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Chapter 4

Kinematics: Infinitesimal Strains

C. Agelet de Saracibar

ETS Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politcnica de Catalua (UPC), Barcelona, Spain

International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering (CIMNE), Barcelona, Spain

Infinitesimal Strains > Hypothesis

Infinitesimal Strains

Chapter 4 Infinitesimal Strains

1. Hypothesis

2. Displacement gradient tensor

3. Infinitesimal strain tensor

4. Variation of volume

5. Polar decomposition

6. Stretches

7. Variation of angles

8. Matrix notation

9. Compatibility equations

Infinitesimal Strains > Hypothesis

Infinitesimal Strains

Reference or Material Configuration Current or Spatial Configuration

Reference Configuration Current Configuration

time t = 0 time t

t=0 t

Q FF

dX P

dx

P

dS ds Q

0 t

X x

Inverse Deformation Map X 3 , x3

Deformation Map

X = 1 ( x,t ) e 3 x = ( X,t )

Inverse Tangent Deformation Map e 2 X 2 , x2 Tangent Deformation Map

e1

dX = F 1

( x, t ) dx X 1 , x1 dx = F ( X, t ) dX

Infinitesimal Strains > Hypothesis

Hypothesis

H1. Small Displacements

We assume that the displacements are small, such that,

We do not make any difference between spatial configura-

tion and material configuration,

t 0

We do not make any difference between spatial points and

material points, or spatial coordinates and material

coordinates,

x = ( X, t ) X, [ x ] [ X]

Infinitesimal Strains > Hypothesis

Hypothesis

H1. Small Displacements

We assume that the displacements are small, such that,

We do not make any difference between spatial description

and material description,

= ( x, t ) = ( ( X, t ) , t ) = ( X, t ) ( X, t )

= ( X, t ) = ( 1 ( x, t ) , t ) = ( x, t ) ( x, t )

We do not make any difference between spatial differential

operators and material differential operators,

, 2 2 ,

grad [] GRAD [] , div [] DIV [] , curl [] CURL []

October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 5

Infinitesimal Strains > Hypothesis

Hypothesis

H1. Small Displacements

We assume that the displacements are small, such that,

We do not make any difference between spatial time

derivative and material time derivative,

( x, t ) ( X, t ) d

= =

t t t dt

d ( X, t ) ( x, t )

= =

dt t t t

Infinitesimal Strains > Hypothesis

Hypothesis

H2. Small Displacements Gradient

We assume that the displacements gradient are small, such

that,

The components of the displacement gradient satisfy,

U a ( X, t )

J aA = 1

X A

We consider a linear theory, i.e. any non-linear function of the

displacements gradient is linearized,

f ( J ) = f ( J ) J=0 + J f ( J ) J=0 : J + 0 ( J 2 )

f ( J ) J=0 + J f ( J ) J=0 : J

Infinitesimal Strains > Displacement Gradient Tensor

Displacements Gradient Tensor

As we do not make any difference between material and spatial

descriptions and we do not make any difference between

material and spatial gradient, then there is no difference

between the material and spatial displacement gradient,

yielding a single displacement gradient tensor such that,

J := U ( X, t ) = GRAD U ( X, t )

j := u ( x, t ) = grad u ( x, t )

j J

u ( x, t ) U ( X, t )

grad u ( x, t ) GRAD U ( X, t )

October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 8

Infinitesimal Strains > Infinitesimal Strain Tensor

Infinitesimal Strain Tensor

The Green-Lagrange strain tensor is a non-linear function of the

material displacement gradient tensor,

1 T 1 1

2 2

T

(

E := ( F F 1) = (1 + J ) (1 + J ) 1 = ( J + JT + JT J )

2

)

The linearization of the Green-Lagrange strain tensor yields,

1 1

E := ( J + J + J J ) ( J + JT ) :=

T T

2 2

The infinitesimal strain tensor, denoted as , may be defined as

the linearized Green-Lagrange strain tensor, yielding,

1 1

:= ( J + J ) , ab := ( ua ,b + ub,a )

