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2016 IEEE First International Conference on Control, Measurement and Instrumentation (CMI)

Speed Control of A Grid Connected Doubly-Fed Induction


Generator System for Maximum Power Point Tracking
with Improved Input Power Factor Employing Matrix
Converter as a Slip Power Exchanger
Abhinandan Basak#1, Kaushik Mukherjee#2, Prasid Syam#3
Department of Electrical Engineering
Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur
1
abhibasak123@gmail.com, 2kaushikk_mukh@rediffmail.com, 3prasidsyam@yahoo.co.uk

Abstract The paper presents a scheme for the rotor side field Lls , Llr Stator and rotor leakage-inductances referred to
oriented control of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG)
connected to the power grid. To control the speed, the slip
the stator side
power is exchanged between the grid and the generator through a Lm Magnetizing inductance referred to the stator side
Matrix Converter connected to the rotor side as power frequency s , r , Stator, rotor and total leakage factors respectively
changer. Use of Matrix Converter (MC) helps to increase the
input power factor of the overall DFIG system. Based on stator Ts , Tr Stator and rotor time constants respectively
flux oriented control, the dynamic modeling of entire system is
implemented in the synchronously rotating reference frame (d-q).
T em Machine electromagnetic torque (N-m)
The scheme is able to control the active power from the rotor Angle between a particular stator phase winding
terminals and it also allows the sharing of magnetizing current axis and the corredponding rotor phase winding
between stator and rotor. The analysis of the entire scheme and axis.
the design of various controllers are discussed. The simulation Angle between dq and reference frame
results are presented to justify the proposed scheme before
implementing the scheme in hardware. s Supply frequency in (rad/s)
Keywords- DFIG; Matrix Converter (MC); Active and reactive r Rotor electrical angular speed (rad/s)
power; Slip power exchange; Grid. p No. of pole pair
NOMENCLATURE P s , Pr Stator and rotor active power
Qs,Qr Stator and rotor reactive power
dq Synchronously rotating reference frame
J,B Rotor moment of inertia, viscous co-efficient of air
Stationary reference frame
vas , vbs , vcs Instantaneous values of stator phase voltages
G G I. INTRODUCTION
v s , is Stator voltage and current space vector in stator
DFIG is generally extensively used these days as variable
reference frame. speed generator, connected to wind turbines, for maximum
G G
vr , ir Rotor voltage and current space vector in rotor wind energy capture [1]. The stator is connected directly to
reference frame constant supply grid and the rotor is connected through a
Gs G bidirectional power frequency changer to the grid. For the said
vr , irs Rotor voltage and current space vector in stator application, where mechanical power input varies with turbine
reference frame speed, the maximum mechanical power extractable for a
G
i ms Stator magnetizing current vector in stator particular wind speed depends on the speed of the turbine [1],
[2]. The DFIG using a bidirectional power frequency changer
reference frame in its rotor circuit has long been a standard scheme for wind
G G
s , r s Stator and rotor flux linkage space vectors in power extraction within a limited speed range [1]-[4]. The
stator reference frame power frequency changers used in DFIG needs to exchange
Rs , Rr Stator and rotor resistances referred to the both way the electrical power in slip frequency at the rotor
stator side terminal to the supply frequency at the grid terminal. The
L s , Lr Stator and rotor Self-inductances referred to power circuit schematic is shown in Fig.1. In this paper Matrix-
Converter (MC) [2], [5]-[7] is used as a frequency changer
the stator side instead of two back-to-back Voltage Source Converters sharing
a common physical DC link. The added advantages are: (1) no

