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Chapter 3

Kinematics: Strains

C. Agelet de Saracibar

ETS Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politcnica de Catalua (UPC), Barcelona, Spain

International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering (CIMNE), Barcelona, Spain

Strains > Contents

Contents

Chapter 3 Strains

1. Tangent deformation map

2. Displacement gradient tensors

3. Strain tensors

4. Volumetric deformation

5. Area deformation

6. Polar decomposition

7. Stretches

8. Variation of angles

9. Assignments

10. Spatial velocity gradient

11. Material time derivatives

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 2

Strains > Tangent Deformation Map

Reference or Material Configuration Current or Spatial Configuration

Reference Configuration Current Configuration

time t = 0 time t

t=0 t

Q FF

dX P

dx

P

dS ds Q

0 t

X x

Inverse Deformation Map X 3 , x3

Deformation Map

X = 1 ( x,t ) e 3 x = ( X,t )

Inverse Tangent Deformation Map e 2 X 2 , x2 Tangent Deformation Map

e1

dX = F 1

( x, t ) dx X 1 , x1 dx = F ( X, t ) dX

Strains > Tangent Deformation Map

Deformation Gradient

Let us consider the deformation map given by,

x = ( X,t )

Differentiating the deformation map, keeping constant the

configuration at time t, using the chain rule, yields,

dx = ( GRAD ( X, t ) ) dX = ( ( X, t ) ) dX := F ( X, t ) dX

where the non-symmetric second-order deformation gradient

tensor, denoted as F ( X,t ) , has been introduced as,

F ( X, t ) := ( X, t ) = GRAD ( X, t ) , FaA := a , A

Strains > Tangent Deformation Map

Inverse Deformation Gradient

Let us consider the inverse deformation map given by,

X = 1 ( x,t )

Differentiating the inverse deformation map, keeping constant

the configuration at time t, using the chain rule, yields,

dX = ( grad 1 ( x, t ) ) dx = ( 1 ( x, t ) ) dx := F 1 ( x, t ) dx

where the non-symmetric second-order inverse deformation

gradient tensor, denoted as F 1 ( X,t ) , has been introduced as,

Strains > Tangent Deformation Map

Uniform Deformation Gradient

Let us consider a uniform deformation gradient such that,

As the deformation gradient is uniform, the deformation map is

linear and it can be easily obtained, integrating, yielding,

x = F ( t ) X + C ( t ) , xa = FaA ( t ) X A + Ca ( t )

assuming the reference time is t=0, satisfies the condition

C ( 0) = 0 .

Strains > Tangent Deformation Map

Material Time Derivative

Giving the spatial description of an Gradient

Deformation arbitrary property, the material time derivative of the property can be written as,

F ( X, t ) := ( X, t ) = GRAD ( X, t ) , FaA = a , A

J := det F ( X, t ) = det ( GRAD ( X, t ) ) > 0

dX = F 1 ( x, t ) dx, dX A = FAa1dxa

F 1 ( x, t ) := 1 ( x, t ) = grad 1 ( x, t ) , FAa1 := A1,a

J 1 := det F 1 ( x, t ) = det ( grad 1 ( x, t ) ) > 0

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 7

Strains > Tangent Deformation Map

Example 3.1

Example 3.1

Compute the deformation gradient and inverse deformation

gradient for a motion equation with Cartesian components,

T

( X, t ) = X + Y t Y (1 + t ) Ze

2 t

1 2Yt 0

0 1 + t 0

[ ]

F =

0 0 et

and the jacobian takes the value,

J = det F = (1 + t ) et > 0

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 8

Strains > Tangent Deformation Map

Example 3.1

The Cartesian components of the inverse motion equation are,

T

t y

( x, t ) = x y

1 2

2

t

ze

(1 + t ) 1+ t

The Cartesian components of the inverse deformation gradient

are,

t

1 2 y 2

0

(1 + t )

1

F = 0

1

0

1+ t

0 0 et

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 9

Strains > Displacement Gradient Tensors

Material Displacement Gradient

Let us consider the material description of the displacement

vector field, given by,

u = U ( X,t )

Differentiating the material description of the displacements,

keeping constant the time t, using the chain rule, yields,

du = ( GRAD U ( X, t ) ) dX = ( U ( X, t ) ) dX := J ( X, t ) dX

where the non-symmetric second-order material displacement

gradient tensor, denoted as J ( X,t ), has been introduced as,

J ( X, t ) := U ( X, t ) = GRAD U ( X, t ) , J aA = U a , A

Strains > Displacement Gradient Tensors

Material Displacement Gradient

The material description of the displacement vector field may be

written as

U ( X, t ) = ( X, t ) X, U a = a X a

Taking the material gradient, the material displacement

gradient tensor may be related to the deformation gradient

tensor, yielding,

J ( X, t ) = GRAD U ( X, t ) = GRAD ( X, t ) 1 = F ( X, t ) 1,

J aA = U a , A = a , A aA = FaA aA

Strains > Displacement Gradient Tensors

Spatial Displacement Gradient

Let us consider the spatial description of the displacement

vector field, given by,

u = u ( x,t )

Differentiating the spatial description of the displacements,

keeping constant the time t, using the chain rule, yields,

du = ( grad u ( x, t ) ) dx = ( u ( x, t ) ) dx := j ( x, t ) dx

where the non-symmetric second-order spatial displacement

gradient tensor, denoted as j ( x,t ) , has been introduced as,

j ( x, t ) := u ( x, t ) = grad u ( x, t ) , j Aa := u A,a

Strains > Displacement Gradient Tensors

Spatial Displacement Gradient

The spatial description of the displacement vector field may be

written as

u ( x, t ) = x 1 ( x, t ) , u A = xA A1

Taking the spatial gradient, the spatial displacement gradient

tensor may be related to the inverse deformation gradient

tensor, yielding,

j ( x, t ) = grad u ( x, t ) = 1 grad 1 ( x, t ) = 1 F 1 ( x, t ) ,

j Aa = u A,a = Aa A1,a = Aa FAa1

Strains > Displacement Gradient Tensors

Material Time Derivative

Material Displacement

Giving the spatial description of an arbitrary property, Gradient

the material time derivative of the property can be written as,

dU ( X, t ) = J ( X, t ) dX, dU a = J aA dX A

J ( X, t ) = U ( X, t ) = GRAD U ( X, t ) , J aA = U a , A

J ( X, t ) = F ( X, t ) 1, J aA = FaA aA

j ( x, t ) = u ( x, t ) = grad u ( x, t ) , j Aa = u A,a

j ( x, t ) = 1 F 1 ( x, t ) , j Aa = Aa FAa1

Strains > Push-forward / Pull-back

Push-forward / Pull-back

Gradient of a Scalar Field

Let us consider an arbitrary scalar field such that,

= ( x, t ) = ( ( X, t ) , t ) = ( X, t )

The material gradient of a scalar field can be written as the pull-

back of the spatial gradient of the scalar field given by,

( X, t ) ( x, t ) a ( X, t )

( GRAD ( X, t ) ) A

=

X A

=

xa X A

= ( grad ( x, t ) )a FaA ( X, t ) = FAa

T

( X, t ) ( grad ( x, t ) )a

GRAD ( X, t ) = FT grad ( x, t )

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 15

Strains > Push-forward / Pull-back

Push-forward / Pull-back

Gradient of a Scalar Field

Let us consider an arbitrary scalar field such that,

= ( X, t ) = ( 1 ( x, t ) , t ) = ( x, t )

The spatial gradient of a scalar field can be written as the push-

forward of the material gradient of the scalar field given by,

( x, t ) ( X, t ) A1 ( x, t )

( grad ( x, t ) ) a

=

xa

=

X A xa

= ( GRAD ( X, t ) ) A FAa1 ( x, t ) = FaAT ( x, t ) ( GRAD ( X, t ) ) A

grad ( x, t ) = F T GRAD ( X, t )

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 16

Strains > Push-forward / Pull-back

Push-forward / Pull-back

Gradient of a Vector Field

Let us consider an arbitrary vector field u such that,

u = u ( x, t ) = u ( ( X, t ) , t ) = U ( X, t )

The material gradient of a vector field can be written as the pull-

back of the spatial gradient of the vector field given by,

U a ( X, t ) ua ( x, t ) b ( X, t )

( GRAD U ( X, t ) ) aA

=

X A

=

xb X A

= ( grad u ( x, t ) )ab FbA ( X, t )

GRAD U ( X, t ) = ( grad u ( x, t ) ) F

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 17

Strains > Push-forward / Pull-back

Push-forward / Pull-back

Gradient of a Vector Field

Let us consider an arbitrary vector field u such that,

u = U ( X, t ) = U ( 1 ( x, t ) , t ) = u ( x, t )

