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Continuum Mechanics

Chapter 3
Kinematics: Strains
C. Agelet de Saracibar
ETS Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politcnica de Catalua (UPC), Barcelona, Spain
International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering (CIMNE), Barcelona, Spain
Strains > Contents

Contents
Chapter 3 Strains
1. Tangent deformation map
2. Displacement gradient tensors
3. Strain tensors
4. Volumetric deformation
5. Area deformation
6. Polar decomposition
7. Stretches
8. Variation of angles
9. Assignments
10. Spatial velocity gradient
11. Material time derivatives
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Strains > Tangent Deformation Map

Tangent Deformation Map

Reference or Material Configuration Current or Spatial Configuration
Reference Configuration Current Configuration
time t = 0 time t
t=0 t

Q FF
dX P
dx
P
dS ds Q
0 t

X x
Inverse Deformation Map X 3 , x3
Deformation Map
X = 1 ( x,t ) e 3 x = ( X,t )
Inverse Tangent Deformation Map e 2 X 2 , x2 Tangent Deformation Map
e1
dX = F 1
( x, t ) dx X 1 , x1 dx = F ( X, t ) dX

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Strains > Tangent Deformation Map

Tangent Deformation Map

Let us consider the deformation map given by,
x = ( X,t )
Differentiating the deformation map, keeping constant the
configuration at time t, using the chain rule, yields,

dx = ( GRAD ( X, t ) ) dX = ( ( X, t ) ) dX := F ( X, t ) dX
where the non-symmetric second-order deformation gradient
tensor, denoted as F ( X,t ) , has been introduced as,

F ( X, t ) := ( X, t ) = GRAD ( X, t ) , FaA := a , A

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Strains > Tangent Deformation Map

Tangent Deformation Map

Let us consider the inverse deformation map given by,
X = 1 ( x,t )
Differentiating the inverse deformation map, keeping constant
the configuration at time t, using the chain rule, yields,

dX = ( grad 1 ( x, t ) ) dx = ( 1 ( x, t ) ) dx := F 1 ( x, t ) dx
where the non-symmetric second-order inverse deformation
gradient tensor, denoted as F 1 ( X,t ) , has been introduced as,

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Strains > Tangent Deformation Map

Tangent Deformation Map

Let us consider a uniform deformation gradient such that,

dx = F ( t ) dX, dxa = FaA ( t ) dX A

As the deformation gradient is uniform, the deformation map is
linear and it can be easily obtained, integrating, yielding,

x = F ( t ) X + C ( t ) , xa = FaA ( t ) X A + Ca ( t )

where C ( t ) is a vector of integration constants, such that,

assuming the reference time is t=0, satisfies the condition
C ( 0) = 0 .

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Strains > Tangent Deformation Map

Tangent Deformation Map

Material Time Derivative
Giving the spatial description of an Gradient
Deformation arbitrary property, the material time derivative of the property can be written as,

dx = F ( X, t ) dX, dxa = FaA dX A

F ( X, t ) := ( X, t ) = GRAD ( X, t ) , FaA = a , A
J := det F ( X, t ) = det ( GRAD ( X, t ) ) > 0

dX = F 1 ( x, t ) dx, dX A = FAa1dxa
F 1 ( x, t ) := 1 ( x, t ) = grad 1 ( x, t ) , FAa1 := A1,a
J 1 := det F 1 ( x, t ) = det ( grad 1 ( x, t ) ) > 0
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Strains > Tangent Deformation Map

Example 3.1
Example 3.1
Compute the deformation gradient and inverse deformation
gradient for a motion equation with Cartesian components,
T
( X, t ) = X + Y t Y (1 + t ) Ze
2 t

The Cartesian components of the deformation gradient are,

1 2Yt 0
0 1 + t 0
[ ]
F =
0 0 et
and the jacobian takes the value,
J = det F = (1 + t ) et > 0
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Strains > Tangent Deformation Map

Example 3.1
The Cartesian components of the inverse motion equation are,
T
t y
( x, t ) = x y
1 2
2
t
ze
(1 + t ) 1+ t
The Cartesian components of the inverse deformation gradient
are,
t
1 2 y 2
0
(1 + t )
1
F = 0
1
0
1+ t
0 0 et

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Strains > Displacement Gradient Tensors

Let us consider the material description of the displacement
vector field, given by,
u = U ( X,t )
Differentiating the material description of the displacements,
keeping constant the time t, using the chain rule, yields,

du = ( GRAD U ( X, t ) ) dX = ( U ( X, t ) ) dX := J ( X, t ) dX
where the non-symmetric second-order material displacement
gradient tensor, denoted as J ( X,t ), has been introduced as,

J ( X, t ) := U ( X, t ) = GRAD U ( X, t ) , J aA = U a , A

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Strains > Displacement Gradient Tensors

The material description of the displacement vector field may be
written as
U ( X, t ) = ( X, t ) X, U a = a X a
Taking the material gradient, the material displacement
gradient tensor may be related to the deformation gradient
tensor, yielding,
J ( X, t ) = GRAD U ( X, t ) = GRAD ( X, t ) 1 = F ( X, t ) 1,
J aA = U a , A = a , A aA = FaA aA

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Strains > Displacement Gradient Tensors

Let us consider the spatial description of the displacement
vector field, given by,
u = u ( x,t )
Differentiating the spatial description of the displacements,
keeping constant the time t, using the chain rule, yields,
du = ( grad u ( x, t ) ) dx = ( u ( x, t ) ) dx := j ( x, t ) dx
where the non-symmetric second-order spatial displacement
gradient tensor, denoted as j ( x,t ) , has been introduced as,

j ( x, t ) := u ( x, t ) = grad u ( x, t ) , j Aa := u A,a

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Strains > Displacement Gradient Tensors

The spatial description of the displacement vector field may be
written as
u ( x, t ) = x 1 ( x, t ) , u A = xA A1
Taking the spatial gradient, the spatial displacement gradient
tensor may be related to the inverse deformation gradient
tensor, yielding,
j ( x, t ) = grad u ( x, t ) = 1 grad 1 ( x, t ) = 1 F 1 ( x, t ) ,
j Aa = u A,a = Aa A1,a = Aa FAa1

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Strains > Displacement Gradient Tensors

Material Time Derivative
Material Displacement
Giving the spatial description of an arbitrary property, Gradient
the material time derivative of the property can be written as,

dU ( X, t ) = J ( X, t ) dX, dU a = J aA dX A
J ( X, t ) = U ( X, t ) = GRAD U ( X, t ) , J aA = U a , A
J ( X, t ) = F ( X, t ) 1, J aA = FaA aA

du ( x, t ) = j ( x, t ) dx, du A = jAa dxa

j ( x, t ) = u ( x, t ) = grad u ( x, t ) , j Aa = u A,a
j ( x, t ) = 1 F 1 ( x, t ) , j Aa = Aa FAa1

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Strains > Push-forward / Pull-back

Push-forward / Pull-back
Gradient of a Scalar Field
Let us consider an arbitrary scalar field such that,

= ( x, t ) = ( ( X, t ) , t ) = ( X, t )
The material gradient of a scalar field can be written as the pull-
back of the spatial gradient of the scalar field given by,
( X, t ) ( x, t ) a ( X, t )
( GRAD ( X, t ) ) A
=
X A
=
xa X A
= ( grad ( x, t ) )a FaA ( X, t ) = FAa
T
( X, t ) ( grad ( x, t ) )a

GRAD ( X, t ) = FT grad ( x, t )
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Strains > Push-forward / Pull-back

Push-forward / Pull-back
Gradient of a Scalar Field
Let us consider an arbitrary scalar field such that,

= ( X, t ) = ( 1 ( x, t ) , t ) = ( x, t )
The spatial gradient of a scalar field can be written as the push-
forward of the material gradient of the scalar field given by,
( x, t ) ( X, t ) A1 ( x, t )
( grad ( x, t ) ) a
=
xa
=
X A xa
= ( GRAD ( X, t ) ) A FAa1 ( x, t ) = FaAT ( x, t ) ( GRAD ( X, t ) ) A

grad ( x, t ) = F T GRAD ( X, t )
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Strains > Push-forward / Pull-back

Push-forward / Pull-back
Gradient of a Vector Field
Let us consider an arbitrary vector field u such that,

u = u ( x, t ) = u ( ( X, t ) , t ) = U ( X, t )
The material gradient of a vector field can be written as the pull-
back of the spatial gradient of the vector field given by,
U a ( X, t ) ua ( x, t ) b ( X, t )
( GRAD U ( X, t ) ) aA
=
X A
=
xb X A
= ( grad u ( x, t ) )ab FbA ( X, t )

GRAD U ( X, t ) = ( grad u ( x, t ) ) F
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Strains > Push-forward / Pull-back

Push-forward / Pull-back
Gradient of a Vector Field
Let us consider an arbitrary vector field u such that,

u = U ( X, t ) = U ( 1 ( x, t ) , t ) = u ( x, t )
The spatial gradient of a vector field can be written as the push-
forward of the material gradient of the vector field given by,
u A ( x, t ) U A ( X, t ) B1 ( x, t )
( grad u ( x, t ) ) Aa
=
xa
=
X B xa
= ( GRAD U ( X, t ) ) AB FBa1 ( x, t )

grad u ( x, t ) = ( GRAD U ( X, t ) ) F 1
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Strains > Push-forward / Pull-back

