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Critical power:

Hospital electrical systems


#CSEhospitalpower
Danna Jensen, PE, LEED AP BD+C
WSP + ccrd

Robert R. Jones Jr., PE, LEED AP


JBA Consulting Engineers

Sponsored by:

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Learning objectives
Explain the applicable codes and standards: NFPA 70: National
Electrical Code, Article 517; NFPA 99: Health Care Facilities
Code; NFPA 110: Standard for Emergency and Standby Power
Systems; and various hospital accrediting agencies.
Assess unique electrical system requirements of hospitals
including those for patient care and nonpatient the areas.
Analyze and compare the differences between emergency and
essential power, connected load and demand load, the
branches of the emergency power supply system (EPSS), and
the types of equipment associated with each branch.
Outline backup, standby, and emergency power systems for
hospitals versus other building types.
Highlight recommended best practices such as ASHE Handbook
for Electrical Systems and IEEE White Book.

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Now a word from our sponsors

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Speakers:
Presenter:
Danna Jensen, PE, LEED AP BD+C
Vice President, Electrical Engineer
WSP + ccrd, Dallas

Presenter:
Robert R. Jones Jr., PE, LEED AP
Associate Director of Electrical
JBA Consulting Engineers, Las Vegas

Moderator:
Jack Smith
Content Manager
Consulting-Specifying Engineer and
Pure Power

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Critical power:
Hospital electrical systems
Understanding the intricacies
of designing hospital electrical systems

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Agenda
Applicable codes and standards
Health care facility types
Wiring methods
Various patient care space requirements
Essential electrical system (EES)
Transfer switches
Hospitals versus other building types
Generator sizing tips.

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Applicable codes and standards
NFPA 70: National Electrical Code (2014)
Article 517: Health Care Facilities
Article 700: Emergency Systems
Article 701: Legally Required Standby
Systems
Article 702: Optional Standby Systems
Article 708: Critical Operations Power
Systems (COPS).

NFPA 99: Health Care Facilities Code


(2015)
Chapter 6: Electrical Systems

NFPA 110 (2016)


Standard for Emergency and Standby Power
Systems.

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Applicable codes and standards
Jurisdiction-specific health care codes
FGI 2014 Facility Guidelines Institute
(hospitals and outpatient facilities)
California: OSHPD
Florida: AHCA
Michigan: MDHHS
Texas: TDSHS.

ASHE 2013: Electrical Systems Handbook for


Health Care Facilities

Joint Commission, Centers for Medicare &


Medicaid Services (CMS), etc.

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Health care definitions
Health care facility Health care occupancy
Hospitals Where medical treatment
Nursing homes or care is administered
Limited care facilities, Four or more inpatients
clinics Patients incapable of self-
Medical/dental offices preservation.
Ambulatory care centers
Psychiatric.

NFPA 99 and 70 NFPA 101

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Hospital
24-hour
Medical
Psychiatric
Obstetrical
Surgical
Four or more
inpatients.

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Wiring methods in
health care facilities
Patient care areas
Nonpatient care areas

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Terms
(from NEC Article 517.2)

Patient care space: space intended to be


examined or treated.

Patient bed location: the location sleeping


bed, or the bed or procedure table.

Patient care vicinity: a space extending 6 ft


beyond and extending vertically to 7.5 ft
above the floor.

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Patient care space
(from NEC Article 517.2)

Basic care space: not likely to cause injury but


may cause patient discomfort.

General care space: likely to cause minor injury.

Critical care space: likely to cause major injury or


death.

Support space: not likely to have a physical impact.

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Grounding
(From NEC Article 517.13)

Receptacles and fixed equipment in


patient care areas require redundant
grounding.
Metallic raceway system
or a cable having a
metallic armor or sheath
assembly.
Insulated equipment
ground conductor sized
per NEC Article 250.122.

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Panelboard bonding
(from NEC Article 517.14)

All panelboards that serve the same


individual patient care vicinity shall be
connected with an insulated continuous
copper conductor.

Minimum #10 AWG conductor size.


Conductor is permitted to be broken
at each panelboard equipment
grounding bus termination.

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Receptacles
Isolated ground receptacles are not permitted within a patient care
vicinity. (NEC Article 517.16)

Hospital grade type receptacles are required at patient bed locations


in general and critical care spaces. (NEC Articles 517.18(B) and
517.19(B)(2))

Receptacles supplied by the critical branch shall be identifiable and


indicate the panelboard name and circuit number. (NEC Articles
517.18(A) and 517.19(A))

Receptacles located in pediatric units shall be tamper-resistant.