T

2 2

October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 9

Infinitesimal Strains > Infinitesimal Strain Tensor

Infinitesimal Strain Tensor

The Almansi strain tensor is a non-linear function of the spatial

displacement gradient tensor,

1 1 1

2

T 1

2

(

e := (1 F F ) = 1 (1 j) (1 j) = ( j + jT jT j)

T

2

)

The infinitesimal strain tensor, denoted as , may be defined as

the linearized Almansi strain tensor, and taking into account that

we do not make any difference between material and spatial

displacement gradient, yields,

1 1 1

:= ( j + j ) ( J + J ) , ab := ( ua ,b + ub,a )

T T

2 2 2

Infinitesimal Strains > Variation of Volume

Variation of Volume

Variation of Volume

The relation between the differential of volume at the spatial

and material configurations is given by,

dv = J dV

where the Jacobian is a non-linear function of the components

of the displacement gradient tensor given by,

1 + u1,1 u1,2 u1,3

J = det F = det (1 + J ) = det u2,1 1 + u2,2 u2,3

u3,1 u3,2 1 + u3,3

Infinitesimal Strains > Variation of Volume

Variation of Volume

Variation of Volume

The linearization of the Jacobian yields,

J 1 + u1,1 + u2,2 + u3,3 = 1 + div u = 1 + tr

Then, within an infinitesimal strains framework, the relation

between the spatial and material differential of volume takes the

form,

dv (1 + div u ) dV = (1 + tr ) dV

Note that now, within the infinitesimal strains framework, the

incompressibility condition reads,

J = 1 div u = tr = 0

October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 12

Infinitesimal Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition

The polar decomposition of the deformation gradient tensor F ,

reads,

F = RU = vR, FaA = RaBU BA = vab RbA

where U is the right (or material) stretch tensor, v is the left (or

spatial) stretch tensor and R is the rotation tensor, such that,

12

U = (F F) T

= C1 2 , U = UT , x Ux > 0 x 0, det U = J

T 12

v = ( FF ) = b1 2 , v = vT , x vx > 0 x 0, det v = J

R = FU 1 = v 1F, R 1 = RT , det R = 1

Infinitesimal Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition

Linearized Right Stretch Tensor

The right stretch tensor is a non-linear function of the material

displacement gradient tensor given by,

12 12 12

= (F F) = ( 1 + J ) ( 1 + J ) = (1 + J + J + J J )

12 T T T T

U=C

The linearization of the right Cauchy-Green tensor and the right

stretch tensor yields,

T

C = F F = (1 + J ) (1 + J ) = 1 + J + JT + JT J

T

1 + J + JT = 1 + 2

T 12 1

U=C 12

(1 + J + J ) 1 + ( J + JT ) = 1 +

2

October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 14

Infinitesimal Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition

Linearized Inverse Right Stretch Tensor

The linearization of the inverse right Cauchy-Green tensor and

the right stretch tensor yields,

T 1

C (1 + J + J

1

) 1 ( J + JT ) = 1 2

1 2 1

U =C1 1 2

(1 + J + J T

) 1 ( J + JT ) = 1

2

Infinitesimal Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition

Linearized Inverse Left Stretch Tensor

The inverse left stretch tensor is a non-linear function of the

spatial displacement gradient tensor given by,

12

1 1 2 12

= (F F ) = ( 1 j) ( 1 j) = ( 1 j j + j j)

1 1 2 T T T T

v =b

The linearization of the inverse left Cauchy-Green tensor and

inverse left stretch tensor yields,

T

b = F F = (1 j) (1 j) = 1 j jT + jT j

1 T 1

1 j jT 1 2

T 12 1

v =b 1 1 2

(1 j j ) 1 ( j + jT ) 1

2

October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 16

Infinitesimal Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition

Linearized Left Stretch Tensor

The linearization of the left Cauchy-Green tensor and left stretch

tensor yields,

1

b (1 j j T

) 1 + ( j + jT ) 1 + 2

1 2 1

v=b 12

(1 j j T

) 1 + ( j + jT ) 1 +

2

Infinitesimal Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition

Linearized Rotation Tensor

The rotation tensor may be written as a non-linear function of

the material displacement gradient tensor given by,

1 2

R = FU = FC 1 1 2

= F (F F) T 1 2

( T

= (1 + J ) (1 + J ) (1 + J ) )