Push-forward / Pull-back
Divergence of a Vector Field
Let us consider an arbitrary vector field u such that,

u = u ( x, t ) = u ( ( X, t ) , t ) = U ( X, t )
The material divergence of a vector field can be written in terms
of the material or spatial gradient of the vector field as,
U A ( X, t ) u A ( x, t ) a ( X, t )
DIV U ( X, t ) = =
X A xa X A
= ( grad u ( x, t ) ) Aa FaA ( X, t ) = ( grad u ( x, t ) ) Aa FAa
T
( X, t )

DIV U ( X, t ) = ( GRAD U ( X, t ) ) : 1 = ( grad u ( x, t ) ) : FT

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Strains > Push-forward / Pull-back

Push-forward / Pull-back
Divergence of a Vector Field
Let us consider an arbitrary vector field u such that,

u = U ( X, t ) = U ( 1 ( x, t ) , t ) = u ( x, t )
The spatial divergence of a vector field can be written in terms of
the material or spatial gradient of the vector field as,
ua ( x, t ) U a ( X, t ) A1 ( x, t )
div u ( x, t ) = =
xa X A xa
= ( GRAD U ( X, t ) )aA FAa1 ( x, t ) = ( GRAD U ( X, t ) )aA FaAT ( x, t )

div u ( x, t ) = ( grad u ( x, t ) ) : 1 = ( GRAD U ( X, t ) ) : F T

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Strains > Strain Tensors

Deformation Tensors
Reference or Material Configuration Current or Spatial Configuration
timeReference
t = 0 Configuration Current Configuration
time t
t=0 t

Q FF
dX P
dx
P
dS ds Q
0 t

X x
Inverse Deformation Map Deformation Map
X 3 , x3
X = 1 ( x,t ) e 3 x = ( X,t )
Inverse Tangent Deformation Map e 2 X 2 , x2 Tangent Deformation Map
e1
dX = F1 ( x, t ) dx X 1 , x1
dx = F ( X, t ) dX
dS = dX ds = dx
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Strains > Strain Tensors

Cauchy-Green Deformation Tensors

Right Cauchy-Green Deformation Tensor
The square of the norm of the differential vector dx may be
written as,
2
ds = dx = dx dx = dX FT FdX := dX CdX,
2

T
ds 2 = dxa dxa = dX A FAa FaB dX B := dX AC AB dX B
where the symmetric positive-definite second-order right
Cauchy-Green deformation tensor, denoted as C , has been
defined as,
C := FT F, C AB := FAa
T
FaB = FaA FaB
with
2
det C := ( det F ) = J 2 > 0
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Strains > Strain Tensors

Cauchy-Green Deformation Tensors

Left Cauchy-Green Deformation Tensor
The square of the norm of the differential vector dX may be
written as,
2
dS = dX = dX dX = dx F T F 1dx := dx b 1dx,
2

dS 2 = dX A dX A = dxa FaAT FAb1dxb := dxa bab1dxb

where the symmetric positive-definite second-order left Cauchy-
Green deformation tensor, denoted as b , has been defined as,
b := FFT , bab := FaA FAb
T
= FaA FbA
with
2
det b := ( det F ) = J 2 > 0

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Strains > Strain Tensors

Green-Lagrange Strain Tensor

Green-Lagrange Strain Tensor
Let us consider the following scalar quantity as strain measure,

ds 2 dS 2 = dx dx dX dX
= dX ( C 1) dX := 2dX EdX
where the symmetric second-order Green-Lagrange (or
material) strain tensor, denoted as E, has been defined as,
1 1 T 1
E := ( C 1) = ( F F 1) = ( J + JT + JT J ) ,
2 2 2
1 1 1
E AB := ( C AB AB ) = ( FaA FaB AB ) = ( J AB + J BA + J CA J CB )
2 2 2
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Strains > Strain Tensors

Almansi Strain Tensor

Almansi Strain Tensor
Let us consider the following scalar quantity as strain measure,

ds 2 dS 2 = dx dx dX dX
= dx (1 b 1 ) dx := 2dx edx
where the symmetric second-order Almansi (or spatial) strain
tensor, denoted as e , has been defined as,
1 1 1
e := (1 b ) = (1 F F ) = ( j + jT jT j) ,
1 T 1

2 2 2
1 1 1
eab := ( ab bab ) = ( ab FAa FAb ) = ( jab + jba jca jcb )
1 1 1

2 2 2
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Strains > Strain Tensors

Deformation Tensors
Material Time Derivative
Right Cauchy-Green
Giving the spatial description of an arbitrary property, Deformation
the material time derivativeTensor
of the property can be written as,

C := FT F, C AB := FAa
T
FaB = FaA FaB
C := 1 + 2E, C AB := AB + 2 E AB
ds 2 := dX CdX, ds 2 := dX AC AB dX B

Left Cauchy-Green Deformation Tensor

b := FFT , bab := FaA FAb
T
= FaA FbA
b 1 := F T F 1 , bab1 := FaAT FAb1 = FAa1 FAb1

dS 2 := dx b 1dx, dS 2 := dxa bab1dxb

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Strains > Strain Tensors

Strain Tensors
Material Time Derivative
Green-Lagrange Strain the
Giving the spatial description of an arbitrary property, Tensor
material time derivative of the property can be written as,

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Strains > Strain Tensors

Strain Tensors
Material Time Derivative
Green-Lagrange Strain the
Giving the spatial description of an arbitrary property, Tensor
material time derivative of the property can be written as,

1 1 T 1
E := ( C 1) = ( F F 1) = ( J + J T + JT J ) ,
2 2 2
1 1 1
E AB := ( C AB AB ) = ( FaA FaB AB ) = ( J AB + J BA + J CA J CB )
2 2 2
Almansi Strain Tensor
1 1 1
e := (1 b ) = (1 F F ) = ( j + jT jT j) ,
1 T 1

2 2 2
1 1 1
eab := ( ab bab ) = ( ab FAa FAb ) = ( jab + jba jca jcb )
1 1 1

2 2 2
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Strains > Strain Tensors

Push-forward / Pull-back Maps

Push-forward of a Covariant Second-order Tensor
The push-forward of a covariant second-order tensor is defined
as,
b b
* (  ) := F T
()
 F 1

The Almansi strain, spatial second-order unit and inverse of the

left Cauchy-Green deformation tensors can be viewed as the
push-forward of the (covariants) Green-Lagrange strain, right
Cauchy-Green deformation and material second-order unit
tensors, respecti-vely, such that,
e = * ( E ) := F T EF 1 ,
1 = * ( C ) := F T CF 1 ,
b 1 = * (1) := F T 1F 1
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Strains > Strain Tensors

Push-forward / Pull-back Maps

Pull-back of a Covariant Second-order Tensor
The pull-back of a covariant second-order tensor is defined as,
b b
(  ) := F (  ) F
* T

The Green-Lagrange strain, right Cauchy-Green deformation

and material second-order unit tensors can be viewed as the
pull-back of the (covariants) Almansi strain, spatial second-order
unit and inverse of the left Cauchy-Green deformation tensors,
respectively, such that,
E = * ( e ) := FT eF,
C = * (1) := FT 1F,
1 = * ( b 1 ) := FT b 1F
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Strains > Strain Tensors

Push-forward / Pull-back Maps

Reference or Material Configuration Current or Spatial Configuration
Reference Configuration Current Configuration
time t = 0 time t
t

FF
E, C, 1 e, 1, b 1
0 t

Pull-back Maps X 3 , x3 Push-forward Maps

E = FT eF e 3
e = F T EF 1
e 2 X 2 , x2
C = F 1F T
e1
1 = F T CF 1
1 = FT b 1F X 1 , x1
b 1 = F T 1F 1
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Strains > Strain Tensors

Example 3.2
Example 3.2
Compute the Green-Lagrange and Almansi strain tensors for a
motion equation given by,
T
[ x] = ( X, t ) = X + Yt , Ye t
, Ze
t

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Strains > Strain Tensors

Example 3.2
Example 3.2
Compute the Green-Lagrange and Almansi strain tensors for a
motion equation given by,
T
[ x] = ( X, t ) = X + Yt , Ye t
, Ze
t

The components of the inverse motion, deformation gradient

and inverse deformation gradient are given by,
T
[ X] = ( x, t ) = x yte , ye , ze
1 t t t

1 t 0 1 tet 0
0 e t
[ ]
F = 0 , F = 0 et
1
0
0 0 et 0 0 et

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Strains > Strain Tensors

Example 3.2
The components of the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor
and Green-Lagrange strain tensor take the form,

1 0 0 1 t 0 1 t 0
t et 0 0 et 0 = t t 2 + e2t 0
[ ]
C = F T
F =
0 0 et 0 0 et 0 0 e2t

0 t 0
1 1
[ ] (
E = C 1 )
= t t 2
+ e 2 t
1 0
2 2
0 0 e 1
2t

Note that at the reference configuration for t=0,

F = 1, C = 1, E = 0
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Strains > Strain Tensors

