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Study of Permanent Magnet Machine based Flywheel

Energy Storage System for Peaking Power Series
Hybrid Vehicle Control Strategy
Xiaomin Lu, Student Member, IEEE, 2K. Lakshmi Varaha Iyer, Student Member, IEEE,
Kaushik Mukherjee, Member, IEEE, and 4Narayan C. Kar, Senior Member, IEEE
Canada Research Chair Program in Hybrid Drivetrain Systems, University of Windsor, ON, Canada N9B 3P4
1,,, and

Abstract Transit agencies are increasingly focused on mak- controller, and energy storage device (ESD) with an internal
ing bus fleets cleaner, more efficient and cost effective by incor- combustion engine, which is most typically a diesel engine,
porating new clean propulsion technologies. Increased mainte- and less frequently a gasoline engine. The hybrid system al-
nance cost and lower lifetime of battery packs in existing hybrid lows the internal combustion engine to operate in a more effi-
electric buses have been major bottlenecks in motivating transit
cient mode, by "sharing" the energy and power demands of
bus operators to rapidly switch to this energy efficient technolo-
gy. Understanding the demerits of the current battery based en-
vehicle operations between the ESD and engine. The ESD can
ergy storage technology and merits of the prospective flywheel provide the traction motor with extra power as needed for ac-
based energy storage technology for transit bus application, this celeration, allowing the engine to operate in a more "steady-
paper puts an effort to study the permanent magnet synchronous state" mode, increasing the efficiency of the internal combus-
machine based flywheel energy storage system for the aforemen- tion engine [3].
tioned application. A series transit hybrid bus with peaking vehi- Battery packs have been the traditional energy storage de-
cle control strategy has been taken into consideration with a vices for hybrid buses due to their low initial purchase ex-
macro objective to compare the performance of the battery based pense, high energy density as well as the high level of famili-
and flywheel based hybrid transit bus in terms of fuel consump-
arity engineers possess compared to the newer technologies.
tion and cost of the installed system. However, the focus of this
paper remains on the development and study of a 100 kW fly-
However, case studies obtained from various sources present-
wheel energy storage system based on vector control technique ed in this paper show that the battery packs have been a resist-
which forms the first step towards this macro objective. ing factor for rapid commercialization of these buses.
Choosing the right battery technology for the bus based on
Index TermsEnergy storage, flywheel, peaking power con- performance, lifetime and cost is a major challenge to the
trol, series hybrid, transit bus, vector control. transit operators. There are three types of batteries presently
available. Lead acid batteries were used exclusively for early-
generation hybrid buses. Nickel metal hydride batteries have
higher upfront cost than lead acid, but are smaller and lighter,
Conventional hybrid buses use electric power from batter- and have a shorter recharge time. Lithium-ion batteries be-
ies and mechanical power from internal combustion engines came commercially available in 2007 and are the next genera-
(diesel or gasoline) for propulsion. While ten years ago hybrid tion of batteries for hybrid buses. They offer a service life of
buses were demonstration vehicles, experience amassed about six years, are fast charging, and, due to their light
through hundreds of buses in service and millions of miles weight, further fuel consumption reduction compared to lead
travelled in all types of service conditions means hybrid buses acid and nickel metal hydride batteries.
are approaching viable consideration for urban transit agencies Although the purchase price of lithium ion batteries is sub-
of all sizes. There are many reasons for acquiring hybrid buses stantially higher than the other two types, proprietary
such as cost of fuel, desired and regulated emissions reduc- cost/benefit analysis by one bus manufacturer claims that they
tion, and federal funding incentives [1]. are the most cost effective over the 15 to 20 year service lives
Majority of hybrids delivered and on order are 40-foot bus- of buses. The analysis includes allowances for recharging time
es, but there are also deployments of 22-foot shuttle and 60- and time-out-of-service for more frequent battery replace-
foot articulated buses. Most are diesel-hybrid, but there some ments. An important consideration is annual bus duty cycle.
gasoline-hybrids, particularly in California where they can be For example, the projected time to replacement for lead-acid
used to comply with both of the CARB Public Transit Fleet batteries is 2-3 years based on 30,000 miles per year. The
Rule bus "pathways". In New York, about 13% of the fleet of higher the mileage, the more charges and discharges imposed
6,200 buses is hybrid, and in Toronto, about 33% of the fleet on the batteries. If the mileage is significantly high, the service
of 1,700 buses is hybrid [2]. Many other Canadian municipali- life of batteries will be lower. It is possible to upgrade batter-
ties have smaller fleets of hybrid buses and generally 30% fuel ies from lead acid to other types offering longer service life.
conservation and resulting emission reductions are inferred However, in addition to the purchase cost, programming
through these buses. changes are required to ensure optimum operation of the elec-
A hybrid bus combines an electric generator and motor, tric motor. Thus from the above studies it is clear that the cur
978-1-4799-0148-7/13/$31.00 2013 IEEE

