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# Continuum Mechanics

Chapter 4
Kinematics: Infinitesimal Strains
C. Agelet de Saracibar
ETS Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politcnica de Catalua (UPC), Barcelona, Spain
International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering (CIMNE), Barcelona, Spain
Infinitesimal Strains > Hypothesis

Infinitesimal Strains
Chapter 4 Infinitesimal Strains
1. Hypothesis
3. Infinitesimal strain tensor
4. Variation of volume
5. Polar decomposition
6. Stretches
7. Variation of angles
8. Matrix notation
9. Compatibility equations

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 2

Infinitesimal Strains > Hypothesis

Infinitesimal Strains
Reference or Material Configuration Current or Spatial Configuration
Reference Configuration Current Configuration
time t = 0 time t
t=0 t

Q FF
dX P
dx
P
dS ds Q
0 t

X x
Inverse Deformation Map X 3 , x3
Deformation Map
X = 1 ( x,t ) e 3 x = ( X,t )
Inverse Tangent Deformation Map e 2 X 2 , x2 Tangent Deformation Map
e1
dX = F 1
( x, t ) dx X 1 , x1 dx = F ( X, t ) dX

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 3

Infinitesimal Strains > Hypothesis

Hypothesis
H1. Small Displacements
We assume that the displacements are small, such that,
 We do not make any difference between spatial configura-
tion and material configuration,
t  0
 We do not make any difference between spatial points and
material points, or spatial coordinates and material
coordinates,
x = ( X, t )  X, [ x ]  [ X]

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 4

Infinitesimal Strains > Hypothesis

Hypothesis
H1. Small Displacements
We assume that the displacements are small, such that,
 We do not make any difference between spatial description
and material description,
= ( x, t ) = ( ( X, t ) , t ) = ( X, t )  ( X, t )
= ( X, t ) = ( 1 ( x, t ) , t ) = ( x, t )  ( x, t )
 We do not make any difference between spatial differential
operators and material differential operators,
 , 2  2 , 
grad []  GRAD [] , div []  DIV [] , curl []  CURL []
October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 5
Infinitesimal Strains > Hypothesis

Hypothesis
H1. Small Displacements
We assume that the displacements are small, such that,
 We do not make any difference between spatial time
derivative and material time derivative,
( x, t ) ( X, t ) d
=   = 
t t t dt
d ( X, t ) ( x, t )
 = =  
dt t t t

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 6

Infinitesimal Strains > Hypothesis

Hypothesis
We assume that the displacements gradient are small, such
that,
 The components of the displacement gradient satisfy,
U a ( X, t )
J aA = 1
X A
 We consider a linear theory, i.e. any non-linear function of the
f ( J ) = f ( J ) J=0 + J f ( J ) J=0 : J + 0 ( J 2 )
 f ( J ) J=0 + J f ( J ) J=0 : J

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 7

Infinitesimal Strains > Displacement Gradient Tensor

As we do not make any difference between material and spatial
descriptions and we do not make any difference between
material and spatial gradient, then there is no difference
between the material and spatial displacement gradient,
yielding a single displacement gradient tensor such that,
J := U ( X, t ) = GRAD U ( X, t )

j := u ( x, t ) = grad u ( x, t )
j  J

u ( x, t )  U ( X, t )

grad u ( x, t )  GRAD U ( X, t )
October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 8
Infinitesimal Strains > Infinitesimal Strain Tensor

## Infinitesimal Strain Tensor

Infinitesimal Strain Tensor
The Green-Lagrange strain tensor is a non-linear function of the
1 T 1 1
2 2
T
(
E := ( F F 1) = (1 + J ) (1 + J ) 1 = ( J + JT + JT J )
2
)
The linearization of the Green-Lagrange strain tensor yields,
1 1
E := ( J + J + J J )  ( J + JT ) :=
T T

2 2
The infinitesimal strain tensor, denoted as , may be defined as
the linearized Green-Lagrange strain tensor, yielding,
1 1
:= ( J + J ) , ab := ( ua ,b + ub,a )
T

2 2
October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 9
Infinitesimal Strains > Infinitesimal Strain Tensor

## Infinitesimal Strain Tensor

Infinitesimal Strain Tensor
The Almansi strain tensor is a non-linear function of the spatial
1 1 1
2
T 1

