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Grads 12-13

Physics Syllabus

(Implemented from 2017)

Department of Science

National Institute of Education

Maharagama

Sri Lanka

www.nie.lk

i

INTRODUCTION

Physics is the major science dealing with the fundamental constituents of universe, the forces they exert on one another and the results

produced by these forces. It is the root of every field of science and underlies all natural phenomena. Studying physics and physicist's methods

of acquiring and evaluating knowledge should therefore be regarded as an integral part of the education for all science students.

G.C.E (Advanced Level) Physics syllabus is designed as a two year course to provide the basic background in physics that would

be required by those intending to proceed to higher studies as well as by those who would utilize the knowledge of physics in various fields

and daily life.

ii

1.1 National goals

1. Based on the concept of respecting human values and understanding the differences between the Sri Lankan multi-cultural society, building up the

nation and confirming the identity of Sri Lanka by promoting national integrity, national unity, national coherence and peace.

2. While responding to the challenges of the dynamic world, identifying and conserving the national heritage.

3. Creating an environment which comprises the conventions of social justice and democratic life to promote the characteristics of respecting human

rights, being aware of the responsibilities, concerning each other with affectionate relationships.

4. Promoting a sustainable life style based on the peoples mental and physical wellbeing and the concept of human values.

5. Promoting positive feelings needed for a balanced personality with the qualities of creative skills, initiative, critical thinking and being responsible.

6. Developing the human resources, needed for the progress of the wellbeing of an individual, the nation as well as the economic growth of Sri Lanka,

through education.

7. Preparing the people for the changes that occur in a rapidly changing world by adapting to it and controlling them; developing abilities and

potentialities of people to face the complex and unexpected occasions.

8. Sustaining the skills and attitudes based on justice, equality, mutual respect which is essential to achieve a respectable place in the international

community.

iii

1.2 Basic Competencies

The competencies promoted through the education mentioned below help to achieve the above mentioned National Goals.

i. Competencies in Communication

This first set of competencies is made up of four subsets - Literacy, Numeracy, Graphics and Information Communication skills:

Literacy : Listening, carefully speaking clearly, and reading for comprehension, writing clearly and accurately.

Numeracy: Using numbers to count, calculate, code and to measure, matter, space and time.

Graphics : Making sense of line and form, expressing and recording essential data, instructions and ideas

with line, form, colour, two and three-dimensional configurations, graphic symbols and icons.

ICT Competencies: Knowledge on computers, and the ability to use the information communication skills at

learning or work as well as in private life.

- Generic skills such as creativity, divergent thinking, initiative, decision making, problem-solving, critical and analytical thinking, team work,

inter-personal relationships, discovering and exploring

- Values such as integrity, tolerance and respect for human dignity.

- Cognition

iii. Competencies relating to the environment

This is the second set of competencies related to the Social, Biological and Physical Environments.

Social Environment: Awareness, sensitivity and skills linked to being a member of society, social relationship, personal conduct, general and legal

conventions, rights, responsibilities, duties and obligations.

Biological Environment: Awareness, sensitivity and skills linked to the living world, man and the ecosystem, the trees, forests, seas, water, air and life

- plant, animal and human life.

iv

Physical Environment: Awareness, sensitivity and skills relating to space, energy, fuel, matter, materials and their links with human living, food,

clothing, shelter, health, comfort, respiration, sleep, relaxation, rest, waste and excretion, media of communication and

transport.

Included here are the skills in using tools to shape and for materials for living and learning.

iv. Competencies relating to preparation for the world of work

Employment related skills to maximize their potential and to enhance their capacity to contribute to economic development; to discover their

vocational interests and aptitudes; to choose a job that suits their abilities and to engage in a rewarding and sustainable livelihood.

Develop competencies pertaining to managing environmental resources intelligently by understanding the potential of such resources.

Develop competencies related to the usage of scientific knowledge to lead a physically and mentally healthy life.

