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Motor and Drive Interaction

Part 1

Hydraulic Institute / Pump Systems Matter
Pump Systems Matter (PSM) is a non-profit educational organization
established by the Hydraulic Institute, and leading utilities and energy efficiency
organizations, to educate the industry on the benefits to pump systems
optimization and energy efficiency to improve bottom-line savings of end-user
Hydraulic Institute The mission of the Hydraulic Institute is to be a value-adding
resource to member companies, engineering consulting firms, and pump users
worldwide by developing and delivering comprehensive industry standards,
expanding knowledge by providing education and tools for the effective
application, testing, installation, operation, maintenance, and performance
optimization of pumps and pumping systems, and by serving as a forum for the
exchange of industry information. For more information on the Hydraulic
Institute, its member companies and its Standards Partners, visit

Meet Your Instructor
Currently the Power Generation
Business Development
Manager for WEG Motors
Over 40 years of experience in
the pump industry designing,
field testing, repairing and
troubleshooting mechanical
seals, compressors and
pumping systems
An active Hydraulic Institute
member for a number of years,
including Pump Systems Matter
Train the Trainer expert,
Certified Hydraulic Institute
Pump System Assessor and top
PSO instructor

Workshop Learning Objectives
As a result of this workshop, the participants will better understand:
Understand how the motor reacts to the system under VFD
Ability to properly select a motor for VFD service
Understand the impact that motors, pumps and drives have on
the pump system
Understand potential issues that one must be aware of when
applying a VFD
Using a system approach to manage motor, pump and drive
An efficient system is a reliable system - Making the Business Case

Why Efficient Pumping Systems are Important
Pump Application Considerations
Pumping Systems Overview
Pumping System Fundamentals; the impact on total system efficiency
Drive (Variable Speed)
End User Equipment
VFD System Application Consideration
Electrical System
Grounding considerations
Grounding of control system
Grounding of motor
Justifying VFD
Making the Business Case

Benefits of Assessment Electrical Energy Savings Potential
Electrical usage with
motors in municipal water
systems pumping (46%)
and aeration (40%)

In wastewater plants,
electrical usage with
GWhr / Year
pumping systems account
for 20-30% of consumption.

Electrical motors
account for nearly
2/3rd of the North
American Industrial
Electricity usage with
pumping systems
accounting for 25%
1997 On-site studies at 265 industrial facilities
Total facility electrical energy costs
Motor system energy consumption & costs
Potential energy savings
Analysis by key industrial markets

Pumps Systems are Energy Intensive

Source: U.S. Industrial Motor Systems, Market Opportunities Assessment,
U.S. Department of Energy
Finnish Technical Research Center Report:
Expert Systems for Diagnosis of the Condition and Performance of Centrifugal Pumps

Evaluation of 1690 pumps at 20 process plants:

Average pumping efficiency is below 40%
Over 10% of pumps run below 10% efficiency
Major factors affecting pump efficiency:
Throttled valves
Pump over-sizing
Seal leakage causes highest downtime and cost

Impact on Life Cycle Cost?

Conventional 75 HP Pumping
System 20 Year Life Cycle Cost
Initial Cost
( $68,333 ) 8%
( $61,000 )

55% Maintenance
( $415,812 ) Cost
Includes Energy
( $212,000 )

Total 20 Year Life Cycle Cost = $757,145

Reference : CostWare Analysis

Why Focus on Pumping Systems?
Pumping system efficiency is highly influenced
by the system they are supplying

Improving pump efficiency will do little to reduce pump

energy usage the focus must be on the entire system

Pump vs. System Standards
Pump Standards
Standards of design and dimensional specifications are necessary to bring unity to centrifugal
pumps. Standards are provided by organizations like
ISO - International Standards Organizations System Standards
HI Hydraulic Institute
API - American Petroleum Institute
With few exceptions, there are no standards to
ANSI - American National Standards Institute
DIN - Deutsches Institut fr Normung guide system design
NPFA - National Fire Protection Agency
BSi - British Standards institute Engineering contractors and owner/operators
Some commonly used centrifugal pumps standards are allowed to choose (or ignore) how to
ANSI/API 610-1995 - Centrifugal Pumps for General Refinery Service - Covers the minimum calculate system hydraulics
requirements for centrifugal pumps, including pumps running in reverse as hydraulic power Specified pump operating point not
recovery turbines, for use in petroleum, heavy duty chemicals, and gas industry services. The subject to standards
pump types covered by this standard can be broadly classified as overhung, between bearings,
and vertically suspended.
DIN EN ISO 5199 - Technical specifications for centrifugal pumps
ASME B73.1-2001 - Specification for Horizontal End Suction Centrifugal Pumps for Chemical
Process - This standard covers centrifugal pumps of horizontal, end suction single stage,
centerline discharge design. This Standard includes dimensional interchangeability
requirements and certain design features to facilitate installation and maintenance. It is the
intent of this Standard that pumps of the same standard dimension designation from all
sources of supply shall be interchangeable with respect to mounting dimensions, size and
location of suction and discharge nozzles, input shafts, baseplates, and foundation bolt holes
ASME B73.2-2003 - Specifications for Vertical In-Line Centrifugal Pumps for Chemical Process
BS 5257:1975 - Specification for horizontal end-suction centrifugal pumps (16 bar) - Principal
dimensions and nominal duty point. Dimensions for seal cavities and base plate installations.