(NEC 517.18(C))

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Hospital wiring requirements
(from NEC Article 517.30(C))
Separation from other circuits
Life safety branch circuits
Critical branch circuits
Other circuits.

Mechanical protection
Nonflexible metal raceway, RTRC-XW (e.g. fiberglass) conduit,
MI Cable, SC80 PVC
Encased in minimum 2 in. of concrete; SC40 PVC, flexible
nonmetallic/jacked metallic raceway, jacked metallic cable
assembly
Listed flexible metal raceway and listed metal sheathed cable
assemblies are permitted only in listed prefabricated medical
headwalls, listed office furnishings, existing walls/ceilings, and
equipment connections.

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General care space
(from NEC Article 517.18)

Each patient bed location requires at


least two branch circuits each from
separate distribution systemstypically
normal and critical branches
Normal branch circuits must all be
served from the same panelboard
Minimum of eight receptacles; may be
any combination of the single, duplex, or
quadraplex type
Shall be tamper-proof in designated
pediatric units.

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Critical care space
(from NEC Article 517.19)

Each patient bed location requires at least


two branch circuits each from separate
distribution systemstypically normal and
critical branches
Normal branch circuits must all be served
from the same panelboard
Minimum of 14 receptacles; may be any
combination of the single, duplex, or
quadraplex type
At least one bed location outlet shall be on a
critical branch circuit dedicated to the bed
location.

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Critical care space
Operating rooms (NEC Article 517.19(C))

Each patient bed location requires at


least two branch circuits each from
separate distribution systemstypically
normal and critical branches
Minimum of 36 receptacles; may be any
combination of the single, duplex, or
quadraplex type
At least 12 receptacles shall be
connected to a different system than the
remaining receptacles
Is this a wet procedure location?

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Wet procedure location
where a procedure is
performed that is normally
subject to wet conditions
(NEC Article 517.2)
Areas included are at the
discretion of the facility governing
body
Requires GFCI or isolation power
for receptacles and fixed
equipment (NEC Article 517.20(A).

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Isolation power
(from NEC Article 517.160)
May not serve more than one operating
room.
Circuit breaker or switch shall
disconnect both conductors
simultaneously.
Conductor colors:
- Isolated conductor 1 = orange w/
stripe
- Isolated conductor 2 = brown w/
stripe
Line isolation monitor provides alarm
when hazard current exceeds
threshold.

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Essential electrical system (EES)
System capable of supplying lighting and power
essential for life safety and orderly cessation of
procedures during the time normal electrical service is
interrupted

Comprised of alternate source of power and all


connected distribution systems

Divided in to three branches for a hospital

Number of transfer switches based on reliability,


design, and load considerations.

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Life safety branch
(from NEC Article 517.32)

Egress lighting
Exit signs
Alarm and alerting systems
Communication systems
Generator set and transfer switch locations
Generator accessories
Elevator cab lighting/control/communication
Automatic doors for building egress.

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Critical branch
(from NEC Article 517.33)
Task illumination, receptacles, and fixed equipment in critical care areas
using anesthetizing gases
Isolated power systems
Task illumination, receptacles and fixed equipment in patient areas
including:
Nursery
Medication preparation
Pharmacy dispensing
Nursing areas
Patient beds (nursing, critical, psychiatric, surgical, recovery, etc.)
Nurse stations
Angio and cath labs
Emergency room treatment areas
Labs
Additional illumination and receptacles needed for effective hospital
operation.

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Equipment branch
Automatic connection (from NEC Article 517.34(A))

Medical air and vacuum equipment


Sump pumps
Compressed air systems
Smoke control and stair pressurization
Kitchen hood supply/exhaust
Supply/return/exhaust for isolation rooms, labs,
protective environment rooms, nuclear medicine,
operating rooms, anesthesia evacuation
Air conditioning systems for data/telephone
equipment rooms and closets (new for 2014).

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Equipment branch
Automatic or manual connection (from NEC Article 517.34(B))

Heating equipment for OR, labor/delivery, critical


care, nursery, isolation, ED, patient room
Pressure maintenance pumps
Elevator for access to patients, surgery, OB, and
exit floor
Hyperbaric and hypobaric facilities
Automatic doors
Autoclaving (sterilizer)
Controls for equipment listed in this section
Other.

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Transfer switches
Create load priorities where multiple
generators are used
Steps load to aid in generator sizing.

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Transfer switch requirements
(from NFPA 110 Chapter 6)

Prevent interconnection of two sources


Electrically operated/mechanically held
Listed for emergency system use
Supply only emergency loads
Suitable for operation of all functions
intended to supply.