Develop competencies pertaining to becoming a successful individual who will contribute to the development of the nation in

collaboration, engage in further studies and undertake challenging job prospects in the future.

Develop competencies related to understanding the scientific basis of the natural phenomena and the universe.

Use appropriate technology to maintain efficiency and effectiveness at an optimum level in utilizing energy and force.

v

2.0 Aims of the syllabus

At the end of this course students will be able to;

1. acquire sufficient understanding and knowledge to become confident citizens in a technological world.

2. recognize the usefulness and limitations of scientific method and to appreciate its applicability in everyday life

3. develop abilities and skills that are relevant to the study and practice of physics in day- to -day life.

4. develop attitudes relevant to physics such as concern for accuracy and precision, objectivity, enquiry, initiative and inventiveness.

5. stimulate interest and care for the environment.

6. acquire manipulative, observational and experimental skills together with hands- on experience on the equipments used by physicists.

vi

List of topics and allocated number of periods

Unit 01 Measurement 30

Unit 02 Mechanics 110

Unit 03 Oscillations and Waves 100

Unit 04 Thermal Physics 60

Unit 05 Gravitational Field 20

Unit 06 Electrostatic field 60

Unit 07 Magnetic Field 40

Unit 08 Current Electricity 70

Unit 09 Electronics 40

Unit 10 Mechanical Properties of Matter 40

Unit 11 Matter and Radiation 30

Total 610

vii

Grade Term Competency Levels

viii

3.0- Syllabus

3.1 Grade 12

Unit 1 - Measurement (30 periods)

Competency Competency Content Learning outcomes No. of

Level Periods

1. Uses 1.1 Inquires the Introduction to physics Student will be able to; 02

experimental scope of Explaining simply the subject area of physics explains physics as the study of energy,

and physics and and how it relates to daily life and nature behavior of matter in relation to energy and

mathematical

frames in

how to use How physics contributed to the development transformation of energy.

physics for the scientific of society describes physics as a subject that focuses

systematic methodology Basic concepts in scientific methodology from fundamental particles to the Universe.

explorations. for expresses how to use principles of physics

explorations. in day-to-day life and to explain natural

phenomena.

elaborates how physics has been applied in

development of new technologies in areas

such as

Transportation

Communication

Energy production and energy usage

Medicine

Earth and space explorations

uses the scientific method for scientific

explorations.

accepts that advancements in physics are

based on observations and inferences made

on them.

1

Competency Competency Content Learning outcomes No. of

Level Periods

1.2 Use units Physical quantities and units Student will be able to;

appropriately Fundamental physical quantities identifies basic physical quantities 04

in scientific International system of units (SI units) and derived physical quantities.

work and Base units uses appropriate SI base units and

daily pursuits. Supplementary units

derived SI units.

Derived physical quantities and derived units

Physical quantities without units appreciates that all physical

Multiples and submultiples of units quantities consist of a numerical

magnitude with or without a unit.

uses the prefixes and their symbols to

indicate multiples and submultiples.

converts units appropriately.

uses the knowledge of significant

figures.

1.3 Investigates Dimensions

physical Dimensions of basic physical quantities used in Student will be able to; 04

quantities mechanics checks the correctness of equations

using Mass dimensionally.

dimensions. Length uses dimensions to derive expressions

Time uses dimensions to determine units of

Dimensions of derived physical quantities physical quantities.

Uses of dimensions

Testing the correctness of a physical equation

Finding the units of a given quantity

Deriving expressions

2

Competency Competency Content Learning Outcomes No. of

Level Periods

1.4 Takes Measuring instruments Student will be able to; 12

measuremen Principle, Least count and Range describes the importance of taking measurements

ts accurately

Errors of measurement during experiments and in day-to-day activities

by selecting identifies the least count of an instruments

appropriate Systematic Error

instruments random Error select suitable measuring instruments for

to minimize Fractional error and percentage error measurements.

errors. Laboratory measuring instruments explains vernier principle and micro meter

Metre ruler principle

Vernier calipers uses vernier caliper, travelling microscope,

micrometer screw gauge, spherometer, triple

Micrometer screw gauge

beam balance, electronic balance, stopwatch and

Spherometer

digital stop watch to take readings.