The linearization of the inverse rotation tensor yields,

1 T 1

R = FU (1 + J ) 1 ( J + J ) 1 + ( J JT ) := 1 +

1

2 2

where the skew-symmetric infinitesimal rotation tensor has

been defined as,

1

:= ( J JT )

2

October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 18

Infinitesimal Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition

Linearized Rotation Tensor

Geometrical interpretation of an infinitesimal rotation

dX dX

dX

R dX (1 + ) dX

Infinitesimal Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition

Linearized Rotation Tensor

The skew-symmetric infinitesimal rotation tensor satisfies the

following expressions,

= T , ab = Tab = ba

such that,

dX = dX dX, ab dX b = abcb dX c

1 1 1 uc 1

= curl u = u, a = abc = abc uc ,b

2 2 2 X b 2

Infinitesimal Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition

Linearized Rotation Tensor

The matrix of components of the skew-symmetric infinitesimal

rotation tensor and the vector of components of the axial (or

dual) infinitesimal rotation vector satisfy,

0 12 13 0 3 2

23 = 3 1

[ ] 12

= 0 0

13 23 0 2 1 0

1 23

[ ] = 2 = 13

3 12

October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 21

Infinitesimal Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition

Linearized Polar Decomposition

The linearized, right and left, polar decomposition takes the

form,

F = RU (1 + )(1 + ) 1 + +

F = vR (1 + )(1 + ) 1 + +

yielding,

dx = FdX (1 + + ) dX

The linearized, either right or left, polar decomposition may be

interpreted as the sum of an infinitesimal deformation (charate-

rized by the infinitesimal strain tensor) and an infinitesimal

rotation (charaterized by the infinitesimal rotation tensor)

Infinitesimal Strains > Polar Decomposition

Polar Decomposition

Linearized Polar Decomposition

Geometrical interpretation of the linearized polar decomposition

dX dX

dX

dX

dx = FdX (1 + + ) dX

Strains > Linearized Tensors

Linearized Tensors

Material Time Derivative

Infinitesimal Strain

Giving the spatial description of an arbitrary property,andtheRotation

material time derivativeTensors

of the property can be written as,

1 1 1 1

E e := ( J + J ) ( j + j ) , := ( J J ) ( j jT )

T T T

2 2 2 2

C b 1 + 2, U v 1 +

C1 b 1 1 2, U 1 v 1 1

R 1+

October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 24

Infinitesimal Strains > Stretches

Stretches

Linearized Stretch

The stretch at a material point along a direction given by the unit

vector T reads,

ds

= = 1+ 2 T E T

dS

Using a linear Taylor series expansion, i.e.,

( x ) = 1 + 2x ( 0) + ( 0) x = 1 + x

The linearized stretch takes the form,

= 1+ 2 T E T 1+ T E T 1+ T T

Infinitesimal Strains > Stretches

Stretches

Linearized Stretch

The stretch at a spatial point along a direction given by the unit

vector t reads,

ds 1

= =

dS 1 2 t e t

Using a linear Taylor series expansion, i.e.,

1

( x) = ( 0) + ( 0) x = 1 + x

1 2x

The linearized stretch takes the form,

1

= 1+ t e t 1+ T T

1 2 t e t

Infinitesimal Strains > Stretches

Stretches

Stretches along the Cartesian Axes

Taking unit vectors along the Cartesian axes,

T T T

[Tx ] = [1, 0, 0] , Ty = [0, 1, 0] , [Tz ] = [0, 0, 1]

x 1 + Tx Tx = 1 + xx , xx x 1 = x

y 1 + Ty Ty = 1 + yy , yy y 1 = y

z 1 + Tz Tz = 1 + zz , zz z 1 = z

Infinitesimal Strains > Variation of Angles

Variation of Angles

Linearized Variation of Angles

The angle formed by two material segments along unit vectors

given by T(1) and T(2) in the material configuration, in the

spatial configuration is given by,

T(1) (1 + 2E ) T(2)

cos =

1 + 2 T(1) ET(1) 1 + 2 T(2) ET(2)