The spatial gradient of a vector field can be written as the push-

forward of the material gradient of the vector field given by,

u A ( x, t ) U A ( X, t ) B1 ( x, t )

( grad u ( x, t ) ) Aa

=

xa

=

X B xa

= ( GRAD U ( X, t ) ) AB FBa1 ( x, t )

grad u ( x, t ) = ( GRAD U ( X, t ) ) F 1

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 18

Strains > Push-forward / Pull-back

Push-forward / Pull-back

Divergence of a Vector Field

Let us consider an arbitrary vector field u such that,

u = u ( x, t ) = u ( ( X, t ) , t ) = U ( X, t )

The material divergence of a vector field can be written in terms

of the material or spatial gradient of the vector field as,

U A ( X, t ) u A ( x, t ) a ( X, t )

DIV U ( X, t ) = =

X A xa X A

= ( grad u ( x, t ) ) Aa FaA ( X, t ) = ( grad u ( x, t ) ) Aa FAa

T

( X, t )

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 19

Strains > Push-forward / Pull-back

Push-forward / Pull-back

Divergence of a Vector Field

Let us consider an arbitrary vector field u such that,

u = U ( X, t ) = U ( 1 ( x, t ) , t ) = u ( x, t )

The spatial divergence of a vector field can be written in terms of

the material or spatial gradient of the vector field as,

ua ( x, t ) U a ( X, t ) A1 ( x, t )

div u ( x, t ) = =

xa X A xa

= ( GRAD U ( X, t ) )aA FAa1 ( x, t ) = ( GRAD U ( X, t ) )aA FaAT ( x, t )

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 20

Strains > Strain Tensors

Deformation Tensors

Reference or Material Configuration Current or Spatial Configuration

timeReference

t = 0 Configuration Current Configuration

time t

t=0 t

Q FF

dX P

dx

P

dS ds Q

0 t

X x

Inverse Deformation Map Deformation Map

X 3 , x3

X = 1 ( x,t ) e 3 x = ( X,t )

Inverse Tangent Deformation Map e 2 X 2 , x2 Tangent Deformation Map

e1

dX = F1 ( x, t ) dx X 1 , x1

dx = F ( X, t ) dX

dS = dX ds = dx

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 21

Strains > Strain Tensors

Right Cauchy-Green Deformation Tensor

The square of the norm of the differential vector dx may be

written as,

2

ds = dx = dx dx = dX FT FdX := dX CdX,

2

T

ds 2 = dxa dxa = dX A FAa FaB dX B := dX AC AB dX B

where the symmetric positive-definite second-order right

Cauchy-Green deformation tensor, denoted as C , has been

defined as,

C := FT F, C AB := FAa

T

FaB = FaA FaB

with

2

det C := ( det F ) = J 2 > 0

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 22

Strains > Strain Tensors

Left Cauchy-Green Deformation Tensor

The square of the norm of the differential vector dX may be

written as,

2

dS = dX = dX dX = dx F T F 1dx := dx b 1dx,

2

where the symmetric positive-definite second-order left Cauchy-

Green deformation tensor, denoted as b , has been defined as,

b := FFT , bab := FaA FAb

T

= FaA FbA

with

2

det b := ( det F ) = J 2 > 0

Strains > Strain Tensors

Green-Lagrange Strain Tensor

Let us consider the following scalar quantity as strain measure,

ds 2 dS 2 = dx dx dX dX

= dX ( C 1) dX := 2dX EdX

where the symmetric second-order Green-Lagrange (or

material) strain tensor, denoted as E, has been defined as,

1 1 T 1

E := ( C 1) = ( F F 1) = ( J + JT + JT J ) ,

2 2 2

1 1 1

E AB := ( C AB AB ) = ( FaA FaB AB ) = ( J AB + J BA + J CA J CB )

2 2 2

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 24

Strains > Strain Tensors

Almansi Strain Tensor

Let us consider the following scalar quantity as strain measure,

ds 2 dS 2 = dx dx dX dX

= dx (1 b 1 ) dx := 2dx edx

where the symmetric second-order Almansi (or spatial) strain

tensor, denoted as e , has been defined as,

1 1 1

e := (1 b ) = (1 F F ) = ( j + jT jT j) ,

1 T 1

2 2 2

1 1 1

eab := ( ab bab ) = ( ab FAa FAb ) = ( jab + jba jca jcb )

1 1 1

2 2 2

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 25

Strains > Strain Tensors

Deformation Tensors

Material Time Derivative

Right Cauchy-Green

Giving the spatial description of an arbitrary property, Deformation

the material time derivativeTensor

of the property can be written as,

C := FT F, C AB := FAa

T

FaB = FaA FaB

C := 1 + 2E, C AB := AB + 2 E AB

ds 2 := dX CdX, ds 2 := dX AC AB dX B

b := FFT , bab := FaA FAb

T

= FaA FbA

b 1 := F T F 1 , bab1 := FaAT FAb1 = FAa1 FAb1

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 26

Strains > Strain Tensors

Strain Tensors

Material Time Derivative

Green-Lagrange Strain the

Giving the spatial description of an arbitrary property, Tensor

material time derivative of the property can be written as,

Strains > Strain Tensors

Strain Tensors

Material Time Derivative

Green-Lagrange Strain the

Giving the spatial description of an arbitrary property, Tensor

material time derivative of the property can be written as,

1 1 T 1

E := ( C 1) = ( F F 1) = ( J + J T + JT J ) ,

2 2 2

1 1 1

E AB := ( C AB AB ) = ( FaA FaB AB ) = ( J AB + J BA + J CA J CB )

2 2 2

Almansi Strain Tensor

1 1 1

e := (1 b ) = (1 F F ) = ( j + jT jT j) ,

1 T 1

2 2 2

1 1 1

eab := ( ab bab ) = ( ab FAa FAb ) = ( jab + jba jca jcb )

1 1 1

2 2 2

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 28

Strains > Strain Tensors

Push-forward of a Covariant Second-order Tensor

The push-forward of a covariant second-order tensor is defined

as,

b b

* ( ) := F T

()

F 1

left Cauchy-Green deformation tensors can be viewed as the

push-forward of the (covariants) Green-Lagrange strain, right

Cauchy-Green deformation and material second-order unit

tensors, respecti-vely, such that,

e = * ( E ) := F T EF 1 ,

1 = * ( C ) := F T CF 1 ,

b 1 = * (1) := F T 1F 1

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 29

Strains > Strain Tensors

Pull-back of a Covariant Second-order Tensor

The pull-back of a covariant second-order tensor is defined as,

b b

( ) := F ( ) F

* T

and material second-order unit tensors can be viewed as the

pull-back of the (covariants) Almansi strain, spatial second-order

unit and inverse of the left Cauchy-Green deformation tensors,

respectively, such that,

E = * ( e ) := FT eF,

C = * (1) := FT 1F,

1 = * ( b 1 ) := FT b 1F

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 30

Strains > Strain Tensors

Reference or Material Configuration Current or Spatial Configuration

Reference Configuration Current Configuration

time t = 0 time t

t

FF

E, C, 1 e, 1, b 1

0 t

E = FT eF e 3

e = F T EF 1

e 2 X 2 , x2

C = F 1F T

e1

1 = F T CF 1

1 = FT b 1F X 1 , x1

b 1 = F T 1F 1

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 31

Strains > Strain Tensors

Example 3.2

Example 3.2

Compute the Green-Lagrange and Almansi strain tensors for a

motion equation given by,

T

[ x] = ( X, t ) = X + Yt , Ye t

, Ze

t

Strains > Strain Tensors

Example 3.2

Example 3.2

Compute the Green-Lagrange and Almansi strain tensors for a

motion equation given by,

T

[ x] = ( X, t ) = X + Yt , Ye t

, Ze

t

and inverse deformation gradient are given by,

T

[ X] = ( x, t ) = x yte , ye , ze

1 t t t

1 t 0 1 tet 0

0 e t

[ ]

F = 0 , F = 0 et

1

0

0 0 et 0 0 et

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 33

Strains > Strain Tensors

Example 3.2

The components of the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor

and Green-Lagrange strain tensor take the form,

1 0 0 1 t 0 1 t 0

t et 0 0 et 0 = t t 2 + e2t 0

[ ]

C = F T

F =

0 0 et 0 0 et 0 0 e2t

0 t 0

1 1

[ ] (

E = C 1 )