Travelling microscope

explains the effects of systematic errors

Triple beam balance/Four beam

(including zero errors) and random errors in

balance/ Scientific electronic

measurements.

balance

calculates fractional error and percentage error.

Stop clock/stopwatch/ Digital

appreciates the purpose of calculating fractional

stopwatch

error and percentage error.

Digital multimeter

Laboratory practicals Using

measuring instruments

Vernier calipers

Micrometer screw gauge

Spherometer

Travelling microscope

3

Student will be able to;

Scalars and vectors distinguishes between scalar and vector

Scalar quantities quantities and give examples of each.

Vector quantities represents a vector geometrically.

Geometrical representation of a add and subtract coplanar vectors.

vector quantity finds the resultant of two inclined vectors using

1.5 Uses vector Resultant vector of vector parallelogram law.

addition and two vectors in the same line and finds the resultant of vectors using triangle

08

resolution parallel lines method and polygon method.

appropriately. Two inclined vectors resolves a vector into two perpendicular

Parallelogram law components.

Triangle method Give examples for instances where a simple

System of vectors force is applied instead of several forces and vise

Polygon method verse.

Resolution of vectors

4

Unit 2 - Mechanics (110 periods)

Level Periods

2. Lays a 2.1 Analyze one Kinematics Student will be able to; 15

foundation dimensional Relative motion Give examples for the instances that can be

for analyzing and two Motion in the same direction described using the concept of relative motion.

motion on dimensional Motion in the opposite directions calculates the velocity of an object relative to

the basis of motion Rectilinear motion under constant another object moving at constant velocity on

principles of acceleration parallel paths in the same direction and in

physics. Graphs of motion opposite directions.

s-t graphs uses graphs of displacement vs. time and

v-t graphs velocity vs. time to calculate displacement,

Equations of motion velocity and acceleration as appropriate.

Motion in a straight line uses equations of motion for constant

acceleration to describe and predict the motion of

Projectile motion under gravity

an object along a straight path on a horizontal

plane, vertical motion under gravity and motion

on a frictionless inclined plane.

calculates the position and velocity of a

projectile.

identifies applications related to projectiles

represents the motion of an object graphically

describes the motion of an object using graph of

motion

carry out numerical calculations to solve

problems using graphs and equations of motion.

5

Competency Competency Content Learning No. of

Level Outcomes Periods

2.2 Uses Resultant of forces Student will be able to; 15

resultant Resultant of two forces resolves and add forces appropriately.

force and Resultant of a system of coplanar forces uses force resolution method and force

moment of Moment of a force parallelogram law to find the resultant of system

force to Moment of a force about a point of coplanar forces

determine the Moment of a couple (of forces) finds the centre of gravity of regular shaped

centre of Resultant of parallel forces and the line compound bodies.

gravity of a

of action(parallel forces in the same explains the motion of a body when the force

body. acts through the centre of mass.

direction)

Centre of gravity of a body (using the explains the motion of a body when the force

resultant of parallel forces) acts away from the center of mass.

Centre of gravity of regular shaped finds the resultant of two parallel forces and the

bodies line of action

Centre of gravity of regular shaped finds the moment of a force and the moment of

compound bodies couple

Centre of mass conducts simple activity to find the centre of

Determination of weight of a body gravity of a plane object

using the law of parallelogram of

forces

2.3 Uses Force and motion Student will be able to; 20

Newton's Mass states that inertia of a body as the reluctance to

laws of Inertial mass change the state of motion.

motion to Gravitational mass realizes mass as a measure of translational

analyze the Inertial and non inertial frames

motion of a inertia.

Newton's first law of motion uses Newtons laws of motion and the concept of

body.

momentum to analyze dynamic situations

involving constant mass and constant forces.

