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Generator System for Maximum Power Point Tracking

with Improved Input Power Factor Employing Matrix

Converter as a Slip Power Exchanger

Abhinandan Basak#1, Kaushik Mukherjee#2, Prasid Syam#3

Department of Electrical Engineering

Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur

1

abhibasak123@gmail.com, 2kaushikk_mukh@rediffmail.com, 3prasidsyam@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract The paper presents a scheme for the rotor side field Lls , Llr Stator and rotor leakage-inductances referred to

oriented control of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)

connected to the power grid. To control the speed, the slip

the stator side

power is exchanged between the grid and the generator through a Lm Magnetizing inductance referred to the stator side

Matrix Converter connected to the rotor side as power frequency s , r , Stator, rotor and total leakage factors respectively

changer. Use of Matrix Converter (MC) helps to increase the

input power factor of the overall DFIG system. Based on stator Ts , Tr Stator and rotor time constants respectively

flux oriented control, the dynamic modeling of entire system is

implemented in the synchronously rotating reference frame (d-q).

T em Machine electromagnetic torque (N-m)

The scheme is able to control the active power from the rotor Angle between a particular stator phase winding

terminals and it also allows the sharing of magnetizing current axis and the corredponding rotor phase winding

between stator and rotor. The analysis of the entire scheme and axis.

the design of various controllers are discussed. The simulation Angle between dq and reference frame

results are presented to justify the proposed scheme before

implementing the scheme in hardware. s Supply frequency in (rad/s)

Keywords- DFIG; Matrix Converter (MC); Active and reactive r Rotor electrical angular speed (rad/s)

power; Slip power exchange; Grid. p No. of pole pair

NOMENCLATURE P s , Pr Stator and rotor active power

Qs,Qr Stator and rotor reactive power

dq Synchronously rotating reference frame

J,B Rotor moment of inertia, viscous co-efficient of air

Stationary reference frame

vas , vbs , vcs Instantaneous values of stator phase voltages

G G I. INTRODUCTION

v s , is Stator voltage and current space vector in stator

DFIG is generally extensively used these days as variable

reference frame. speed generator, connected to wind turbines, for maximum

G G

vr , ir Rotor voltage and current space vector in rotor wind energy capture [1]. The stator is connected directly to

reference frame constant supply grid and the rotor is connected through a

Gs G bidirectional power frequency changer to the grid. For the said

vr , irs Rotor voltage and current space vector in stator application, where mechanical power input varies with turbine

reference frame speed, the maximum mechanical power extractable for a

G

i ms Stator magnetizing current vector in stator particular wind speed depends on the speed of the turbine [1],

[2]. The DFIG using a bidirectional power frequency changer

reference frame in its rotor circuit has long been a standard scheme for wind

G G

s , r s Stator and rotor flux linkage space vectors in power extraction within a limited speed range [1]-[4]. The

stator reference frame power frequency changers used in DFIG needs to exchange

Rs , Rr Stator and rotor resistances referred to the both way the electrical power in slip frequency at the rotor

stator side terminal to the supply frequency at the grid terminal. The

L s , Lr Stator and rotor Self-inductances referred to power circuit schematic is shown in Fig.1. In this paper Matrix-

Converter (MC) [2], [5]-[7] is used as a frequency changer

the stator side instead of two back-to-back Voltage Source Converters sharing

a common physical DC link. The added advantages are: (1) no

2016 IEEE First International Conference on Control, Measurement and Instrumentation (CMI)

G G G G G G

need of any intermediate energy storage elements and (2) MC s

r = L lr i r s + L m ( i s + i r s ) = L r i r s + L m i s (4)

can be run at unity displacement factor at utility interface

irrespective of any reactive power demand, (3) No separate Motoring conventions are assumed positive in this paper.

control action needed to keep the constant intermediate DC The instantaneous active and reactive power of stator and rotor,

voltage, (4) no separate current controllers. the electromagnetic torque can be expressed as [4] by taking

components of the voltage and current vector in d-q axes of the

This paper combines thoughtfully the existing field oriented synchronously rotating reference frame.

control of active power from the rotor side with the control of

output voltage of the recently evolved advantageous nine Ps =

3

(

v ds i ds + v qs i qs ) (5)

switch MC used as a frequency changer so that any speed can 2

be set around the synchronous speed to get maximum power

from the wind driven turbine keeping the overall displacement Qs =

3

2

(

v qs i ds v ds i qs ) (6)

power factor near unity.