The linearized expression of the angle takes the form,

cos T(1) (1 + 2E ) T(2) cos + 2 T(1) T(2)

cos = cos ( + ) = cos cos sin sin cos sin

2 T(1) T(2)

sin

October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 28

Infinitesimal Strains > Variation of Angles

Variation of Angles

Linearized Variation of Angles

The angle formed by two spatial segments along unit vectors

(1) (2)

given by t and t in the spatial configuration, in the

material configuration is given by,

t (1) (1 2e ) t (2)

cos =

1 2 t (1) e t (1) 1 2 t (2) e t (2)

The linearized expression for the angle takes the form,

cos t (1) (1 2e ) t (2) cos 2 t (1) t (2)

cos = cos ( + ) = cos cos sin sin cos sin

2 t (1) t (2) 2 T(1) T(2)

sin sin

October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 29

Infinitesimal Strains > Variation of Angles

Variation of Angles

Linearized Variation of Cartesian Angles

Taking unit vectors along the Cartesian axes,

T T T

[Tx ] = [1, 0, 0] , Ty = [ 0, 1, 0] , [Tz ] = [0, 0, 1]

The increment of angles between segments oriented along the

Cartesian axes take the form,

2 Tx Ty 1

xy = 2 xy , xy xy

sin xy 2

2 Tx Tz 1

xz = 2 xz , xz xz

sin xz 2

2 Ty Tz 1

yz = 2 yz , yz yz

sin yz 2

October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 30

Infinitesimal Strains > Matrix Notation

Matrix Notation

Tensorial and Engineering Matrix Notation

Using tensorial notation, the matrix of components of the sym-

metric infinitesimal strain tensor takes the form,

xx xy xz 11 12 13

[ ] xy yy yz 12 22 23

= =

xz yz zz 13 23 33

Using engineering notation, the matrix of components of the

symmetric infinitesimal strain tensor takes the form,

x 1

2

xy 1

2

xz

1

[ ] = 2 xy y 1

2

yz

1 xz 1

z

2 2 yz

October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 31

Infinitesimal Strains > Matrix Notation

Matrix Notation

Tensorial and Engineering Matrix Notation

Using tensorial notation, the associated vector of components of

the symmetric infinitesimal strain tensor takes the form,

T

[ ] = xx , yy , zz , 2 xy , 2 xz , 2 yz

T

= [11 , 22 , 33 , 212 , 213 , 2 23 ]

Using engineering notation, the vector of components of the

symmetric infinitesimal strain tensor takes the form,

T

[ ] = x , y , z , xy , xz , yz

Infinitesimal Strains > Material Time Derivatives

Material Time Derivative of the Infinitesimal Strain

Within the infinitesimal strains framework, the deformation rate

tensor, the material time derivative of the Green-Lagrange strain

tensor and the material time derivative of the Almansi strain

tensor are approximated by the time derivative of the infinitesi-

mal strain tensor, yielding

e

dE

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.1

Assignment 4.1

The solid of the figure is subjected to a uniform strain state

through a uniaxial traction/compression test, such that,

ux (0, y, z ) = 0, ux ( L, y, z ) = y, z

u y ( x, y, z ) = uz ( x, y, z ) = 0 x, y, z

1) Obtain the motion equations and z

displacement field, indicating the

range of values for L.

2) Plot the x-component of the

O

Green-Lagrange, Almansi and x

L

normalized displacement L. y

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.1

Assignment 4.1

The solid of the figure is subjected to a uniform strain state

through a uniaxial traction/compression test, such that,

ux (0, y, z ) = 0, ux ( L, y, z ) = y, z

u y ( x, y, z ) = uz ( x, y, z ) = 0 x, y, z

displacement gradient are uniform and the displacement field is

linear,

F(X, t ) = F(t ) = 1 + J(t ) t, X

dU = J(t )dX U = J(t ) X + C(t )