Example 3.2
The components of the left Cauchy-Green deformation tensor
and Almansi strain tensor take the form,

1 0 0 1 te
t
0 1 tet 0
0 et t
b 1 = F T F 1 = tet et 0 0 = te (t 2
+ 1) e2t 0

0 0 et 0 0 et 0 0 2 t
e

0 tet 0
1 1 1 t
[e] = (1 b ) = te 1 ( t + 1) e
2 2t
0
2 2 2 t
0 0 1 e

Note that at the reference configuration for t=0,

F = 1, b 1 = 1, e = 0
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Strains > Volumetric Deformation

Volumetric Deformation Map

Reference or Material Configuration
Current or Spatial Configuration
time t = 0 time t
X dV x
dv

0
0 t

Inverse Differential Volume Map Differential Volume Map

dV = J 1dv X 3 , x3 dv = J dV
e 3
Inverse Density Map Density Map
e 2 X 2 , x2
0 = J e1 = J 1 0
X 1 , x1

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 36

Strains > Volumetric Deformation

Volumetric Deformation
Volumetric Deformation
The volumetric deformation, denoted as e, is a scalar quantity
defined as,
dv dV dv
e= = 1 = J 1
dV dV
The incompressibility condition, i.e. zero volumetric deforma-
tion, takes the form,
J =1

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 37

Strains > Area Deformation

Area Deformation
Reference or Material Configuration Current or Spatial Configuration
Reference Configuration Current Configuration
time t = 0 time t
t=0 t

FF

0 dA t
da

N X
X 3 , x3 nda
dA = dA N e 3 x
dan = da n
e 2 X 2 , x2
e1
X 1 , x1

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 38

Strains > Area Deformation

Area Deformation
Area Deformation
Let us consider a differential of area vector on the reference and
spatial configurations written in terms of the unit outward
normal to the surface on the material and spatial configurations,
respectively, given by,
dA = dA N, da = da n
Taking an arbitrary vector dX , associated differential of volumes
in the material and spatial configurations take the form,
dV = dX dA = dX dA N, dv = dx da = dx da n
where
dx = FdX, dv = JdV
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 39
Strains > Area Deformation

Area Deformation
The differential of volumes satisfy the following expression,

dv = da dx = da FdX = dX FT da
= J dV = J dA dX = dX J dA dX FT da = J dA
yielding the relation, known as Nansons formula, given by,

da = J F T dA, da n = dA J F T N

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Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition
Polar Decomposition
For any non-singular second-order tensor, denoted as F , there
exist two unique symmetric positive-definite second-order
tensors, denoted as U and v , and a unique proper orthogonal
second-order tensor, denoted as R , such that,
F = RU = vR, FaA = RaBU BA = vab RbA
where,
12
U = ( F F ) , U = UT , x Ux > 0 x 0
T

T 12
v = ( FF ) , v = vT , x vx > 0 x 0
R = FU 1 = v 1F, R 1 = RT , det R = 1
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Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition
Polar Decomposition
The polar decomposition of the deformation gradient tensor F ,
F = RU = vR, FaA = RaBU BA = vab RbA
where U is the right (or material) stretch tensor, v is the left (or
spatial) stretch tensor and R is the rotation tensor, such that,
12
U = (F F) T
= C1 2 , U = UT , x Ux > 0 x 0, det U = J
T 12
v = ( FF ) = b1 2 , v = vT , x vx > 0 x 0, det v = J
R = FU 1 = v 1F, R 1 = RT , det R = 1

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 42

Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition
Polar Decomposition
The rotation tensor R rotates a material line segment dX onto
a unique spatial line segment dx = R dX , such that the norm of
the line segment is preserved.
2 2
dx = dx dx = ( R dX ) ( R dX ) = dX R R dX = dX dX = dX
T

The rotation tensor R rotates material line segments dX and dY

onto unique spatial line segments dx = R dX and dy = RdY,
such that the angle between the line segments is preserved.

dx dy dX RT R dY dX dY
cos = = = = cos
dx dy dx dy dX dY

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 43

Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition
Polar Decomposition
The right (or material) stretch tensor U and the left (or spatial)
stretch tensor v satisfy the following pull-back and push-forward
relations with the rotation tensor,
U = R 1F = RT F = RT vR, U AB = RaAvab RbB
v = FR 1 = FRT = RURT , vab = RaAU AB RbB
The right Cauchy-Green tensor C and the left Cauchy-Green
tensor b satisfy the following pull-back and push-forward
relations with the rotation tensor,
C = U 2 = RT vRRT vR = RT v 2 R = RT bR, C AB = RaAbab RbB
b = v 2 = RURT RURT = RU 2 RT = RCRT , bab = RaAC AB RbB
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Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition
Polar Decomposition
A rigid body motion satisfies the following relations,
F = R U = v =1 E =e =0

R =1 F = U = v

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 45

Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition
Polar Decomposition
Any deformation can be seen either as a composition of a right
(or material) stretch, characterized by U, with a rotation,
characterized by R , given by the right polar decomposition,
F = RU, FaA = RaBU BA
dx = FdX = RUdX = R ( UdX ) , dxa = FaA dX A = RaAU AB dX B
or as a composition of a rotation, characterized by R , with a left
(or spatial) stretch, characterized by v , given by the left polar
decomposition,
F = vR, FaA = vab RbA
dx = FdX = vRdX = v ( RdX ) , dxa = FaA dX A = vab RbA dX A
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 46
Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 47

Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 48

Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition
Material Time Derivative
Polar Decomposition
Giving the spatial description of an arbitrary property, the material time derivative of the property can be written as,

Material Right and Spatial Left Stretch Tensors

12
U = (F F)
12
T
= C , U AB = ( FaA FaB )
12
= C1AB2
T 12
v = ( FF ) 12
= b , vab = ( FaA FbA )
12 12
= bab

Rotation Tensor

R = FU 1 = v 1F, RaA = FaBU BA

1 1
= vab FbA
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 49
Strains > Stretches

Stretches
Reference or Material Configuration Current or Spatial Configuration
Reference Configuration Current Configuration
time t = 0 time t
t=0 t

Q
T FF
dX P
dx
P
dS ds Q
0 t
t
X x
X = 1 ( x, t ) X 3 , x3
x = ( X, t )
e 3
dX = F1 ( x, t ) dx e 2 X 2 , x2
dx = F ( X, t ) dX
e1
dS = dX ds = dx
X 1 , x1
dX = TdS dx = tds
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 50
Strains > Stretches

Stretch Vectors
Material Stretch Vector
Let us denote as T the material stretch vector at a material
point X at time t, along a material direction given by the unit
vector T on the material configuration,
T ( X, t ) = F ( X, t ) T, T = FaATA a

Multiplying by dS yields,
dx = T ( X, t ) dS = F ( X, t ) TdS = F ( X, t ) dX
Taking norms, the stretch, denoted as , is defined as,
ds = T ( X, t ) dS := dS ,
12
:= T ( X, t ) = ( T F FT ) = ( T CT ) = (1 + 2T ET )
T 12 12

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 51

Strains > Stretches

Stretch Vectors
Material Stretch Vector
Let us denote as T the material stretch vector at a material
point X at time t, along a material direction given by the unit
vector T on the material configuration. The following situations
may arise

:= T ( X, t ) > 1 extension, length increases

:= T ( X, t ) = 1 length does not changes
:= T ( X, t ) < 1 compression, length decreases

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 52

Strains > Stretches

Stretch Vectors
Spatial Stretch Vector
Let us denote as t the spatial stretch vector at a spatial point x
at time t, along a spatial direction given by the unit vector t on
the spatial configuration,
t ( x, t ) = F 1 ( x, t ) t, t = FAa1ta
A

Multiplying by ds yields,
dX = t ( x, t ) ds = F 1 ( x, t ) tds = F 1 ( x, t ) dx
1
Taking norms, the inverse stretch, denoted as , is defined as,
dS = t ( x, t ) ds := 1ds,
12 12
:= t ( x, t ) = ( t F F t ) = ( t b t ) = (1 2t et )
1 T 1 1 12

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 53

Strains > Stretches

Stretches
Material Time Derivative
Material Stretch
Giving the spatial description Vector the material time derivative of the property can be written as,
of an arbitrary property,

T ( X, t ) := F ( X, t ) T, T := FaATA a

ds := dS , := T ( X, t )
12
:= ( T F FT ) = ( T CT ) = (1 + 2T ET )
T 12 12

Spatial Stretch Vector

t ( x, t ) := F 1 ( x, t ) t, t := FAa1ta A

dS := 1ds, 1 := t ( x, t )
12 12
:= ( t F F t ) = ( t b t ) = (1 2t et )
1 T 1 1 12

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 54

Strains > Stretches

Physical Interpretation of E11 Component

Green-Lagrange Strain Component E11
Let us consider a material segment dX(1) = T(1) dS along the X1-
axis on the material configuration.
The material stretch along the X1 direction will be given by,
(1) 1 2
1 := (1 + 2T ET ) 12
(1)
= (1 + 2E11 )
The length of the deformed segment will be given by,
12
ds := 1dS = (1 + 2 E11 ) dS
and the Green-Lagrange component E11 may be interpreted as,
1 ds 2 1 ds 2 dS 2
E11 = 2 1 = 2
2 dS 2 dS
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 55
Strains > Stretches

Physical Interpretation of e11 Component

Almansi Strain Component e11
Let us consider a spatial segment dx(1) = t (1) ds along the x1-axis
on the spatial configuration.
The inverse stretch along the x1 direction will be given by,
(1) 1 2
:= (1 2t et ) 12
1
1 (1)
= (1 2e11 )
The length of the material segment will be given by,
12
dS := ds = (1 2e11 ) ds
1
1

and the Almansi strain component e11 may be interpreted as,

1 dS 2 1 ds 2 dS 2
e11 = 1 2 =
2 ds 2 ds 2
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 56
Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.1
Assignment 3.1
The components of the Almansi strain tensor, with reference
time t=0, are given by,

0 0
tetz

[e] = 0 0 0
tz t
te 0 t ( 2e e )
tz

Compute at the reference time t=0, the length of a material

curve that at time t=2 is a straight line going from point a with
coordinates (0,0,0) to point b with coordinates (1,1,1).