2
(
e := (1 F F ) = 1 (1 j) (1 j) = ( j + jT jT j)
T

2
)
The infinitesimal strain tensor, denoted as , may be defined as
the linearized Almansi strain tensor, and taking into account that
we do not make any difference between material and spatial
1 1 1
:= ( j + j )  ( J + J ) , ab := ( ua ,b + ub,a )
T T

2 2 2

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 10

Infinitesimal Strains > Variation of Volume

Variation of Volume
Variation of Volume
The relation between the differential of volume at the spatial
and material configurations is given by,
dv = J dV
where the Jacobian is a non-linear function of the components
of the displacement gradient tensor given by,
1 + u1,1 u1,2 u1,3

J = det F = det (1 + J ) = det u2,1 1 + u2,2 u2,3
u3,1 u3,2 1 + u3,3

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 11

Infinitesimal Strains > Variation of Volume

Variation of Volume
Variation of Volume
The linearization of the Jacobian yields,
J  1 + u1,1 + u2,2 + u3,3 = 1 + div u = 1 + tr
Then, within an infinitesimal strains framework, the relation
between the spatial and material differential of volume takes the
form,
dv  (1 + div u ) dV = (1 + tr ) dV
Note that now, within the infinitesimal strains framework, the
J = 1 div u = tr = 0
October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 12
Infinitesimal Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition
Polar Decomposition
The polar decomposition of the deformation gradient tensor F ,
F = RU = vR, FaA = RaBU BA = vab RbA
where U is the right (or material) stretch tensor, v is the left (or
spatial) stretch tensor and R is the rotation tensor, such that,
12
U = (F F) T
= C1 2 , U = UT , x Ux > 0 x 0, det U = J
T 12
v = ( FF ) = b1 2 , v = vT , x vx > 0 x 0, det v = J
R = FU 1 = v 1F, R 1 = RT , det R = 1

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 13

Infinitesimal Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition
Linearized Right Stretch Tensor
The right stretch tensor is a non-linear function of the material
12 12 12
= (F F) = ( 1 + J ) ( 1 + J ) = (1 + J + J + J J )
12 T T T T
U=C

The linearization of the right Cauchy-Green tensor and the right
stretch tensor yields,
T
C = F F = (1 + J ) (1 + J ) = 1 + J + JT + JT J
T

 1 + J + JT = 1 + 2
T 12 1
U=C 12
 (1 + J + J )  1 + ( J + JT ) = 1 +
2
October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 14
Infinitesimal Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition
Linearized Inverse Right Stretch Tensor
The linearization of the inverse right Cauchy-Green tensor and
the right stretch tensor yields,
T 1
C  (1 + J + J
1
)  1 ( J + JT ) = 1 2
1 2 1
U =C1 1 2
 (1 + J + J T
)  1 ( J + JT ) = 1
2

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 15

Infinitesimal Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition
Linearized Inverse Left Stretch Tensor
The inverse left stretch tensor is a non-linear function of the
spatial displacement gradient tensor given by,
12
1 1 2 12
= (F F ) = ( 1 j) ( 1 j) = ( 1 j j + j j)
1 1 2 T T T T
v =b

The linearization of the inverse left Cauchy-Green tensor and
inverse left stretch tensor yields,
T
b = F F = (1 j) (1 j) = 1 j jT + jT j
1 T 1

1 j jT  1 2
T 12 1
v =b 1 1 2
(1 j j ) 1 ( j + jT )  1
2
October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 16
Infinitesimal Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition
Linearized Left Stretch Tensor
The linearization of the left Cauchy-Green tensor and left stretch
tensor yields,
1
b  (1 j j T
)  1 + ( j + jT )  1 + 2
1 2 1
v=b 12
 (1 j j T
)  1 + ( j + jT )  1 +
2

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 17

Infinitesimal Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition
Linearized Rotation Tensor
The rotation tensor may be written as a non-linear function of
the material displacement gradient tensor given by,
1 2
R = FU = FC 1 1 2
= F (F F) T 1 2
( T
= (1 + J ) (1 + J ) (1 + J ) )
The linearization of the inverse rotation tensor yields,
1 T 1
R = FU  (1 + J ) 1 ( J + J )  1 + ( J JT ) := 1 +
1