netic ennergy to the looad. Typically, a FESS compprises of the

motor/ggenerator, bearring system, vaacuum chambeer, flywheel,
power electronics, aand other auuxiliary items. The mo-
tor/geneerator is the kkey componentt responsible ffor the three
aforemeentioned operaation modes: chharging, standdby, and dis-
Therre has been woork done in thhe past to use tthe FESS in
hybrid bbuses. The Dutch companyy, Centre for Concepts in
Mechatrronics has beenn producing FESS with perm manent mag-
net macchines since 19986 and has inncorporated a 2200 kW fly-
wheel ssystem on a troolley bus poweered by a 40 kkW LPG en-
gine. In 2005 the Frauunhoffer Instituute for Transpoort and Infra-
structuree developed a FESS based aiirport shuttle bus known as
the AutooTram in whicch the flywheell was capable oof producing
4 kWh of energy andd 200 kW of coontinuous pow wer [5]. The
Universsity of Texas ddeveloped and tested a high speed com-
Figg. 1. Total operatio
on cost per bus oveer a period of 12 years [4].
posite fflywheel for trransit bus and tests revealedd that a 25%
rennt bottlenecks in operating a hybrid transiit bus lies on pur- p reductioon in engine poower can be acchieved througgh the use of
chhase cost of the vehicle and thhe cost of battery replacementt. FESS. M Moreover, ressearch perform med in [6] shoow that fly-
Fig. 1 shows the battery rep placement costt in a diesel ellec- wheel syystems in Edm monton Transitt buses can brinng down the
tric hybrid bus as studied by the Federal Transport
T Admmin- averagee fuel consumption to 104.8344 liters from 1441.746 liters
isttration, USA. The
T electric drrive study prov vided informattion as in baattery based hyybrid buses. Thhe advantages of this pro-
thaat battery packks of lead acid batteries havee a life of 3 yeaars. spectivee technology ccall for advannced R&D to incorporate
Paacks of nickel-m metal hydride (NiMH) batterries have a lifee of them intto the transit bbuses to supplyy the peaking ppower during
5 tto 7 years. Thee replacement cost of one paack is $25,000 for frequentt start-stop connditions of the bus.
leaad acid batteriees and $35,000 0 - $45,000 fo
or NiMH batterries Hencce, in this papeer, a series trannsit hybrid buss with peak-
[2]]. These projecct the costs inccurred by usingg the current teech- ing vehiicle control strrategy has beeen taken into cconsideration
noology of the battteries only. Ass seen from Fig g. 1, the total cost
c with a macro objectiive to comparre the perform mance of the
off operation of thhese hybrid buuses are higher than the rest only
o battery bbased and flyw wheel based hyybrid transit bus in terms of
beecause of the baattery replacem ment cost, altho
ough the fuel cost
c fuel connsumption andd cost of the innstalled system m. However,
annd facility main ntenance cost are lesser than n that of the rest.
r the focuus of this papeer remains on tthe developmennt and study
While performin ng the aforemeentioned study y, it was assum med of a 1000 kW flywheell energy storagge system baseed on vector
thaat, for lead-acid battery packs, all buses would
w need thhree control technique whiich forms the ffirst step towarrds this mac-
repplacements at the price of $2 25,000 during 12 years life. On ro objecctive. Section II provides deetailed informaation on the
thee other hand, for
f NiMH batteeries packs, 50% % of buses wo ould bus drivvetrain architeccture taken intto consideratioon, modeling
neeed two replaceements and 50 0% of buses wo ould need one re- of the FFESS system and the overaall peaking vehhicle control
plaacement at thee price of $40,000. As a ressult, the lead acid a strategyy. Section III iillustrates the rresults from nuumerical in-
baattery pack cosst for 12 yearss was $25,000 0 multiplied by y 3. vestigattion performedd on the develooped FESS sysstem through
Foor the NiMH battery
b pack, thhe cost was $440,000 multipllied a develooped program.
byy (0.5 x 2 + 0.55 x 1). The battery replacemeent cost ($67,500)
waas the average of the two projjected costs [1]]. II. DEV
Other energy storage devices that are beiing developed for WITH FLYWH
hyybrid buses aree based on ultrra-capacitors, fuel
f cells and fly-
A. Opeerational Detaails of the Hybrrid Drive-trainn System and
whheels. About 808 hybrid buses presently in service use ulttra-
mponents undeer Consideratioon
cappacitors in the place of batterry packs. How wever the flywh heel
ennergy storage sy ystems (FESS)) are found to have
h more eneergy A seriess hybrid driveetrain configuraation is considdered in this
deensity than thee ultra-capacito ors. Over the years
y FESS have paper. Itt uses an internnal combustionn engine to power an elec-
beeen used in num a road vehicles,
merous applicaations in rail and tric gennerator, whichh can then pow wer the electrric motor to
unninterruptible power
p suppliess, renewable diistributed geneera- drive thhe wheels, or chharge the FESSS. The engine is complete-
tioon and internaational space station
s due to their advantaages ly mechhanically decouupled from thee drive wheelss. All of the
such as high speecific energy and a power, lon ng life cycle, high
h energy pproduced by thhe engine is coonverted to eleectric power
ennergy efficiency y, and reduction of mainten nance, contamiina- by the ggenerator, whiich powers onee or more elecctric traction
tioon, and system overhead [5], [6]. motors as well as reccharging the FE ESS that provvides supple-
A FESS is a kinetic
k energy storage devicee which stores en- mental ppower. The eleectric motor syystem - by itself - provides
erggy in a rotating flywheel, wiith the amountt of stored eneergy torque tto turn the wheels of the vehhicle. Because the internal
deependent on thee mass, form, and rotational speed of the fly- f combus tion engine is not directly cconnected to thhe wheels, it
whheel. In the ch harging mode, the flywheel is speeded up p to can opeerate in an optiimum range [11]. Compared to a parallel
stoore the kineticc energy in its rotational mo otion. The kineetic system, a series systeem requires a larger electricc motor and
ennergy is then maintained
m in the standby mode.
m In the dis-
d FESS, bbut a smaller iinternal combuustion engine. The system
chharge mode, th he flywheel is slowed down to release the ki- works w well in frequennt stop-and-goo service becauuse the elec-

