07 Torque Ripple Elimination For
- 1 Performance of Three Phase Induction Motor
- Induction Machines
- ee6351-qb

You are on page 1of 6

MOTOR IN DIFFERENT REFERENCE FRAMES

ON A FPGA PLATFORM

S. Tola, M. Sengupta

Department Electrical Engineering

Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur,

Howrah - 711103, W.B., India

e-mail : souravbec@gmail.com, mainak.sengupta@gmail.com

AbstractInduction motors(IM) are the most popularly used present states of the system are calculated using the previous

motors in the industry. They come in two well known construc- states of the system. In the second stage the values are updated.

tional variations namely, Cage Rotor Induction Motor(CRIM) For the purpose of real time simulation, a programming device

and Wound Rotor Induction Motor(WRIM). In principle, both

the machines are identical, as far as basic running, emf and is required that can handle numerous mathematical operations

torque production mechanisms are concerned. But the former has in very short time. The basic advantage of FPGA is that it

its rotor-bars permanently shorted through end-rings, whereas has a parallel execution capacity. Thus the implementation of

in case of wound rotor machine, the terminals of the rotor- network equations on a FPGA takes very short execution time.

windings are externally available. WRIMs have been used in

variable/adjustable-speed drives for many years. In this paper

modeling of a WRIM in different reference frames in real-time

simulation has been presented. The model is real-time simulated

on a FPGA platform built around an Altera-make Cyclone

EPIC12Q240C processor which can be programmed using a

software known as Quartus-II.

Index TermsInduction motor, CRIM, WRIM, Real-time

simulation, FPGA, Altera, Quartus, Modeling.

I NTRODUCTION

Real-time simulation refers to a computer model of a

physical system that can execute at the same rate as actual

time. In other words, the computer model runs at the same

rate as the actual physical system. Now any physical system

can be represented by a mathematical model. Dynamic systems Fig. 1. Triggering Timing

are represented by differential equations(in continuous time)

or difference equations(in discrete time), as the case may

be. Simulation of dynamic systems require solving of these

differential or difference equations numerically. In off-line II. D EVELOPMENT AND T ESTING OF S OFTWARE

simulation tools, the solution is carried out in a non-real time M ODULES R EQUIRED FOR S IMULATION

manner. For example, if it is required to study the response

of a system for a few seconds, it may take several minutes or The objective of the simulation is to predict the results that

hours to complete the simulation. On the other hand in real- are to be obtained from the hardware experiments on the actual

time simulations, results are generated at exact instant in real induction motor set-up. Finally, we are to implement Vector

time. This is possible if the system model is implemented Control. Here the development of the simulation blocks of the

by an equivalent circuit block. FPGA(Field Programmable hardware model of the experimental set-up is presented. Since

Gate Array) is a suitable platform for implementing such FPGA works with digital data of given number of bits, the

systems. The basic advantage of FPGA is that any system actual motor parameters are converted to their corresponding

module can be implemented on FPGA by its equivalent circuit normalized values as will be shown later. The equations based

model. This equivalent model is combination of sequential and on which the FPGA model is created are all in d-q frame

combinational logic elements. During each clock cycle, the of reference. The derivations of the d-q equations are not

present states of the system are calculated. The calculations are shown here, only the equations are stated and the required

split into two stages as shown in Fig. 1[3]. In the rst stage the normalization is done. Finally the simulated results are shown.

