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2012 IEEE International Conference on Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems

December16-19, 2012, Bengaluru, India


S. Tola, M. Sengupta
Department Electrical Engineering
Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur,
Howrah - 711103, W.B., India
e-mail :,

AbstractInduction motors(IM) are the most popularly used present states of the system are calculated using the previous
motors in the industry. They come in two well known construc- states of the system. In the second stage the values are updated.
tional variations namely, Cage Rotor Induction Motor(CRIM) For the purpose of real time simulation, a programming device
and Wound Rotor Induction Motor(WRIM). In principle, both
the machines are identical, as far as basic running, emf and is required that can handle numerous mathematical operations
torque production mechanisms are concerned. But the former has in very short time. The basic advantage of FPGA is that it
its rotor-bars permanently shorted through end-rings, whereas has a parallel execution capacity. Thus the implementation of
in case of wound rotor machine, the terminals of the rotor- network equations on a FPGA takes very short execution time.
windings are externally available. WRIMs have been used in
variable/adjustable-speed drives for many years. In this paper
modeling of a WRIM in different reference frames in real-time
simulation has been presented. The model is real-time simulated
on a FPGA platform built around an Altera-make Cyclone
EPIC12Q240C processor which can be programmed using a
software known as Quartus-II.
Index TermsInduction motor, CRIM, WRIM, Real-time
simulation, FPGA, Altera, Quartus, Modeling.


Real-time simulation refers to a computer model of a
physical system that can execute at the same rate as actual
time. In other words, the computer model runs at the same
rate as the actual physical system. Now any physical system
can be represented by a mathematical model. Dynamic systems Fig. 1. Triggering Timing
are represented by differential equations(in continuous time)
or difference equations(in discrete time), as the case may
be. Simulation of dynamic systems require solving of these
differential or difference equations numerically. In off-line II. D EVELOPMENT AND T ESTING OF S OFTWARE
simulation tools, the solution is carried out in a non-real time M ODULES R EQUIRED FOR S IMULATION
manner. For example, if it is required to study the response
of a system for a few seconds, it may take several minutes or The objective of the simulation is to predict the results that
hours to complete the simulation. On the other hand in real- are to be obtained from the hardware experiments on the actual
time simulations, results are generated at exact instant in real induction motor set-up. Finally, we are to implement Vector
time. This is possible if the system model is implemented Control. Here the development of the simulation blocks of the
by an equivalent circuit block. FPGA(Field Programmable hardware model of the experimental set-up is presented. Since
Gate Array) is a suitable platform for implementing such FPGA works with digital data of given number of bits, the
systems. The basic advantage of FPGA is that any system actual motor parameters are converted to their corresponding
module can be implemented on FPGA by its equivalent circuit normalized values as will be shown later. The equations based
model. This equivalent model is combination of sequential and on which the FPGA model is created are all in d-q frame
combinational logic elements. During each clock cycle, the of reference. The derivations of the d-q equations are not
present states of the system are calculated. The calculations are shown here, only the equations are stated and the required
split into two stages as shown in Fig. 1[3]. In the rst stage the normalization is done. Finally the simulated results are shown.