6

Competency Competency Content Learning outcomes No. of

Level Periods

Momentum uses free body force diagrams to analyze the

Newton's second law of motion forces acting on a body and determine the net

Obtaining F = ma force.

Defining the unit newton identifies the action force and the reaction force.

Impulse and impulsive forces realizes that these forces (action and reaction)

Principle of conservation of linear always exist .

momentum realizes that the impulsive force is generally a

Newton's third law of motion variable force acting only for a short time.

Applications of Newton's laws gives examples for instances where impulsive

Self adjusting forces forces are used.

Tension identifies the nature of self adjusting forces.

Thrust / compression analyzes the effects of friction on dynamic

Frictional forces systems.

Static friction carries out numerical calculations to solve

Limiting friction problems using Newton's laws

Dynamic friction carries out calculations related momentum and

its conservation.

Free body force diagrams

carries out calculations related to limiting

friction and dynamic friction.

conducts simple activities to demonstrate

Newton's laws

7

2.4 Manipulates Equilibrium Student will be able to;

the Conditions for equilibrium conducts activities to identify the conditions for 10

conditions Principle of moments equilibrium of a point object.

necessary to Equilibrium under two forces conducts activities to identify identifies the

keep a body Equilibrium of coplanar forces conditions for equilibrium of a rigid object

in Three non parallel forces under system of coplanar forces.

equilibrium.

Three parallel forces describes the conditions for equilibrium of three

parallel and three non parallel coplanar forces.

Theorem of triangle of forces

uses the theorem of triangle of forces and the

Polygon of forces

principle of moments to solve simple problems

States of equilibrium

related to equilibrium of forces.

Stable

Unstable uses the concepts of equilibrium to stabilize a

Neutral system.

Determination of weight of a body identifies three states of equilibrium.

using the principle of moments

2.5 Consumes Work, energy and power Student will be able to; 15

and Work uses the expressions for work done, kinetic

transforms Work done by force in energy, potential energy and power to calculate

mechanical translational motion energy changes and efficiencies.

energy Mechanical energy uses principle of conservation of energy and the

Kinetic energy principle of conservation of mechanical energy

productively.

Translational kinetic energy

to solve numerical problems.

Potential energy

Gravitational potential energy recalls and understands the concepts of power

Elastic potential energy and efficiency.

Power and efficiency applies the conservation of energy and

Principle of conservation of energy conservation of linear momentum in problem

Principle of conservation of solving related to collisions and explosions.

mechanical energy explains the difference between an elastic

Work-energy principle collision and inelastic collision.

8

Competency Competency Level Learning outcomes No. of

Periods

2.6 Investigates the concepts Rotational motion Student will be able to;

related to rotational motion and Angular displacement expresses angular displacement, angular 15

circular motion. Angular velocity velocity, and angular acceleration in SI

Frequency of rotation units.

Angular acceleration describes rotational motion using time

Equations of rotational motion period and frequency.

under uniform angular acceleration solve problems using equations of

Moment of inertia rotational motion..

Thin uniform rod explain that the moment of inertia is the

Thin uniform ring measure of rotational inertia.

Uniform circular disk and demonstrates that moment of inertia

cylinder depends on mass, axis of rotation and

Uniform sphere mass distribution.

Angular momentum predicts the motion of a rotating body

by determining the torque acting on it.

Torque

solves numerical problems associated

Relationship between torque,

with moment of inertia, torque and

moment of inertia and angular

angular momentum

acceleration

gives examples related to principle of

Principle of conservation of angular

conservation of angular momentum.

momentum

conduct simple activities to demonstrate

Work done in rotational motion

the principle of conservation of angular

Rotational kinetic energy

momentum.

Analogy between linear motion and

analyzes situations in which an object

rotational motion

moves round a circle at uniform speed.

Circular motion with uniform angular

calculates the centripetal acceleration of

velocity in a horizontal plane

9

Frequency an object moving round a horizontal

Period circular path at a uniform speed.

