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Chapter II

Review of Related Literature

In this chapter, the researchers will present the topics that are related to the effects of
sleeping patterns on the academic performance of students, mainly focusing on
mathematics, based on four indicators; sleeping habits, quality of sleep, sleeping problems
and lack of sleep. The research findings by other researchers are also presented and
discussed to provide a necessary background of this study. It also presents foreign literature
studies from different authors that are relevant to the researchers study.

Sleeping Habits

According to Carskadon, M.A. and Wolfson A.R.s study that assesses the relation
between sleep patterns, sleep quality, and school of performance of adolescents attending
middle school, high school, and/or college, that the findings strongly indicate that shortened
total sleep time, erratic sleep or wake schedules, late bed and rise times, and poor sleep
quality are negatively associated with academic performance for adolescents from middle
school through the college years.

The study specifically looked at the sleep/wake patterns and usual grades of students,
school start time and phase preference in relation to sleep habits and quality and academic
performance, and sleep patterns and classroom performance.

According a newspaper article written by Tacio, H.D. entitled Getting a Good Nights
Sleep, states that in many cases, staying up too late is the culprit of reduced morning energy
and fatigue. In one experiment, children were asked to go to bed later than normal for a
week, and then were asked to spend no fewer than 10 hours in bed for another week.

During the week of later bedtimes, teachers rated these kids as having more academic
problems and more attention problems without knowledge of the research.

Many parents think their children go to bed early, but even 9:00 p.m. could be considered a
late bedtime for a child.

As kids get older, sleepiness leads to slipping grades. For example, in a study of roughly
1,000 children and preadolescents, researchers measured kids' sleep and school
performance and found that poor sleepers were significantly more likely to have school
achievement difficulties. In fact, one of the best predictors of school failure in the study was
children's fatigue. In another study of 3,000 high school students in New England, those who
reported higher grades had significantly more sleep time and earlier bedtimes on school
nights than those with lower grades.

Students reporting with better grades got 17-33 minutes more sleep on school nights and
went to bed 10-50 minutes earlier than students with lesser numerical grades.

Students with lower grades also went to bed on average 2.3 hours later on the weekends
than on school nights, compared to students with better, who went to bed 1.8 hours later on
the weekends. The same relationship has held true for college and high school students as

The book written by the author Richards, K., entitled Stop Losing Sleep: Establish
Healthy Sleep Patterns to improve your Health and Energy, states that some behaviours or
activities are detrimental to normal sleep have been suggested.

These "inadequate sleep hygiene" behaviours include irregular sleep schedules, frequent or
prolonged daytime naps, and staying on one's bed for non-sleep-related activities.

Accordingly, adequate sleep hygiene is considered to be an important adjuvant for treating

patients with insomnia or other sleep disturbances. Having an irregular sleep pattern causes
detrimental effects to the human body such as fatigue, which in turn causes daily activities to
be performed sluggishly.
According to the author, Raza, A., of the book Developing a Regular Sleep Pattern that
sleeping patterns has a significant effect on peoples everyday lives and day to day activities.

The book, Developing a Regular Sleep Pattern, states that sleep doctors recommend
a variety of measures to help adults and children achieve adequate sleep to help present
mindedness in people.

In general, all of these approaches are intended to help with relaxation as the desired sleep
time approaches, to maintain a comfortable sleep environment, and to encourage a healthful
balance of nutrition and exercise to achieve .
Quality of Sleep

According to an online article written by an anonymous author from the website entitled Low Math Scores? Try Getting more Sleep, Adolescents sleeping for
more hours are likely to score higher in mathematics related tests.

Meanwhile, those who sleep between six and ten hours, a regular and adequate sleep, got
significantly better scores, as compared to those with a short, around six hours or less, or
long, more than 9 hours per night, patterned sleep. Moreover, this difference is more
prominent in physical education.

The aim of the study was to analyze how sleep patterns can affect students' academic
performance. The students; academic performance was measured in terms of mean grade
-in common subjects and at global level- of a group of Secondary School students.

According to Cynthia, L., A new study finds a link between a good night's sleep for
schoolage kids and better performance in math and languages-subjects that are powerful
predictors of later learning and academic success.

In the journal Sleep Medicine, the researchers reported that "sleep efficiency" is associated
with higher academic performance in those key subjects. Sleep efficiency is a gauge of
sleep quality that compares the amount of actual sleep time with the total time spent in bed.

While other studies have pointed to links between sleep and general academic performance,
the scientists examined the impact of sleep quality on report-card grades in specific subjects.
With greater sleep efficiency, results show that the children did better in mathematics and
According to Curry, J.s book Understanding the Impact of Irregular Sleep Pattern,
Some behaviours or activities are detrimental to normal sleep have been suggested. These
"inadequate sleep hygiene" behaviours include irregular sleep schedules, frequent or
prolonged daytime naps, excessive alcohol consumption before bedtime, absent
mindedness, slower mental capacity, and staying on one's bed for non-sleep-related

Accordingly, adequate sleep hygiene is considered to be an important adjuvant for treating

patients with insomnia or other sleep disturbances.However, in the case of normal subjects,
who are unaffected by these pathological conditions, the association between sleep hygiene
and sleep itself is surprisingly inconsistent.