978-1-4799-1769-3/16/$31.00 2016 IEEE 42


2016 IEEE First International Conference on Control, Measurement and Instrumentation (CMI)

G G G G G G
need of any intermediate energy storage elements and (2) MC s
r = L lr i r s + L m ( i s + i r s ) = L r i r s + L m i s (4)
can be run at unity displacement factor at utility interface
irrespective of any reactive power demand, (3) No separate Motoring conventions are assumed positive in this paper.
control action needed to keep the constant intermediate DC The instantaneous active and reactive power of stator and rotor,
voltage, (4) no separate current controllers. the electromagnetic torque can be expressed as [4] by taking
components of the voltage and current vector in d-q axes of the
This paper combines thoughtfully the existing field oriented synchronously rotating reference frame.
control of active power from the rotor side with the control of
output voltage of the recently evolved advantageous nine Ps =
3
(
v ds i ds + v qs i qs ) (5)
switch MC used as a frequency changer so that any speed can 2
be set around the synchronous speed to get maximum power
from the wind driven turbine keeping the overall displacement Qs =
3
2
(
v qs i ds v ds i qs ) (6)
power factor near unity.
The control structure also facilitates sharing of Pr =
3
(
v dr i dr + v qr i qr ) (7)
magnetizing current between stator and rotor. All these are 2
accomplished by controlling the instantaneous rotor voltage 3
through the frequency changer. The Fig. 1 illustrates the overall Qr = (
v qr idr v dr iqr ) (8)
2
scheme. The active power reference will control the speed of
the generator so as to get maximum mechanical power from the 3
wind turbine and the reactive power reference will control the
Tem = (
p qr idr dr iqr ) (9)
2
sharing of magnetizing current between stator and rotor [3].
Sharing of magnetizing current is important because, through
this, the reactive current component in the stator winding can B. Rotor Side Field Oriented Control of DFIG
be reduced which will draw less amount of reactive power
The interest towards rotor side control of grid connected
demand from the utility/ grid. The MC in the rotor side on its
DFIG is due to lower rating of the power frequency changer
own does not demand any reactive power from the utility.
(operating on slip power) [2]-[4].
Therefore, as a whole, the effect is to reduce the reactive power
demand from the utility. Based on simplified equivalent circuit in stator reference
frame as shown in Fig. 2 the rotor side control algorithms are
developed [3]-[6] and three operating regions (sub-
synchronous generation, super-synchronous generation,
operation at synchronous speed ) of a DFIG is explained with
the help of space vector diagram in Fig. 3.

Figure 2. Simplified equivalent circuit of DFIM in stator reference


frame

For grid connected system, neglecting stator resistance


Figure 1. Doubly Fed Induction Machines in variable frequency drop, the stator flux can be assumed constant in magnitude and
operation frequency. The stator flux linkage has two components. One is
the stator leakage flux linkage component and the other is
II. DYNAMIC MODELING AND CONTROL SCHEME OF DFIG magnetizing flux linkage component. The magnetizing
A. Mathematical Modeling of DFIG component of stator flux linkage is produced by both the stator
and the rotor currents, whereas the stator leakage flux linkage
The voltage and flux-linkage equations for the DFIG are component is due to the stator current only. One conceptual
expressed in space vector notations [4] as in (1)-(4). current is introduced as will be referred by the stator flux
G
G G d s G (1) linkage magnetizing current ims [3], [8] which when multiplied
v s = R s is + + j s s
dt by produces the stator flux linkage. The stator magnetizing
G G current vector is defined as:
G d rs G (2) G G G
v rs = R r i r s + + j ( s r ) rs j
dt i ms = (1 + s ) i s + i r e (10)
G G G G G G
s = L ls i s + L m ( i s + i r s ) = L s i s + L m i r s (3) Due to rotor side field oriented control, the rotor currents of
the DFIM has two components. One is flux creating and

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2016 IEEE First International Conference on Control, Measurement and Instrumentation (CMI)

another is torque creating. This is done by applying The space vectors positions under sub-synchronous and
transformation to the synchronously rotating (d-q) reference super-synchronous generating mode are given in Fig. 4a and
frame. The d-axis is aligned with the stator flux linkage space Fig. 4b. It is considered that the rotor current shares completely
vector. That implies the q-axis component of the stator flux the stator flux linkage magnetizing current. This means that
linkage space vector is always zero as shown in Fig. 3. The zero reactive power is drawn from supply side. In generating
G
magnitude of ims can be expressed as in (11) and (12). mode, since iqs remains negative. As the supply voltage q-axis
component remains positive, it implies it is generating
i ms = (1 + s ) i sd + i rd (11)
electrical power out of mechanical power. The i qr current
0 = (1 + s ) i sq + i rq (12)
remains positive irrespective of speed. The rotor voltage
vector takes its position depending on the slip power exchange.
Since the stator magnetizing current vector is assumed At zero slip condition (at synchronous speed); rotor variables
constant, this is in phase with stator flux as shown in Fig. 3. become dc neglecting switching harmonics introduced by the
employed converter. Hence, derivative term of rotor flux
linkage is zero in synchronously rotating d-q reference frame at
steady state according to (2). The rotor voltage is only the rotor
resistance drop and is in phase with rotor current, shown in
Fig.4c.
The schematic diagram of rotor side field oriented control
is shown in Fig. 5, where the d axis component of the rotor
current is used to control the reactive power drawn from the
supply side and the q axis component of the rotor current is
used to control the speed.