2 2
where the skew-symmetric infinitesimal rotation tensor has
been defined as,
1
:= ( J JT )
2
October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 18
Infinitesimal Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition
Linearized Rotation Tensor
Geometrical interpretation of an infinitesimal rotation

dX dX

dX
R dX  (1 + ) dX

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 19

Infinitesimal Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition
Linearized Rotation Tensor
The skew-symmetric infinitesimal rotation tensor satisfies the
following expressions,
= T , ab = Tab = ba

## We may introduce an axial (or dual) infinitesimal rotation vector

such that,
dX = dX dX, ab dX b = abcb dX c
1 1 1 uc 1
= curl u = u, a = abc = abc uc ,b
2 2 2 X b 2

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 20

Infinitesimal Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition
Linearized Rotation Tensor
The matrix of components of the skew-symmetric infinitesimal
rotation tensor and the vector of components of the axial (or
dual) infinitesimal rotation vector satisfy,

0 12 13 0 3 2
23 = 3 1
[ ] 12
= 0 0
13 23 0 2 1 0

1 23
[ ] = 2 = 13
3 12
October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 21
Infinitesimal Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition
Linearized Polar Decomposition
The linearized, right and left, polar decomposition takes the
form,
F = RU  (1 + )(1 + )  1 + +
F = vR  (1 + )(1 + )  1 + +
yielding,
dx = FdX  (1 + + ) dX
The linearized, either right or left, polar decomposition may be
interpreted as the sum of an infinitesimal deformation (charate-
rized by the infinitesimal strain tensor) and an infinitesimal
rotation (charaterized by the infinitesimal rotation tensor)

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 22

Infinitesimal Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition
Linearized Polar Decomposition
Geometrical interpretation of the linearized polar decomposition

dX dX
dX

dX
dx = FdX  (1 + + ) dX

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 23

Strains > Linearized Tensors

Linearized Tensors
Material Time Derivative
Infinitesimal Strain
Giving the spatial description of an arbitrary property,andtheRotation
material time derivativeTensors
of the property can be written as,

1 1 1 1
E  e  := ( J + J )  ( j + j ) , := ( J J )  ( j jT )
T T T

2 2 2 2

## Linearized Cauchy-Green and Stretch Tensors

C  b  1 + 2, U  v  1 +
C1  b 1  1 2, U 1  v 1  1

## Linearized Rotation Tensor

R  1+
October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 24
Infinitesimal Strains > Stretches

Stretches
Linearized Stretch
The stretch at a material point along a direction given by the unit
ds
= = 1+ 2 T E T
dS
Using a linear Taylor series expansion, i.e.,

( x ) = 1 + 2x  ( 0) + ( 0) x = 1 + x
The linearized stretch takes the form,
= 1+ 2 T E T  1+ T E T  1+ T T

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 25

Infinitesimal Strains > Stretches

Stretches
Linearized Stretch
The stretch at a spatial point along a direction given by the unit
ds 1
= =
dS 1 2 t e t
Using a linear Taylor series expansion, i.e.,
1
( x) =  ( 0) + ( 0) x = 1 + x
1 2x
The linearized stretch takes the form,
1
=  1+ t e t  1+ T T
1 2 t e t

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 26

Infinitesimal Strains > Stretches

Stretches
Stretches along the Cartesian Axes
Taking unit vectors along the Cartesian axes,
T T T
[Tx ] = [1, 0, 0] , Ty = [0, 1, 0] , [Tz ] = [0, 0, 1]

## The stretches along the Cartesian axes take the form,

x  1 + Tx Tx = 1 + xx , xx  x 1 = x
y  1 + Ty Ty = 1 + yy , yy  y 1 = y
z  1 + Tz Tz = 1 + zz , zz  z 1 = z

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 27

Infinitesimal Strains > Variation of Angles

Variation of Angles
Linearized Variation of Angles
The angle formed by two material segments along unit vectors
given by T(1) and T(2) in the material configuration, in the
spatial configuration is given by,
T(1) (1 + 2E ) T(2)
cos =
1 + 2 T(1) ET(1) 1 + 2 T(2) ET(2)
The linearized expression of the angle takes the form,
cos  T(1) (1 + 2E ) T(2)  cos + 2 T(1) T(2)
cos = cos ( + ) = cos cos sin sin  cos sin
2 T(1) T(2)

sin
October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 28
Infinitesimal Strains > Variation of Angles