= t t 2

+ e 2 t

1 0

2 2

0 0 e 1

2t

F = 1, C = 1, E = 0

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 34

Strains > Strain Tensors

Example 3.2

The components of the left Cauchy-Green deformation tensor

and Almansi strain tensor take the form,

1 0 0 1 te

t

0 1 tet 0

0 et t

b 1 = F T F 1 = tet et 0 0 = te (t 2

+ 1) e2t 0

0 0 et 0 0 et 0 0 2 t

e

0 tet 0

1 1 1 t

[e] = (1 b ) = te 1 ( t + 1) e

2 2t

0

2 2 2 t

0 0 1 e

F = 1, b 1 = 1, e = 0

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 35

Strains > Volumetric Deformation

Reference or Material Configuration

Current or Spatial Configuration

time t = 0 time t

X dV x

dv

0

0 t

dV = J 1dv X 3 , x3 dv = J dV

e 3

Inverse Density Map Density Map

e 2 X 2 , x2

0 = J e1 = J 1 0

X 1 , x1

Strains > Volumetric Deformation

Volumetric Deformation

Volumetric Deformation

The volumetric deformation, denoted as e, is a scalar quantity

defined as,

dv dV dv

e= = 1 = J 1

dV dV

The incompressibility condition, i.e. zero volumetric deforma-

tion, takes the form,

J =1

Strains > Area Deformation

Area Deformation

Reference or Material Configuration Current or Spatial Configuration

Reference Configuration Current Configuration

time t = 0 time t

t=0 t

FF

0 dA t

da

N X

X 3 , x3 nda

dA = dA N e 3 x

dan = da n

e 2 X 2 , x2

e1

X 1 , x1

Strains > Area Deformation

Area Deformation

Area Deformation

Let us consider a differential of area vector on the reference and

spatial configurations written in terms of the unit outward

normal to the surface on the material and spatial configurations,

respectively, given by,

dA = dA N, da = da n

Taking an arbitrary vector dX , associated differential of volumes

in the material and spatial configurations take the form,

dV = dX dA = dX dA N, dv = dx da = dx da n

where

dx = FdX, dv = JdV

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 39

Strains > Area Deformation

Area Deformation

The differential of volumes satisfy the following expression,

dv = da dx = da FdX = dX FT da

= J dV = J dA dX = dX J dA dX FT da = J dA

yielding the relation, known as Nansons formula, given by,

da = J F T dA, da n = dA J F T N

Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition

For any non-singular second-order tensor, denoted as F , there

exist two unique symmetric positive-definite second-order

tensors, denoted as U and v , and a unique proper orthogonal

second-order tensor, denoted as R , such that,

F = RU = vR, FaA = RaBU BA = vab RbA

where,

12

U = ( F F ) , U = UT , x Ux > 0 x 0

T

T 12

v = ( FF ) , v = vT , x vx > 0 x 0

R = FU 1 = v 1F, R 1 = RT , det R = 1

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 41

Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition

The polar decomposition of the deformation gradient tensor F ,

reads,

F = RU = vR, FaA = RaBU BA = vab RbA

where U is the right (or material) stretch tensor, v is the left (or

spatial) stretch tensor and R is the rotation tensor, such that,

12

U = (F F) T

= C1 2 , U = UT , x Ux > 0 x 0, det U = J

T 12

v = ( FF ) = b1 2 , v = vT , x vx > 0 x 0, det v = J

R = FU 1 = v 1F, R 1 = RT , det R = 1

Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition

The rotation tensor R rotates a material line segment dX onto

a unique spatial line segment dx = R dX , such that the norm of

the line segment is preserved.

2 2

dx = dx dx = ( R dX ) ( R dX ) = dX R R dX = dX dX = dX

T

onto unique spatial line segments dx = R dX and dy = RdY,

such that the angle between the line segments is preserved.

dx dy dX RT R dY dX dY

cos = = = = cos

dx dy dx dy dX dY

Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition

The right (or material) stretch tensor U and the left (or spatial)

stretch tensor v satisfy the following pull-back and push-forward

relations with the rotation tensor,

U = R 1F = RT F = RT vR, U AB = RaAvab RbB

v = FR 1 = FRT = RURT , vab = RaAU AB RbB

The right Cauchy-Green tensor C and the left Cauchy-Green

tensor b satisfy the following pull-back and push-forward

relations with the rotation tensor,

C = U 2 = RT vRRT vR = RT v 2 R = RT bR, C AB = RaAbab RbB

b = v 2 = RURT RURT = RU 2 RT = RCRT , bab = RaAC AB RbB

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 44

Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition

A rigid body motion satisfies the following relations,

F = R U = v =1 E =e =0

R =1 F = U = v

Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition

Any deformation can be seen either as a composition of a right

(or material) stretch, characterized by U, with a rotation,

characterized by R , given by the right polar decomposition,

F = RU, FaA = RaBU BA

dx = FdX = RUdX = R ( UdX ) , dxa = FaA dX A = RaAU AB dX B

or as a composition of a rotation, characterized by R , with a left

(or spatial) stretch, characterized by v , given by the left polar

decomposition,

F = vR, FaA = vab RbA

dx = FdX = vRdX = v ( RdX ) , dxa = FaA dX A = vab RbA dX A

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 46

Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition

Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition

Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition

Material Time Derivative

Polar Decomposition

Giving the spatial description of an arbitrary property, the material time derivative of the property can be written as,

12

U = (F F)

12

T

= C , U AB = ( FaA FaB )

12

= C1AB2

T 12

v = ( FF ) 12

= b , vab = ( FaA FbA )

12 12

= bab

Rotation Tensor

1 1

= vab FbA

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 49

Strains > Stretches

Stretches

Reference or Material Configuration Current or Spatial Configuration

Reference Configuration Current Configuration

time t = 0 time t

t=0 t

Q

T FF

dX P

dx

P

dS ds Q

0 t

t

X x

X = 1 ( x, t ) X 3 , x3

x = ( X, t )

e 3

dX = F1 ( x, t ) dx e 2 X 2 , x2

dx = F ( X, t ) dX

e1

dS = dX ds = dx

X 1 , x1

dX = TdS dx = tds

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 50

Strains > Stretches

Stretch Vectors

Material Stretch Vector

Let us denote as T the material stretch vector at a material

point X at time t, along a material direction given by the unit

vector T on the material configuration,

T ( X, t ) = F ( X, t ) T, T = FaATA a

Multiplying by dS yields,

dx = T ( X, t ) dS = F ( X, t ) TdS = F ( X, t ) dX

Taking norms, the stretch, denoted as , is defined as,

ds = T ( X, t ) dS := dS ,

12

:= T ( X, t ) = ( T F FT ) = ( T CT ) = (1 + 2T ET )

T 12 12

Strains > Stretches

Stretch Vectors

Material Stretch Vector

Let us denote as T the material stretch vector at a material

point X at time t, along a material direction given by the unit

vector T on the material configuration. The following situations

may arise

:= T ( X, t ) = 1 length does not changes

:= T ( X, t ) < 1 compression, length decreases

Strains > Stretches

Stretch Vectors

Spatial Stretch Vector

Let us denote as t the spatial stretch vector at a spatial point x

at time t, along a spatial direction given by the unit vector t on

the spatial configuration,

t ( x, t ) = F 1 ( x, t ) t, t = FAa1ta

A

Multiplying by ds yields,

dX = t ( x, t ) ds = F 1 ( x, t ) tds = F 1 ( x, t ) dx

1

Taking norms, the inverse stretch, denoted as , is defined as,

dS = t ( x, t ) ds := 1ds,

12 12

:= t ( x, t ) = ( t F F t ) = ( t b t ) = (1 2t et )

1 T 1 1 12

Strains > Stretches

Stretches

Material Time Derivative

Material Stretch

Giving the spatial description Vector the material time derivative of the property can be written as,

of an arbitrary property,

T ( X, t ) := F ( X, t ) T, T := FaATA a

ds := dS , := T ( X, t )

12

:= ( T F FT ) = ( T CT ) = (1 + 2T ET )

T 12 12

t ( x, t ) := F 1 ( x, t ) t, t := FAa1ta A

dS := 1ds, 1 := t ( x, t )

12 12

:= ( t F F t ) = ( t b t ) = (1 2t et )

1 T 1 1 12

Strains > Stretches

Green-Lagrange Strain Component E11

Let us consider a material segment dX(1) = T(1) dS along the X1-

axis on the material configuration.

The material stretch along the X1 direction will be given by,

(1) 1 2

1 := (1 + 2T ET ) 12

(1)

= (1 + 2E11 )

The length of the deformed segment will be given by,

12

ds := 1dS = (1 + 2 E11 ) dS

and the Green-Lagrange component E11 may be interpreted as,

1 ds 2 1 ds 2 dS 2

E11 = 2 1 = 2

2 dS 2 dS

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 55

Strains > Stretches

Almansi Strain Component e11

Let us consider a spatial segment dx(1) = t (1) ds along the x1-axis

on the spatial configuration.