Motor Life Cycle Costs
Purchase Price, What Does it Cost to Operate a
Installation and Motor?
Maintenance 2.7%
What is the Value of One Point
of Increased Efficiency?

Electricity 97.3% Is Choosing the More Efficient

Motor the Best Solution?

Answer Later in this Webinar

Lifetime Energy Costs of a Motor

Purchase Price Energy Cost

$5,000 $810,000
(162 X Purchase)

Installed (40 x Installed)


100 HP motor @ $0.08 / kWh Electricity ($54K / Yr)

24/7 for 15-Yr Life

Electrical Energy Costs

100% Speed
100% Load
100 HP Induction Motor

$27,139 per year!

Electrical Energy Costs

60% Speed
22% HP
100 HP Induction Motor

$5,970 per year!

Affinity Rules for Centrifugal Loads

Annual Electrical Energy Savings

100% Speed $27,139

60% Speed $5,970
$21,169 per year!

Estimate Efficiency and Load

Computing Energy Costs for Pumping Systems
Annual Electricity Cost (measurement formula)

(measured amps) x (measured voltage) x (1.732) x pf x hours x rate

Measured amps = average of three phases
Measured voltage = line to line voltage
PF = power factor
Hours = annual hours of operation
Electric Rate = electricity cost in $/kWh

Get power factor (PF) from motor manufacturer performance data sheet

Note - 1.732 (the square root of 3), is a constant necessary with 3 phase
1000 = Watts to kW

Making the Business Case for Optimization

Stake Holder Value and Profit

Relate savings to the facilitys bottom line

Reduce Cost & Increase Profitability
Engineers, Operations and Maintenance see and approach
business issues differently

Engineers: How does it work?

Operations: How does it keep my plant running?
Maintenance: How does it reduce maintenance cost?

Each group believes it makes a rational case for its thinking

The reality is it is a team effort, you must evaluate the total

system when looking to reduce costs and increase

$ Make the Business Case $

Look Beyond Energy Savings
Energy cost is a top consideration, but there are also values for
non-energy benefits:
Higher Reliability
Increase Productivity
Less Equipment Wear and Tear
Reduced Maintenance Cost
Reduce Production Losses
Increase Capacity Utilization
Reduce Environmental Impact
Asking the Right Questions

How a Centrifugal Pump Works

Centrifugal Pump Facts
Centrifugal pumps should be selected and normally operated at or near
the manufacturers design rated conditions of head and flow.

Any pump operated at excess capacity, i.e. at a flow significantly greater

than BEP and at a lower head, will surge and vibrate, creating potential
bearing and shaft seal problems as well as requiring excessive power.

When operation is at reduced capacity, i.e. at a flow significantly less than

BEP and at a higher head, the fixed vane angles will now cause eddy flows
within the impeller, casing, and between the wear rings. The radial thrust
on the rotor will increase, causing higher shaft stresses, increased shaft
deflection, and potential bearing and mechanical seal problems while
radial vibration and shaft axial movement will also increase.

Liquid Flow in Centrifugal Pumps
A centrifugal pump converts Kinetic Energy (Velocity) to Pressure Energy
1. The amount of energy given to the 4. In the discharge nozzle, the liquid
liquid is proportional to the velocity at further decelerates and its velocity is
the edge or vane tip of the impeller converted to pressure according to
Bernoullis principle.

2. The faster the impeller revolves or the bigger the impeller

is, then the higher will be the velocity of the liquid at the
vane tip and the greater the energy imparted to the liquid.

3. This kinetic energy of a liquid coming out of

an impeller is harnessed by creating a resistance
to the flow.
Impeller Eye

The first resistance is created by the pump volute

(casing) that catches the liquid and slows it down.