978-1-4673-4508-8/12/$31.00 2012 IEEE

All computations inside FPGA and representation of num- POWER 3.2 kW
bers are done using xed point format representation. For real-
SPEED 930 rpm
time simulation of the system, the 4.12 format is used which
means out of the 16 bits can represent any fractional number D ETAILS OF THE INDUCTION MOTOR
from -8 to 7.9997(8 approximately) with a resolution of
1/212 = 1/4096 = 0.000244 (1)
All calculations are done on a per unit basis with selection of 2. Parameters
proper values. As all variables should normally be within the The electrical parameters of the existing induction motor
range of +8 to -8 pu during the steady state as well as dynamic set-up was calculated. No-load test was done to determine the
states, the selection of proper base value for the WRIM is very magnetizing reactance, xm . The core-loss resistance, rc was
important in order to avoid overow of the quantities during calculated. Short-circuit test was done to determine the series
digital calculations. The base values of different variables are parameters namely stator reactance, xs and rotor reactance
given in Table I. referred to stator, xr . The stator resistance, rs and rotor
resistance referred to stator, rr was determined separately by
pu value Equivalent digital value(hex) Equivalent decimal value
8 pu 7FFF 32767 DC-resistance tests.
1 pu 3FFF 4095 Apart from the tests for determination of the parameters of
0 pu 0000 or FFFF 0 the machine, synchronous-running test was performed. Here,
-1 pu F000 61440
-8 pu 8000 32768
our 6-pole WRIM is coupled with a 4-pole CRIM. Hence the
synchronous speed for the CRIM is 1500 rpm, which is greater
than that of the WRIM, which is 1000 rpm. The CRIM running
as a prime-mover, the WRIM was run at its synchronous speed
of 1000 rpm. The rotor current reading of the WRIM came as
The a-b-c reference frame is rotating at the synchronous Quantity Value
rs 1.494
speed, s . Here, s = 2 50 = 314 rad/s. The d-q axes Lls 0.01147 H
pair is rotating with an arbitrary angular speed, . Therefore, rr 1.965
the reference frame of d-q is arbitrarily rotating d-q reference Llr 0.01147 H
frame. The clockwise direction of rotation is assumed to be M 0.12681 H
Ls 0.13828 H
positive. The angular displacement of the a-b-c frame at any Lr 0.13828 H
point of time is dened in terms of the angle , which is J 0.964 kg m2
dened as the angle subtended between the positive a-phase B 0.03 N-msec/rad
axis and positive d-axis and is measured from the positive d- TABLE III
axis in the clockwise direction. Here, = (s - ) t + (0). We PARAMETERS OF THE IM
assume that at the initial instant i.e. at t = 0, the a-phase axis
of the stator is aligned with the d-axis i.e. (0) = 0 and the
sinusoidally time-varying voltage applied to the stator a-phase 3. Base values for different quantities
is at its positive zero-crossing. For stationary reference frame As the implementation is to be digitally realized in FPGA,
= 0. there arises the need for following a normalized system. For
For synchronously rotating reference frame = s in electrical normalization of different quantities, base values are required,
rad/sec. which can be chosen appropriately. Table IV shows the base
For rotor reference frame = r where, r = speed of the values for voltage, current(chosen as to accommodate the
rotor in electrical rad/sec. transient peak), ux linkage and frequency(chosen as rated
The d-q axis voltages are related to the a-b-c phase voltages frequency of IM). The other bases are calculated from the
by the following relationship above mentioned base quantities.
vd cos cos( 120) cos( + 120) va
2 sin sin( 120) sin( + 120)
vq = vb
v 3 1 1 1 vc
2 2 2 4. Normalized Equations
In this section, all the relevant dq-model equations of the
V. D-Q MODEL OF THE S LIP R ING I NDUCTION M OTOR machine are normalized and made ready for implementation.
1. Rating The sampling times for the implementation are chosen as 25.6
The rating of the WRIM used in the simulation program are s and 3.2768 ms for determination of electrical variables and
shown in Table II. mechanical speed respectively.
Quantity Base Values
Voltage(Vb ) 400 V
time domain) is rst discretized and then Backward Euler
Current(Ib ) 12.5 A method for integration is used, thus giving us,
Resistance(Rb ) Vb /Ib = 32
Frequency(fb ) 50 Hz ds (n) = ds (n1)+ [v (n1)rs .ids (n1)]t (18)
Frequency in rad/sec(eb ) 314.16 rad/sec Ls ds
Mechanical speed(mb ) 104.72 rad/sec
Flux linkage(b ) Ls .Ib = 1.7285 Wb-turns Similarly, the equations for the other ux-linkages(neglecting
Torque(Tb )
3.Vb .Ib
= 143.24 N-m the  term for simplication) are obtained as follows,