According to a book written by Carskadon, M.A., Adolescent Sleep Patterns:

Biological, Social, and Psychological Influences. Although the prevalence varies, many
adolescents and young adults are reported to have an irregular sleep schedule and a
tendency to have a delayed sleep phase. A remarkable degree of problems associated with
sleeping and poor sleep quality have been observed in university students of many Western

However, to the researchers knowledge, the data regarding sleep patterns and habits in
Asian countries is limited. It is necessary to investigate this issue within the Asian population
because sleep habits are affected by ethnicity, social factors, and culture.

The researchers aim was to investigate sleep quality and associated daytime effects in
Chinese undergraduate students. The researchers were particularly interested in
determining how bedtime schedule relates to sleep quality and daytime functioning.

According to an article in Time Magazine entitled Let your Kids Sleep more for Better
Grades written by Locker, M. states that a new study shows that a good nights sleep can
translate to improved academic performance.

Researchers at McGill University and the Douglas Mental Health University Institute in
Montreal found that children who had a better quality sleep performed better in math and
Specifically researchers found a link between academic performance and something called
sleep efficiency, which is more or less how well you sleep at night.

Sleep efficiency is the proportion of the amount of time you slept to the amount of time you
were in bed, says clinical psychologist Reut Gruber, lead author of the study. Simply put,
you go to bed, you lie down and spend time in bed, but if youre not able to sleep through the
time in bed, thats not efficient sleep.

Short or poor sleep is a significant risk factor for poor academic performance that is
frequently ignored, says Gruber, and while there are other studies out there that linked
sleep and academic performance, she wanted to take a slightly different tack. I wanted to
look at specific subject areas, not to lump them together, knowing that different skills are
needed for different subjects.

When it comes to math and language skills specifically, Gruber says, its a question of brain
anatomy. For math and languages, we need to use the skills that are called executive
functionsthings like working memory, planning, not being distracted. The hardware that
supports those skills is in the pre-frontal cortex of the brain, which is very sensitive to the
effects of poor sleep or insufficient sleep.

Grubers team looked 75 healthy children between the ages of 7 and 11. The children were
each given a wristwatch-like device called an actigraph that is used to evaluate sleep by
monitoring their night time activity, averaged the data over five nights and correlated the data
with the kids report-card grades.
Sleeping Problems

According to a study performed written by researchers Ehrman, L; Zamarian, L. &

Acler F. entitled Vacillation of the Innsbruck REM Behavior Disorder Inventory, states that
REM (Rapid Eye Movement), a phase of deep sleep, is important to a persons health and
getting adequate sleep.

According to the researchers study, a diagnosis of definite REM sleep behavior disorder
requires both a positive history for REM sleep behavior disorder and polysomnographic
demonstration of REM sleep without atonia.

To improve and facilitate screening for REM sleep behavior disorder, there is a need for
simple clinical tools with sufficient sensitivity and specificity for the identification of subjects
with probable REM sleep behavior disorder

According to an online article found in the website entitled Sleep

Problems are Associated with Poor Outcomes in Remedial Teaching Programmes written by
Blunden, S.L. & Chervin, R.D., that Problematic behaviour and deficient academic
performance have been reported in children with sleep problems.

Whether sleep problems are common among children presenting with primary behavioural
and performance concerns in remedial programmes is not well studied.

The researchers studied this possibility in 80 Australian school children aged 6-15 years and
then compared 15 of these children from mainstream schools to 15 demographically
matched children in behavioural programmes for problematic behaviour and academic

The results stated When compared with the 15 controls, the 15 index children had
significantly more sleep problems, in addition to parental concerns about school
performance. In the total sample, poor sleep including symptoms of daytime sleepiness,
parasomnias, behavioural sleep problems and combined sleep problems was associated
with poor academic performance and daytime behavioural issues.
The researchers reached a conclusion that states that the preliminary study of the research
suggests that children in remedial school programmes may have poor sleep compared with
those in mainstream schools.

Sleep problems were associated with problematic behaviour and poor academic
performance. If sleep disturbances worsen daytime behaviour, then diagnosis and treatment
of underlying sleep disorders could offer a novel therapeutic opportunity.

According to a newspaper article entitled Trouble Sleep written by Pujalte J. Jr.

States that many students give up sleep to get good grades, but research shows that
students who sleep more get better grades.

Members of the Student Health Advisory Council (SHAC), who provide a student perspective
to University Health Service (UHS), identified sleep as a top focus. They consulted noted
sleep researchers and developed recommendations for clinicians about how to address
sleep with student patients.

Its no secret that students tend to skimp on sleep to squeeze the most out of 24 hours. But
this generation is different, and researchers are increasingly focusing on college students
because they are one of the most sleep-deprived populations. College students go to bed
one to two hours later and sleep less per night on average compared to previous
generations. As a result, 75% of U-M undergraduates do not sleep enough to feel rested on
five or more days per week, and 19% reported that sleep difficulties had an impact on
academic performance in the past year.