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.1

The displacement vector field is linear and its components are

given by,

U X = J 11X + J 12Y + J 13Z + C 1

UY = J 21X + J 22Y + J 23Z + C 2

U Z = J 31X + J 32Y + J 33Z + C 3

Imposing the boundary conditions, the integration constants

read,

J 11 = L , J 12 = J 13 = C 1 = 0

J 21 = J 22 = J 23 = C 2 = 0

J 31 = J 32 = J 33 = C 3 = 0

October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 36

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.1

The components of the displacement vector field are given by,

T

[u] = X 0 0

L

The components of the motion equation are given by,

T

[ x ] = 1 + X Y Z

L

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.1

The components of the deformation gradient are given by,

1 + L 0 0

0

[ ]

F = 1 0

0 0 1

following range of admissible values,

det F = 1 + > 0 > L 1 < <

L L

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.1

The components of the Green-Lagrange, Almansi and infinitesi-

mal strain tensors are given by,

L 1 + 2 L 0 0 L 1 + 2 L 0 0

1

[ E] = 0 0 0 , [e] = 2

0 0 0

1 +

0 0 0 0 0 0

L

L 0 0

[ ] = 0 0 0

0 0 0

October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 39

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.1

The x-components of the Green-Lagrange, Almansi and infinite-

simal strain tensors satisfy,

1

lim Exx = lim 1 + =

L 1 L 1 L

2L 2

1 +

L 2L

lim exx = lim 2

=

L 1 L 1

1 +

L

lim xx = lim = 1

L 1 L 1 L

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.1

The x-components of the Green-Lagrange, Almansi and infinite-

simal strain tensors satisfy,

lim Exx = lim 1+ =

L L L

2L

1 + 1

lim exx = lim

L 2L

2

=

L L

1 + 2

L

lim xx = lim =

L L L

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.1

The x-components of the Green-Lagrange, Almansi and infinite-

simal strain tensors satisfy,

dExx

lim = lim 1 + = 0

L 1 d ( L ) L 1

L

dexx 1

lim = lim =

L 1 d ( L ) 3

L1

1 +

L

d xx

lim =1

L 1 d ( L )

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.1

The x-components of the Green-Lagrange, Almansi and infinite-

simal strain tensors satisfy,

dExx

lim = lim 1 + =

L d ( L ) L

L

dexx 1

lim = lim =0

L d ( L ) 3

L

1 +

L

d xx

lim =1

L d ( L )

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.1

E x , ex , x

Ex x

12 ex

1

Ex

x 1 2 L

ex

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.2

Assignment 4.2 [Classwork]

The solid of the figure is subjected to a uniform strain state

such that: (1) Point A does not moves, point B remains on the x-

axis and point E remains on z-axis; (2) The volume remains

constant; (3) The angle xy remains constant; (4) The angle yz

increases in r radians; (5) The length of the segment AF becomes

1+p times the initial one; (6) The length of the segment AC

becomes 1-q times the initial one. z

E F

infinitesimal rotation tensor and the a

yz

D y

xy

B C

a

a

October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar x 45

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.2

Assignment 4.2 [Classwork]

As the strain state is uniform the deformation gradient and the

displacement gradient are uniform and the displacement field is

linear,

F(X, t ) = F(t ) = 1 + J(t ) t, X

dU = J(t )dX U = J(t ) X + C(t )

U X = J 11X + J 12Y + J 13Z + C 1

UY = J 21X + J 22Y + J 23Z + C 2

U Z = J 31X + J 32Y + J 33Z + C 3

October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 46

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.2

Condition 1. Point A does not moves, point B remains on the x-

axis and point E remains on the z-axis.

UB = J(t ) XB J 21 (t ) = J 31 (t ) = 0

UE = J(t ) XE J 13 (t ) = J 23 (t ) = 0

J J 0 J J 2 0

11 12 11 12

J(t ) = 0 J 0 , (t ) = J 2 J J 2

22 12 22 32

0 J 32 J 33 0 J 32 2 J 33

October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 47

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.2

Condition 2. The volume remains constant.

As the strain is uniform, if the volume remains constant, the

medium is incompressible yielding,

tr (t ) = J 11 (t ) + J 22 (t ) + J 33 (t ) = 0

xy = 0 xy = J12 2 = 0 J12 = 0

yz = r yz = J 32 2 = r 2 J 32 = r

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.2

Then the gradient of displacements and the infinitesimal strain

tensor take the form,

J

11 0 0

J(t ) = 0 J 0

22

0 r J 11 J 22

J 0 0

11

(t ) = 0 J r 2

22

0 r 2 J 11 J 22

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.2

Condition 5. The length of the segment AF becomes 1+p times

the initial one.