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 57

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.1
Assignment 3.1
The length of the curve at the reference time t=0 may be written
as,
b
L = dS = 1 ( x, t ) ds
a

The inverse of the stretch at any spatial point of the straight line,
along the (constant) direction of the straight line is given by,

1 ( x, t ) = 1 2t e ( x, t ) t
where the (constant) unit vector along the direction of the
straight line is given by,
1 T
[t ] = [1 1 1]
3
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 58
Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.1
Substituting the expressions for the Almansi strain tensor and
the unit direction vector into the expression of the inverse
stretch, and particularizing for t=2, yields a uniform inverse
stretch given by,

2 t 4 2
1
( x, t ) t =2 = 1 + te = 1+ e
3 t =2
3
Substituting into the integral expression for the length yields,
b b 4 2 4 2
L = dS = 1
( x, t ) t =2 ds = a 1 + e ds = 1 + e 3
a 3 3
L = 3 + 4e2
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 59
Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.2
Assignment 3.2 [Classwork]
Consider the equations of motion given by,
x = X, y = Y + Z 2t , z = Z + Y 2t
Compute at time t=1 the length of a material curve that at the
reference time t=0 was a straight line going from point A with
coordinates (0,0,0) to point B with coordinates (0,1,1).

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 60

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.2
Assignment 3.2 [Classwork]
Consider the equations of motion given by,
x = X, y = Y + Z 2t , z = Z + Y 2t
Compute at time t=1 the length of a material curve that at the
reference time t=0 was a straight line going from point A with
coordinates (0,0,0) to point B with coordinates (0,1,1).

The length of the material curve at time t=1 may be computed

as,
b B B
l = ds = dS = 1 + 2T ET dS
a A A

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 61

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.2
The unit vector along the straight line is given by,
1 T
[T] = [0 1 1]
2
The Green-Lagrange strain tensor is given by,
1 T 1
E = ( F F 1) = ( C 1)
2 2
The components of the deformation gradient are,

1 0 0
[F] = 0 1 2Zt
0 2Yt 1
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 62
Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.2
The components of the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor
are,
1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
[C] = 0 1 2Yt 0 1 2Zt = 0 1 + 4Y 2t 2 2Zt + 2Yt
0 2Zt 1 0 2Yt 1 0 2Zt + 2Yt 1 + 4Z 2t 2
The components of the Green-Lagrange strain tensor are,

0 0 0
0 2Y 2t 2 Zt + Yt
[ ]
E =
0 Zt + Yt 2Z t
2 2

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 63

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.2
The components of the Green-Lagrange strain tensor have to be
particularized for the points of the straight line, i.e. points that
satisfy the equation Y=Z, yielding,

0 0 0
0 2Y 2t 2 2Zt
[ ]
E =
0 2Zt 2Z 2t 2
Substituting into the expression for the stretch yields,

0 0 0 0
= 1 + [ 0 1 1] 0 2Z 2t 2 2Zt 1 = 1 + 2Zt
0 2Zt 2Z 2t 2 1
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 64
Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.2
The length of the material curve at time t=1 is given by,
B
l = (1 + 2Z ) dS
A

Points along the straigth line satisfy the following equations,

X = 0, Y = Z
dX = 0, dY = dZ , dS = 2dZ
The length of the material curve at time t=1 is given by,
1
l = (1 + 2Z ) 2dZ = 2 2
0

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 65

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.2
Alternatively, the length of the material curve at time t=1 may be
computed as follows.
Let us consider a material differential vector at an arbitrary
point of the straight line AB, along the direction AB, given by,
T T
[ dX] = [ dX dY dZ ] = [ 0 dZ dZ ]
Using the deformation gradient computed at the points of the
straight line AB, i.e. setting X=0, Y=Z, the deformed differential
vector at the spatial configuration takes the form,
dx 1 0 0 0 0

dx = FdX, dy = 0 1 2Zt dZ = (1 + 2Zt ) 1 dZ
dz 0 2Zt 1 dZ 1
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 66
Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.2
The differential of length at the spatial configuration may be
computed as,
ds = dx = dx dx = (1 + 2Zt ) 2dZ
and particularizing for t=1, yields

ds t =1 = (1 + 2Z ) 2dZ
The length of the material curve at time t=1 may be computed
as,
b 1
l = ds t =1 = (1 + 2Z ) 2dZ = 2 2
a 0

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 67

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.3
Assignment 3.3 [Homework]
Consider the equations of motion given by,
x = X + Yt , y = Y, z = Z
Compute at time t=2 the length of a material curve that at time
t=1 was a curve parametrized as,
x ( ) = 0, y ( ) = 2 , z ( ) = 0 1

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 68

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.3
Assignment 3.3 [Homework]
Consider the equations of motion given by,
x = X + Yt , y = Y, z = Z
Compute at time t=2 the length of a material curve that at time
t=1 was a curve parametrized as,
x ( ) = 0, y ( ) = 2 , z ( ) = 0 1

For time t=1 the equations of motion read,

x* = X + Y , y* = Y , z* = Z

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 69

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.3
The material points that at time t=1 are on the given parame-
trized curve satisfy the following equations,
x* = X + Y = 0, y* = Y = 2 , z* = Z = 0 1
The inverse of the equations of motion takes the form,
X = x yt , Y = y, Z = z
Using the inverse of the equations of motion, the spatial position
of those material points is given by,
x* = x yt + y = 0, y* = y = 2 , z* = z = 0 1
And the parametrized curve at any time t>0 is given by,
x = y ( t 1) = 2 ( t 1) , y = 2, z = 0 1
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 70
Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.3
The tangent to the spatial parametrized curve at any time t>0 is
given by,
dx = 2 ( t 1) d , dy = 2 d , dz = d 0 1
The differential of length reads,
2 2
ds = dx + dy + dz = 4 2 2
((t 1) + 1) + 1d
2

and at time t=2 reads,

ds = 8 2 + 1d
The length of the material curve at time t=2 reads,
1
l = ds = 8 2 + 1d
0

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 71

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.3
Alternatively, we could change the reference configuration,
taking t=1 as new reference time. Imposing the consistency
condition at t=1 yields,
X*:= ( x, t = 1)
X * = X + Y , Y* = Y , Z* = Z
Then,
X = X * Y *, Y = Y *, Z = Z *
Substituting into the equations of motion,
x = X + Yt , y = Y, z = Z
the new equations of motion with reference time t=1 take the
form,
x = X * + ( t 1) Y *, y = Y *, z = Z *
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 72
Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.3
The deformation gradient with respect to the new reference
configuration takes the form,

1 t 1 0
[F *] = 0 1 0
0 0 1
The parametrized curve at t=1 and the differential tangent vector
to the curve are given by,
T T
[ X *] = 0 2
, [ dX *] = [0 2 1] d

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 73

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.3
The differential vector at the deformed configuration takes the
form,
T
dx = F * dX*, [ dx] = 2 ( t 1) 2 1 d
The differential length is given by,
2 2
ds = dx + dy + dz = 4 2 2
((t 1) + 1) + 1d
2

and at time t=2 reads,

ds = 8 2 + 1d
The length of the material curve at time t=2 reads,
1
l = ds = 8 2 + 1d
0

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 74

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.3
Alternatively, using also t=1 as reference time, the length of the
curve may be computed as,

l = ds = * dS *
t =2

with,
* = 1 + 2T* E*T* , dS * = 1 + 4 2 d
*
d X 1 T
T = * , dX =
* *
[0, 2 ,1]
dS 1 + 4 2

1 *T *
E = ( F F 1) , F* = * x
*

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 75

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.4
Assignment 3.4
The components of the Green-Lagrange strain tensor, with
reference time t=0, are given by,

0 tetX 0
tX
[E] = te 0 0
0 0 tetY

Compute at time t=1 the length of a material curve that at the
reference time t=0 was a straight line going from point A (1,1,1)
to point B (2,2,2).