Tangential velocity identifies centripetal forces of various

Centripetal acceleration circular motions.

Centripetal force relates the centripetal acceleration of

such an object to the forces acting on it.

carries out calculations related to

rotational motion and circular motion.

compares angular and linear motions.

Student will be able to;

2.8 Uses the principles and laws Fluid-dynamics distinguishes between streamline and 08

related to flowing fluids in Streamline flow and turbulent flow turbulent flow.

scientific work and daily Equation of continuity for a steady, uses the equation of continuity for a

pursuits. stream line flow steady streamline flow.

Bernoulli's principle (derivation not states the conditions under which

necessary) Bernoullis principle is valid.

Applications of Bernoulli's principle applies Bernoullis principle to solve

problems.

conducts simple activities to

demonstrate Bernollis principle.

10

Unit 3 - Oscillations and Waves (100 periods)

Level outcomes Periods

3. Uses the 3.1 Analyzes Oscillations Student will be able to; 15

concepts oscillations on Simple harmonic motion describes the conditions necessary for simple

and the basis of Physical quantities related to simple harmonic motion.

principles physics. harmonic motion defines simple harmonic motion.

related to Amplitude recognizes and uses as the

waves to Frequency characteristic equation of simple harmonic

broaden Period motion.

the range Energy relates the motion of an oscillating object to the

of

Definition of S. H. M forces acting on it.

sensitivity

Characteristic equation of the describes the interchange between kinetic and

of human.

simple harmonic motion potential energy during simple harmonic motion.

illustrates the S.H.M. as a projection of a circular

Simple harmonic motion as a motion.

projection of a uniform circular identifies the state of the motion of a particle in

motion S.H.M. using the phase.

Phase uses phase difference to illustrate of motion of

Phase difference two S.H.M.s

Equation of displacement (Only finds the displacement of an oscillating particle

for oscillations starting with starting from center position.

and ) uses the displacement time graph of the particle

to explain the S.H.M.

Displacement time graph investigates the motion of an oscillator using

corresponding to simple harmonic experimental and graphical methods.

motion describes with graphical illustrations, the

Small oscillations of a simple changes in displacement, velocity and

pendulum acceleration of simple harmonic motion.

determines the gravitational acceleration using

Period simple pendulum

determines the spring constant of a light helical

spring

11

Determination of gravitational distinguishes free, damped and forced

acceleration by using simple oscillations.

pendulum describes practical examples of forced

Small oscillations of a mass oscillations and resonance.

suspended by a light helical spring. realizes that there are some instances in which

resonance is useful and other instances in which

Period

resonance should be avoided.

Determination of the spring demonstrates forced oscillations and resonance

constant of a light helical spring using Barton's pendulum.

Free oscillations

Damped oscillations

Forced oscillations and Resonance

various types Transverse waves demonstrates wave motion using slinky

of wave Longitudinal waves describes wave motion in terms of S.H.M. of

motions and Graphical representation of a wave particles.

their uses. Physical quantities related to waves understands and uses the terms displacement,

Frequency amplitude, phase difference, period, frequency,

Wavelength wavelength and speed of a wave.

Speed - v distinguishes between longitudinal and

Amplitude A transverse waves.

Speed of waves represents the wave motion graphically and

identify points in same phase (in phase) and

different phase (out of phase).

identifies wavelength using points of the same

phase.

deduce from the definitions of speed,

frequency and wavelength

solves problems related to wave motion.

12

3.3 Investigates Properties of waves Student will be able to; 15

the uses of Reflection conducts simple activities to demonstrate the

waves on the Rigid reflection properties of waves by using ripple tank and a

basis of their Soft reflection string/ slinky

properties Refraction states reflection, refraction, interference and

Diffraction diffraction as common properties of waves.

Polarization describes change of velocity, wavelength and

Principle of superposition of waves direction in different media to describe the

Interference effects of refraction.

Stationary waves carries out numerical calculations on refraction.

Beats states the principle of superposition of waves.