Therefore, the head (pressure in terms of height of
liquid) developed is approximately equal to the
velocity energy at the periphery of the impeller. Volute



Lomakin Effect
Is a support force that occurs in pumps at annular seals such as wear rings due to the action
of Bernoulli's effect during the normal leakage process.

The stability generated by the wear rings is

generally referred to as the Lomakin Effect,
which is driven by the differential pressure
across the rings. The wear ring is a barrier
between discharge pressure (Pd) and suction
pressure (Ps). The differential pressure across
this interface creates an axial flow velocity as
shown in Figures 1a and 1b.
The Lomakin Effect can sometimes be
confusing because it encompasses two
separate phenomena that occur at the wear Concentric rotor end view 1a
Concentric rotor side view 1b rings:
Damping and Stiffness
Differential pressure (Pd) to suction
pressure (Pa) produces an axial flow Damping does not directly prevent shaft deflection, but minimizes rotor response
across the wear rings. to excitation forcesmuch in the same way that shock absorbers result in a
smooth ride in a car. Reduced clearance increases damping and results in a more
stable rotor.
Perhaps most important, the stiffness and damping are located at the impeller where the pump has no bearing support.
This strategic location gives the Lomakin Effect a great deal of power in minimizing shaft deflection.

Wear Ring Clearances
Clearance between impeller wear ring and case wear ring should be 0.010 to
0.012 plus 0.001 per inch up to a ring diameter of 12 inches.
Add 0.0005 per inch of ring diameter over 12 inches. Use manufacturers
guidelines when applying high-performance polymers tighter clearances are
For pumping temperatures of 500F and over, add 0.010 to the wear ring
clearance. Also, whenever galling-prone wear ring materials such as stainless
steel are used, 0.005 are added to the clearance.
Impeller wear rings should be replaced when the new clearance reaches twice
the original value.
Case wear rings are not to be bored out larger than 3% of the original
Metal case ring-to-case interference should be 0.002- 0.003, depending on

Consequences of Off-BEP Operation
Low Flow Operation Increases:

Axial Loads Low

Radial Loads Flow

Suction Recirculation
Discharge Pressure

Run-Out Flow Issues vs. BEP

Run-out Flow Operation:

Increased Vibration
Increased Radial Load
High/Steep NPSHR Curve
Decreased Discharge
Reduced Seal and Bearing
Increased Cavitation and
Potential Damage to
Impeller and Case

Specific Speed

Pumps are Traditionally Divided into 3 Types

Radial Flow Mixed Flow Axial Flow

Pumps are traditionally divided into 3 types, radial flow, mixed flow and axial flow.

There is a continuous change from the radial flow impeller, which develops pressure principally
from the action of centrifugal force, to the axial flow impeller, which develops most of its head
by the propelling or lifting action of the vanes on the liquid.

Specific speed is a term used to describe the geometry (shape) of a pump impeller.

What is Specific Speed and Why is it Important?

People responsible for the selection of the proper pump can use this Specific
Speed information to:

Select the shape of the pump curve.

Determine the efficiency of the pump.
Anticipate motor overloading problems.
Select the lowest cost pump for their application.

Specific speed is defined as "the speed of an ideal pump geometrically similar to

the actual pump, which when running at this speed will raise a unit of volume,
in a unit of time through a unit of head.

Specific Speed

NS = Specific Speed
RPM = Speed in revolutions per minute
GPM = US Gallons Per Minute
H = Head in feet
Example Q = GPM
US gpm, ft.
Specific Speed
Ns (US gpm, ft) = (1760 rev / min) (1500 gal .75 / min)
(100 ft.)
Specific Speed Calculator
Head 100
= 2156 Flow 1500
RPM 1760
Specific Speed

Specific Speed
The steepness of the head/ capacity curve increases as specific speed
At low specific speed, power consumption is lowest at shut off and rises
as flow increases. This means that the motor could be over loaded at the
higher flow rates unless this was considered at the time of purchase.
At medium specific speed the power curve peaks at approximately the
best efficiency point. This is a non overloading feature meaning that the
pump can work safely over most of the fluid range with a motor speed to
meet the BEP. requirement.
High specific speed pumps have a falling power curve with maximum
power occurring at minimum flow. These pumps should never be started
with the discharge valve shut. If throttling is required a motor of greater
power will be necessary.
What is the Impact on Motor Selection, Horsepower?