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 76

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.4
Assignment 3.4
The components of the Green-Lagrange strain tensor, with
reference time t=0, are given by,

0 tetX 0
tX
[E] = te 0 0
0 0 tetY

The length of the material curve at time t=1 may be computed

as,
b B B
l = ds = dS = 1 + 2T ET dS
a A A

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 77

Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.4
The unit vector is given by,
1 T
[T] = [1 1 1]
3
The material points of the straight line AB satisfy X=Y=Z and
dX=dY=dZ. Then, the Green-Lagrange strain tensor and the
differential of length, particularized at the points of the line AB,
may be written as,
0 tetX 0
tX
[E] = te 0 0
0 0 tetX

dS = dX 2 + dY 2 + dZ 2 = 3dX 2 = 3dX
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 78
Strains > Stretches

Assignment 3.4
The stretch at the points of the line AB along the line AB may be
written as,
= 1 + 2T ET
0 tetX 0 1
2 tX
= 1 + [1 1 1] te 0 0 1
3
0 0 tetX 1

= 1 + 2tetX
The length of the material curve at time t=1 reads,
B 2
l= 1 + 2e dS =
X
1 + 2e X 3 dX
A 1

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 79

Strains > Variation of Angles

Variation of Angles
Reference or Material Configuration Current or Spatial Configuration
Reference Configuration Current Configuration
time t = 0 time t
t=0 t
dS (2) ds (2) t (2)
T (2) FF dx(2)
R
dX(2) R P
P

0 (1) Q dx(1) Q
t
dX (1) ds (1)
dS (1) T t (1)

dX( a ) = F1 ( x, t ) dx( a ) dx( a ) = F ( X, t ) dX( a )

X X 3 , x3 x
e 3

dX( a ) = T( a ) dS ( a ) e 2 X 2 , x2 dx( a ) = t ( a ) ds ( a )
e1
(1) ( 2)
dX dX X 1 , x1 dx(1) dx( 2)
cos = cos =
dS (1) dS ( 2) ds (1) ds ( 2)
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 80
Strains > Variation of Angles

Variation of Angles
Spatial Angle
The dot product of the two differential vectors at the spatial
dx(1) dx( 2) = ds(1) ds( 2) cos
Alternatively, it may be written in terms of the differential
vectors at the material configuration and using the unit vectors
and the stretches yields,
dx( ) dx( ) = dX( ) FT FdX( ) = dS ( ) dS ( ) T( ) FT FT(
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2)

(1) ( 2) 1(1) 1( 2 ) (1) T ( 2)

= ds ds T F FT
= ds ( ) ds ( ) 1( ) 1( ) T( ) CT(
1 2 1 2 1 2)

(1) ( 2) 1(1) 1( 2 ) (1) ( 2)

= ds ds T (1 + 2E ) T
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 81
Strains > Variation of Angles

Variation of Angles
Spatial Angle
Comparing the two expressions, the angle between the two
segments at the spatial configuration is given by,

cos = 1(1) 1( 2) T(1) (1 + 2E ) T( 2)

1 2 1 2
(
= 1 + 2T ET (1) (1)
) ( 1 + 2T ET ( 2) ( 2)
) T(1) (1 + 2E ) T( 2)
T(1) (1 + 2E ) T(2)
=
1 + 2 T(1) E T(1) 1 + 2 T(2) ET(2)

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 82

Strains > Variation of Angles

Variation of Angles
Material Angle
The dot product of the two differential vectors at the material
dX( ) dX( ) = dS ( ) dS ( ) cos
1 2 1 2

Alternatively, it may be written in terms of the differential

vectors at the spatial configuration and using the unit vectors
and the stretches yields,
(1) ( 2) (1) T 1 ( 2) (1) ( 2) (1) T 1 ( 2)
dX dX = dx F F dx = ds ds t F F t
= dS (1) dS ( 2) (1) ( 2) t (1) F T F 1t ( 2)
(1) ( 2) (1) ( 2 ) (1) 1 ( 2)
= dS dS t b t
= dS ( ) dS ( ) ( ) ( ) t ( ) (1 2e ) t (
1 2 1 2 1 2)

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 83

Strains > Variation of Angles

Variation of Angles
Material Angle
Comparing the two expressions the angle between the two
segments at the material configuration is given by,

cos = (1) ( 2) t (1) (1 2e ) t ( 2)

1 2 1 2
(
= 1 2t et (1) (1)
) ( 1 2t et ( 2) ( 2)
) t ( ) (1 2e ) t (
1 2)

t (1) (1 2e ) t (2)
=
1 2 t (1) e t (1) 1 2 t (2) e t (2)

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 84

Strains > Variation of Angles

Variation of Angles
Material Time Derivative
Spatial Angle
Giving the spatial description of an arbitrary property, the material time derivative of the property can be written as,

T(1) (1 + 2E ) T(2)
cos = T(1) T(2) , cos =
1 + 2 T(1) E T(1) 1 + 2 T(2) E T(2)

Material Angle

t (1) (1 2e ) t (2)
cos = , cos = t (1) t (2)
1 2 t (1) e t (1) 1 2 t (2) e t (2)

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 85

Strains > Variation of Angles

Physical Interpretation of E12 Component

Green-Lagrange Strain Component E12
Let us consider material segments dX(1) = T(1) dS (1) and
dX(2) = T(2) dS (2) along the X1- and X2-axis, respectively, on the
material configuration.
The angle between the two segments at the spatial configura-
tion is given by,
T(1) (1 + 2E ) T(2) 2 E12
cos 12 = =
1 + 2T(1) ET(1) 1 + 2T(2) ET(2) 1 + 2 E11 1 + 2 E22
The Green-Lagrange component E12 may be interpreted as,
1 1 ds (1) ds (2)
E12 = 1 + 2 E11 1 + 2 E22 cos 12 = (1) (2)
cos 12
2 2 dS dS
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 86
Strains > Variation of Angles

Physical Interpretation of E12 Component

Green-Lagrange Strain Component E12
Taking into account that the initial angle between the two
segments at the reference configuration is 90, the angle
increment may be written as,
2 E12
12 := 12 = arcsin
2 1 + 2 E11 1 + 2 E22
The Green-Lagrange component E12 may be interpreted as,

1 1 ds (1) ds (2)
E12 = 1 + 2 E11 1 + 2 E22 sin 12 = (1) (2)
sin 12
2 2 dS dS

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 87

Strains > Variation of Angles

Physical Interpretation of e12 Component

Almansi Strain Component e12
Let us consider spatial segments dx(1) = t (1) ds and dx(2) = t (2) ds
along the x1- and x2-axis, respectively, on the spatial configu-
ration.
The angle between the two segments at the material configura-
tion is given by,
t (1) (1 2e ) t (2) 2e12
cos 12 = =
1 2t (1) et (1) 1 2t (2) et (2) 1 2e11 1 2e22
The Almansi strain component e12 may be interpreted as,
1 1 dS (1) dS (2)
e12 = 1 2e11 1 2e22 cos 12 = (1) (2)
cos 12
2 2 ds ds
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 88
Strains > Variation of Angles

Physical Interpretation of e12 Component

Almansi Strain Component e12
Taking into account that the deformed angle between the two
segments at the spatial configuration is 90, the angle increment
may be written as,
2e12
12 := 12 = arcsin
2 1 2e11 1 2e22
The Almansi strain component e12 may be interpreted as,

1 1 dS (1) dS (2)
e12 = 1 2e11 1 2e22 sin 12 = (1) (2)
sin 12
2 2 ds ds

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 89

Strains > Variation of Angles

Assignment 3.5
Assignment 3.5
The equations of motion are given by,
x = X, y = Y , z = Z Xt
Consider two differential segments which at time t=1 are parallel
to the Cartesian axes x and z. Compute which was the angle
formed by those two segments at the reference time t=0.

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 90

Strains > Variation of Angles

Assignment 3.5
Assignment 3.5
The equations of motion are given by,
x = X, y = Y , z = Z Xt
Consider two differential segments which at time t=1 are parallel
to the Cartesian axes x and z. Compute which was the angle
formed by those two segments at the reference time t=0.

Let us consider at the spatial configuration t=1, unit vectors

along the Cartesian axes x and z given by,
T T
t (1) = [1 0 0] , t (2) = [ 0 0 1]

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 91

Strains > Variation of Angles

Assignment 3.5
The angle between those two unit vectors at the reference
configuration may be written as,
t (1) (1 2e ) t (2) 2e13
cos 13 = =
1 2t (1) et (1) 1 2t (2) et (2) 1 2e11 1 2e33
The inverse motion equations are given by,
X = x, Y = y, Z = z + xt
The invese deformation gradient is given by,
1 0 0
F 1 = 0 1 0

t 0 1
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 92
Strains > Variation of Angles

Assignment 3.5
The Almansi strain tensor is given by,
1 1
e :=
2
(1 b 1
)= 2
( 1 F F )
T 1

1 0 t 1 0 0 t 2
0 t
1 1
[e] :=  0 1 0 0 1 0 = 0 0 0
2 2
0 0 1 t 0 1 t 0 0

Then the angle at the reference configuration is given by,

2e13 t 1
cos 13 = = =
1 2e11 1 2e33 1+ t2 t =1
2

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 93

Strains > Variation of Angles

Assignment 3.5
Alternatively, we could obtain the angle at the reference
configuration as follows. Let us consider at the spatial
configuration t=1, two differential vectors along the Cartesian
axes x and z given by,
T T
dx = [1 0 0] dx, dx = [ 0 0 1] dz
(1) (2)