(derivation is graphically represents the principle of

not necessary) superposition of waves.

Comparison of stationary waves uses the principle of superposition of waves to

and progressive waves explain the occurrence of interference, stationary

waves and beats qualitatively.

demonstrates stationary waves using string

vibrator

demonstrates beats using CRO and tuning forks.

carries out numerical calculations on beats and

stationary waves.

explains diffraction, interference and polarization

qualitatively.

3.4 Uses the Stationary waves in strings Student will be able to; 12

modes of Stationary waves in a stretched string explains the numerical patterns of resonant

vibration of frequencies for stationary waves on strings

Speed of transverse waves

strings by carries out calculations on stationary wave

manipulating Modes of vibrations in a stretched patterns on strings.

variables. string describes seismic waves, Earth quakes, Richter

scale and formation of tsunami qualitatively.

Fundamental tone finds the frequency of a tuning fork using

sonometer.

13

Competency Competency Content Learning No. of

Level outcomes Periods

Overtones and harmonics prepares a report to explain earthquake and

Sonometer Tsunami.

Determination of the

frequency of a tuning fork

by changing the tension of

the string

Verification of the

relationship between the

vibrating length and

frequency

Speed of longitudinal wave

Richter scale and Tsunami

3.5 Uses the Waves in gases Student will be able to; 10

vibrations in describes the factors affecting the speed of sound

air columns by Speed of sound in air

in air.

manipulating explains the numerical patterns of resonant

the variables.

frequencies for stationary waves in tubes.

Factors affecting the speed of designs experiments to determine the speed of

sound in air sound in air and the end correction of the tube

Modes of vibrations in an air using one tuning fork and set of tuning forks.

column carries out calculations on stationary waves in

Closed tube resonant tubes

Open tube

Determination of the speed of

sound in air using a closed tube

by using one tuning fork

14

by using a set of tuning

forks (graphical method)

about the Equations for apparent frequency conducts simple activities to demonstrate the

uses of Only the observer is Doppler effect.

Doppler moving describes phenomena related to change in

effect. Only the source is apparent frequency using Doppler effect

moving applies the Doppler effect to sound with

Both observer and source appropriate calculations.

are moving along the describe Sonic boom qualitatively.

same line explains the applications and explanations

Sonic boom related to Doppler effect.

propagates Characteristics of sound describes the characteristic properties of sound.

sound by Pitch uses the graph of intensity level verses the

considering Loudness frequency for human ear to explain various

characteristics Quality of sound situations.

of sound. Limits of hearing conducts activities to demonstrate characteristics

Threshold of hearing of sound

Threshold of pain carries out numerical calculations related to

Intensity and intensity level of sound intensity level (decibel) and intensity.

(decibel) introduces ultrasonic and infrasonic qualitatively.

Graph of intensity level versus the states the uses of ultrasonic and infrasonic

frequency for human ear uses the knowledge of properties of sound in

day-to-day activities.

explains the importance of having proper sound

levels.

15

Competency Competency Content Learning No. of

Level outcomes Periods

3.8 Inquires Electromagnetic waves Student will be able to; 05

about Electromagnetic spectrum states that electromagnetic waves generate due

electromagne Properties of electromagnetic waves to the acceleration or deceleration of charge

tic waves. Uses of electromagnetic waves particles.

LASER describes the properties of electromagnetic

Principle waves

Properties describes the applications of electromagnetic

Uses waves in each of the main wavelength ranges.

explains the principle of LASER

identifies the properties and uses of LASER

beams.

principles of Refraction designs experiments to determine images formed

refraction of Laws of refraction due to refraction.

light for daily Refractive index carries out calculations on refraction at plane

pursuits. Absolute refractive index boundaries and total internal reflection.

Relative refractive index finds the refractive index of glass using travelling

Relationship between refractive microscope.

indices finds the relationship between incident angle and

Relationship between real depth the angle of deviation.

and apparent depth designs an experiment to find the refractive index

Apparent displacement using critical angle method.

derives the relationship between prism angle,

refractive index and the angel of minimum

Determination of the refractive deviation.

index of glass using a travelling uses spectrometer to find the angle of minimum

microscope deviation and the angle of a prism.