trically-driven propulsion system has high torque at low B. Peaking Series Hybrid Vehicle Control Strategy
speeds, providing smooth, fast acceleration regardless of the
grade. The series hybrid bus drivetrain configuration consid- The peaking vehicle control strategy considered in this pa-
ered in this study is as shown in Fig. 2. The traction motor is per is appropriate to the transit bus as this strategy will main-
powered by a flywheel and/or and engine/generator unit. The tain a high state of charge (SOC) of the flywheel at all times
engine either helps the flywheel to power the traction motor and guarantee high performance of the bus. The block diagram
when load power demand is large or charges the flywheel load of the peaking control strategy is as shown in Fig. 3. If the
power demand is small. The flywheel is incorporated to take SOC of the flywheel is below maximum and the traction pow-
the role of a peaking power source and replace the battery er demand is less than what the engine can deliver, then the
pack in conventional hybrid transit bus due to its aforemen- engine working in its optimal region is used to charge the fly-
tioned advantages when compared to the battery pack. The wheel and drive the traction motor. If the SOC of the flywheel
flywheel is appropriate for a heavy duty vehicle such as bus is maximum then the engine power alone drives the traction
which is less sensitive to the added weight and initial cost of motor. However, if the traction motor power demand is more
the FESS [7]. Moreover, the response time of the FESS is than the engine power (acceleration), then the flywheel which
faster than that of a transit bus. was in its standby mode will be used to provide peak power

Vehicle Speed Operation


MOTOR Control
FLYWHEEL Mechanical connection

Electrical connection

Fig. 2. Configuration of the flywheel based series hybrid bus.

Traction power Maximum motor power,

command, Ptraction Pm-max
Braking power
command, Pbrake Regenerative braking
Traction? if Pbrake > Pm-max
Engine Power Y Hybrid braking
Hybrid traction
Pe/g (engine +flywheel)
Ptraction < Pe/g
SOC of flywheel Engine alone traction
if SOC < SOCmax

Y Flywheel charging

Fig. 3. Control flow chart of the peaking series hybrid vehicle control strategy.