The corresponding differential vectors at the reference

configuration will be given by,

dX(1) = F 1dx(1) , dX(2) = F 1dx(2)

T T
dX = [1 0 t ] dx, dX = [ 0 0 1] dz
(1) (2)

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 94

Strains > Variation of Angles

Assignment 3.5
The dot product of the two differential vectors at the reference
configuration takes the form,
dX(1) dX(2) = tdxdz
The norms of the differential vectors at the reference
configuration are given by,

dX(1) = 1 + t 2 dx, dX(2) = dz

The angle between the two segments at the reference
dX(1) dX( 2) t 1
cos = = =
dX(1) dX( 2) 1 + t 2 t =1 2
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 95
Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.6
Assignment 3.6
The sphere of the figure is subjected to a finite uniform deforma-
tion, with uniform deformation gradient. The motion is such
that,
i. The origin O does not moves
ii. Material points A, B and C move to spatial positions A, B and
C, where AA=p>0, BB=CC=q>0. z

C
1) Obtain the deformation gradient,
R
Green-Lagrange and Almansi strain C

B B

y
field.
A

2) Obtain the relation between p and q A

x
if the material is incompressible.
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 96
Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.6
Assignment 3.6
As the deformation gradient is uniform,
F = F ( X,t ) = F ( t ) dx = F ( t ) dX
the equation of motion is linear and may be easily obtained
yielding,
x = F (t ) X + C (t )
Condition 1. The material point O does not moves,
x O = F ( t ) XO + C ( t )
0 F11 F12 F13 0 C1
0 = F F22 F23 0 + C2 C1 = C2 = C3 = 0
21
0 F31 F32 F33 0 C3
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 97
Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.6
Condition 2. The material point A moves to the position A,
x A = F (t ) X A
R + p F11 F12 F13 R
0 = F F22 F23 0 F11 = 1 + p R , F21 = F31 = 0
21
0 F31 F32 F33 0

Condition 3. The material point B moves to the position B,

xB = F ( t ) XB
0 1 + p R F12 F13 0
R q = 0 F22 q
F23 R F22 = 1 , F12 = F32 = 0
R
0 0 F32 F33 0
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 98
Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.6
Condition 4. The material point C moves to the position C,
x C = F ( t ) XC
0 1 + p R 0 F13 0
0 = 0 1 q R F 0 F = 1 q R , F = F = 0
23 33 13 23

R q 0 0 F33 R

1 + p R 0 0
0
[ ]
F = 1 q R 0
0 0 1 q R

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 99

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.6
The motion equation takes the form,

x 1 + p R 0 0 X
y = 0 1 q R 0 Y

z 0 0 1 q R Z
The displacement vector field takes the form,
u = U ( X, t ) = F ( t ) X X = ( F ( t ) 1) X = J ( t ) X
ux p R 0 0 X
u = 0 q R 0 Y
y
uz 0 0 q R Z

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 100

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.6
The Green-Lagrange strain tensor takes the form,
1 T
E = ( F F 1)
2
(1 + p R )2 1 0 0
1 2

[ E] = 0 (1 q R ) 1 0
2 2
0 0 (1 q R ) 1

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 101

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.6
The Almansi strain tensor takes the form,
1
e = (1 F T F 1 )
2
1 1 (1 + p R )2 0 0
1 2

[e] = 0 1 1 (1 q R ) 0
2 2
0 0 1 1 (1 q R )

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 102

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.6
If the material is incompressible, the following condition has to
be verified,
J = det F ( t ) = 1
Then,
1+ p R 0 0
2
det F ( t ) = 0 1 q R 0 = (1 + p R )(1 q R ) = 1
0 0 1 q R
2
p = R (1 q R ) R

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 103

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.7
Assignment 3.7 [Classwork]
The solid of the figure is subjected to a finite linear displace-
ment field, yielding a uniform deformation gradient, such that,
i. The displacements of the material points A, B and C are zero.
ii. The volume of the solid becomes p2 Fmes the initial one.
iii. The length of the material segment AE becomes p times the
initial one. z

D F
Obtain the deformation gradient, and
the material and spatial descriptions of a

the displacement vector field. E a y

a A C

B
x
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 104
Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.7
Assignment 3.7 [Classwork]
As the deformation gradient is uniform,
F = F ( X,t ) = F ( t ) dx = F ( t ) dX
the equation of motion is linear and may be easily obtained
yielding,
x = F (t ) X + C (t )
Condition 1. The material point A does not moves,
xA = F (t ) XA + C (t )
0 F11 F12 F13 0 C1
0 = F F22 F23 0 + C2 C1 = C2 = C3 = 0
21
0 F31 F32 F33 0 C3
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 105
Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.7
Condition 2. The material point B does not moves,
xB = F ( t ) XB
a F11 F12 F13 a
0 = F F22 F23 0 F11 = 1, F21 = F31 = 0
21
0 F31 F32 F33 0

Condition 3. The material point C does not moves,

x C = F ( t ) XC
0 1 F12 F13 0
a = 0 F F23 a F22 = 1, F12 = F32 = 0
22

0 0 F32 F33 0
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 106
Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.7
The deformation gradient takes the form,

1 0 F13
0 1 F
[ ]
F = 23

0 0 F33
Condition 4. The volume of the solid becomes p2 Fmes the
initial one.
dV = ( det F ( t ) ) dV0 V = ( det F ( t ) ) V0 = p 2V0

det F ( t ) = F33 = p 2

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 107

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.7
Condition 5. The length of the material segment AE becomes p
times the initial one.
T
[ dX] = [ dX 0 dX ]

dx 1 0 F13 dX 1 + F13

dx = F ( t ) dX dy = 0 1 F23 0 = F23 dX
dz 0 0 p 2 dX p 2

2 2
ds = dx = ( 13 ) ( 23 )
1 + F + F + 2 p 2
dX
e a
ae = ds =
2 2
a 0
(1 + F13 ) + ( F23 ) + 2 p 2 dX

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 108

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.7
2 2
pa 2 = (1 + F13 ) + ( F23 ) + 2 p 2 a
2 2
2 p = (1 + F13 ) + ( F23 ) + 2 p 2
2

2 2
1 + F13 ) + ( F23 ) = 0 F13 = 1, F23 = 0
(
  
=0 =0

1 0 1

F ( t ) = 0 1 0
0 0 p 2

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 109

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.7
The motion equation takes the form,

x 1 0 1 X
y = 0 1
0 Y

z 0 0 p 2 Z

The material description of the displacement vector field takes

the form,

u x 1 0 1 X X 0 0 1 X
u = 0 1
0 Y Y = 0 0

0 Y
y
uz 0 0 p 2 Z Z 0 0 p 2 1 Z

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 110
Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.7
The inverse of the motion equation takes the form,

X 1 0 1 p 2 x
Y = 0 1 0

y

Z 0 0 1 p 2 z

The spatial description of the displacement vector field takes

the form,

ux 1 0 1 p 2 x
u = 0 0 0

y
y
uz 0 0 1 1 p 2 z

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 111
Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.8
Assignment 3.8 [Homework]
The solid of the figure is subjected to a finite linear displace-
ment field, yielding a uniform deformation gradient, such that,
i. The displacements of the material points O, A and B are zero.
ii. The volume of the solid becomes p times the initial one.
iii. The length of the material segment AC becomes p/2 times
the initial one. z

iv. The deformed angle formed by OA C

and OC is 45
a
Obtain the deformation gradient, and
B y
the material and spatial descriptions of a
O a

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 112

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.8
Assignment 3.8 [Homework]
As the deformation gradient is uniform,
F = F ( X,t ) = F ( t ) dx = F ( t ) dX
the equation of motion is linear and may be easily obtained
yielding,
x = F (t ) X + C (t )
Condition 1. The material point O does not moves,
x O = F ( t ) XO + C ( t )
0 F11 F12 F13 0 C1
0 = F F22 F23 0 + C2 C1 = C2 = C3 = 0
21
0 F31 F32 F33 0 C3
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 113
Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.8
Condition 2. The material point A does not moves,
xA = F (t ) XA
a F11 F12 F13 a
0 = F F22 F23 0 F11 = 1, F21 = F31 = 0
21
0 F31 F32 F33 0

Condition 3. The material point B does not moves,

xB = F ( t ) XB
0 1 F12 F13 0
a = 0 F F23 a F22 = 1, F12 = F32 = 0
22

0 0 F32 F33 0
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 114
Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.8
The deformation gradient takes the form,

1 0 F13
[F ] = 0 1 F23
0 0 F33
Condition 4. The volume of the solid becomes p times the initial
one.
dV = ( det F ( t ) ) dV0 V = ( det F ( t ) )V0 = pV0

det F ( t ) = F33 = p

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 115

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.8
Condition 5. The length of the material segment AE becomes
p/2 times the initial one.
C C p
lac = AC dS = 1 + 2T ETdS = LAC
A A
2
As the stretch is uniform,
p
lac = 1 + 2T ET LAC = LAC
2
yielding,
p2 p2
1 + 2T ET = 2T ET = 1
2 2
The unit vector is given by,
1 T
[T] = [ 1 0 1]
2
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 116
Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.8
The Green-Lagrange strain tensor takes the form,
1 T
E = ( F F 1)
2
1 0 0 1 0 F13
1
[E] = 0 1 0 0 1 F23 
2
F
13 F23 p
0 0 p

0 0 F13
1
[ E] = 0 0 F23
2
F13 F23 F132 + F232 + p 2 1

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 117

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.8
Substituting yields,
0 0 F13 1
2T ET = [ 1 0 1] 0 0
1
0 F23
2
F13 F23 F132 + F232 + p 2 1 1
2
1 p
= ( 2 F13 + F132 + F232 + p 2 1) = 1
2 2
2
2 F13 + F + F + 1 = ( F13 1) + F232 = 0 F13 = 1, F23 = 0
2
13
2
23
  
=0 =0

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 118

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.8
The deformation gradient takes the form,

1 0 1
0 1 0
[ ]
F =
0 0 p
The Green-Lagrange strain tensor takes the form,
0 0 1
1
[ E] = 0 0 0
2
1 0 p 2

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 119

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.8
Condition 6. The deformed angle between OA and OC is 45.