Critical angle finds the images formed by lenses using no

Relationship between the critical parallax method

16

angle and the relative refractive constructs images formed by lenses using ray

index diagrams

Total internal reflection derives lens formula by geometrical method

using Cartesian sign convention.

Refraction through a prism

carries out numerical calculations to solve

Experimental investigation of

problems for lenses and lens combination

deviation of a light ray through a

uses the power of a lens as

prism

Converging( + ),Diverging( - )

Deviation

conducts experimentation to determine the

graph

focal length of convex lenses and concave

Minimum deviation lenses

Relationship between prism

angle, reflective index and the

angle of minimum deviation.

Determination of the

refractive index of material

of prism by critical angle

method

Spectrometer

Main adjustments

Determination of the angle

of a prism

Finding the angle of

minimum deviation

Refraction through thin lenses

Real and virtual images of convex and

concave lenses

Lens formula with Cartesian sign

convention

Linear magnification

Determination of focal length of

convex lenses and concave lenses

Power of a lens

Combination of thin lenses in contact

17

Competency Competency Content Learning No. of

Level outcomes Periods

3.10 Applies the Human eye Student will be able to; 04

knowledge of Formation of an image describes optical system of human eye.

images Visual angle explains the formation of image on eye.

formed by Defects of vision and correction describes defects of vision and sight corrections

lenses for the Short sight using ray diagrams.

correction of Long sight carries out sight correction calculations.

defects of

Presbyopia describes Presbyopia qualitatively.

vision

appropriately.

knowledge of Simple microscope uses simple/ compound microscope and 06

the images Normal adjustment astronomical telescope properly.

formed by Magnifying power (Angular sketches ray diagrams to explain how a simple

lenses in using magnification) and compound microscope work and carry out

the optical Compound microscope related calculations.

instruments Normal adjustment sketches ray diagrams to explain how

appropriately. Magnifying power (Angular astronomical telescopes work

magnification) carries out related calculations.

image at infinity

Astronomical telescope

Normal adjustment

Magnifying power (Angular

magnification)

image at near point

18

Unit 4 - Thermal Physics (60 periods)

Level outcomes Periods

4. Uses the 4.1 Measures Temperature Student will be able to; 08

knowledge of temperature Thermal equilibrium states that (thermal) energy is transferred from a

heat to fulfill correctly by Zeroth law of thermodynamics region of higher temperature to a region of lower

human needs selecting Thermometric properties temperature.

and for appropriate Expression for temperature based on states zeroth law of thermodynamics

scientific thermometer two fixed points understands that regions of equal temperature are

work according to in thermal equilibrium.

productively. the need. understands that there is an absolute scale of

Celsius scale

temperature that does not depend on the property

of any particular substance (i.e. the

Absolute scale (Thermodynamic thermodynamic scale and the concept of absolute

scale) zero)

Absolute zero explains the different temperature scales and

Triple point of water different types of thermometers.

Expression for absolute temperature relates and uses Kelvin and Celsius temperature

based on triple point of water scales.

identifies thermister as a temperature senor.

identifies thermocouple as a thermometer.

Relationship between Celsius and

absolute temperatures

Thermometers

Mercury/ alcohol in glass

thermometer

Thermister

Thermocouple

19

Competency Competency Content Learning No. of

Level outcomes Periods

4.2 Inquires Thermal expansion Student will be able to; 06

about the Expansion of solids carries out numerical calculations to solve

instances Linear expansion problems related to thermal expansion of solids

where the Area expansion and liquids.

expansion of Volume expansion explains the variation of density of liquids due to

solids and Relationship between linear, area and thermal expansion of liquids.

liquids are volume expansivities explains phenomena related to anomalous

used. Volume expansion of liquids expansion of water.