Figure 3. Space vector diagram of Sub-Synchronous generating mode

From (11) it is observed that the stator magnetizing current


depends on two variables, d-axis stator and rotor currents.
Since in rotor side control, positive idr current can be injected,
so ids current in stator side reduces in magnitude. This Figure 4. (c)Space vector diagram at Synchronous Speed
improves power factor as seen from the stator terminals.
The speed controller is used to set the DFIG speed
From (12) iqr and iqs currents are directly proportional to according to speed reference command generated by
each other and are opposing to each other. Hence iqr maximum power point tracking (MPPT) system of wind power
generation. The d-q axes current controllers are designed in
determines the active power flow through DFIG. synchronously rotating reference frame.

Figure 4. (a) Space vector diagram in Sub-Synchronous generating Figure 4. (b)Space vector diagram in Super-Synchronous generating
mode mode

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2016 IEEE First International Conference on Control, Measurement and Instrumentation (CMI)

Figure 5. Representation of schematic block diagram of the complete speed-controlled drive

For speed control drive, a PI controller is employed to The control equations are required to express rotor currents
*
generate current reference for q -axis, iqr . The d -axis current in d-q frame with respect to the rotor applied voltages in d-q
*
frame as finally the rotor voltages [4], [8] are to be set
reference idr is set as the percentage of stator magnetizing properly.
current ims as shown in Fig. 5. The stator displacement factor
* di qr v qr
can be improved by increasing the level idr , as illustrated in Tr + iqr = Tr sl i dr (1 )Tr ims sl
dt Rr
(11) and (12), assuming constant stator flux magnetizing (13)
current under constant grid supply. di v di
Tr dr + i dr = dr + T r sl i qr (1 )T r ms
C. Design of Rotor side Controller in Field Coordinates dt Rr dt
(14)
In this paper a cascade control methodology [9] is adopted,
where the complex nonlinear machine model is split into small
sub- systems. The propose control scheme has two cascade
control loops- inner loop and outer loop. Inner loop is a current
control loop where as outer loop is speed loop shown in Fig. 6.

Figure 7. Representation of inner current control loop

The equations (13) and (14) represent the dynamics of the


rotor currents in the synchronously rotating coordinate system
and have some cross-coupling terms. In (13), the underlined
quantities contain d-axis quantities which affect the dynamics
Figure 6. Representation of cascade control methodology
of q-axis rotor current. In (14), there is a term involving q-axis
rotor current and another term which involves derivative of the
1) Design of inner loop (current) controller: stator magnetizing current, which must be compensated to
For rotor side field oriented control, the rotor current needs make both axes independent of each other. For a constant
to be controlled in the field coordinates, along d-axis and q-axis supply grid connected system, the rate of change of
independently. Two independent controllers are needed to magnetizing current is practically zero. The design of current
develop the flux creating component and torque creating controller is identical for both axes, except cross-coupling
component. terms in each case. The Fig. 7 shows the representation of
current controller after introducing PI controller and
eliminating cross-coupling term with proper compensation [3],
[6] and [7].