The inverse stretch along the x1 direction will be given by,

(1) 1 2

:= (1 2t et ) 12

1

1 (1)

= (1 2e11 )

The length of the material segment will be given by,

12

dS := ds = (1 2e11 ) ds

1

1

1 dS 2 1 ds 2 dS 2

e11 = 1 2 =

2 ds 2 ds 2

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 56

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.1

Assignment 3.1

The components of the Almansi strain tensor, with reference

time t=0, are given by,

0 0

tetz

[e] = 0 0 0

tz t

te 0 t ( 2e e )

tz

curve that at time t=2 is a straight line going from point a with

coordinates (0,0,0) to point b with coordinates (1,1,1).

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.1

Assignment 3.1

The length of the curve at the reference time t=0 may be written

as,

b

L = dS = 1 ( x, t ) ds

a

The inverse of the stretch at any spatial point of the straight line,

along the (constant) direction of the straight line is given by,

1 ( x, t ) = 1 2t e ( x, t ) t

where the (constant) unit vector along the direction of the

straight line is given by,

1 T

[t ] = [1 1 1]

3

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 58

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.1

Substituting the expressions for the Almansi strain tensor and

the unit direction vector into the expression of the inverse

stretch, and particularizing for t=2, yields a uniform inverse

stretch given by,

2 t 4 2

1

( x, t ) t =2 = 1 + te = 1+ e

3 t =2

3

Substituting into the integral expression for the length yields,

b b 4 2 4 2

L = dS = 1

( x, t ) t =2 ds = a 1 + e ds = 1 + e 3

a 3 3

L = 3 + 4e2

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 59

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.2

Assignment 3.2 [Classwork]

Consider the equations of motion given by,

x = X, y = Y + Z 2t , z = Z + Y 2t

Compute at time t=1 the length of a material curve that at the

reference time t=0 was a straight line going from point A with

coordinates (0,0,0) to point B with coordinates (0,1,1).

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.2

Assignment 3.2 [Classwork]

Consider the equations of motion given by,

x = X, y = Y + Z 2t , z = Z + Y 2t

Compute at time t=1 the length of a material curve that at the

reference time t=0 was a straight line going from point A with

coordinates (0,0,0) to point B with coordinates (0,1,1).

as,

b B B

l = ds = dS = 1 + 2T ET dS

a A A

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.2

The unit vector along the straight line is given by,

1 T

[T] = [0 1 1]

2

The Green-Lagrange strain tensor is given by,

1 T 1

E = ( F F 1) = ( C 1)

2 2

The components of the deformation gradient are,

1 0 0

[F] = 0 1 2Zt

0 2Yt 1

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 62

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.2

The components of the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor

are,

1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0

[C] = 0 1 2Yt 0 1 2Zt = 0 1 + 4Y 2t 2 2Zt + 2Yt

0 2Zt 1 0 2Yt 1 0 2Zt + 2Yt 1 + 4Z 2t 2

The components of the Green-Lagrange strain tensor are,

0 0 0

0 2Y 2t 2 Zt + Yt

[ ]

E =

0 Zt + Yt 2Z t

2 2

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.2

The components of the Green-Lagrange strain tensor have to be

particularized for the points of the straight line, i.e. points that

satisfy the equation Y=Z, yielding,

0 0 0

0 2Y 2t 2 2Zt

[ ]

E =

0 2Zt 2Z 2t 2

Substituting into the expression for the stretch yields,

0 0 0 0

= 1 + [ 0 1 1] 0 2Z 2t 2 2Zt 1 = 1 + 2Zt

0 2Zt 2Z 2t 2 1

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 64

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.2

The length of the material curve at time t=1 is given by,

B

l = (1 + 2Z ) dS

A

X = 0, Y = Z

dX = 0, dY = dZ , dS = 2dZ

The length of the material curve at time t=1 is given by,

1

l = (1 + 2Z ) 2dZ = 2 2

0

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.2

Alternatively, the length of the material curve at time t=1 may be

computed as follows.

Let us consider a material differential vector at an arbitrary

point of the straight line AB, along the direction AB, given by,

T T

[ dX] = [ dX dY dZ ] = [ 0 dZ dZ ]

Using the deformation gradient computed at the points of the

straight line AB, i.e. setting X=0, Y=Z, the deformed differential

vector at the spatial configuration takes the form,

dx 1 0 0 0 0

dx = FdX, dy = 0 1 2Zt dZ = (1 + 2Zt ) 1 dZ

dz 0 2Zt 1 dZ 1

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 66

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.2

The differential of length at the spatial configuration may be

computed as,

ds = dx = dx dx = (1 + 2Zt ) 2dZ

and particularizing for t=1, yields

ds t =1 = (1 + 2Z ) 2dZ

The length of the material curve at time t=1 may be computed

as,

b 1

l = ds t =1 = (1 + 2Z ) 2dZ = 2 2

a 0

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.3

Assignment 3.3 [Homework]

Consider the equations of motion given by,

x = X + Yt , y = Y, z = Z

Compute at time t=2 the length of a material curve that at time

t=1 was a curve parametrized as,

x ( ) = 0, y ( ) = 2 , z ( ) = 0 1

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.3

Assignment 3.3 [Homework]

Consider the equations of motion given by,

x = X + Yt , y = Y, z = Z

Compute at time t=2 the length of a material curve that at time

t=1 was a curve parametrized as,

x ( ) = 0, y ( ) = 2 , z ( ) = 0 1

x* = X + Y , y* = Y , z* = Z

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.3

The material points that at time t=1 are on the given parame-

trized curve satisfy the following equations,

x* = X + Y = 0, y* = Y = 2 , z* = Z = 0 1

The inverse of the equations of motion takes the form,

X = x yt , Y = y, Z = z

Using the inverse of the equations of motion, the spatial position

of those material points is given by,

x* = x yt + y = 0, y* = y = 2 , z* = z = 0 1

And the parametrized curve at any time t>0 is given by,

x = y ( t 1) = 2 ( t 1) , y = 2, z = 0 1

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 70

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.3

The tangent to the spatial parametrized curve at any time t>0 is

given by,

dx = 2 ( t 1) d , dy = 2 d , dz = d 0 1

The differential of length reads,

2 2

ds = dx + dy + dz = 4 2 2

((t 1) + 1) + 1d

2

ds = 8 2 + 1d

The length of the material curve at time t=2 reads,

1

l = ds = 8 2 + 1d

0

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.3

Alternatively, we could change the reference configuration,

taking t=1 as new reference time. Imposing the consistency

condition at t=1 yields,

X*:= ( x, t = 1)

X * = X + Y , Y* = Y , Z* = Z

Then,

X = X * Y *, Y = Y *, Z = Z *

Substituting into the equations of motion,

x = X + Yt , y = Y, z = Z

the new equations of motion with reference time t=1 take the

form,

x = X * + ( t 1) Y *, y = Y *, z = Z *

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 72

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.3

The deformation gradient with respect to the new reference

configuration takes the form,

1 t 1 0

[F *] = 0 1 0

0 0 1

The parametrized curve at t=1 and the differential tangent vector

to the curve are given by,

T T

[ X *] = 0 2

, [ dX *] = [0 2 1] d

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.3

The differential vector at the deformed configuration takes the

form,

T

dx = F * dX*, [ dx] = 2 ( t 1) 2 1 d

The differential length is given by,

2 2

ds = dx + dy + dz = 4 2 2

((t 1) + 1) + 1d

2

ds = 8 2 + 1d

The length of the material curve at time t=2 reads,

1

l = ds = 8 2 + 1d

0

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.3

Alternatively, using also t=1 as reference time, the length of the

curve may be computed as,

l = ds = * dS *

t =2

with,

* = 1 + 2T* E*T* , dS * = 1 + 4 2 d

*

d X 1 T

T = * , dX =

* *

[0, 2 ,1]

dS 1 + 4 2

1 *T *

E = ( F F 1) , F* = * x

*

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.4

Assignment 3.4

The components of the Green-Lagrange strain tensor, with

reference time t=0, are given by,

0 tetX 0

tX

[E] = te 0 0

0 0 tetY

Compute at time t=1 the length of a material curve that at the

reference time t=0 was a straight line going from point A (1,1,1)

to point B (2,2,2).