The amount of sleep that a college student gets is one of the strongest predictors of
academic success. Sleep plays a key role in helping students fix and consolidate memories,
plus prevent decay of memories. Without sleep, people work harder and but dont do as

With these facts in mind, the Student Health Advisory Council made the following
recommendations for UHS clinicians to consider in their work with students, which may also
help you as you talk with your student. Encourage students to adjust wake-up time, because
it is may be easier to adjust than bedtime.
A book written by authors; Marcus, C; Caroll, j; Donelly, d; & Loughlin, G.entitled
Sleep in Children: Developmental Changes in Sleep Patterns states that as people age, the
likelihood of sleep disorders increases.

The American Academy of Family Physicians reports over 50 percent of people 65 years old
and older live with the effects of sleep disorders that effects sleep patterns, such as sleep
deprivation symptoms, sleep apnea and periodic limb movement disorder that can cause
decreased performance in students.

In older adults, sleep disorders can lead to serious health consequences. Hypertension and
sleep apnea are linked, for example, and problems with breathing during sleep can
contribute to heart problems.

Older adults who take sleep medications or experience sleep deprivation symptoms may
also be at an increased risk of falls or accidents and reduced mental activity.

Lack of Sleep

According to an online article written by authors Curcio, G., Ferrara, M., & Gennaro,
L.D. entitled Sleep Loss, Learning Capacity and Academic Performance, At a time when
several studies have highlighted the relationship between sleep, learning and memory
processes, an in-depth analysis of the effects of sleep deprivation on student learning ability
and academic performance would appear to be essential.
Most studies have been naturalistic correlative investigations, where sleep schedules were
correlated with school and academic achievement. Some authors were able to actively
manipulate sleep in order to observe neurocognitive and behavioral consequences, such as
learning, memory capacity and school performance.

The findings strongly suggest that students of different education are chronically sleep
deprived or suffer from poor sleep quality and consequent daytime sleepiness; sleep quality
and quantity are closely related to student learning capacity and academic performance;
sleep loss is frequently associated with poor declarative and procedural learning in students;
studies in which sleep was actively restricted or optimized showed.

Respectively, a worsening and an improvement in neurocognitive and academic

performance. These results may been related to the specific involvement of the prefrontal
cortex (PFC) in vulnerability to sleep loss.

According to a book entitle Sleep written by Littlehales, N. Sleep plays a crucial role in
cognitive and emotional functioning, especially during the period of adolescence when the
biological sleep-wake cycle changes rapidly.

Lifestyle changes during adolescence also may be accompanied by profound alterations in

the timing and duration of sleep. These days, many adolescents do not get enough sleep
and may suffer adverse effects of insufficient sleep.

The academic performance of adolescents is important for their psychosocial development

and to prepare them for adulthood.

The learning capacity and academic performance of adolescents may be affected by sleep
quality or quantity because sleep plays important roles in attention and memory. Several
studies have reported an association between academic performance and sleep duration in

However, others have found no significant association between academic performances and
sleep duration in adolescents or in medical college students. This discrepancy may be
explained by the fact that sleep duration cannot exactly represent the unmet sleep need for
each individual.
A book written by Kushida, C.A. entitled Sleep Deprivation: Basic Science,
Physiology, and Behavior states that although many students have a nocturnal preference,
this preference can progress to delayed sleep-phase disorder (DSPD), a circadian rhythm
disorder characterized by sleep-onset insomnia and difficulty waking at the desired time.

3 Consequences of DSPD may include missed morning classes, increased sleepiness, and
decreased concentration, especially in classes requiring mental activity such as

Students with DSPD have lower grades. The prevalence of DSPD in the US college
population may be as high as 6.7%17% of Americans.

According to a study which tackles effects of irregular sleeping patterns , entitled The Effects
of Sleep on Academic Performance and Job Performance, written by authors Arendt, S.W.;
Chiang, Y.C.; Kathy A. & Zheng, T.H. states that students sleeping eight or nine hours do
worse than those getting nine to eleven hours of sleep.

Lack of sleep and other bad habits negatively affect more general communication,
methodological and cross-curricular skills.

With regard to more specific skills related to cognitive aspects such as memory, learning and
motivation, effects are less noticeable and alterations are caused mainly by irregular sleep

Sleep and wakefulness are intimately related states, with mutual influences (Ramos Platn,
1996). The present work focuses on the effects of sleep over wakefulness. Regarding the
question about sleep functions, or why do we sleep, there is still not a definitive answer.
Among others, sleep is important for cognitive restitution. It influences information
processing, learning and memory consolidation.

Therefore a certain amount of sleep is needed to adequate wakefulness. Sleep deprivation

seems to impair particularly cognitive functions related to the prefrontal cortex, such as
flexible and divergent thinking; dealing with novelty and unexpected; verbal fluency; novel
responses and suppression of routine answers.