Te * 0 PI +
0 Switch 1 iq* 1
Switch 2 PI r
1 +
0 id * -1 + Vdc*
fd MTPA 1
fq FW iq id

fd FW eLdi d +ef eLqi q *

+ +
Vq* Vd*
Tabcdq Tdq SPWM T4
rated e T6
e r PMSM
p d/dt Encoder

Fig. 4. Overall block diagram showing the comprehensive FESS control technique.

C. Modeling the Permanent Magnet Motor based Flywheel p r P 2J

T e T L (4)
Energy Storage System
Te 3P 'iqs idsiqs (Ld Lq )
The comprehensive vector control diagram of the FESS is
as shown in Fig. 3. The flywheel mounted on the permanent
pr r (6)
magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) shaft can be controlled The analysis and the real-time control strategy is based on
by controlling the motor itself. The flywheel is modeled as an the decoupled D-Q theory in Parks reference frame, as is gen-
additional inertia adding to the rotor of PMSM. erally done for achieving high-performance control of AC
electrical machines. The overall block diagram of the control
E 1 J r (1)
2 scheme is shown in Fig. 4. In constant torque region of the
Energy in the flywheel can be defined by (1). Where, J is PMSM, Maximum Torque per Ampere (MTPA) method [9] is
the moment of inertia that is directly proportional to the mass used to control the armature current. In constant torque region,
of the rotor by means of a constant that depends on the shape MTPA method is used to control the armature current [10].
factor. r is the rotor angular velocity. Combined PMSM and The relation between id and iq satisfies the following:
flywheel inertia is considered to be 0.08 kg m2. o


The interior PMSM has been considered here in the inves- 2 (7)
2 Lq Ld 2 iqs
tigation because it can achieve higher speed and yet provide 4(Ld Lq )

greater power density and lower rotor losses which will keep Equation (7) is derived from differentiating (5) with respect
the temperature inside the vacuum chamber to the minimum. to iqs and set it to zero. Substituting (7) into (5), then the elec-
Maintaining a lower temperature inside the vacuum chamber tromagnetic torque can be expressed as:
is one of the major criteria in choosing the motor technology
for any FESS. A 100 kW PMSM rated at 8,000 rpm is con- Te 3P iqs ' 4(Lq Ld ) 2 iqs2 ' (8)
trolled using a vector control technique through an IGBT
based voltage source converter and flux weakening method Using the reference torque command Te*, reference arma-
can be applied to achieve flywheel speeds more than the ma- ture currents ids* and iqs* can be obtained from (7) and (8). In
chine rated speed limit. The parameters and ratings of the the proposed control method, function fqMTPA is defined by (8and
PMSM employed are as follows: Ld = 1.74 mH, Lq = 2.93 mh, fdMTPA by (7) respectively. In constant power region, flux weak-
rs = 0.0082 Ohms, magnet flux linkage = 0.071 Wbt, num- ening method can be used to control the armature current
ber of poles = 8, and rated speed = 12,500 rpm. The conven- where PMSM can be operated at speed above rated value. The
tional mathematical model of the PMSM employed in the de- magnet flux can be weakened by armature effect of ids to keep
veloped FESS is as shown in (2)-(6). The volt-ampere equa- terminal voltage constant at its maximum amplitude value.
tions of the PMSM can be written as in (2), (3) and the me- Equations (9) and (10) can be employed to calculate the refer-
chanical equations of the motor may be written as in (4), (5) ence d- and q-axis voltages through reference currents and
and (6), where symbols have their usual meanings [8]. changes in the actual voltage levels [10].
Vds * rs i *ds e Lqi *qs Vds (9)

rs ids

pr iqs (2)
Vqs * rs i *qs e Ld i *ds ' Vqs (10)
p i p L (3)
vds rsids The DC link voltage of the converter is controlled to be 500
piqs r
Ld Ld Ld r qs
q V in this paper; however it can be equalized to the voltage





Figg. 5. Calculated ressults illustrating peerformance of the developed PMSM

M based FESS. (a) Flywheel speed (bb) DC link voltagee. (c) d-axis statorr voltage. (d) q-
axiis stator voltage.