2 Exz 2
cos xz = =
1 + 2 Exx 1 + 2 Ezz 2
Substituting,
2 Exz 1
2
cos xz = = =
1 + 2 Exx 1 + 2 Ezz 1 + p2 2
1 1
2
= p 2
= 1 p = 1
1+ p 2
J = det F = p > 0 p = 1

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 120

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.8
The deformation gradient takes the form,

1 0 1
0 1 0
[ ]
F =
0 0 1
The Green-Lagrange strain tensor takes the form,
0 0 1
[E] = 0 0 0
1
2
1 0 1

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 121

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.8
The displacement vector field is given by,
u = x X = ( F 1) X = JX
The material and spatial descriptions of the displacement vector
field are given by,

U x 0 0 1 X Z ux z

[u] = U y = 0 0 0 Y = 0 , [ u ] = u y = 0
U z 0 0 0 Z 0 uz 0

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 122

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.9
Assignment 3.9
The solid of the figure is subjected to a deformation, such that,
i. The displacement is linear on X, Y and Z and skew-symmetric
with respect to the plane Y=0, such that U(X,Y,Z)=-U(X,-Y,Z)
for any X, Y, Z.
ii. The volume of the solid becomes remains constant.
iii. The angle given by OA, OB remains constant, equal to 90.
iv. The length of the material segment OB Z, w

Lagrange strain tensor and the displacement a

vector field. A
D
X, u
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 123
Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.9
Assignment 3.9
The solid is subjected to finite displacements.
Condition 1. The displacement field is linear on X, Y and Z, hence
the material displacement gradient is uniform and the
displacement vector field may be written as,
U ( X,t ) = J ( t ) X + C ( t )
U x J11 J12 J13 X C1
U = J J 22 J 23 Y + C2
y 21
U z J 31 J 32 J 33 Z C3

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 124

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.9
Condition 2. The displacement field is skew-symmetric with
respect to the plane Y=0.
U ( X , Y , Z ) = U ( X , Y , Z ) X , Y , Z
J11 J12 J13 X C1 J11 J12 J13 X C1
J J 22 J 23 Y + C2 = J 21 J 22 J 23 Y C2
21
J 31 J 32 J 33 Z C3 J 31 J 32 J 33 Z C3

C1 = C2 = C3 = 0

J11 = J 21 = J 31 = 0
J = J = J = 0
13 23 33

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 125

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.9
Then the displacement field takes the form,

U x 0 J12 0 X
U = 0 J
0 Y
y 22

U z 0 J 32 0 Z
Condition 3. The volume of the solid remains constant.
dV = ( det F ( t ) ) dV0 V = ( det F ( t ) )V0 = V0
det F ( t ) = det (1 + J ( t ) ) = 1 + J 22 = 1 J 22 = 0

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 126

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.9
Then the displacement field takes the form,

U x 0 J12 0 X
U = 0 0
0 Y
y
U z 0 J 32 0 Z
Condition 4. The angle given by OA and OB remains constant, i.e.
the deformed angle is 90.

2 E12
cos 12 = = 0 E12 = 0
1 + 2 E11 1 + 2 E22

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 127

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.9
Then Green-Lagrange strain tensor takes the form,
1 T 1
E = ( F F 1) = ( J + J T + J T J ) ,
2 2
1 0 0 1 J12 0
1
[E] = J12 1 J 32 0 1 0 
2

0 0 1

0 J 32 1

0 J12 0
1
[E] = J12 J122 + J 322 J 32 E12 = J12 = 0
2
0 J 32 0

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 128

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.9
Then the displacement field takes the form,

U x 0 0 0 X
U = 0 0
0 Y
y
U z 0 J 32 0 Z
Condition 4. The length of the segment OB becomes 2 Fmes the
initial one, i.e. the length of the deformed segment is a2.
b B B
lob = ds = dS = 1 + 2T ET dS
o O O
The unit vector along the line OB is given by,
T
[ T] = [ 0 1 0]
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 129
Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.9
Then the Green-Lagrange strain tensor takes the form,
0 0 0
1
[E] = 0 J 322 J 32
2
0 J 32 0
Substituting into the stretch and the integral expression yields,
B
lob = 1 + 2 E22 dS = a 1 + 2 E22 = a 2 E22 = 1 2
O

1 2 1
E22 = J 32 = J 32 = 1
2 2

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 130

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.9
Then the displacement field takes the form,

U x 0 0 0 X
U = 0 0 0 Y
y
U z 0 1 0 Z
and the Green-Lagrange strain tensor takes the form,
0 0 0
[E] = 0 1 1
1
2
0 1 0

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 131

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.9
Condition 6. The z-displacement of the point B is positive.

Uz B
= Y B
= a > 0 U z = Y

U x 0 0 0 X
U = 0 0 0 Y
y
U z 0 1 0 Z

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 132

Strains > Assignments

Assignment 3.9
The material diplacement gradient and the deformation
gradient tensors take the form,

0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 , 0 1 0
[ ]
J = [ ] [ ]
F = 1 + J =
0 1 0 0 1 1
The Green-Lagrange strain tensor takes the form,

0 0 0
E = ( F F 1) , [ E] = 0 1 1
1 T 1
2 2
0 1 0

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 133

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Reference or Material Configuration Current or Spatial Configuration
Reference Configuration Current Configuration
time t = 0 time t
t=0 t
v
Q FF
dX P
dx
P v + dv
dS ds Q
0 t

X x
X 3 , x3
e 3

e 2 X 2 , x2
e1
X 1 , x1

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 134

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Spatial Velocity Gradient Tensor
Let us consider the spacial velocity vector field at a spatial point
and time t, given by,
v = v ( x,t )
Differentiating the spatial velocity field, keeping constant the
configuration at time t, using the chain rule, yields,

dv = ( grad v ( x, t ) ) dx = ( v ( x, t ) ) dx := l ( x, t ) dx
where the non-symmetric second-order spatial velocity gradient
tensor, denoted as l ( x,t ), has been introduced as,
l ( x, t ) := v ( x, t ) = grad v ( x, t ) , lab = va ,b

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 135

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Deformation and Rotation Rate

Deformation and Rotation Rate Tensors
The spatial velocity gradient tensor can be split into symmetric
and skew-symmetric parts, yielding,
l ( x, t ) = symm l ( x, t ) + skew l ( x, t ) := d ( x, t ) + w ( x, t )
where the symmetric spatial deformation rate tensor, denoted
as d ( x,t ) , has been defined as,
1 1
2
T

2
(
d := symm [ l ] = ( l + l ) = grad v + ( grad v )
T
)
and the skew-symmetric spatial rotation rate tensor, denoted as
w ( x,t ) , has been defined as,
1 1
2
T

2
(
w := skew [ l ] = ( l l ) = grad v ( grad v )
T
)
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 136
Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Deformation Rate
Deformation Rate Tensor
The symmetric spatial deformation rate tensor, denoted as d ( x, t ) ,
may be viewed as a measure of the rate of deformation given by,
d d d
dt
( ds dS ) = ( ds ) = ( dx dx ) = dv dx + dx dv
2 2

dt
2

dt
Using the expression dv = l dx yields,
d d 1
dt
( ds 2
dS 2
) =
dt
( ds 2
) = 2 dx
2
( l + l T
) dx = 2 dx d dx

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 137

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Deformation Rate
Deformation Rate Tensor
The symmetric spatial deformation rate tensor, denoted as d ( x, t ) ,
may be related to the material time derivative of the Green-
Lagrange strain tensor as,

d d
dt
( ds dS ) = ( 2dX EdX ) = 2dX EdX
2 2

dt


d
( ds 2
dS 2
) = 2 dx d dx = 2 dX F T
dFdX
dt

 = FT dF, d = F T EF
E  1

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 138

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Deformation Rate
Deformation Rate Tensor
The symmetric spatial deformation rate tensor, denoted as d ( x, t ) ,
may be related to the material time derivative of the Almansi
strain tensor as,
d d
dt
( ds dS ) = ( 2dx edx )
2 2

dt

= 2 ( dx e dx + dv edx + dx edv )

= 2dx ( e + l e + el ) dx
T

d
( ds 2
dS 2
) = 2 dx d dx
dt
d = e + lT e + el, e = d lT e el
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 139
Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Rotation Rate
Rotation Rate Tensor
The skew-symmetric spatial rotation rate tensor, denoted as w ( x, t ) ,
satisfies the following expressions,
w dx = dx dx, wab dxb = abcb dxc
1 1 1 vc 1
= curl v = v, a = abc = abc vc ,b
2 2 2 xb 2
where is the axial (or dual) rotation rate vector.