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.4

Assignment 3.4

The components of the Green-Lagrange strain tensor, with

reference time t=0, are given by,

0 tetX 0

tX

[E] = te 0 0

0 0 tetY

as,

b B B

l = ds = dS = 1 + 2T ET dS

a A A

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.4

The unit vector is given by,

1 T

[T] = [1 1 1]

3

The material points of the straight line AB satisfy X=Y=Z and

dX=dY=dZ. Then, the Green-Lagrange strain tensor and the

differential of length, particularized at the points of the line AB,

may be written as,

0 tetX 0

tX

[E] = te 0 0

0 0 tetX

dS = dX 2 + dY 2 + dZ 2 = 3dX 2 = 3dX

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 78

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.4

The stretch at the points of the line AB along the line AB may be

written as,

= 1 + 2T ET

0 tetX 0 1

2 tX

= 1 + [1 1 1] te 0 0 1

3

0 0 tetX 1

= 1 + 2tetX

The length of the material curve at time t=1 reads,

B 2

l= 1 + 2e dS =

X

1 + 2e X 3 dX

A 1

Strains > Variation of Angles

Variation of Angles

Reference or Material Configuration Current or Spatial Configuration

Reference Configuration Current Configuration

time t = 0 time t

t=0 t

dS (2) ds (2) t (2)

T (2) FF dx(2)

R

dX(2) R P

P

0 (1) Q dx(1) Q

t

dX (1) ds (1)

dS (1) T t (1)

X X 3 , x3 x

e 3

dX( a ) = T( a ) dS ( a ) e 2 X 2 , x2 dx( a ) = t ( a ) ds ( a )

e1

(1) ( 2)

dX dX X 1 , x1 dx(1) dx( 2)

cos = cos =

dS (1) dS ( 2) ds (1) ds ( 2)

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 80

Strains > Variation of Angles

Variation of Angles

Spatial Angle

The dot product of the two differential vectors at the spatial

configuration reads,

dx(1) dx( 2) = ds(1) ds( 2) cos

Alternatively, it may be written in terms of the differential

vectors at the material configuration and using the unit vectors

and the stretches yields,

dx( ) dx( ) = dX( ) FT FdX( ) = dS ( ) dS ( ) T( ) FT FT(

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2)

= ds ds T F FT

= ds ( ) ds ( ) 1( ) 1( ) T( ) CT(

1 2 1 2 1 2)

= ds ds T (1 + 2E ) T

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 81

Strains > Variation of Angles

Variation of Angles

Spatial Angle

Comparing the two expressions, the angle between the two

segments at the spatial configuration is given by,

1 2 1 2

(

= 1 + 2T ET (1) (1)

) ( 1 + 2T ET ( 2) ( 2)

) T(1) (1 + 2E ) T( 2)

T(1) (1 + 2E ) T(2)

=

1 + 2 T(1) E T(1) 1 + 2 T(2) ET(2)

Strains > Variation of Angles

Variation of Angles

Material Angle

The dot product of the two differential vectors at the material

configuration reads,

dX( ) dX( ) = dS ( ) dS ( ) cos

1 2 1 2

vectors at the spatial configuration and using the unit vectors

and the stretches yields,

(1) ( 2) (1) T 1 ( 2) (1) ( 2) (1) T 1 ( 2)

dX dX = dx F F dx = ds ds t F F t

= dS (1) dS ( 2) (1) ( 2) t (1) F T F 1t ( 2)

(1) ( 2) (1) ( 2 ) (1) 1 ( 2)

= dS dS t b t

= dS ( ) dS ( ) ( ) ( ) t ( ) (1 2e ) t (

1 2 1 2 1 2)

Strains > Variation of Angles

Variation of Angles

Material Angle

Comparing the two expressions the angle between the two

segments at the material configuration is given by,

1 2 1 2

(

= 1 2t et (1) (1)

) ( 1 2t et ( 2) ( 2)

) t ( ) (1 2e ) t (

1 2)

t (1) (1 2e ) t (2)

=

1 2 t (1) e t (1) 1 2 t (2) e t (2)

Strains > Variation of Angles

Variation of Angles

Material Time Derivative

Spatial Angle

Giving the spatial description of an arbitrary property, the material time derivative of the property can be written as,

T(1) (1 + 2E ) T(2)

cos = T(1) T(2) , cos =

1 + 2 T(1) E T(1) 1 + 2 T(2) E T(2)

Material Angle

t (1) (1 2e ) t (2)

cos = , cos = t (1) t (2)

1 2 t (1) e t (1) 1 2 t (2) e t (2)

Strains > Variation of Angles

Green-Lagrange Strain Component E12

Let us consider material segments dX(1) = T(1) dS (1) and

dX(2) = T(2) dS (2) along the X1- and X2-axis, respectively, on the

material configuration.

The angle between the two segments at the spatial configura-

tion is given by,

T(1) (1 + 2E ) T(2) 2 E12

cos 12 = =

1 + 2T(1) ET(1) 1 + 2T(2) ET(2) 1 + 2 E11 1 + 2 E22

The Green-Lagrange component E12 may be interpreted as,

1 1 ds (1) ds (2)

E12 = 1 + 2 E11 1 + 2 E22 cos 12 = (1) (2)

cos 12

2 2 dS dS

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 86

Strains > Variation of Angles

Green-Lagrange Strain Component E12

Taking into account that the initial angle between the two

segments at the reference configuration is 90, the angle

increment may be written as,

2 E12

12 := 12 = arcsin

2 1 + 2 E11 1 + 2 E22

The Green-Lagrange component E12 may be interpreted as,

1 1 ds (1) ds (2)

E12 = 1 + 2 E11 1 + 2 E22 sin 12 = (1) (2)

sin 12

2 2 dS dS

Strains > Variation of Angles

Almansi Strain Component e12

Let us consider spatial segments dx(1) = t (1) ds and dx(2) = t (2) ds

along the x1- and x2-axis, respectively, on the spatial configu-

ration.

The angle between the two segments at the material configura-

tion is given by,

t (1) (1 2e ) t (2) 2e12

cos 12 = =

1 2t (1) et (1) 1 2t (2) et (2) 1 2e11 1 2e22

The Almansi strain component e12 may be interpreted as,

1 1 dS (1) dS (2)

e12 = 1 2e11 1 2e22 cos 12 = (1) (2)

cos 12

2 2 ds ds

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 88

Strains > Variation of Angles

Almansi Strain Component e12

Taking into account that the deformed angle between the two

segments at the spatial configuration is 90, the angle increment

may be written as,

2e12

12 := 12 = arcsin

2 1 2e11 1 2e22

The Almansi strain component e12 may be interpreted as,

1 1 dS (1) dS (2)

e12 = 1 2e11 1 2e22 sin 12 = (1) (2)

sin 12

2 2 ds ds

Strains > Variation of Angles

Assignment 3.5

Assignment 3.5

The equations of motion are given by,

x = X, y = Y , z = Z Xt

Consider two differential segments which at time t=1 are parallel

to the Cartesian axes x and z. Compute which was the angle

formed by those two segments at the reference time t=0.

Strains > Variation of Angles

Assignment 3.5

Assignment 3.5

The equations of motion are given by,

x = X, y = Y , z = Z Xt

Consider two differential segments which at time t=1 are parallel

to the Cartesian axes x and z. Compute which was the angle

formed by those two segments at the reference time t=0.

along the Cartesian axes x and z given by,

T T

t (1) = [1 0 0] , t (2) = [ 0 0 1]

Strains > Variation of Angles

Assignment 3.5

The angle between those two unit vectors at the reference

configuration may be written as,

t (1) (1 2e ) t (2) 2e13

cos 13 = =

1 2t (1) et (1) 1 2t (2) et (2) 1 2e11 1 2e33

The inverse motion equations are given by,

X = x, Y = y, Z = z + xt

The invese deformation gradient is given by,

1 0 0

F 1 = 0 1 0

t 0 1

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 92

Strains > Variation of Angles

Assignment 3.5

The Almansi strain tensor is given by,

1 1

e :=

2

(1 b 1

)= 2

( 1 F F )

T 1

1 0 t 1 0 0 t 2

0 t

1 1

[e] := [1] 0 1 0 0 1 0 = 0 0 0

2 2

0 0 1 t 0 1 t 0 0

Then the angle at the reference configuration is given by,

2e13 t 1

cos 13 = = =

1 2e11 1 2e33 1+ t2 t =1

2

Strains > Variation of Angles

Assignment 3.5

Alternatively, we could obtain the angle at the reference

configuration as follows. Let us consider at the spatial

configuration t=1, two differential vectors along the Cartesian

axes x and z given by,

T T

dx = [1 0 0] dx, dx = [ 0 0 1] dz

(1) (2)

configuration will be given by,

T T

dX = [1 0 t ] dx, dX = [ 0 0 1] dz

(1) (2)

Strains > Variation of Angles

Assignment 3.5

The dot product of the two differential vectors at the reference

configuration takes the form,

dX(1) dX(2) = tdxdz

The norms of the differential vectors at the reference

configuration are given by,

The angle between the two segments at the reference

configuration reads,

dX(1) dX( 2) t 1

cos = = =

dX(1) dX( 2) 1 + t 2 t =1 2

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 95

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.6

Assignment 3.6

The sphere of the figure is subjected to a finite uniform deforma-

tion, with uniform deformation gradient. The motion is such

that,

i. The origin O does not moves

ii. Material points A, B and C move to spatial positions A, B and

C, where AA=p>0, BB=CC=q>0. z

C

1) Obtain the deformation gradient,

R

Green-Lagrange and Almansi strain C

B B

y

field.