Specific Speed Typical Curves

Hd = Discharge head generated P = Power Required

Q = Quantity of Liquid Pumped n = Pump Efficiency

Specific Speed Values for the Different Pump Designs


Electric motors maintain high efficiency

Over a wide range Centrifugal pumps have a very
35% load to 120% load narrow operating range
Based on Specific Speed

Operating Range

The motor and pump react to system requirements and therefore operate based on system resistance.
The pump reliability and performance is highly influenced by the system

Efficiency Means Reliability

Sizing Electric Motors to Pumps Using System Optimization

Adding a service factor and additional horsepower it can lead to maintenance problems and higher
energy consumption.

The constant 3960 is obtained by dividing the number or foot-pounds for one horsepower (33,000) by
the weight of one gallon of water (8.33 pounds).

BHP can also be read from the pump curves at any flow rate. Pump curves are based on a specific
gravity of 1.0. Other liquids specific gravity must be considered.

The brake horsepower or input to a pump is greater than the hydraulic horsepower or output due to the
mechanical and hydraulic losses incurred in the pump. Therefore the pump efficiency is the ratio of
these two values

Think System
Use a Systems Approach to Manage Pumping System Operation

Focusing solely on individual components overlooks potential cost-savings

Component failures are often caused by system problems (How do you identify these problems?)

What is System Optimization

The process of identifying, understanding and cost

effectively eliminating unnecessary losses while reducing
energy consumption and improving reliability in pumping
systems, which while meeting process requirements,
minimizes the cost of ownership over the economic life of
the pumping systems.

Source: Optimizing Pumping Systems: A Guide to Improved Energy, Efficiency, Reliability and Profitability

Systems Optimization and Improvement Opportunities
Using Variable Speed Control

Defining the System by Component

Confidential and Proprietary 42

Hydraulic Institute November 2016
Effect of Control Valves
Impeller Size Changes

Using the affinity rules Efficiency Curves

the pump head curve
can be adjusted for a
different diameter

Pump Speed Changes

Using the affinity rules Efficiency Curves

the pump head curve
can be adjusted for a
different SPEEDS.

Pump Speed Changes
Friction-Dominated Systems

Pump Speed Changes
Mixed Friction-Static Systems

System Efficiency

Improving the Performance of
Existing Pumping Systems with
Variable Speed Control

Six Step Action Plan
1. Screen and prioritize your pumping systems to identify
good performance improvement candidates
2. Get management support for improving the highest priority
pumping systems
3. Work with appropriate pumping system specialist and/or in-
house team to gather and analyze additional data
4. Identify, economically validate, and implement
performance improvement opportunities
5. Document actions and report results to management
6. Repeat Action Plan process for other good candidate

Performance Improvement Opportunities - Solutions

Eliminate unnecessary uses

Improve Operations & Maintenance (O & M) practices
Improve piping configuration
Consider alternative pump configurations
Change pump speed

Change Pump Speed

Slower motor
Two-speed motor *
Changes to belt drives/gears *
Variable Speed Drives
Variable Frequency Drive
Magnetic Drive
Fluid Drive

ASD = Adjustable Speed Drive
VSD = Variable Speed Drive
Any device that can be used to change the speed of the pump
shaft (E.g. VFDs, Viscous couplings, Transmissions, Belt drives,
Special motors)
AFC = Adjustable Frequency Control
AFD = Adjustable Frequency Drive
VFD = Variable Frequency Drive
Electronic solid state device with an adjustable frequency
output that imitates a sine wave
A.k.a. Inverter

Variable Frequency Drive System

Basic VFD Diagram

A basic variable frequency drive system typically consists of an AC motor and
variable frequency drive managed through a control system (above). A method
to vary/control speed is required. There are numerous control methods, both
internal and external, to the VFD.

Variable Speed Pumping

Why use a variable speed pump?

When to use variable speed?

When not to use variable speed?

Source: Section supplied by Manitoba Hydro

Why use a Variable Speed Pump?
% FLOW, HEAD, POWER Take advantage of the affinity rules of Centrifugal Pumps.



Valve throttling increases system head resulting in excess power consumption

Excess energy noted in blue area
Excess energy impacts equipment reliability


Bypass lines require more flow, which results in excess power consumption.
Excess energy impacts equipment reliability


No excess energy used by the system

Reliability is maximized

When to use Variable Speed?
Pump and System Curves Perpendicular

When Not to use Variable Speed Pumps?

No Variability?
Use Impeller Trim or
Reduced Fixed Speed

Pump and System

Curves Parallel

Conclusion of Part One
Part Two
Motor design selection and application
Load Types
Case Studies