VOLTAGE 420 V

III. S ELECTION OF NUMBER SYSTEM AND BASE VALUES CURRENT 7.7 A

All computations inside FPGA and representation of num- POWER 3.2 kW

POLES 6

bers are done using xed point format representation. For real-

SPEED 930 rpm

time simulation of the system, the 4.12 format is used which

TABLE II

means out of the 16 bits can represent any fractional number D ETAILS OF THE INDUCTION MOTOR

from -8 to 7.9997(8 approximately) with a resolution of

1/212 = 1/4096 = 0.000244 (1)

All calculations are done on a per unit basis with selection of 2. Parameters

proper values. As all variables should normally be within the The electrical parameters of the existing induction motor

range of +8 to -8 pu during the steady state as well as dynamic set-up was calculated. No-load test was done to determine the

states, the selection of proper base value for the WRIM is very magnetizing reactance, xm . The core-loss resistance, rc was

important in order to avoid overow of the quantities during calculated. Short-circuit test was done to determine the series

digital calculations. The base values of different variables are parameters namely stator reactance, xs and rotor reactance

given in Table I. referred to stator, xr . The stator resistance, rs and rotor

resistance referred to stator, rr was determined separately by

pu value Equivalent digital value(hex) Equivalent decimal value

8 pu 7FFF 32767 DC-resistance tests.

1 pu 3FFF 4095 Apart from the tests for determination of the parameters of

0 pu 0000 or FFFF 0 the machine, synchronous-running test was performed. Here,

-1 pu F000 61440

-8 pu 8000 32768

our 6-pole WRIM is coupled with a 4-pole CRIM. Hence the

synchronous speed for the CRIM is 1500 rpm, which is greater

TABLE I

PU VALUES IN 4.12 FORMAT

than that of the WRIM, which is 1000 rpm. The CRIM running

as a prime-mover, the WRIM was run at its synchronous speed

of 1000 rpm. The rotor current reading of the WRIM came as

zero.

IV. 3- PHASE TO 2- PHASE TRANSFORMATION

The a-b-c reference frame is rotating at the synchronous Quantity Value

rs 1.494

speed, s . Here, s = 2 50 = 314 rad/s. The d-q axes Lls 0.01147 H

pair is rotating with an arbitrary angular speed, . Therefore, rr 1.965

the reference frame of d-q is arbitrarily rotating d-q reference Llr 0.01147 H

frame. The clockwise direction of rotation is assumed to be M 0.12681 H

Ls 0.13828 H

positive. The angular displacement of the a-b-c frame at any Lr 0.13828 H

point of time is dened in terms of the angle , which is J 0.964 kg m2

dened as the angle subtended between the positive a-phase B 0.03 N-msec/rad

axis and positive d-axis and is measured from the positive d- TABLE III

axis in the clockwise direction. Here, = (s - ) t + (0). We PARAMETERS OF THE IM

assume that at the initial instant i.e. at t = 0, the a-phase axis

of the stator is aligned with the d-axis i.e. (0) = 0 and the

sinusoidally time-varying voltage applied to the stator a-phase 3. Base values for different quantities

is at its positive zero-crossing. For stationary reference frame As the implementation is to be digitally realized in FPGA,

= 0. there arises the need for following a normalized system. For

For synchronously rotating reference frame = s in electrical normalization of different quantities, base values are required,

rad/sec. which can be chosen appropriately. Table IV shows the base

For rotor reference frame = r where, r = speed of the values for voltage, current(chosen as to accommodate the

rotor in electrical rad/sec. transient peak), ux linkage and frequency(chosen as rated

The d-q axis voltages are related to the a-b-c phase voltages frequency of IM). The other bases are calculated from the

by the following relationship above mentioned base quantities.

vd cos cos( 120) cos( + 120) va

2 sin sin( 120) sin( + 120)

vq = vb

v 3 1 1 1 vc

2 2 2 4. Normalized Equations

(2)

In this section, all the relevant dq-model equations of the

V. D-Q MODEL OF THE S LIP R ING I NDUCTION M OTOR machine are normalized and made ready for implementation.

1. Rating The sampling times for the implementation are chosen as 25.6

The rating of the WRIM used in the simulation program are s and 3.2768 ms for determination of electrical variables and

shown in Table II. mechanical speed respectively.