A

x

if the material is incompressible.

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 96

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.6

Assignment 3.6

As the deformation gradient is uniform,

F = F ( X,t ) = F ( t ) dx = F ( t ) dX

the equation of motion is linear and may be easily obtained

yielding,

x = F (t ) X + C (t )

Condition 1. The material point O does not moves,

x O = F ( t ) XO + C ( t )

0 F11 F12 F13 0 C1

0 = F F22 F23 0 + C2 C1 = C2 = C3 = 0

21

0 F31 F32 F33 0 C3

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 97

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.6

Condition 2. The material point A moves to the position A,

x A = F (t ) X A

R + p F11 F12 F13 R

0 = F F22 F23 0 F11 = 1 + p R , F21 = F31 = 0

21

0 F31 F32 F33 0

xB = F ( t ) XB

0 1 + p R F12 F13 0

R q = 0 F22 q

F23 R F22 = 1 , F12 = F32 = 0

R

0 0 F32 F33 0

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 98

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.6

Condition 4. The material point C moves to the position C,

x C = F ( t ) XC

0 1 + p R 0 F13 0

0 = 0 1 q R F 0 F = 1 q R , F = F = 0

23 33 13 23

R q 0 0 F33 R

1 + p R 0 0

0

[ ]

F = 1 q R 0

0 0 1 q R

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.6

The motion equation takes the form,

x 1 + p R 0 0 X

y = 0 1 q R 0 Y

z 0 0 1 q R Z

The displacement vector field takes the form,

u = U ( X, t ) = F ( t ) X X = ( F ( t ) 1) X = J ( t ) X

ux p R 0 0 X

u = 0 q R 0 Y

y

uz 0 0 q R Z

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.6

The Green-Lagrange strain tensor takes the form,

1 T

E = ( F F 1)

2

(1 + p R )2 1 0 0

1 2

[ E] = 0 (1 q R ) 1 0

2 2

0 0 (1 q R ) 1

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.6

The Almansi strain tensor takes the form,

1

e = (1 F T F 1 )

2

1 1 (1 + p R )2 0 0

1 2

[e] = 0 1 1 (1 q R ) 0

2 2

0 0 1 1 (1 q R )

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.6

If the material is incompressible, the following condition has to

be verified,

J = det F ( t ) = 1

Then,

1+ p R 0 0

2

det F ( t ) = 0 1 q R 0 = (1 + p R )(1 q R ) = 1

0 0 1 q R

2

p = R (1 q R ) R

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.7

Assignment 3.7 [Classwork]

The solid of the figure is subjected to a finite linear displace-

ment field, yielding a uniform deformation gradient, such that,

i. The displacements of the material points A, B and C are zero.

ii. The volume of the solid becomes p2 Fmes the initial one.

iii. The length of the material segment AE becomes p times the

initial one. z

D F

Obtain the deformation gradient, and

the material and spatial descriptions of a

a A C

B

x

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 104

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.7

Assignment 3.7 [Classwork]

As the deformation gradient is uniform,

F = F ( X,t ) = F ( t ) dx = F ( t ) dX

the equation of motion is linear and may be easily obtained

yielding,

x = F (t ) X + C (t )

Condition 1. The material point A does not moves,

xA = F (t ) XA + C (t )

0 F11 F12 F13 0 C1

0 = F F22 F23 0 + C2 C1 = C2 = C3 = 0

21

0 F31 F32 F33 0 C3

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 105

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.7

Condition 2. The material point B does not moves,

xB = F ( t ) XB

a F11 F12 F13 a

0 = F F22 F23 0 F11 = 1, F21 = F31 = 0

21

0 F31 F32 F33 0

x C = F ( t ) XC

0 1 F12 F13 0

a = 0 F F23 a F22 = 1, F12 = F32 = 0

22

0 0 F32 F33 0

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 106

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.7

The deformation gradient takes the form,

1 0 F13

0 1 F

[ ]

F = 23

0 0 F33

Condition 4. The volume of the solid becomes p2 Fmes the

initial one.

dV = ( det F ( t ) ) dV0 V = ( det F ( t ) ) V0 = p 2V0

det F ( t ) = F33 = p 2

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.7

Condition 5. The length of the material segment AE becomes p

times the initial one.

T

[ dX] = [ dX 0 dX ]

dx 1 0 F13 dX 1 + F13

dx = F ( t ) dX dy = 0 1 F23 0 = F23 dX

dz 0 0 p 2 dX p 2

2 2

ds = dx = ( 13 ) ( 23 )

1 + F + F + 2 p 2

dX

e a

ae = ds =

2 2

a 0

(1 + F13 ) + ( F23 ) + 2 p 2 dX

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.7

2 2

pa 2 = (1 + F13 ) + ( F23 ) + 2 p 2 a

2 2

2 p = (1 + F13 ) + ( F23 ) + 2 p 2

2

2 2

1 + F13 ) + ( F23 ) = 0 F13 = 1, F23 = 0

(

=0 =0

1 0 1

F ( t ) = 0 1 0

0 0 p 2

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.7

The motion equation takes the form,

x 1 0 1 X

y = 0 1

0 Y

z 0 0 p 2 Z

the form,

u x 1 0 1 X X 0 0 1 X

u = 0 1

0 Y Y = 0 0

0 Y

y

uz 0 0 p 2 Z Z 0 0 p 2 1 Z

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 110

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.7

The inverse of the motion equation takes the form,

X 1 0 1 p 2 x

Y = 0 1 0

y

Z 0 0 1 p 2 z

the form,

ux 1 0 1 p 2 x

u = 0 0 0

y

y

uz 0 0 1 1 p 2 z

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 111

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.8

Assignment 3.8 [Homework]

The solid of the figure is subjected to a finite linear displace-

ment field, yielding a uniform deformation gradient, such that,

i. The displacements of the material points O, A and B are zero.

ii. The volume of the solid becomes p times the initial one.

iii. The length of the material segment AC becomes p/2 times

the initial one. z

and OC is 45

a

Obtain the deformation gradient, and

B y

the material and spatial descriptions of a

O a

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.8

Assignment 3.8 [Homework]

As the deformation gradient is uniform,

F = F ( X,t ) = F ( t ) dx = F ( t ) dX

the equation of motion is linear and may be easily obtained

yielding,

x = F (t ) X + C (t )

Condition 1. The material point O does not moves,

x O = F ( t ) XO + C ( t )

0 F11 F12 F13 0 C1

0 = F F22 F23 0 + C2 C1 = C2 = C3 = 0

21

0 F31 F32 F33 0 C3

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 113

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.8

Condition 2. The material point A does not moves,

xA = F (t ) XA

a F11 F12 F13 a

0 = F F22 F23 0 F11 = 1, F21 = F31 = 0

21

0 F31 F32 F33 0

xB = F ( t ) XB

0 1 F12 F13 0

a = 0 F F23 a F22 = 1, F12 = F32 = 0

22

0 0 F32 F33 0

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 114

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.8

The deformation gradient takes the form,

1 0 F13

[F ] = 0 1 F23

0 0 F33

Condition 4. The volume of the solid becomes p times the initial

one.

dV = ( det F ( t ) ) dV0 V = ( det F ( t ) )V0 = pV0

det F ( t ) = F33 = p

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.8

Condition 5. The length of the material segment AE becomes

p/2 times the initial one.