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2016 IEEE First International Conference on Control, Measurement and Instrumentation (CMI)

The current controller gains k p and k i are obtained desired displacement angle between two. This displacement
angle is controlled to maintain unity displacement power factor
assuming a closed loop current controller bandwidth of about
at the grid connected side of MC. The rotating voltage space
1/10th of the switching frequency and cancelling the zero of PI
vector in VSI is controlled to generate the desired voltage at the
controller with the pole of the machine block of Fig. 7.
rotor terminal [2], [5]-[7], [10].
2) Design of outer loop (speed) controller:
The schematic representation of speed controller with IV. SIMULATION RESULTS AND OBSERVATIONS
introducing PI controller can be represented as in Fig. 8. Proposed control scheme is verified in Matlab/Simulink
platform. The corresponding machine rating and parameters are
given in Appendix. The simulation is verified for all possible
operating conditions. Description of one such operating
condition follows.
The DFIG is started at generating condition with a
mechanical torque of 20 Nm with rotor side frequency
converter and controller. Initially the speed reference r* set
Figure 8. Representation of outer loop at 85% of synchronous speed (314rad/sec) and rotor d-axis
*
3 Lm current reference set at zero shown in Fig. 11. At t=7sec, i dr is
Where, K t = p i ms is the torque constant.
2 1+s given a step change to 99% of ims , that means 99% of the
k pv & k iv = Coefficient of PI controller of speed loop machines magnetizing current is supplied from the rotor side
and 1% supplied from stator side (shown in Fig. 11) , so that
Tmech = Input mechanical torque stator power factor gets improved as illustrated in Fig. 12.
The instantaneous stator and rotor current waveforms in phase
G ci = Closed loop transfer function of current variable form are given in Fig. 13.
controller which can be considered to be a unity gain block, as
the current control loop is having much faster response time
compared to the speed control loop.
The coefficients of the speed controller are determined
using a technique similar to that for the current control loop but
with almost 1/10th of the current controller bandwidth.
III. ROTOR SIDE CONVERTER
Matrix Converter (MC) is introduced as a rotor side
converter. The space vector pulse width modulation is used to
generate pulses for the switches. Indirect method is used where
the MC is considered as two cascaded stages. One is voltage
source rectifier (VSR) and the other one is voltage source
inverter (VSI) [5]-[7]. The scheme is shown in Fig. 9

Figure 9. Representation IMC Topology

Figure 11. Simulation results of d-q axis stator and rotor currents,
stator magnetizing current, machine actual speed with change in
reference speed and electromagnetic torque

Figure 10. Representation of input current and output voltage According the Fig. 11, at t=8sec, speed reference is given a
switching state space vectors step change to 115% of synchronous speed. The ids and ims
The Fig. 10 shows the input current switching state space remain effectively unchanged. Electromagnetic torque has
vectors hexagon and output voltage switching state space changed its direction to aid the mechanical torque to speed up
vectors. In case of VSR, input current space vector follows the machine and in steady state it remains equal in magnitude
synchronously the input voltage space vector maintaining a and opposite in direction of the mechanical torque. The

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2016 IEEE First International Conference on Control, Measurement and Instrumentation (CMI)

machine attains the required speed in super-synchronous speed of DFIG. The stator field oriented control from the rotor
generating mode within a reasonable time. At t=9sec, side provides effective control over stator magnetizing currents
mechanical torque input has changed to a value 10Nm (from and improvement of stator power factor. The variable speed
20Nm). Immediately iqr has changed to create the balancing tracking under different mechanical torque is useful for
electromagnetic torque. But in the process, the speed and other maximum wind energy capture. The success of the analysis and
quantities remain unchanged as desired. This is important in simulation work presented here builds the foundation for
wind power generation where mechanical torque produced by hardware realization of the same scheme, which is the future
the wind-turbine system can change independently. scope of this work.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors acknowledge Department of Electrical
Engineering, IIEST, Shibpur and Technical Education Quality
Improvement Program (TEQIP-II) for providing opportunity
and infrastructural support to carry on this research.

Figure 12. Simulation results of stator phase voltage and current (a- APPENDIX
phase)
TABLE I. DOUBLY FED INDUCTION GENERATOR RATING AND
PARAMETERS

Rating 3 kW, 415V, 50 Hz, 4 poles, 3 phases

Parameter Value Unit


Rs 1.557
Rr 2.62
Ls 195 mH
Lr 195 mH
Lm 177 mH
Figure 13. Simulation results of instantaneous stator and rotor currents s 0.1017 -
r 0.1017 -
0.1761 -

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