off the DC bus of the vehiccle. The curreent controlled bi- rated sppeed of 8,000 rrpm and switchhed to the stannd-by mode.
dirrectional DC-D DC converter at a the DC bus ende should be a 2- During the charging mode the PM MSM was coontrolled by
quuadrant one, wh here the voltag ge polarity doees not change but MTPA w with a constannt torque of Te==25 Nm. The vviscous fric-
thee DC current polarity
p shouldd change depen nding whether iti is tion of tthe PMSM was assumed to bbe negligible w with no addi-
chharging or disccharging the FESS.
F The vehhicle controllerr as tional toorque. At timee = 2.7 s. oncee the flywheell reached its
shown in Fig. 2 will command d the FESS thro ough the switcch 2 rated sppeed the FESS steps into the stand-by modde. At time =
deepending on the SOC of the flywheel and power p demand d of 3 s. the FESS was operated to dischharge at a consstant current
thee traction mottor based on the t control flo owchart shown n in of 20 A and the DC bbus voltage waas controlled tto a value of
Figg. 3. If the Swiitch 2 is in statte 0, then the FESS
F is controllled 500 V.
to operate in ch harging or stan nd-by mode. If the Switch 2 is Figs. 5(b) - (d) showw the correspoonding DC linkk voltage, Vd
chhanged to statee 1, then the FESS
F is contro
olled to operatee in and Vq w waveforms witth time. It is seeen that until thhe discharge
thee discharging mode. The refference torquee command Te* is mode thhe DC bus volltage level was controlled att 500 V and
obbtained from thhe PI speed con ntroller acting on
o the speed errror there is small dip in thhe voltage wheen the dischargge mode was
r* r). In the discharging mode, FESS regulates the DC
( enabled.. However, thee performance of the controlller is seen to
buus voltage by decelerating
d thee flywheel. Te* is obtained frrom be satisffactory as the DC voltage sttabilizes very fast without
PI voltage controller acting on n the voltage error
e (Vdc* Vdc). oversho ot. This has onnly been possibble due to propper design of
Sinnusoidal PWM M is implementeed to generate the gate pulsess. DC linkk voltage contrrol loop, the dd-axis current control loop
and the vector control strategy impleemented [11]. T The DC link
voltage could be mainntained very cclose to 500 V i.e. that is
necessarry power dem manded by thee traction mottor could be
Figs. 5(a) (d)
( show the results
r obtained
d from numerical given byy the flywheeel system for a short period of time be-
invvestigation perrformed throug
gh the develop
ped control straate- tween 3 and 5.5 seconnds until the sppeed and thus thhe energy of
gyy and the mach hine and flywheel models. As
A shown in Fig.
F wheel drops bellow a particulaar value. The fflywheel was
the flyw
5(aa) the PMSM based FESS was w started froom a steady state found too provide consstant DC side power for a pperiod of 2.5
wiith zero flywhheel speed and d then it was accelerated to
o its seconds even when its speed w was 8,000 rpm m. However,

100 [6] C. W
Wang, X. Liang, C C. Chapelsky, D. K Koval, and A. M. K Knight, Appli-
Traction Power
Demand [kW]
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20 term
m Power Demand F Forecasting in Ligght- and Heavy-Duuty electric Ve-
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50 60 70 80 90 100 110 1 tionaal Transportation Electrification Coonf. and Expo., pp.. 1-6, 2012.
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Figg. 6. Sample transit bus power deman
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[9] S. M Morimoto, M. Sannada, and Y. Takkeda, "Wide-speeed operation of
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ner- vancces in Energy Engiineering, 2010.
hat the number of charge-disccharge cycles in
allly estimated th i a
flyywheel is muchh more than a battery,
b the fly
ywheel can alsoo be VI. BIOGRAPH
used to provide base power and a peaking po ower (supplemment
poower) along with the engine in i the hybrid trraction mode until
u Xiaominn Lu received heer Bachelor in Enngineering from
Sun-Yett Sen University in July, 2010. She is currently
thee SOC of the flywheel com mes down to a particular lev vel. working towards her PhD degree at Universsity of Windsor,
Thhis scheme wo ould further reduce the overaall fuel consum mp- Ontario, Canada. Her ressearch interests innclude develop-
tioon of the bus when
w compared d to just using the FESS to sup-
s ment off novel fault tolerrant electric machhine drives and
plyy peaking powwer only.
power eelectronics applicaations for renewabble energy sys-