C C p

lac = AC dS = 1 + 2T ETdS = LAC

A A

2

As the stretch is uniform,

p

lac = 1 + 2T ET LAC = LAC

2

yielding,

p2 p2

1 + 2T ET = 2T ET = 1

2 2

The unit vector is given by,

1 T

[T] = [ 1 0 1]

2

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 116

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.8

The Green-Lagrange strain tensor takes the form,

1 T

E = ( F F 1)

2

1 0 0 1 0 F13

1

[E] = 0 1 0 0 1 F23 [1]

2

F

13 F23 p

0 0 p

0 0 F13

1

[ E] = 0 0 F23

2

F13 F23 F132 + F232 + p 2 1

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.8

Substituting yields,

0 0 F13 1

2T ET = [ 1 0 1] 0 0

1

0 F23

2

F13 F23 F132 + F232 + p 2 1 1

2

1 p

= ( 2 F13 + F132 + F232 + p 2 1) = 1

2 2

2

2 F13 + F + F + 1 = ( F13 1) + F232 = 0 F13 = 1, F23 = 0

2

13

2

23

=0 =0

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.8

The deformation gradient takes the form,

1 0 1

0 1 0

[ ]

F =

0 0 p

The Green-Lagrange strain tensor takes the form,

0 0 1

1

[ E] = 0 0 0

2

1 0 p 2

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.8

Condition 6. The deformed angle between OA and OC is 45.

2 Exz 2

cos xz = =

1 + 2 Exx 1 + 2 Ezz 2

Substituting,

2 Exz 1

2

cos xz = = =

1 + 2 Exx 1 + 2 Ezz 1 + p2 2

1 1

2

= p 2

= 1 p = 1

1+ p 2

J = det F = p > 0 p = 1

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.8

The deformation gradient takes the form,

1 0 1

0 1 0

[ ]

F =

0 0 1

The Green-Lagrange strain tensor takes the form,

0 0 1

[E] = 0 0 0

1

2

1 0 1

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.8

The displacement vector field is given by,

u = x X = ( F 1) X = JX

The material and spatial descriptions of the displacement vector

field are given by,

U x 0 0 1 X Z ux z

[u] = U y = 0 0 0 Y = 0 , [ u ] = u y = 0

U z 0 0 0 Z 0 uz 0

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.9

Assignment 3.9

The solid of the figure is subjected to a deformation, such that,

i. The displacement is linear on X, Y and Z and skew-symmetric

with respect to the plane Y=0, such that U(X,Y,Z)=-U(X,-Y,Z)

for any X, Y, Z.

ii. The volume of the solid becomes remains constant.

iii. The angle given by OA, OB remains constant, equal to 90.

iv. The length of the material segment OB Z, w

vector field. A

D

X, u

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 123

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.9

Assignment 3.9

The solid is subjected to finite displacements.

Condition 1. The displacement field is linear on X, Y and Z, hence

the material displacement gradient is uniform and the

displacement vector field may be written as,

U ( X,t ) = J ( t ) X + C ( t )

U x J11 J12 J13 X C1

U = J J 22 J 23 Y + C2

y 21

U z J 31 J 32 J 33 Z C3

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.9

Condition 2. The displacement field is skew-symmetric with

respect to the plane Y=0.

U ( X , Y , Z ) = U ( X , Y , Z ) X , Y , Z

J11 J12 J13 X C1 J11 J12 J13 X C1

J J 22 J 23 Y + C2 = J 21 J 22 J 23 Y C2

21

J 31 J 32 J 33 Z C3 J 31 J 32 J 33 Z C3

C1 = C2 = C3 = 0

J11 = J 21 = J 31 = 0

J = J = J = 0

13 23 33

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.9

Then the displacement field takes the form,

U x 0 J12 0 X

U = 0 J

0 Y

y 22

U z 0 J 32 0 Z

Condition 3. The volume of the solid remains constant.

dV = ( det F ( t ) ) dV0 V = ( det F ( t ) )V0 = V0

det F ( t ) = det (1 + J ( t ) ) = 1 + J 22 = 1 J 22 = 0

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.9

Then the displacement field takes the form,

U x 0 J12 0 X

U = 0 0

0 Y

y

U z 0 J 32 0 Z

Condition 4. The angle given by OA and OB remains constant, i.e.

the deformed angle is 90.

2 E12

cos 12 = = 0 E12 = 0

1 + 2 E11 1 + 2 E22

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.9

Then Green-Lagrange strain tensor takes the form,

1 T 1

E = ( F F 1) = ( J + J T + J T J ) ,

2 2

1 0 0 1 J12 0

1

[E] = J12 1 J 32 0 1 0 [1]

2

0 0 1

0 J 32 1

0 J12 0

1

[E] = J12 J122 + J 322 J 32 E12 = J12 = 0

2

0 J 32 0

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.9

Then the displacement field takes the form,

U x 0 0 0 X

U = 0 0

0 Y

y

U z 0 J 32 0 Z

Condition 4. The length of the segment OB becomes 2 Fmes the

initial one, i.e. the length of the deformed segment is a2.

b B B

lob = ds = dS = 1 + 2T ET dS

o O O

The unit vector along the line OB is given by,

T

[ T] = [ 0 1 0]

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 129

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.9

Then the Green-Lagrange strain tensor takes the form,

0 0 0

1

[E] = 0 J 322 J 32

2

0 J 32 0

Substituting into the stretch and the integral expression yields,

B

lob = 1 + 2 E22 dS = a 1 + 2 E22 = a 2 E22 = 1 2

O

1 2 1

E22 = J 32 = J 32 = 1

2 2

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.9

Then the displacement field takes the form,

U x 0 0 0 X

U = 0 0 0 Y

y

U z 0 1 0 Z

and the Green-Lagrange strain tensor takes the form,

0 0 0

[E] = 0 1 1

1

2

0 1 0

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.9

Condition 6. The z-displacement of the point B is positive.

Uz B

= Y B

= a > 0 U z = Y

U x 0 0 0 X

U = 0 0 0 Y

y

U z 0 1 0 Z

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.9

The material diplacement gradient and the deformation

gradient tensors take the form,

0 0 0 1 0 0

0 0 0 , 0 1 0

[ ]

J = [ ] [ ]

F = 1 + J =

0 1 0 0 1 1

The Green-Lagrange strain tensor takes the form,

0 0 0

E = ( F F 1) , [ E] = 0 1 1

1 T 1

2 2

0 1 0

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Reference or Material Configuration Current or Spatial Configuration

Reference Configuration Current Configuration

time t = 0 time t

t=0 t

v

Q FF

dX P

dx

P v + dv

dS ds Q

0 t

X x

X 3 , x3

e 3

e 2 X 2 , x2

e1

X 1 , x1

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Spatial Velocity Gradient Tensor

Let us consider the spacial velocity vector field at a spatial point

and time t, given by,

v = v ( x,t )

Differentiating the spatial velocity field, keeping constant the

configuration at time t, using the chain rule, yields,

dv = ( grad v ( x, t ) ) dx = ( v ( x, t ) ) dx := l ( x, t ) dx

where the non-symmetric second-order spatial velocity gradient

tensor, denoted as l ( x,t ), has been introduced as,

l ( x, t ) := v ( x, t ) = grad v ( x, t ) , lab = va ,b

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Deformation and Rotation Rate Tensors

The spatial velocity gradient tensor can be split into symmetric

and skew-symmetric parts, yielding,

l ( x, t ) = symm l ( x, t ) + skew l ( x, t ) := d ( x, t ) + w ( x, t )

where the symmetric spatial deformation rate tensor, denoted

as d ( x,t ) , has been defined as,

1 1

2

T

2

(

d := symm [ l ] = ( l + l ) = grad v + ( grad v )

T

)

and the skew-symmetric spatial rotation rate tensor, denoted as

w ( x,t ) , has been defined as,

1 1

2

T

2

(

w := skew [ l ] = ( l l ) = grad v ( grad v )

T

)

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 136

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Deformation Rate

Deformation Rate Tensor

The symmetric spatial deformation rate tensor, denoted as d ( x, t ) ,

may be viewed as a measure of the rate of deformation given by,

d d d

dt

( ds dS ) = ( ds ) = ( dx dx ) = dv dx + dx dv

2 2

dt

2

dt

Using the expression dv = l dx yields,

d d 1

dt

( ds 2

dS 2

) =

dt

( ds 2

) = 2 dx

2

( l + l T

) dx = 2 dx d dx

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Deformation Rate

Deformation Rate Tensor

The symmetric spatial deformation rate tensor, denoted as d ( x, t ) ,

may be related to the material time derivative of the Green-

Lagrange strain tensor as,

d d

dt

( ds dS ) = ( 2dX EdX ) = 2dX EdX

2 2

dt

d

( ds 2

dS 2

) = 2 dx d dx = 2 dX F T

dFdX

dt

= FT dF, d = F T EF

E 1

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Deformation Rate

Deformation Rate Tensor

The symmetric spatial deformation rate tensor, denoted as d ( x, t ) ,

may be related to the material time derivative of the Almansi

strain tensor as,

d d

dt

( ds dS ) = ( 2dx edx )

2 2

dt

= 2 ( dx e dx + dv edx + dx edv )

= 2dx ( e + l e + el ) dx

T

d

( ds 2

dS 2

) = 2 dx d dx

dt

d = e + lT e + el, e = d lT e el

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 139

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Rotation Rate

Rotation Rate Tensor

The skew-symmetric spatial rotation rate tensor, denoted as w ( x, t ) ,

satisfies the following expressions,

w dx = dx dx, wab dxb = abcb dxc

1 1 1 vc 1

= curl v = v, a = abc = abc vc ,b

2 2 2 xb 2

where is the axial (or dual) rotation rate vector.