qs (n) = qs (n1)+ [v (n1)rs .iqs (n1)]t (19)
dr (n) = dr (n1)+[0 r .i (n1)r (n1).qr (n1)]t
Lr r dr
The equations for the D-Q model of the SRIM are (20)
qr (n) = qr (n1)+[0 rr .iqr (n1)+r (n1).dr (n1)]t
vds = rs .ids + pds .qs (3) Lr
Similarly for synchronously rotating reference frame putting
vqs = rs .iqs + pqs + .ds (4) w = ws , the following equations for ux linkages are obtained,
ds (n) = ds (n 1) + [ (v (n 1) rs .ids (n 1)) + s .qs

(n 1)]t
 Ls ds
vdr =0= rr .idr + 
pdr ( 
r )qr (5) (22)
qs (n) = qs (n 1) + [ (v (n 1) rs .iqs (n 1)) s .ds

(n 1)]t
Ls qs

vqr = 0 = rr .iqr + pqr
+ ( r )dr (6) Rb

dr (n) = dr (n 1) + [0 r .i (n 1) + (s r (n 1))qr (n 1)]t
Lr r dr
ds = Lls .ids + M [ids + idr ] (7)
(n) = qr (n 1) + [0
r .i (n 1) (s r (n 1))dr
(n 1)]t
Lr r qr
qs = Lls .iqs + M [iqs + iqr ] (8) Similarly for rotor reference frame putting = r , the
following equations for ux linkages are obtained,
dr = Llr .idr + M [ids + idr ] (9)
(n) = ds (n 1) + [ (v (n 1) rs .ids (n 1)) + r qs
Ls ds

(n 1)]t
 qs (n) = qs (n 1) + [ (vqs (n 1) rs .iqs (n 1)) r ds

(n 1)]t
qr = Llr .iqr + M [iqs + iqr ] (10) Ls
dr (n) = dr (n 1) + [0 r .i (n 1)]t (28)
Te = 0.75.P.M [idr .iqs iqr .ids ] (11) Lr r dr
qr (n) = qr (n 1) + [0 r .i (n 1)]t (29)
2 dr Lr r qr
Te = [J + Br ] + TL (12)
P dt Now from the ux linkage equations we get,
Now for stationary reference frame putting = 0 and 1
rewriting it, we get ids = [Lr .ds M.dr ] (30)
vds = rs .ids + pds (13) where,
Denom = Ls .Lr M 2 (31)
Now, for normalization both sides of the (13) are divided by
Vb . Therefore, Now dividing both sides of (30) by b we get,
vds rs .ids ds
= +p (14) ids 1 Ls .ds M.dr
Vb Vb Vb = [ ] (32)
b Denom b b
rs ids Ls ds
or, vds = . + p (15) ids 1 ds dr
R b Ib Rb b or, = [Lr . M. ] (33)
Ls Ls .Ib Denom b b

or, vds = rs .ids + p (16) Ls
Rb ds ids =
[Lr .ds
M.dr ] (34)
Rb Denom

or, pds = [v rs .ids ] (17) Similarly, the other current equations are obtained as follow-
Ls ds
In digital platform, integrations are done in discretized form. Ls
So, in order to solve (17) in FPGA, the equation(in continuous iqs =
[Lr .qs
M.qr ] (35)
idr =
[Ls .dr
M.ds ] (36)
iqr =
[Ls .qr
M.qs ] (37)
Now dividing both sides of (11) by Tb we get,
Te [idr .iqs iqr .ids ]
= 0.75.P.M (38)
Tb Tb
Te [idr .iqs iqr .ids ]
or, = 0.75.P.M.mb (39)
Tb 3.Vb .Ib
Te 0.25.P.M.mb [idr .iqs iqr .ids ]
or, = (40)
Tb Rb Ib .Ib
Te = [idr .iqs iqr .ids ] (41)
Putting the values of P = 6, M = 0.12681 H, mb = 104.72
rad/sec, Rb = 32 Fig. 2. torque vs. speed in stationary reference frame