Quantity Base Values

Voltage(Vb ) 400 V

time domain) is rst discretized and then Backward Euler

Current(Ib ) 12.5 A method for integration is used, thus giving us,

Resistance(Rb ) Vb /Ib = 32

Rb

Frequency(fb ) 50 Hz ds (n) = ds (n1)+ [v (n1)rs .ids (n1)]t (18)

Frequency in rad/sec(eb ) 314.16 rad/sec Ls ds

Mechanical speed(mb ) 104.72 rad/sec

Flux linkage(b ) Ls .Ib = 1.7285 Wb-turns Similarly, the equations for the other ux-linkages(neglecting

Torque(Tb )

3.Vb .Ib

= 143.24 N-m the term for simplication) are obtained as follows,

mb

Rb

TABLE IV

qs (n) = qs (n1)+ [v (n1)rs .iqs (n1)]t (19)

BASE VALUES Ls qs

Rb

dr (n) = dr (n1)+[0 r .i (n1)r (n1).qr (n1)]t

Lr r dr

The equations for the D-Q model of the SRIM are (20)

Rb

qr (n) = qr (n1)+[0 rr .iqr (n1)+r (n1).dr (n1)]t

vds = rs .ids + pds .qs (3) Lr

(21)

Similarly for synchronously rotating reference frame putting

vqs = rs .iqs + pqs + .ds (4) w = ws , the following equations for ux linkages are obtained,

Rb

ds (n) = ds (n 1) + [ (v (n 1) rs .ids (n 1)) + s .qs

(n 1)]t

Ls ds

vdr =0= rr .idr +

pdr (

r )qr (5) (22)

Rb

qs (n) = qs (n 1) + [ (v (n 1) rs .iqs (n 1)) s .ds

(n 1)]t

Ls qs

vqr = 0 = rr .iqr + pqr

+ ( r )dr (6) Rb

(23)

dr (n) = dr (n 1) + [0 r .i (n 1) + (s r (n 1))qr (n 1)]t

Lr r dr

(24)

ds = Lls .ids + M [ids + idr ] (7)

qr

(n) = qr (n 1) + [0

Rb

r .i (n 1) (s r (n 1))dr

(n 1)]t

Lr r qr

(25)

qs = Lls .iqs + M [iqs + iqr ] (8) Similarly for rotor reference frame putting = r , the

following equations for ux linkages are obtained,

Rb

dr = Llr .idr + M [ids + idr ] (9)

ds

(n) = ds (n 1) + [ (v (n 1) rs .ids (n 1)) + r qs

Ls ds

(n 1)]t

(26)

Rb

qs (n) = qs (n 1) + [ (vqs (n 1) rs .iqs (n 1)) r ds

(n 1)]t

qr = Llr .iqr + M [iqs + iqr ] (10) Ls

(27)

Rb

dr (n) = dr (n 1) + [0 r .i (n 1)]t (28)

Te = 0.75.P.M [idr .iqs iqr .ids ] (11) Lr r dr

Rb

qr (n) = qr (n 1) + [0 r .i (n 1)]t (29)

2 dr Lr r qr

Te = [J + Br ] + TL (12)

P dt Now from the ux linkage equations we get,

Now for stationary reference frame putting = 0 and 1

rewriting it, we get ids = [Lr .ds M.dr ] (30)

Denom

vds = rs .ids + pds (13) where,

Denom = Ls .Lr M 2 (31)

Now, for normalization both sides of the (13) are divided by

Vb . Therefore, Now dividing both sides of (30) by b we get,

vds rs .ids ds

= +p (14) ids 1 Ls .ds M.dr

Vb Vb Vb = [ ] (32)

b Denom b b

rs ids Ls ds

or, vds = . + p (15) ids 1 ds dr

R b Ib Rb b or, = [Lr . M. ] (33)

Ls Ls .Ib Denom b b

or, vds = rs .ids + p (16) Ls

Rb ds ids =

[Lr .ds

M.dr ] (34)

Rb Denom

or, pds = [v rs .ids ] (17) Similarly, the other current equations are obtained as follow-