The control structure also facilitates sharing of Pr =

3

(

v dr i dr + v qr i qr ) (7)

magnetizing current between stator and rotor. All these are 2

accomplished by controlling the instantaneous rotor voltage 3

through the frequency changer. The Fig. 1 illustrates the overall Qr = (

v qr idr v dr iqr ) (8)

2

scheme. The active power reference will control the speed of

the generator so as to get maximum mechanical power from the 3

wind turbine and the reactive power reference will control the

Tem = (

p qr idr dr iqr ) (9)

2

sharing of magnetizing current between stator and rotor [3].

Sharing of magnetizing current is important because, through

this, the reactive current component in the stator winding can B. Rotor Side Field Oriented Control of DFIG

be reduced which will draw less amount of reactive power

The interest towards rotor side control of grid connected

demand from the utility/ grid. The MC in the rotor side on its

DFIG is due to lower rating of the power frequency changer

own does not demand any reactive power from the utility.

(operating on slip power) [2]-[4].

Therefore, as a whole, the effect is to reduce the reactive power

demand from the utility. Based on simplified equivalent circuit in stator reference

frame as shown in Fig. 2 the rotor side control algorithms are

developed [3]-[6] and three operating regions (sub-

synchronous generation, super-synchronous generation,

operation at synchronous speed ) of a DFIG is explained with

the help of space vector diagram in Fig. 3.

frame

Figure 1. Doubly Fed Induction Machines in variable frequency drop, the stator flux can be assumed constant in magnitude and

operation frequency. The stator flux linkage has two components. One is

the stator leakage flux linkage component and the other is

II. DYNAMIC MODELING AND CONTROL SCHEME OF DFIG magnetizing flux linkage component. The magnetizing

A. Mathematical Modeling of DFIG component of stator flux linkage is produced by both the stator

and the rotor currents, whereas the stator leakage flux linkage

The voltage and flux-linkage equations for the DFIG are component is due to the stator current only. One conceptual

expressed in space vector notations [4] as in (1)-(4). current is introduced as will be referred by the stator flux

G

G G d s G (1) linkage magnetizing current ims [3], [8] which when multiplied

v s = R s is + + j s s

dt by produces the stator flux linkage. The stator magnetizing

G G current vector is defined as:

G d rs G (2) G G G

v rs = R r i r s + + j ( s r ) rs j

dt i ms = (1 + s ) i s + i r e (10)

G G G G G G

s = L ls i s + L m ( i s + i r s ) = L s i s + L m i r s (3) Due to rotor side field oriented control, the rotor currents of

the DFIM has two components. One is flux creating and

43

2016 IEEE First International Conference on Control, Measurement and Instrumentation (CMI)

another is torque creating. This is done by applying The space vectors positions under sub-synchronous and

transformation to the synchronously rotating (d-q) reference super-synchronous generating mode are given in Fig. 4a and

frame. The d-axis is aligned with the stator flux linkage space Fig. 4b. It is considered that the rotor current shares completely

vector. That implies the q-axis component of the stator flux the stator flux linkage magnetizing current. This means that

linkage space vector is always zero as shown in Fig. 3. The zero reactive power is drawn from supply side. In generating

G

magnitude of ims can be expressed as in (11) and (12). mode, since iqs remains negative. As the supply voltage q-axis

component remains positive, it implies it is generating

i ms = (1 + s ) i sd + i rd (11)

electrical power out of mechanical power. The i qr current

0 = (1 + s ) i sq + i rq (12)

remains positive irrespective of speed. The rotor voltage

vector takes its position depending on the slip power exchange.

Since the stator magnetizing current vector is assumed At zero slip condition (at synchronous speed); rotor variables

constant, this is in phase with stator flux as shown in Fig. 3. become dc neglecting switching harmonics introduced by the

employed converter. Hence, derivative term of rotor flux

linkage is zero in synchronously rotating d-q reference frame at

steady state according to (2). The rotor voltage is only the rotor

resistance drop and is in phase with rotor current, shown in

Fig.4c.

The schematic diagram of rotor side field oriented control

is shown in Fig. 5, where the d axis component of the rotor

current is used to control the reactive power drawn from the

supply side and the q axis component of the rotor current is

used to control the speed.

depends on two variables, d-axis stator and rotor currents.

Since in rotor side control, positive idr current can be injected,

so ids current in stator side reduces in magnitude. This Figure 4. (c)Space vector diagram at Synchronous Speed

improves power factor as seen from the stator terminals.

The speed controller is used to set the DFIG speed

From (12) iqr and iqs currents are directly proportional to according to speed reference command generated by

each other and are opposing to each other. Hence iqr maximum power point tracking (MPPT) system of wind power

generation. The d-q axes current controllers are designed in

determines the active power flow through DFIG. synchronously rotating reference frame.

