WITH BURIED MAGNETS INCLUDING AXIAL LEAKAGE, TOOTH AND YOKE SATURATIONS
ABSTRACT
It has been shown earlier that the airgap flux density of flux concentration), see Figure 1. A disadvantage with
PM motors with buried magnets can be calculated with buried magnets is that some of the magnet flux is lost
a satisfactory result, if saturated iron bridges, axial due to leakage through the thin iron bridges. The iron
leakage flux (from 2DFEM) and teeth saturation are bridges are required to keep the iron lamination togeth
taken into account. In this paper, instead of using 2D er mechanically.
FEM, an analytical expression for the axial reluctance
is derived. By including the saturation of rotor and sta The intention of this paper is to improve the analytical
tor yokes, the model is even further improved. The re calculation of the airgap flux density of such motors.
sult is a complete analytical model, which takes into
AXIAL LEAKAGE FLUX

account all,phenomena mentioned above, and improves
the agreement with experimental values.
The axial leakage flux is often neglected in radial flux
INTRODUCTION machines. This is due to the fact that the axial leakage
flux is normally very small. The analytical calculations
are therefore based on a crosssection of the motor. The
same assumption is normally made in FEM calcula
tions, since 2DFEM is more common, faster and easier
to use than 3DFEM. For PM machines with relatively
short rotor lengths, the axial leakage flux has a larger
influence on the radial torqueproducing flux.
In the earlier paper, Thelin and Nee [7], the axial reluc
tance "seen" by the magnet, i.e. 9 i a , when the radial re
luctance is assumed to be infinite, was obtained from
2DFEM calculations. This was a drawback, since the
remaining expression could be evaluated without the
aid of FEM calculations. To overcome this drawback,
Figure 1: Example of an 8pole PMmotor design with a five different but typical magnet configurations will
thin squirrel cage and buried magnets in V be studied and some analytical expressions will be pre
shape. sented in this paper.
Permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSM) with A typical magnetic field line plot of the axial leakage
buried magnets have been considered in a wide range of flux for a motor with buried magnets is shown in Figure
drives including both variablespeed, Morimoto et al 2. Figure 2 shows an axial crosssection view of the up
[I]. and mainsconnected (i.e. line start), Herslof [2], per half of the stator and the rotor. The two magnets,
Chalmers [3], drives. A buried magnet design can have which originally were placed in Vshape, have been re
some advantages compared to surface mounted, Slemon placed by one single magnet at the average height of the
and Xian [4], and inset, Nipp [ 5 ] , magnet designs. V [7]. The influence of the saturation (from the radial
flux) on the axial leakage flux has been neglected. The
Buried magnet designs are likely to be less complicated iron material of the rotor and the stator is set to have a
to manufacture than surface mounted designs. For ex very high permeability. The shaft is nonmagnetic. The
ample no bandaging is required. The magnets are just axial reluctance of one pole for the two sides of the rotor
inserted into punched slots in the laminated rotor iron. is then found to be [7]
Other advantages are that the magnets are protected
from physical damage and demagnetizing currents. 4224
R, = 431,5. lo3 = ~ J ~ M H (1)
'
Burying the magnets admits different magnet configu (0,M+ 0,04)0,01257
rations, Hippner and Harley [ 6 ] .The magnets can e.g.
be placed close to the circumference, or in Vshape (i.e. by using a FEM calculation. (H"=A/Wb=ANs)
Power Electronics and Variable Speed Drives, 1819 September 2000, Conference Publication NO. 475 @ IEE 2000
218
Stator \ 1 ,Rotor body
qa= 0,005507 Vs/m
11
5
39
As can be seen from Figure 2, the main part of the axial Figure 4: Axial field lines from the left half of the rotor
leakage flux is concentrated to the vicinity of the mag when the magnet is displaced vertically.
net, though some penetrates the stator iron. The part of
the flux that penetrates the stator iron will partly link The axial reluctance is again calculated with FEM:
with the stator winding, thereby slightly contributing to
the torque production. Due to these two reasons it is
%, = ... = 4,36MH' (3)
enough to deal with the leakage flux close to the mag
net. Therefore the stator and the rotor shaft are omitted
in the five following cases. This measure increases the axial reluctance only slight
ly.
Case 1. Centred magnet. Figure 3 shows a simplified
geometry of the machine in Figure 2. Due to symmetry, Case 3. Magnet close to edge. Figure 5 shows the field
lines when the magnet is moved to a new position, even
y,=
only the left half of the rotor in Figure 2 is depicted in
Figure 3.
0,005914 Vs/m
closer to the edge.
\ qa= 0,00431 Vs/m
Figure 3: Axial field lines from the left half of the rotor. Figure 5: Axial field lines from the left half of the rotor
when the magnet is close to the edge.
Again the total axial reluctance per pole for both sides
of the rotor is calculated by the use of FEM,and the re The axial reluctance is again calculated with E M :
sult is
31, = ... = 5,69MH' (4)
So = ... = 4,03MH' (2)
The axial reluctance has now increased further.