Ls ds

ing,

In digital platform, integrations are done in discretized form. Ls

So, in order to solve (17) in FPGA, the equation(in continuous iqs =

[Lr .qs

M.qr ] (35)

Denom

Lr

idr =

[Ls .dr

M.ds ] (36)

Denom

Lr

iqr =

[Ls .qr

M.qs ] (37)

Denom

Now dividing both sides of (11) by Tb we get,

Te [idr .iqs iqr .ids ]

= 0.75.P.M (38)

Tb Tb

Te [idr .iqs iqr .ids ]

or, = 0.75.P.M.mb (39)

Tb 3.Vb .Ib

Te 0.25.P.M.mb [idr .iqs iqr .ids ]

or, = (40)

Tb Rb Ib .Ib

0.25.P.M.mb

Te = [idr .iqs iqr .ids ] (41)

Rb

Putting the values of P = 6, M = 0.12681 H, mb = 104.72

rad/sec, Rb = 32 Fig. 2. torque vs. speed in stationary reference frame

2 dr

[J

N ow, Te = + Br ] + TL (43)

P dt

2 dr 2

or, J = (Te TL ) Br (44)

P dt P

Dividing both sides by Tb we get,

2 J d(r /mb ) Te T L 2 B r

= (45)

P Bb dt Tb P Bb mb

dr Bb

or, = [(Te TL ) B r ] (46)

dt J

Bb

So, r = [(Te TL ) B r ]dt (47)

J

Applying Backward Euler method we can write,

Bb

r (n) = r (n 1) + [(Te TL ) B r ]t (48) Fig. 3. torque vs. speed in synchronously rotating reference frame

J

VI. 2- PHASE TO 3- PHASE TRANSFORMATION

The a-b-c phase currents are related to the d-q axis currents

with the following relationship

cos sin 1

ia 2 2 id

ib = cos( 120) sin( 120) 1

2

iq

ic 3 i

cos( + 120) sin( + 120) 1

2

(49)

From the simulation we get the transient response as

well as steady state response.

From the simulation we get at no-load,

Stator current 5.65A

Input power 322.5W

Speed 996rpm

Power factor 0.078

Fig. 4. torque vs. speed in rotor reference frame

TABLE V

Fig. 5. ids and iqs in stationary reference frame at steady state Fig. 8. ia and ib in different reference frames in a large time scale

Fig. 6. ids and iqs in synchronously rotating reference frame Fig. 9. va and ia in different reference frames at steady state

Fig. 7. ids and iqs at steady state in rotor reference frame at steady state Fig. 10. va and ia in different reference frames in a large time scale

VIII. E XPERIMENTAL R ESULTS waveforms of currents and voltages it can be concluded that

This work is an initial step towards a larger venture though the waveforms of voltages & currents look different

to implement a 4-quadrant conguration on a mechanically in different reference frames, the steady state performance

coupled IM-IG (induction generator)set-up. Hence, previous characteristic like torque-slip etc. and the transient response

to this, the electrical and mechanical parameters have been indices like settling time etc. are same in all the cases.

experimentally evaluated by the authors. Some results of the Close agreement between the results highlight the accuracy

parameter evaluation test are given below. For these tests, the of modeling and validate established theoretical claims.

rotor is shorted and the stator is connected to the 3-ph AC X. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

mains through a variac.

The authors express their gratitude to the NaMPET initiative

From No-load test we get,

of the DIT, MCIT, Govt. of India for the resources and

Stator voltage 420V funding. The authors sincerely thank Prof. D. Sarkar, Prof.

Stator current 5.5A and Head, Department of Electrical Engineering for providing

Input power 320W the necessery support and infrastructure. The authors owe

Speed 997rpm

Power factor 0.08 a great deal to Chandrasekhar Roy and other colleagues at

PG&R level at APE lab for their help, support and constant

TABLE VI

motivation.

R EFERENCES

From Blocked rotor test we get,

[1] OKelly, Simmons,Generalised Theory of Electrical machines.