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 140

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Rotation Rate
Rotation Rate Tensor
The components of the skew-symmetric spatial rotation rate
tensor w and the components of the axial (or dual) rotation rate
vector , are such that,

0 w12 w13 0 3 2
w w23 = 3 1
[ ] 12
w = 0 0
w13 w23 0 2 1 0

1 w23
= w
[ ] 2 13
=
3 w12
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 141
Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Material Time Derivative
Spatial Velocity
Giving the spatial description of an arbitraryGradient
property, Tensor
the material time derivative of the property can be written as,

dv = l dx, dva = lab dxb

l := grad v = v, lab := va ,b

Deformation and Rotation Rate Tensors

l = sym [ l ] + skew [ l ] := d + w

l + l ) = ( v + ( v )
),
1 1 1
d :=
2
( T

2
T
d ab :=
2
( v a ,b + vb ,a )

w := ( l l ) = ( v ( v ) ) ,
1 1 1
2 2
T T
wab :=
2
( v a ,b vb ,a )

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 142

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Assignment 3.10
Assignment 3.10 [Classwork]
Consider two different motions with velocity vector fields given
by,
T
v = V
I I
( X , Y , Z ) = [ Z X Z]
T
v II = v II ( x, y, z ) = [ z x z]
Assuming that the reference time is t=0, obtain for each one of
the motions,
1) The motion equation and the deformation gradient
2) The Green-Lagrange and the Almansi strain tensors
3) The deformation rate tensor

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 143

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Assignment 3.10
Assignment 3.10 [Classwork]
Setting the differential equations of motion for the field (I),
integrating in time and imposing the consistency condition for a
reference time t=0 yields the motion equations given by,
dx I
dt = V x = Z
x = X + Zt
dy
= V I
y = X y = Y + Xt
dt z = Z (1 + t )
dz I

dt = Vz = Z

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 144

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Assignment 3.10
The deformation gradient for the motion field (I) reads,
1 0 t
[F] = t 1 0
0 0 1 + t
The Green-Lagrange strain tensor for the motion field (I) reads,
1 T
E = ( F F 1)
2
t 2 t t
1
[ E] = t 0 0
2
t 0 2t (1 + t )

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 145
Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Assignment 3.10
The inverse motion equation for the motion field (I) reads,
X = x zt (1 + t )

Y = y xt zt 2
(1 + t )
Z = z (1 + t )

The inverse deformation gradient for the motion field (I) reads,
1 0 t (1 + t )
F 1 = t 1 t 2 (1 + t )
0 0 1 (1 + t )

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 146

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Assignment 3.10
The Almansi strain tensor for the motion field (I) reads,
1
e = (1 F T F 1 )
2
t 2 t t (1 t )
1
[e] = t 0 t (1 + t )
2

2 2
t (1 t ) t (1 + t ) 1 ( t + t + 1) (1 + t )
2 4 2

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 147

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Assignment 3.10
The spatial velocity vector field for the motion field (I) reads,
vx = z (1 + t )

v y = x zt (1 + t )
v = z (1 + t )
z
The spatial velocity gradient tensor for the motion field (I)
0 0 1 (1 + t )

[ l ] = [ v] = 1 0 t (1 + t )
0 0 1 (1 + t )

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 148

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Assignment 3.10
The deformation rate tensor for the motion field (I) reads,
1
d = ( l + lT )
2
0 1 1 (1 + t )
1
[d ] = 1 0 t (1 + t )
2
1 (1 + t ) t (1 + t ) 2 (1 + t )

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 149

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Assignment 3.10
The differential equations of motion for the field (II) read,

dx II
dt = v x = z

dy II
= v y = x
dt
dz II
dt = v z = z

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 150

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Assignment 3.10
Integrating the differential equations of motion for the field (II)
yields,
dz dz z
=z = dt log = t z = C3et
dt z C3
dx
= z = C3et x = C1 + C3et
dt
dy
= x = C1 + C3et y = C1t + C2 + C3et
dt
Imposing the consistency condition, taking t=0 as reference time,
yields,
C1 = X Z , C2 = Y Z , C3 = Z
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 151
Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Assignment 3.10
The canonical form of the equations of motion for the field (II)
x = X + Z ( et 1)

y = Y + Xt + Z ( t 1)
e t

t
z = Ze

The deformation gradient for the motion field (II) reads,

1 0 et 1

[ ]
F = t 1 e t
t 1
0 0 e t

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 152
Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Assignment 3.10
The Green-Lagrange strain tensor for the field (II) reads,
1 T
E = ( F F 1)
2
t2 t ( ) ( t ) 1
1 + t e t

1
[ E] = t 0 t
e t 1
2 2
(1 + t ) ( e t ) 1 e t 1 3e ( 2t + 4 ) e + (1 + t )
t t 2t t

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 153

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Assignment 3.10
The inverse of the equations of motion for the field (II) reads,
X = x z (1 et )

Y = y xt + zt ( t 1 + e t
)
t
Z = ze

The inverse deformation gradient for the motion field (II) reads,

1 0 et 1

F 1 = t 1 t 1 + et
0 0 e t

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 154

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Assignment 3.10
The Almansi strain tensor for the field (II) reads,
1
e = (1 F T F 1 )
2
t 2 t (
1 (1 t ) t + et )
1
[e] = t 0 1 t e t

2
(
1 1 t )( t + e t
) 1 t e t
e + (1 t ) ( 2e + t 1)
2t t

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 155

Strains > Spatial Velocity Gradient

Assignment 3.10
The spatial velocity gradient for the field (II) reads,
0 0 1
1 0 0
[] [
l = v ]
=
0 0 1
The deformation rate tensor for the field (II) reads,
1
d = ( l + lT )
2
0 1 1
1
[ ]
d = 1 0 0
2
1 0 2
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 156
Strains > Material Time Derivatives

Material Time Derivatives

Material Time Derivative of the Deformation Gradient
The material time derivative of the deformation gradient reads,

 d a a va b
FaA = = = = lab FbA
dt X A X A t xb X A

F = l F, FaA = lab FbA

The material time derivative of the inverse deformation gradient
may be computed as follows,
d d 1 d 1
dt
( FF ) = FF + F ( F ) = l + F ( F ) = 0
1  1

dt dt
d 1
dt
( F ) = F 1
l
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 157
Strains > Material Time Derivatives

Material Time Derivatives

Material Time Derivative of the Green-Lagrange Strain
The material time derivative of the Green-Lagrange strain tensor

E = 1 C
 = 1 d ( FT F )
2 2 dt
1 T  T 1 T
= ( F F + F F ) = F ( l + lT ) F
2 2
= FT dF

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 158

Strains > Material Time Derivatives

Material Time Derivatives

Material Time Derivative of the Green-Lagrange Strain
The material time derivative of the Green-Lagrange strain tensor
may be viewed as the pull-back of the (covariant) spatial
deformation rate tensor,
 = * ( d ) = FT dF
E
The spatial deformation rate tensor may be viewed as the push-
forward of the (covariant) material time derivative of the Green-
Lagrange strain tensor
d = * ( E
 ) = F T EF
 1

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 159

Strains > Material Time Derivatives

Material Time Derivatives

Material Time Derivative of the Almansi Strain
The material time derivative of the Almansi strain tensor reads,
1 d 1 1 d T 1
e =
2 dt
( b )=
2 dt
( F F )

1 d T 1 T d 1
= (F ) F + F ( F )
2 dt dt
1 T T 1
= ( l F F + F T F 1lT )
2
1 T 1 1
= (l b + b l)
2

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 160

Strains > Material Time Derivatives

Material Time Derivatives

Material Time Derivative of the Jacobian
The material time derivative of the Jacobian reads,
d d F dF d F  d F

J= F= : = :F = : ( lF )
dt dF dt dF dF
dF T dF
=JF , = J FaAT
dF dFaA

 d d F dFaA
J= F= = J FaAT lab FbA = J FbA FAa1lab = J laa = Jva ,a
dt dFaA dt

J = J div v
October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 161
Strains > Material Time Derivatives

Material Time Derivatives

Material Time Derivative of the Differential of Volume
The material time derivative of the differential of volume reads,
d d
( dv ) = ( J dV ) = J dV = J div v dV = div v dv
dt dt

Material Time Derivative of the Differential of Area

The material time derivative of the differential of area reads,

d d
( da ) = ( J F T dA ) = ( ( div v ) 1 lT ) J F T dA
dt dt
= ( ( div v ) 1 lT ) da

October 1, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 162

Strains > Material Time Derivatives

Material Time Derivatives

Material Time Derivative
Giving the spatial description of an Gradient
Deformation arbitrary property, the material time derivative of the property can be written as,

F = l F

Strain Tensors
 = FT dF
E
1 T 1 1
e = ( l b + b l ) = d l T e e l
2

Jacobian

J = J div v