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Additional requirements
Separation from other circuits
Physical separation
Separate vertical switchboard section
Individual enclosures.

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Additional requirements
Selective coordination
Overcurrent protective device (OCPD) serving
the EES must be coordinated for a fault
duration of
0.1 seconds.
(new for 2014)

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Differences between backup
power systems for hospitals and
other building types
The life safety branch shall meet the
requirements of NEC Article 700, except as
amended by NEC Article 517 (NEC Article 517.26)

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Sources of power
Hospitals (NEC Article 517.35)
Normal utility service
Generator on premise
Battery system on premise.

Other buildings (NEC Articles 700.12 and 701.12)


Normal utility service
Generator
Uninterruptable power supply (UPS)
Separate utility service
Fuel cell system
Unit equipment.

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Generator sizing
Hospitals (NEC Article 517.30(D))
Generators shall have the capacity to meet the actual
demand. Sizing may be based on any combination of
prudent demand factors, historical data, connected
load, and Article 220 feeder calculations.

Other buildings (NEC Articles 700.4 and


701.4)
Generators shall have adequate capacity and rating to
support all loads simultaneously.

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Transfer switches
Hospitals (NEC Article 517.30(B)(2))
Each branch of the essential electrical system requires
one or more transfer switch. However, if the maximum
demand does not exceed 150 kVA, then only one
transfer switch is required.

Other buildings (NEC Article 700.5(D))


Emergency automatic transfer switch (ATS) is
dedicated to serve only emergency loads.

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Transfer switches
Hospital
Other buildings

150 kVA or less demand

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Selective coordination
Hospitals
(NEC Articles 517.17(C) and 517.30(G))
Requires selective coordination of OCPDs down to
0.1 seconds.

Other buildings
(NEC Article 700.28)
Requires selective coordination of OCPDs with no
permitted limitations (may vary by jurisdiction).

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Multiwire branch circuits
Hospitals (NEC Articles 517.18(A) and
517.19(A))
Multiwire branch circuits may not serve patient bed
locations. Applies to all circuits serving the patient bed
location.

Other buildings (NEC Article 700.19)


Multiwire branch circuits may not serve emergency
lighting and power circuits.

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Case study
Existing hospital to be expanded.

Existing utility service is 4,000 amps at 208/120 V and the utility transformer
is rated 750 kVA. Peak utility demand during the summer months is 394
kVA.

Existing generator is rated at 750 kW/937.5 kVA serving three automatic


transfer switches: life safety, critical, and equipment. The original calculated
load on the generator was 933.1 kVA.

We noted from the monthly generator testing report that the peak demand
during testing is 285 kVA/0.9 power factor (PF).

The generator is approximately 34% loaded at best and may experience


wet stacking.

The expansion is expected to contribute an additional 120 kVA/0.9 PF of


actual demand to the generator system. This value was determined using
prudent demand factors on anticipated connected loads and historical data.

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Design load versus actual load

Design connected
load Actual peak demand load Total percent of
(kW) (12-month profile) calculated value

Facility A: Phoenix 19,410 4,230 22%

Facility B: Dallas 7,072 3,378 48%

Facility C: Ft. Wayne, Ind. 21,041 11,496 55%

Facility D: Sun City, Ariz. 5,194 2,701 52%

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Generator sizing tips
(from NEC Article 517.30(D))
Collect real data
Disregard optional
loads
Provide multiple ATSs
Balanced design
between redundancy
and flexibility.

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Successful hospital electrical design
Understand the codes and where they
apply
Understand any local requirements
Pay special attention to wiring methods
permitted and watch the installation
Connect the correct equipment to the
correct branch of the EES
Avoid oversizing generators.

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Archive:
Within 7 days, an archive with Q&A will be posted
We will send an email to registered attendees with hyperlink
Can also access from www.csemag.com home page

47
Speakers:
Presenter:
Danna Jensen, PE, LEED AP BD+C
Vice President, Electrical Engineer
WSP + ccrd, Dallas

Presenter:
Robert R. Jones Jr., PE, LEED AP
Associate Director of Electrical
JBA Consulting Engineers, Las Vegas

Moderator:
Jack Smith
Content Manager
Consulting-Specifying Engineer and
Pure Power

48
Critical power:
Hospital electrical systems
#CSEhospitalpower
Danna Jensen, PE, LEED AP BD+C
WSP + ccrd

Robert R. Jones Jr., PE, LEED AP


JBA Consulting Engineers

Sponsored by:

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