Figure 4. (a) Space vector diagram in Sub-Synchronous generating Figure 4. (b)Space vector diagram in Super-Synchronous generating

mode mode

44

2016 IEEE First International Conference on Control, Measurement and Instrumentation (CMI)

For speed control drive, a PI controller is employed to The control equations are required to express rotor currents

*

generate current reference for q -axis, iqr . The d -axis current in d-q frame with respect to the rotor applied voltages in d-q

*

frame as finally the rotor voltages [4], [8] are to be set

reference idr is set as the percentage of stator magnetizing properly.

current ims as shown in Fig. 5. The stator displacement factor

* di qr v qr

can be improved by increasing the level idr , as illustrated in Tr + iqr = Tr sl i dr (1 )Tr ims sl

dt Rr

(11) and (12), assuming constant stator flux magnetizing (13)

current under constant grid supply. di v di

Tr dr + i dr = dr + T r sl i qr (1 )T r ms

C. Design of Rotor side Controller in Field Coordinates dt Rr dt

(14)

In this paper a cascade control methodology [9] is adopted,

where the complex nonlinear machine model is split into small

sub- systems. The propose control scheme has two cascade

control loops- inner loop and outer loop. Inner loop is a current

control loop where as outer loop is speed loop shown in Fig. 6.

rotor currents in the synchronously rotating coordinate system

and have some cross-coupling terms. In (13), the underlined

quantities contain d-axis quantities which affect the dynamics

Figure 6. Representation of cascade control methodology

of q-axis rotor current. In (14), there is a term involving q-axis

rotor current and another term which involves derivative of the

1) Design of inner loop (current) controller: stator magnetizing current, which must be compensated to

For rotor side field oriented control, the rotor current needs make both axes independent of each other. For a constant

to be controlled in the field coordinates, along d-axis and q-axis supply grid connected system, the rate of change of

independently. Two independent controllers are needed to magnetizing current is practically zero. The design of current

develop the flux creating component and torque creating controller is identical for both axes, except cross-coupling

component. terms in each case. The Fig. 7 shows the representation of

current controller after introducing PI controller and

eliminating cross-coupling term with proper compensation [3],

[6] and [7].

45

2016 IEEE First International Conference on Control, Measurement and Instrumentation (CMI)

The current controller gains k p and k i are obtained desired displacement angle between two. This displacement

angle is controlled to maintain unity displacement power factor

assuming a closed loop current controller bandwidth of about

at the grid connected side of MC. The rotating voltage space

1/10th of the switching frequency and cancelling the zero of PI

vector in VSI is controlled to generate the desired voltage at the

controller with the pole of the machine block of Fig. 7.

rotor terminal [2], [5]-[7], [10].

2) Design of outer loop (speed) controller:

The schematic representation of speed controller with IV. SIMULATION RESULTS AND OBSERVATIONS

introducing PI controller can be represented as in Fig. 8. Proposed control scheme is verified in Matlab/Simulink

platform. The corresponding machine rating and parameters are

given in Appendix. The simulation is verified for all possible

operating conditions. Description of one such operating

condition follows.

The DFIG is started at generating condition with a

mechanical torque of 20 Nm with rotor side frequency

converter and controller. Initially the speed reference r* set

Figure 8. Representation of outer loop at 85% of synchronous speed (314rad/sec) and rotor d-axis

*

3 Lm current reference set at zero shown in Fig. 11. At t=7sec, i dr is

Where, K t = p i ms is the torque constant.

2 1+s given a step change to 99% of ims , that means 99% of the

k pv & k iv = Coefficient of PI controller of speed loop machines magnetizing current is supplied from the rotor side

and 1% supplied from stator side (shown in Fig. 11) , so that

Tmech = Input mechanical torque stator power factor gets improved as illustrated in Fig. 12.

The instantaneous stator and rotor current waveforms in phase

G ci = Closed loop transfer function of current variable form are given in Fig. 13.

controller which can be considered to be a unity gain block, as

the current control loop is having much faster response time

compared to the speed control loop.

The coefficients of the speed controller are determined

using a technique similar to that for the current control loop but

with almost 1/10th of the current controller bandwidth.

