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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

Food parks are the trend these days because Filipinos are known for their deep

love for food whether it is a dessert, snacks, pasta or a dish. Small unit food

businesses are now arising due to the high demand of consumers. Each restaurant has

their own gimmick of preparing food and common foods that they offer are meat

containing products such as hamburger, shawarma, nachos and pasta. Consumers

often prefer these products as they are affordable, accessible and it can satisfy their

hunger. Unfortunately, not every owner of food establishments have the knowledge

about the right way of preparing food, right way of handling food, and whether if they

have a reputable supplier of their food ingredients or not.

Meat imparts nutritional aspects in human, primarily because it is a good source

of protein in which all the essential amino acids and iron are present. It is one of the

most essential yet one of the most perishable food that consumer could purchase.

Studies have been conducted that ground meat was more susceptible to contamination

since it is processed from grinding and mixing of meat trimmings and carcasses from

many animals thus the bacteria from its surface is mixed thoroughly. Meats rich

composition offers favorable growth of pathogenic bacteria.

In foods of animal origin, pathogenic (illness-causing) bacteria, such as

Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus,


cause illness (USDA, 2016). These pathogenic bacteria cause food-borne disease

which is a major health concern that leads to sickness or even death. Almost 14

million cases of foodborne illness, caused by known foodborne pathogens, are

estimated to occur in the United States annually, resulting in approximately 60,854

hospitalizations and 1,800 deaths (Mead et al., 1999).

In Philippines, meat safety issue is one of the public concerns related with

microbial pathogens. In supermarkets, there were allegations that meat is already

contaminated in slaughterhouses, thus bacteria are able to reach higher levels despite

refrigeration and further increased by improper handling, poor sanitation and

unhygienic practices. While in public wet market setting poor sanitation and wrong

storage condition can be observed. For this reason, we decided to conduct a study

about the effects of temperature, relative humidity and storage display conditions to

the microbiological quality of ground pork and ground beef sold in supermarkets and

public wet market in Malolos.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Meat safety issue is one of the public concerns in which consumers were unaware

of possible hazards associated on food they bought. Poor quality of meat causes

problem like foodborne illness that can lead to serious medical conditions like

vomiting, severe diarrhea, abdominal cramps and worst, death. The general problem

of this study is how temperature, relative humidity and storage display conditions

affect the microbiological quality of ground meat sold in supermarkets and wet

markets.

Specifically, this study is sought to answer the following questions:


1. What is the total plate count, microbial count of Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp.,

Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in each of the ground pork and

ground beef samples?

2. Does the microbial count of pathogens of each sample exceed the limit or the

standard for the safe level count that the body can tolerate?

3. How much is the difference between microbial count of pathogens of ground pork

and ground beef in supermarket compare with those in wet market?

4. What is the microbial count of pathogens every hour from 9:00am-12:00pm in

samples that are gathered every hour?

1.3 Significance of the Problem

1.3.1 Academic significance

This study will contribute especially to the researchers in which they will

be able to apply and perform practical experimentation through microbiological

testing. This study will also help the readers gain more knowledge about the

current state of food safety that the market is offering to the consumers.

1.3.2 Social significance

The data gathered from the study based on analytical results will inform

consumers what type of market offers best quality of ground pork and ground

beef, thus they would confidently decide where to buy with regards to food safety

and not just by low cost preference.


1.3.3 Economic significance

This study will help to guarantee the safeness of ground pork and ground

beef, thus will keep the demand sustainable and profitable for the farmers,

butchers and vendors.

1.4 Objectives

1.4.1 General Objectives

The main goal of this study is to determine the effects of temperature,

relative humidity and storage display condition to the microbiogical quality of

ground pork and ground beef sold in supermarkets and wet markets by performing

microbioligical test in the presence/absence and total count of pathogenic bacteria

1.4.2 Specific Objectives

- To determine the best time to purchase ground pork and ground beef.

- To inform the consumers the risk that may obtain in eating the product.

- To determine which type of market offers best microbiological quality of

ground pork and ground beef

1.5 Scope and limitation

1.5.1 Scope

- This study includes a research about the effects of temperature, relative

humidity and storage display condition to the microbiological quality of

ground pork and group beef sold in supermarket and wet market.

- This study includes the microbiological testing of the pathogenic bacteria

namely, E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and

Salmonella in each sample.


1.5.2 Limitation

- This study focused on the normal type of ground pork and ground beef in

South Supermarket, Pure Gold Malolos and Robinson's Place Malolos and 3

stalls in Malolos as a sample.

- The microbiological testing will be conducted at DOST- Food Testing

Laboratory.

- This study focuses on microbiological test in presence/absence and total count

of pathogenic bacteria but did not conduct a serotype determination in each

bacteria.