As the strain is uniform, the stretch along a fixed direction will be

also uniform yielding,

AF (t ) = 1 + TAF (t )TAF = 1 + p

J 0 0 0

11

1 1

0 1 1 J 12 2 J 22 r 2 1 = (r + J 11 ) = p

2 2

0 r 2 J 11 J 22 1

J 11 = r 2p

October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 50

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.2

Then the gradient of displacements and the infinitesimal strain

tensor take the form,

r 2p 0 0

J(t ) = 0 J 22 0

0 r r + 2p J 22

r 2p 0 0

(t ) = 0 J r 2

22

0 r 2 r + 2p J 22

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.2

Condition 6. The length of the segment AC becomes 1-q times

the initial one.

As the strain is uniform, the stretch along a fixed direction will be

also uniform yielding,

AC (t ) = 1 + TAC (t )TAC = 1 q

r 2p 0 0 1

1 0 1 = q

1 1 0 J r 2

2

22

0 r 2 r + 2 p J 0

22

1

2

(r 2p + J 22 ) = q J 22 = r + 2p 2q

October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 52

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.2

Then the gradient of displacements and the infinitesimal strain

tensor take the form,

r 2p 0 0

J(t ) = 0 r + 2 p 2q 0

0 r 2q

r 2p 0 0

(t ) = 0 r + 2 p 2q r 2

0 r 2 2q

Infinitesimal Strains > Assignments

Assignment 4.2

The infinitesimal rotation tensor takes the form,

0 0 0

1

(t ) = J(t ) JT (t ) = 0

2 0 r 2

0 r 2 0

r 2p 0 0 X

U(t ) = 0 r + 2 p 2q 0 Y

0 r 2q Z

October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 54

Infinitesimal Strains > Compatibility Equations

Compatibility Equations

Compatibility Equations

Given an arbitrary smooth displacement vector field u (with the

required continuity degree), it is always possible to get the

associated symmetrical infinitesimal strain tensor defined as,

1 1

2

( T

2

)

:= u + ( u ) , ab = ( ua ,b + ub,a )

Infinitesimal Strains > Compatibility Equations

Compatibility Equations

Compatibility Equations

Given an arbitrary symmetrical infinitesimal strain tensor , i.e.

given six arbitrary functions as the matrix components of a

symmetric second-order tensor, it is not always possible to get

the associated displacement vector field such that,

1 1

2

( T

2

)

:= u + ( u ) , ab = ( ua ,b + ub,a )

system may not be integrable and may not have a solution.

In order to get an integrable system of PDE and guarantee the

existence of the displacement vector field, the infinitesimal strain

tensor has to satisfy the compatibility equations.

October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 56

Infinitesimal Strains > Compatibility Equations

Compatibility Equations

Compatibility Equations

The compatibility equations for the infinitesimal strain tensor

may be written as,

T T

S := ( ) T

= ( ) = 0

S := e f ( cde bd ,ceb ee ), f = fba cde bd ,cf ea ee

def 2 yy 2 zz 2 yz 2 zz yz xz xy

def

S xx = + 2 =0 S xy = + + =0

z 2

y 2

yz xy z x y z

def

2 zz 2 xx 2 xz def 2 yy yz xz xy

S yy = 2

+ 2

2 = 0 S xz = + + =0

x z xz xz y x y z

2 2

def 2

xx

yy xy def 2

xx yz xz xy

S zz = + 2 = 0 S yz = + + + =0

y 2 x 2 xy yz x x y z

October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 57

Infinitesimal Strains > Compatibility Equations

Compatibility Equations

Compatibility Equations

The compatibility tensor S satisfies the following equation,

(

div S = S := ( )

T

)=0

S xx S xy S xz

+ + =0

x y z

S xy S yy S yz

+ + =0

x y z

S S yz S zz

xz

+ + =0

x y z

October 2, 2013 Carlos Agelet de Saracibar 58

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