As can be seen from Equation (2) the axial reluctance is
now slightly higher but still in the same range, com
pared to the value of Equation (1).
Case 4. Thicker magnet. It is also interesting to see
Case 2. Displaced magnet. It is also interesting to see how a thicker magnet effects the axial reluctance. Fig
how a vertical displacement of the magnet effects the ure 6 shows the field lines when the thickness of the
axial reluctance, see Figure 4. magnet slot is 10 mm instead of 5 mm.
219
which has a simple mathematical law.
n \ q a = 0,009338 Vslm [S) suggests the heuristic method of estimating the per
/ /d\\ \
meances of probable flux paths. With this method ap
plied on the problems above the field lines are divided
into two regions, one at a distance from the magnet
22 where the field lines follow a circular path and one
10 close to the magnet where the field lines follow a path
with a mean length. This results in the following ap
22 proximate expression for the total axial reluctance per
pole of the two rotor sides:
0.5
(7)
Figure 6: Axial field lines from the left half of the rotor
with a thicker magnet slot.
The axial reluctance is again calculated with FEM: Parameter definitions, see Figure 8. [SI mentions that
functions of complex variables (i.e. the method of con
3, = ... = 4,91 MH (5) formal mapping, see e.g. Fisher [lo]) may also be used.
The result of this is that the factor 0,26 in Equation (7)
reduces to 0,24 and 0,22 for a thick and a thin sample,
This measure increased the axial reluctance.
respectively [8]. From this one can conclude that the ap
Case 5. Thinner magnet. Figure 7 shows the field lines proximate method is accurate enough in this case.
when the thickness of the magnet slot is reduced to 2,5
Another approach, which shows quite good agreement
mm.
with the FEM calculated values, is to assume that the
,,,,A\, q: = 0,003494 Vs/m flux goes the shortest way from the north pole to the
south pole, see Figure 8.
North pole
I South pole I i;
Figure 8: Derivation of axial reluctance for the left rotor
Figure 7: Axial field lines from the left half of the rotor side with a vertically displaced magnet slot.
with a thinner magnet slot.
This is of course a less physical model, but anyhow it
The axial reluctance is again calculated with FEM: seems to be a good estimate of the total axial reluctance.
This reluctance can be derived in the following manner:
R, = ... = 3,40MH (6) The differential permeance of the air path from the cen
tre of the magnet slot up to the height y in Figure 8 is
This measure reduces the axial reluctance. given by
220
The permeance of the lower air path is found in the COMPENSATION FOR IRON SATURATION
same manner: ')
The increased reluctance of the rotor and stator teeth,
due to iron saturation, can theoretically be represented
by an extra airgap in the magnetic circuit of the machine
[7]. The length of the extra airgap is found as [7]
The total axial reluctance per pole of the two rotor sides
is then given as
221
where w,,, is the yoke width of stator and w y , is ex where k, is the Carter factor (see e.g. [lo]), g is the air
plained in the subsection above. gap length and gc is the fictitious extra airgap which
compensates for iron saturation given by Eq. (12).
The flux density values from the equations for the teeth
and the yokes give a good indication of how hard the Inserting Equation (I 1) into the old equation for w/i
iron is used. Values above e.g. 1,7 T of course depend in [7], and rearranging, gives the new equation
ing on the iron quality used indicate that the MMF
drops of the teeth and yokes must be taken into consid !f ++...+%++...+x
= WFeI wFc2 w, k, (23) W62
eration, at least if the teeth and the narrow parts of the Fe1 Fe2 61 6,
yokes are relatively long.
where L is the axial length of the rotor and
Magnetic Field Intensity in Teeth and Yokes
w , = w m 1 + w m 2 +... (19)
I
and the true circumferential polewidth on the rotor sur
face is given by
222
Motor A. Motor; A, which has ,8 poles and is inverter of the iron are also shown in Table 2.
fed, has the geometry shown in Figure 1. The geometri
cal parameters of Motor A were identified by using Fig Motors BE. Motors BE all have geometries which are
ure 9. The axial leakage flux of Motor A is shown in somewhat similar to the one in Figure 1, but the rotor
Figure 2. The results of the calculations and the meas cage has deeper bars and a higher number of bars since
urements are shown in Table 2. these motors are linestart motors. Motors BE have 4,
6, 16 and 4 poles, respectively. The results of perform
Table 2: Flux densities of the five examined motors AE. ing the same exercises for Motors BE as for Motor A,
are presented in Table 2. Here the product of the Carter
Motor A B C D E factor for stator and for rotor was used in the analytical
0,88 0,64 0,82 I , 1 1 0,79 T calculations.
B(I ) & 2DFEM
CONCLUSION
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
b(l)g,,x,:Analytical value from Eq. (17), taking axial 141 Slemon G.R. and Xian L.. 1992, Modelling and design
permanent magnet motors.. WC
. optimization
.
Mach= and Power .Sy&DS,
of
223