[2] Say,M.G.,Performance and Design of Alternating Current Machines,

Stator voltage 80V London, M/s.Pitman.1983.

Stator current 7.7A [3] Kedarisetti J., Gopinath D., Jain M.,Real-Time Simulation Models of

Input power 600W Power Electronics & Drives, IISc Bangalore.2006.

TABLE VII [4] Roy,C.,Speed Control in a Slip-Ring Induction Motor using Power

Electronic Converters on the Rotor-side, BESU,Shibpur.2011.

was also done. The electrical parameters, thus evaluated, have

been actually used in the real time model for accurate system

representation.

Fig. 11. Set up photo: Here a 4-pole SCIM is coupled to a 6-pole WRIM

IX. C ONCLUSIONS

In this work 3 models of the IM have been simulated in

real time in three established and signicant refrence frames

namely, the Stationary, the Synchronously Rotating & the Ro-

tor Reference Frames. From the simulated performances and

- Beee Unit IIIUploaded byDeependra Singh
- AC Technical ReferenceUploaded byAli Samiee
- Simulation of Induction Motor Using MatlabUploaded byMELVIN
- Quan Trong Day 2C 1100-1200 John Allen EASA Rewind Study1203!02!82Uploaded byCao Minh Tuấn
- Induction Motor Parameter MeasurementUploaded byvaljir23
- ENTC4335_Hw2Uploaded byMein Tum
- Core Loss TestingUploaded bycompaq1501
- Motor BookUploaded byKyaw Kh
- Method for In-Field Evaluation of the Stator Winding Connection of Three-Phase Induction Motors to Maximize Efficiency and Power FactorUploaded bynewrajasingh
- 16515 A Synchronous MotorUploaded byanon_661300666
- hosingerUploaded byMaryam Kazerooni
- Effect of Harmonics on Induction MotorUploaded byAntônio Ferreira Rosa
- As 1359.102.1-1997 Rotating Electrical Machines - General Requirements Methods for Determining Losses and EffUploaded bySAI Global - APAC
- Electrical Drives and ControlsUploaded bysaketrama
- jntukak09_w8 (1)Uploaded byPaul Sudhakar Veerla
- Motor AccelerationUploaded byMahmoud Alhashem
- PEDS07 Torque Ripple Elimination ForUploaded bykfali
- 1 Performance of Three Phase Induction MotorUploaded byPrabhu Raj
- Induction MachinesUploaded byAndrew Lapthorn
- ee6351-qbUploaded byGajendraPatel
- StartersUploaded bybhag
- VFD - A Solution To Energy CrisisUploaded byGmail44
- etUploaded bySai Jyothi
- Induction MachinesUploaded byAshish Kumar
- NIRAJ MISHRA QUESTION BANK PAPER-1Uploaded byArun Samyal
- Tutorial 6 - Induction MotorUploaded byMohdFirdaus
- Lecture+29Uploaded byHamza Ali Imran
- IM_v3.pdfUploaded byNaz Aly
- 2004Uploaded byVictorHernandez
- Optimum PoleUploaded bynyamai20008234