Te = 0.62248[idr .iqs iqr .ids ] (42)

2 dr
N ow, Te = + Br ] + TL (43)
P dt
2 dr 2
or, J = (Te TL ) Br (44)
P dt P
Dividing both sides by Tb we get,
2 J d(r /mb ) Te T L 2 B r
= (45)
P Bb dt Tb P Bb mb
dr Bb
or, = [(Te TL ) B r ] (46)
dt J

So, r = [(Te TL ) B r ]dt (47)
Applying Backward Euler method we can write,
r (n) = r (n 1) + [(Te TL ) B r ]t (48) Fig. 3. torque vs. speed in synchronously rotating reference frame
The a-b-c phase currents are related to the d-q axis currents
with the following relationship
   cos sin 1
ia 2 2 id
ib = cos( 120) sin( 120) 1
ic 3 i
cos( + 120) sin( + 120) 1


From the simulation we get the transient response as
well as steady state response.
From the simulation we get at no-load,

Supply voltage 420V

Stator current 5.65A
Input power 322.5W
Speed 996rpm
Power factor 0.078
Fig. 4. torque vs. speed in rotor reference frame
Fig. 5. ids and iqs in stationary reference frame at steady state Fig. 8. ia and ib in different reference frames in a large time scale

Fig. 6. ids and iqs in synchronously rotating reference frame Fig. 9. va and ia in different reference frames at steady state

Fig. 7. ids and iqs at steady state in rotor reference frame at steady state Fig. 10. va and ia in different reference frames in a large time scale
VIII. E XPERIMENTAL R ESULTS waveforms of currents and voltages it can be concluded that
This work is an initial step towards a larger venture though the waveforms of voltages & currents look different
to implement a 4-quadrant conguration on a mechanically in different reference frames, the steady state performance
coupled IM-IG (induction generator)set-up. Hence, previous characteristic like torque-slip etc. and the transient response
to this, the electrical and mechanical parameters have been indices like settling time etc. are same in all the cases.
experimentally evaluated by the authors. Some results of the Close agreement between the results highlight the accuracy
parameter evaluation test are given below. For these tests, the of modeling and validate established theoretical claims.
rotor is shorted and the stator is connected to the 3-ph AC X. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
mains through a variac.
The authors express their gratitude to the NaMPET initiative
From No-load test we get,
of the DIT, MCIT, Govt. of India for the resources and
Stator voltage 420V funding. The authors sincerely thank Prof. D. Sarkar, Prof.
Stator current 5.5A and Head, Department of Electrical Engineering for providing
Input power 320W the necessery support and infrastructure. The authors owe
Speed 997rpm
Power factor 0.08 a great deal to Chandrasekhar Roy and other colleagues at
PG&R level at APE lab for their help, support and constant
From Blocked rotor test we get,
[1] OKelly, Simmons,Generalised Theory of Electrical machines.
[2] Say,M.G.,Performance and Design of Alternating Current Machines,
Stator voltage 80V London, M/s.Pitman.1983.
Stator current 7.7A [3] Kedarisetti J., Gopinath D., Jain M.,Real-Time Simulation Models of
Input power 600W Power Electronics & Drives, IISc Bangalore.2006.
TABLE VII [4] Roy,C.,Speed Control in a Slip-Ring Induction Motor using Power
Electronic Converters on the Rotor-side, BESU,Shibpur.2011.

Apart from these synchronous running test (a special test)

was also done. The electrical parameters, thus evaluated, have
been actually used in the real time model for accurate system

Fig. 11. Set up photo: Here a 4-pole SCIM is coupled to a 6-pole WRIM

In this work 3 models of the IM have been simulated in
real time in three established and signicant refrence frames
namely, the Stationary, the Synchronously Rotating & the Ro-
tor Reference Frames. From the simulated performances and