III. ROTOR SIDE CONVERTER

Matrix Converter (MC) is introduced as a rotor side

converter. The space vector pulse width modulation is used to

generate pulses for the switches. Indirect method is used where

the MC is considered as two cascaded stages. One is voltage

source rectifier (VSR) and the other one is voltage source

inverter (VSI) [5]-[7]. The scheme is shown in Fig. 9

Figure 11. Simulation results of d-q axis stator and rotor currents,

stator magnetizing current, machine actual speed with change in

reference speed and electromagnetic torque

Figure 10. Representation of input current and output voltage According the Fig. 11, at t=8sec, speed reference is given a

switching state space vectors step change to 115% of synchronous speed. The ids and ims

The Fig. 10 shows the input current switching state space remain effectively unchanged. Electromagnetic torque has

vectors hexagon and output voltage switching state space changed its direction to aid the mechanical torque to speed up

vectors. In case of VSR, input current space vector follows the machine and in steady state it remains equal in magnitude

synchronously the input voltage space vector maintaining a and opposite in direction of the mechanical torque. The

46

2016 IEEE First International Conference on Control, Measurement and Instrumentation (CMI)

machine attains the required speed in super-synchronous speed of DFIG. The stator field oriented control from the rotor

generating mode within a reasonable time. At t=9sec, side provides effective control over stator magnetizing currents

mechanical torque input has changed to a value 10Nm (from and improvement of stator power factor. The variable speed

20Nm). Immediately iqr has changed to create the balancing tracking under different mechanical torque is useful for

electromagnetic torque. But in the process, the speed and other maximum wind energy capture. The success of the analysis and

quantities remain unchanged as desired. This is important in simulation work presented here builds the foundation for

wind power generation where mechanical torque produced by hardware realization of the same scheme, which is the future

the wind-turbine system can change independently. scope of this work.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors acknowledge Department of Electrical

Engineering, IIEST, Shibpur and Technical Education Quality

Improvement Program (TEQIP-II) for providing opportunity

and infrastructural support to carry on this research.

Figure 12. Simulation results of stator phase voltage and current (a- APPENDIX

phase)

TABLE I. DOUBLY FED INDUCTION GENERATOR RATING AND

PARAMETERS

Rs 1.557

Rr 2.62

Ls 195 mH

Lr 195 mH

Lm 177 mH

Figure 13. Simulation results of instantaneous stator and rotor currents s 0.1017 -

r 0.1017 -

0.1761 -

REFERENCES

[1] S. N. Bhadra, D. Kastha and S. Banerjee, Wind Electrical Systems,

Oxford University Press,2005.

[2] Z. Kara, K. Barra, Wind energy conversion based doubly fed induction

generator controlled by direct matrix converter, Renewable Energy

Congress (IREC), 5th International Conf., pp.1-6, 25-27 March 2014.

[3] R. Datta, and V. T. Ranganathan, "Decoupled Control of Active and

Reactive Power for a Grid-connected Doubly-fed Wound Rotor

Induction Machine without Position Sensors," IEEE Trans. Power

Electron., vol.4, pp. 2623 - 2630, May 1999.

[4] G. Abad; J Lopez; M. A. Rodrguez; L. Marroyo; G. Iwanski, Doubly

Fed Induction Machines , Wiley-IEEE Press, June 2011.

[5] A.K. Dalal, P. Syam and A.K. Chattopadhyay, Use of matrix converter

Figure 14. Rotor terminal voltages and currents when machine settle at as slip power regulator in doubly-fed induction motor drive for

very near synchronous speed (1501r.p.m) improvement of power quality, IEEE POWERI, India, April 2006.

The rotor side voltage and current waveform at near [6] O. Ellabban, H. Abu-Rub, G Baoming, A Quasi-Z-Source Direct

Matrix Converter Feeding a Vector Controlled Induction Motor Drive,

synchronous speed is given in Fig. 14 to illustrate that the IEEE Trans., Power Electron., vol.3, pp. 339-348, June 2015.

scheme is applicable also to synchronous speed. [7] J. L. Elizondo, M. Rivera, M. E. Macias, O. Probst, O. M. Micheloud,

Jose Rodriguez. Model-Based Predictive Rotor Current Control for

V. CONCLUSION Grid Synchronization of a DFIG Driven by an Indirect Matrix

The present work presents a stator flux oriented scheme for Converter, IEEE Journal, Emerging and Selected Topics in Power

Electronics, pp. 715-726, Dec. 2014.

speed control of DFIG with a MC placed between rotor

[8] W.Leonhard, Control of Electric Drives, Springer Verlag, 1985.

terminals and grid. The entire control scheme is designed,

[9] N. Mohan, T. M. Undeland; Electric Drives: an Integrative Approach,

analyzed and simulated in MATLAB/Simulink platform, Minnesota Power Electronics Reasearch & Education (MNPERE),2003.

incorporating the machine model in field co-ordinates and the

[10] H. Altun, S. Sunter, Application of Matrix Converter to Doubly-Fed

Matrix converter with proper switching function, representing Induction Motor for Slip Energy Recovery with Improved Power

the power converter device switchings. The analysis shows Quality, IEEE Conf. Publications, pp. 485-490, 10-12 Sept. 2007.

behaviour of stator and rotor currents under sub-synchronous,

super-synchronous mode of operation and at synchronous

47

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