- Multilevel Inverters With Level Doubling NetworkUploaded byrakeshee2007
- Electrically RRUploaded byrakeshee2007
- 2017_Review of Active and Reactive Power Sharing Strategies in Hierarchical Controlled Microgrids.pdfUploaded byrakeshee2007
- Microgrid Journal_30_09_2018.txtUploaded byrakeshee2007
- Microgrid Power Quality Enhancement Using a Three-Phase Four-Wire Grid-Interfacing Compensator.pdfUploaded byVamshi Krishna
- 2017_Delta-Connected Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Converters for Large-Scale Photovoltaic Grid Integration.pdfUploaded byrakeshee2007
- Electrical Machinery_Dr. P S BimbhraUploaded byPandoraSky
- 2008_Microgrid Standards and TechnologiesUploaded byrakeshee2007
- [3]_Thelin_Nee_analytical Calculation of the Airgap Flux Density of PM.pdfUploaded byrakeshee2007
- [9]_Recent Advances in Materials for Use in Permanent MagnetUploaded byrakeshee2007
- IEEE_-_Z_Source_InverterUploaded byDhivya Chandran
- Study of Permanent Magnet Machine Based Flywheel Energy Storage System for Peaking Power Series Hybrid Vehicle Control StrategyUploaded byrakeshee2007
- Speed Control of A Grid Connected Doubly-Fed Induction Generator system for Maximum Power point Tracking with Improved power factor Employing Matrix Converter as slip power exchanger.pdfUploaded byrakeshee2007
- Short Term Power Demand Forecasting in Light- And Heavy-duty Electric Vehicles Through Linear Prediction MethodUploaded byrakeshee2007
- Online Stator and Rotor Resistance Estimation Scheme Using Swarm Intelligence for Induction Motor Drive in EV_HEVUploaded byrakeshee2007
- Km Sir PublicationsUploaded byrakeshee2007
- Experimental study of induction motor misalignment and its online detection through data fusion.pdfUploaded byrakeshee2007
- Design, Modeling and Software Implementation of a Current-perturbed Maximum Power Point Tracking Control in a DC-DC Boost Converter for Grid-connected Solar Photovoltaic ApplicationsUploaded byrakeshee2007
- Development of a Novel Magnetic Circuit Model for Design of Premium Efficiency Three-Phase Line Start Permanent Magnet Machines With Improved Starting PerformanceUploaded byrakeshee2007
- Design considerations for permanent magnet machine drives for direct-drive electric vehicles.pdfUploaded byrakeshee2007
- Current Injection-Based Online Parameter and VSI Nonlinearity Estimation for PMSM Drives Using Current and Voltage DC Components.pdfUploaded byrakeshee2007

- 0757994083.pdfUploaded byRevisão Textual
- RX3i 1Uploaded bycachuco1234
- LAPD Reserve Rotator Newsletter Spring 2009Uploaded byLos Angeles Police Reserve Foundation
- b_tech_el_ymcaUploaded byAnubhav Saseendran
- Agile Project DocumentationUploaded byVivek
- Wilson Disease by Dr Irappa MadabhaviUploaded byIrappa Madabhavi
- Autobytel Inc v. Insweb Corporation et al - Document No. 1Uploaded byJustia.com
- Case Study a Drug InteractionUploaded byGustiAgungKrisna
- Sieve Analysis and Density Test for AggregatesUploaded bygeorgeantonios
- Final STR for Elevator Amdt_1Uploaded byAnonymous vGdMOyaVj
- 2954 2140 02_XAHS 37 DD-XAS 47 DD-XAS 57 DD_ENUploaded byMario Garcia
- 03 KinematicsHertzFlexures SullivanUploaded bySubhash Ahuja
- FPMT-5Uploaded byTarpan Mannan
- jaitn dlfssssUploaded byjatin9687572696
- The World to ComeUploaded bydamien2012
- SKM53Uploaded bydrhammouda
- SPS Vessels SiwUploaded bypgupta71
- Hepatitis CUploaded byshailesh284
- Value Investing AnomaliesUploaded bybobbi
- 002fGuidanceonwasteUploaded bySajad Khan
- Chordu Guitar Chords Krutsay Sakayanon Verni Gonzalez Chordsheet Id XFAonLbmVU8Uploaded byJane Limsan Paglinawan
- katalog hoist.pdfUploaded bysupriadi90315
- FC22Uploaded byJesus De Prado Gil
- PA Goat Production - 2007Uploaded byJay Adones
- SAMSUNG KS1B-serviceUploaded byfernando_alexiso
- Snap-on Solus Pro Users ManualUploaded byCindy
- Homework 2Uploaded byAbdu Abdoulaye
- Digital Booklet - Curtain CallUploaded byRobopreach
- Note on Riga Spatial Structure RevUploaded bycarlandra
- NRICH Integrating Rich TasksUploaded byamymelor