Variation of Angles
Linearized Variation of Angles
The angle formed by two spatial segments along unit vectors
(1) (2)
given by t and t in the spatial configuration, in the
material configuration is given by,
t (1) (1 2e ) t (2)
cos =
1 2 t (1) e t (1) 1 2 t (2) e t (2)
The linearized expression for the angle takes the form,
cos  t (1) (1 2e ) t (2)  cos 2 t (1) t (2)
cos = cos ( + ) = cos cos sin sin  cos sin
2 t (1) t (2) 2 T(1) T(2)
 
sin sin
October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 29
Infinitesimal Strains > Variation of Angles

Variation of Angles
Linearized Variation of Cartesian Angles
Taking unit vectors along the Cartesian axes,
T T T
[Tx ] = [1, 0, 0] , Ty = [ 0, 1, 0] , [Tz ] = [0, 0, 1]
The increment of angles between segments oriented along the
Cartesian axes take the form,
2 Tx Ty 1
xy  = 2 xy , xy  xy
sin xy 2
2 Tx Tz 1
xz  = 2 xz , xz  xz
sin xz 2
2 Ty Tz 1
yz  = 2 yz , yz  yz
sin yz 2
October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 30
Infinitesimal Strains > Matrix Notation

Matrix Notation
Tensorial and Engineering Matrix Notation
Using tensorial notation, the matrix of components of the sym-
metric infinitesimal strain tensor takes the form,
xx xy xz 11 12 13

[ ] xy yy yz 12 22 23
= =
xz yz zz 13 23 33

Using engineering notation, the matrix of components of the
symmetric infinitesimal strain tensor takes the form,
x 1
2
xy 1
2
xz
1
[ ] = 2 xy y 1
2
yz
1 xz 1
z
2 2 yz
October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 31
Infinitesimal Strains > Matrix Notation

Matrix Notation
Tensorial and Engineering Matrix Notation
Using tensorial notation, the associated vector of components of
the symmetric infinitesimal strain tensor takes the form,
T
[ ] = xx , yy , zz , 2 xy , 2 xz , 2 yz
T
= [11 , 22 , 33 , 212 , 213 , 2 23 ]
Using engineering notation, the vector of components of the
symmetric infinitesimal strain tensor takes the form,
T
[ ] = x , y , z , xy , xz , yz

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 32

Infinitesimal Strains > Material Time Derivatives

## Material Time Derivatives

Material Time Derivative of the Infinitesimal Strain
Within the infinitesimal strains framework, the deformation rate
tensor, the material time derivative of the Green-Lagrange strain
tensor and the material time derivative of the Almansi strain
tensor are approximated by the time derivative of the infinitesi-
mal strain tensor, yielding
  e  
dE

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 33

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.1
Assignment 4.1
The solid of the figure is subjected to a uniform strain state
through a uniaxial traction/compression test, such that,
ux (0, y, z ) = 0, ux ( L, y, z ) = y, z
u y ( x, y, z ) = uz ( x, y, z ) = 0 x, y, z
1) Obtain the motion equations and z
displacement field, indicating the

range of values for L.
2) Plot the x-component of the
O
Green-Lagrange, Almansi and x

## infinitesimal strain tensors vs the

L
normalized displacement L. y

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 34

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.1
Assignment 4.1
The solid of the figure is subjected to a uniform strain state
through a uniaxial traction/compression test, such that,
ux (0, y, z ) = 0, ux ( L, y, z ) = y, z
u y ( x, y, z ) = uz ( x, y, z ) = 0 x, y, z

## As the strain state is uniform the deformation gradient and the

displacement gradient are uniform and the displacement field is
linear,
F(X, t ) = F(t ) = 1 + J(t ) t, X
dU = J(t )dX U = J(t ) X + C(t )

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 35

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.1
The displacement vector field is linear and its components are
given by,
U X = J 11X + J 12Y + J 13Z + C 1
UY = J 21X + J 22Y + J 23Z + C 2
U Z = J 31X + J 32Y + J 33Z + C 3
Imposing the boundary conditions, the integration constants
J 11 = L , J 12 = J 13 = C 1 = 0
J 21 = J 22 = J 23 = C 2 = 0
J 31 = J 32 = J 33 = C 3 = 0
October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 36
Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.1
The components of the displacement vector field are given by,
T