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Rotation Rate

Rotation Rate Tensor

The components of the skew-symmetric spatial rotation rate

tensor w and the components of the axial (or dual) rotation rate

vector , are such that,

0 w12 w13 0 3 2

w w23 = 3 1

[ ] 12

w = 0 0

w13 w23 0 2 1 0

1 w23

= w

[ ] 2 13

=

3 w12

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 141

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Material Time Derivative

Spatial Velocity

Giving the spatial description of an arbitraryGradient

property, Tensor

the material time derivative of the property can be written as,

l := grad v = v, lab := va ,b

l = sym [ l ] + skew [ l ] := d + w

l + l ) = ( v + ( v )

),

1 1 1

d :=

2

( T

2

T

d ab :=

2

( v a ,b + vb ,a )

w := ( l l ) = ( v ( v ) ) ,

1 1 1

2 2

T T

wab :=

2

( v a ,b vb ,a )

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Assignment 3.10

Assignment 3.10 [Classwork]

Consider two different motions with velocity vector fields given

by,

T

v = V

I I

( X , Y , Z ) = [ Z X Z]

T

v II = v II ( x, y, z ) = [ z x z]

Assuming that the reference time is t=0, obtain for each one of

the motions,

1) The motion equation and the deformation gradient

2) The Green-Lagrange and the Almansi strain tensors

3) The deformation rate tensor

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Assignment 3.10

Assignment 3.10 [Classwork]

Setting the differential equations of motion for the field (I),

integrating in time and imposing the consistency condition for a

reference time t=0 yields the motion equations given by,

dx I

dt = V x = Z

x = X + Zt

dy

= V I

y = X y = Y + Xt

dt z = Z (1 + t )

dz I

dt = Vz = Z

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Assignment 3.10

The deformation gradient for the motion field (I) reads,

1 0 t

[F] = t 1 0

0 0 1 + t

The Green-Lagrange strain tensor for the motion field (I) reads,

1 T

E = ( F F 1)

2

t 2 t t

1

[ E] = t 0 0

2

t 0 2t (1 + t )

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 145

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Assignment 3.10

The inverse motion equation for the motion field (I) reads,

X = x zt (1 + t )

Y = y xt zt 2

(1 + t )

Z = z (1 + t )

The inverse deformation gradient for the motion field (I) reads,

1 0 t (1 + t )

F 1 = t 1 t 2 (1 + t )

0 0 1 (1 + t )

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Assignment 3.10

The Almansi strain tensor for the motion field (I) reads,

1

e = (1 F T F 1 )

2

t 2 t t (1 t )

1

[e] = t 0 t (1 + t )

2

2 2

t (1 t ) t (1 + t ) 1 ( t + t + 1) (1 + t )

2 4 2

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Assignment 3.10

The spatial velocity vector field for the motion field (I) reads,

vx = z (1 + t )

v y = x zt (1 + t )

v = z (1 + t )

z

The spatial velocity gradient tensor for the motion field (I)

reads,

0 0 1 (1 + t )

[ l ] = [ v] = 1 0 t (1 + t )

0 0 1 (1 + t )

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Assignment 3.10

The deformation rate tensor for the motion field (I) reads,

1

d = ( l + lT )

2

0 1 1 (1 + t )

1

[d ] = 1 0 t (1 + t )

2

1 (1 + t ) t (1 + t ) 2 (1 + t )

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Assignment 3.10

The differential equations of motion for the field (II) read,

dx II

dt = v x = z

dy II

= v y = x

dt

dz II

dt = v z = z

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Assignment 3.10

Integrating the differential equations of motion for the field (II)

yields,

dz dz z

=z = dt log = t z = C3et

dt z C3

dx

= z = C3et x = C1 + C3et

dt

dy

= x = C1 + C3et y = C1t + C2 + C3et

dt

Imposing the consistency condition, taking t=0 as reference time,

yields,

C1 = X Z , C2 = Y Z , C3 = Z

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 151

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Assignment 3.10

The canonical form of the equations of motion for the field (II)

read,

x = X + Z ( et 1)

y = Y + Xt + Z ( t 1)

e t

t

z = Ze

1 0 et 1

[ ]

F = t 1 e t

t 1

0 0 e t

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 152

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Assignment 3.10

The Green-Lagrange strain tensor for the field (II) reads,

1 T

E = ( F F 1)

2

t2 t ( ) ( t ) 1

1 + t e t

1

[ E] = t 0 t

e t 1

2 2

(1 + t ) ( e t ) 1 e t 1 3e ( 2t + 4 ) e + (1 + t )

t t 2t t

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Assignment 3.10

The inverse of the equations of motion for the field (II) reads,

X = x z (1 et )

Y = y xt + zt ( t 1 + e t

)

t

Z = ze

The inverse deformation gradient for the motion field (II) reads,

1 0 et 1

F 1 = t 1 t 1 + et

0 0 e t

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Assignment 3.10

The Almansi strain tensor for the field (II) reads,

1

e = (1 F T F 1 )

2

t 2 t (

1 (1 t ) t + et )

1

[e] = t 0 1 t e t

2

(

1 1 t )( t + e t

) 1 t e t

e + (1 t ) ( 2e + t 1)

2t t

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Assignment 3.10

The spatial velocity gradient for the field (II) reads,

0 0 1

1 0 0

[] [

l = v ]

=

0 0 1

The deformation rate tensor for the field (II) reads,

1

d = ( l + lT )

2

0 1 1

1

[ ]

d = 1 0 0

2

1 0 2

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 156

Strains > Material Time Derivatives

Material Time Derivative of the Deformation Gradient

The material time derivative of the deformation gradient reads,

d a a va b

FaA = = = = lab FbA

dt X A X A t xb X A

The material time derivative of the inverse deformation gradient

may be computed as follows,

d d 1 d 1

dt

( FF ) = FF + F ( F ) = l + F ( F ) = 0

1 1

dt dt

d 1

dt

( F ) = F 1

l

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 157

Strains > Material Time Derivatives

Material Time Derivative of the Green-Lagrange Strain

The material time derivative of the Green-Lagrange strain tensor

reads,

E = 1 C

= 1 d ( FT F )

2 2 dt

1 T T 1 T

= ( F F + F F ) = F ( l + lT ) F

2 2

= FT dF

Strains > Material Time Derivatives

Material Time Derivative of the Green-Lagrange Strain

The material time derivative of the Green-Lagrange strain tensor

may be viewed as the pull-back of the (covariant) spatial

deformation rate tensor,

= * ( d ) = FT dF

E

The spatial deformation rate tensor may be viewed as the push-

forward of the (covariant) material time derivative of the Green-

Lagrange strain tensor

d = * ( E

) = F T EF

1

Strains > Material Time Derivatives

Material Time Derivative of the Almansi Strain

The material time derivative of the Almansi strain tensor reads,

1 d 1 1 d T 1

e =

2 dt

( b )=

2 dt

( F F )

1 d T 1 T d 1

= (F ) F + F ( F )

2 dt dt

1 T T 1

= ( l F F + F T F 1lT )

2

1 T 1 1

= (l b + b l)

2

Strains > Material Time Derivatives

Material Time Derivative of the Jacobian

The material time derivative of the Jacobian reads,

d d F dF d F d F

J= F= : = :F = : ( lF )

dt dF dt dF dF

dF T dF

=JF , = J FaAT

dF dFaA

d d F dFaA

J= F= = J FaAT lab FbA = J FbA FAa1lab = J laa = Jva ,a

dt dFaA dt

J = J div v

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 161

Strains > Material Time Derivatives

Material Time Derivative of the Differential of Volume

The material time derivative of the differential of volume reads,

d d

( dv ) = ( J dV ) = J dV = J div v dV = div v dv

dt dt

The material time derivative of the differential of area reads,

d d

( da ) = ( J F T dA ) = ( ( div v ) 1 lT ) J F T dA

dt dt

= ( ( div v ) 1 lT ) da

Strains > Material Time Derivatives

Material Time Derivative

Giving the spatial description of an Gradient

Deformation arbitrary property, the material time derivative of the property can be written as,

F = l F

Strain Tensors

= FT dF

E

1 T 1 1

e = ( l b + b l ) = d l T e e l

2

Jacobian

J = J div v

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