This paper innitailly presented case studiees eliciting maajor K. Laksshmi Varaha Iyeer received the B.T Tech. degree in
Electronnics and Comm munication Engiineering from
boottlenecks in ex
xisting transit buses
b in terms of energy storrage SASTRA A University, Thanjavur, India, inn the year 2009
tecchnologies. Th he flywheel energy storag ge technology y is and the MASc degree inn Electrical and C Computer Engi-
seeems to be ap ppropriate for the transit busb which maakes neering at the University of Windsor, Ontaario, Canada in
2011. HHe is currently purrsuing his PhD inn the same Uni-
freequent starts & stops and heence needing th he energy storrage versity. His research interrests are in design and analysis of
deevice to have a longer lifeecycle with leess maintainen nce. electric machines and veehicle architecturee for electrified
Keeeping the macroobjective
m of perfrominng a comparattive transporrtation application.
annlaysis between n the battery and
a flyheel based hybrid transit
Kaushiik Mukherjee (M M03) was born inn 1970. He re-
buuses in future, this
t paper stud died the permaanet magent baased ceived tthe B.E. degree frrom the Departmeent of Electrical
FEESS through modeling and simulation on a compu uter Engineeering, Jadavpur University, Calcuutta, India, in
plaatform. The architecture
a off the vehcile and the vehcile 1993, thhe M.E. degree frrom the Departmeent of Electrical
coontrol stategy under consideeration was discussed
d and the Engineeering, Bengal Enggineering College, Howrah, India,
in 19988, and the Ph.D. degree from the Department of
coontrol startegy developed to o control the FESS was also a Electriccal Engineering, IIndian Institute oof Technology,
preesented. Moroever, results frrom numerical invetsigationss on Kharagppur, India, in 20003. Since 1993, hhe has spent al-
thee developed system throug gh a computter program was w most two and a half years iin the industry. Inn 2002, he joined tthe Department
preesented and disscussed. of Electriccal Engineering, Jaadavpur Universityy, India as a Lectuurer. From 2006
onwards, he is an Assistannt Professor in thee Department of E Electrical Engi-
V. REFERENCES neering, B Bengal Engineeriing and Science University, Howrrah, India. Dr.
Mukherjeee is presently a Viisiting Professor aat the Centre for H
Hybrid Automo-
[1] Hybrid Buses, Transport Canadaa, September 2010 0. [Online]. Availaable: tive Reseaarch & Green Eneergy, Department of Electrical & C Computer Engi- University of Winddsor, Canada. His research interests include electri-
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hybridbuses-27 72.htm#res1 cal machinne drives and pow wer electronics applications in generaal.
[2] Analysis of Electric Drive Tech hnologies for Tran
nsit Applications, Bat-
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H and
d Fuel Cells, North
heast Advanced Vehi-
V Narayaan C. Kar receiveed the B.Sc. degreee in Electrical
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http://www.nav and Tecchnology, Dhaka,, Bangladesh, in 1992 and the
[3] M. Ehsani, Y. Gao, and A. Em madi, Modern Elecctric, Hybrid Elecctric, M.Sc. aand Ph.D. degreess in electrical enngineering from
and Fuel Cell Vehicles,
V Second Edition,
E CRC Presss, USA, 2010. Kitami IInstitute of Technnology, Hokkaido, Japan, in 1997
[4] Transit Bus Liffe Cycle Cost and Year 2007 Emissions Estimation, U.S. and 20000, respectively. H
He is an associate pprofessor in the
Department off Transportation, Federal Transit Administration,
F Electricaal and Computer Engineering Deppartment at the
WV-26-7004.2007.1, July 20 007. pp. 7. [Online]. Availaable: Univers ity of Windsor, Caanada where he hoolds the Canada CC_Final_Report_ _07- Research Chair position iin hybrid drivetraiin systems. His
23-2007.pdf research ppresently focuses on the analysis, ddesign and controol of permanent
[5] C. S. Hearn, M.
M M. Flynn, M. C. Lewis, R. C. Thompson, B. T. Murrphy, magnet syynchronous, inducction and switchedd reluctance machhines for hybrid
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F Energy Storage
S for a Fuel Cell electric veehicle and wind poower applications, testing and perforrmance analysis
Powered Transit Bus, in proc. ofo IEEE Vehicle Power
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Conference, pp p. 829-836, 2007. managemeent system. He is a Senior Member oof the IEEE.