[u] = X 0 0
L
The components of the motion equation are given by,
T

[ x ] = 1 + X Y Z
L

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 37

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.1
The components of the deformation gradient are given by,

1 + L 0 0
0
[ ]
F = 1 0
0 0 1

## The Jacobian has to be positive at any time, yielding the

det F = 1 + > 0 > L 1 < <
L L

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 38

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.1
The components of the Green-Lagrange, Almansi and infinitesi-
mal strain tensors are given by,

L 1 + 2 L 0 0 L 1 + 2 L 0 0
1
[ E] = 0 0 0 , [e] = 2
0 0 0
1 +
0 0 0 0 0 0
L

L 0 0
[ ] = 0 0 0
0 0 0
October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 39
Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.1
The x-components of the Green-Lagrange, Almansi and infinite-
simal strain tensors satisfy,
1
lim Exx = lim 1 + =
L 1 L 1 L
2L 2

1 +
L 2L
lim exx = lim 2
=
L 1 L 1
1 +

L

lim xx = lim = 1
L 1 L 1 L

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 40

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.1
The x-components of the Green-Lagrange, Almansi and infinite-
simal strain tensors satisfy,

lim Exx = lim 1+ =
L L L
2L

1 + 1
lim exx = lim
L 2L
2
=
L L
1 + 2

L

lim xx = lim =
L L L

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 41

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.1
The x-components of the Green-Lagrange, Almansi and infinite-
simal strain tensors satisfy,

dExx
lim = lim 1 + = 0
L 1 d ( L ) L 1
L
dexx 1
lim = lim =
L 1 d ( L ) 3
L1
1 +

L
d xx
lim =1
L 1 d ( L )

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 42

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.1
The x-components of the Green-Lagrange, Almansi and infinite-
simal strain tensors satisfy,

dExx
lim = lim 1 + =
L d ( L ) L
L
dexx 1
lim = lim =0
L d ( L ) 3
L
1 +

L
d xx
lim =1
L d ( L )

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 43

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.1

E x , ex , x
Ex x

12 ex

1
Ex
x 1 2 L

ex

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 44

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.2
Assignment 4.2 [Classwork]
The solid of the figure is subjected to a uniform strain state
such that: (1) Point A does not moves, point B remains on the x-
axis and point E remains on z-axis; (2) The volume remains
constant; (3) The angle xy remains constant; (4) The angle yz
increases in r radians; (5) The length of the segment AF becomes
1+p times the initial one; (6) The length of the segment AC
becomes 1-q times the initial one. z

E F

## Obtain the infinitesimal strain tensor, the

infinitesimal rotation tensor and the a

## displacements in terms of p, q and r. A

yz
D y
xy
B C
a
a
October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar x 45
Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.2
Assignment 4.2 [Classwork]
As the strain state is uniform the deformation gradient and the
displacement gradient are uniform and the displacement field is
linear,
F(X, t ) = F(t ) = 1 + J(t ) t, X
dU = J(t )dX U = J(t ) X + C(t )

## The components of the linear displacement field take the form,

U X = J 11X + J 12Y + J 13Z + C 1
UY = J 21X + J 22Y + J 23Z + C 2
U Z = J 31X + J 32Y + J 33Z + C 3
October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 46
Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.2
Condition 1. Point A does not moves, point B remains on the x-
axis and point E remains on the z-axis.

## UA = J(t ) XA + C(t ) = 0 C(t ) = 0

UB = J(t ) XB J 21 (t ) = J 31 (t ) = 0

UE = J(t ) XE J 13 (t ) = J 23 (t ) = 0

J J 0 J J 2 0
11 12 11 12
J(t ) = 0 J 0 , (t ) = J 2 J J 2
22 12 22 32

0 J 32 J 33 0 J 32 2 J 33

October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 47
Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.2
Condition 2. The volume remains constant.
As the strain is uniform, if the volume remains constant, the
medium is incompressible yielding,
tr (t ) = J 11 (t ) + J 22 (t ) + J 33 (t ) = 0

## Condition 3. The angle xy remains constant.

xy = 0 xy = J12 2 = 0 J12 = 0

## Condition 4. The angle yz increases in r radians.

yz = r yz = J 32 2 = r 2 J 32 = r

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 48

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.2
Then the gradient of displacements and the infinitesimal strain
tensor take the form,
J
11 0 0
J(t ) = 0 J 0

22

0 r J 11 J 22

J 0 0
11
(t ) = 0 J r 2
22

0 r 2 J 11 J 22

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 49

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.2
Condition 5. The length of the segment AF becomes 1+p times
the initial one.
As the strain is uniform, the stretch along a fixed direction will be
also uniform yielding,
AF (t ) = 1 + TAF (t )TAF = 1 + p

J 0 0 0
11
1 1
0 1 1 J 12 2 J 22 r 2 1 = (r + J 11 ) = p
2 2
0 r 2 J 11 J 22 1

J 11 = r 2p
October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 50
Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.2
Then the gradient of displacements and the infinitesimal strain
tensor take the form,
r 2p 0 0

J(t ) = 0 J 22 0

0 r r + 2p J 22

r 2p 0 0

(t ) = 0 J r 2
22

0 r 2 r + 2p J 22

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 51

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.2
Condition 6. The length of the segment AC becomes 1-q times
the initial one.
As the strain is uniform, the stretch along a fixed direction will be
also uniform yielding,
AC (t ) = 1 + TAC (t )TAC = 1 q

r 2p 0 0 1

1 0 1 = q
1 1 0 J r 2
2
22

0 r 2 r + 2 p J 0
22

1
2
(r 2p + J 22 ) = q J 22 = r + 2p 2q
October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 52
Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.2
Then the gradient of displacements and the infinitesimal strain
tensor take the form,
r 2p 0 0

J(t ) = 0 r + 2 p 2q 0

0 r 2q

r 2p 0 0

(t ) = 0 r + 2 p 2q r 2

0 r 2 2q

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 53

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.2
The infinitesimal rotation tensor takes the form,
0 0 0

1
(t ) = J(t ) JT (t ) = 0
2 0 r 2

0 r 2 0

## The displacement vector field takes the form,

r 2p 0 0 X

U(t ) = 0 r + 2 p 2q 0 Y

0 r 2q Z

October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 54
Infinitesimal Strains > Compatibility Equations

Compatibility Equations
Compatibility Equations
Given an arbitrary smooth displacement vector field u (with the
required continuity degree), it is always possible to get the
associated symmetrical infinitesimal strain tensor defined as,
1 1
2
( T

2
)
:= u + ( u ) , ab = ( ua ,b + ub,a )

## October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 55

Infinitesimal Strains > Compatibility Equations

Compatibility Equations
Compatibility Equations
Given an arbitrary symmetrical infinitesimal strain tensor , i.e.
given six arbitrary functions as the matrix components of a
symmetric second-order tensor, it is not always possible to get
the associated displacement vector field such that,
1 1
2
( T

2
)
:= u + ( u ) , ab = ( ua ,b + ub,a )

## This gives a system of 6 PDE with 3 unknowns and, hence, the

system may not be integrable and may not have a solution.
In order to get an integrable system of PDE and guarantee the
existence of the displacement vector field, the infinitesimal strain
tensor has to satisfy the compatibility equations.
October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 56
Infinitesimal Strains > Compatibility Equations

Compatibility Equations
Compatibility Equations
The compatibility equations for the infinitesimal strain tensor
may be written as,
T T
S := ( ) T
= ( ) = 0
S := e f ( cde bd ,ceb ee ), f = fba cde bd ,cf ea ee
def 2 yy 2 zz 2 yz 2 zz yz xz xy
def

S xx = + 2 =0 S xy = + + =0
z 2
y 2
yz xy z x y z
def
2 zz 2 xx 2 xz def 2 yy yz xz xy
S yy = 2
+ 2
2 = 0 S xz = + + =0
x z xz xz y x y z
2 2
def 2
xx
yy xy def 2
xx yz xz xy
S zz = + 2 = 0 S yz = + + + =0
y 2 x 2 xy yz x x y z

October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 57
Infinitesimal Strains > Compatibility Equations

Compatibility Equations
Compatibility Equations
The compatibility tensor S satisfies the following equation,

(
div S = S := ( )
T
)=0
S xx S xy S xz
+ + =0
x y z
S xy S yy S yz
+ + =0
x y z
S S yz S zz
xz
+ + =0
x y z
October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 58