Real expansion uses the knowledge of expansion of solids and

Apparent expansion liquids in day to day activities.

Gives examples for uses and disadvantages of

(Derivation not necessary) solids and liquids.

Variation of density with temperature

Anomalous expansion of water

the behavior Boyle's law conducts experiments to observe the behavior of

of gases Determination of the atmospheric gases

pressure using quill tube conducts an experiment to find the atmospheric

Charles's law pressure

Investigation of relationship uses gas laws to explain the behavior of gases.

between volume and analyzes the behavior of gases using ideal gas

temperature at constant pressure equation.

Pressure law carries out numerical calculations to solve

Investigation of relationship problems using gas laws.

between pressure and

temperature at constant volume

Ideal gas equation pV = nRT

Dolton's law of partial pressure

20

Competency Competency Content Learning No. of

Level outcomes Periods

4.4 Inquires Kinetic theory of gases Student will be able to; 04

about the Elementary assumptions of the kinetic states the basic assumptions of the kinetic theory

pressure theory of gases.

exerted by a

gas on its explains how molecular movement causes the

container (Derivation is not necessary) pressure exerted by a gas.

using kinetic Expression for mean translational relates temperature to the mean kinetic energy of

theory of kinetic energy of air an molecule, molecules of a gas.

gases. explains the distribution of molecular speeds at

different temperatures

carries out calculations using the kinetic theory

equation

appreciates the kinetic theory of gases in

explaining the behavior of gasses based on

microscopic behavior of gas molecules.

the amount of Heat capacity defines heat capacity of solids and liquids. 10

heat exchange Specific heat capacity of solids and defines principle molar heat capacities of gases.

among the liquids conducts experiments to find specific heat

objects using the Molar heat capacities of gases capacity of solids and liquids.

specific heat Determination of specific heat

capacity of carries out calculations considering heat

capacities of solids by the method of

substances. mixtures exchange.

Newton's law of cooling uses Newton's law of cooling to carry out

Determination of specific heat calculations on heat loss.

capacities of a liquid by the method of

cooling

21

4.6 Inquires about Change of state Student will be able to; 08

the State of matter states that melting and boiling take place without

productive Qualitative molecular account of the a change in temperature.

use of the difference between solids, liquids defines specific latent heat of vaporization and

heat and gases specific latent heat of fusion.

exchange Simple explanation of the explains that specific latent heat of vaporization

during the molecular processes in fusion and is higher than specific latent heat of fusion for

change in boiling the same substance.

state of Fusion (melting) carries out numerical calculations of the latent

matter. Specific latent heat of fusion heat of substance.

Determination of specific identifies fusion and vaporization using the graph

latent heat of fusion of ice of temperature vs. time.

(method of mixtures) conducts experiments to determine latent heat of

Vaporization at Boiling fusion of ice and latent heat of vaporization of

Specific latent heat of water.

vaporization states the effect of pressure on boiling point and

Determination of specific melting point.

latent heat of vaporization describes qualitatively physical process

of water ( method of associated with the change of state.

mixtures)

Effect of pressure on boiling

point and melting point

22

Competency Competency Content Learning No. of

Level outcomes Periods

4.7 Relates the Vapour and humidity Student will be able to; 08

effect of water Evaporation differentiates evaporation and boiling

vapour on Comparison of evaporation and explains the behavior of unsaturated and saturated

weather. vaporization (boiling) water vapour.

Vapour pressure and saturated illustrates graphically the variation of saturated vapour

vapour pressure pressure and unsaturated vapour pressure with

Variation of vapour pressure with temperature and with volume.

temperature explains the humidity refers to the moisture (amount

Variation of vapour pressure with of water vapour present) in the atmosphere.

volume carries out numerical calculations to solve problems

Dew point on relative humidity, absolute humidity and dew

Absolute humidity point.

Relative humidity correlates the boiling point and saturated vapour

Determination of relative pressure

humidity using polished realizes that hygrometers are available to find relative

calorimeter humidity

conducts experiment of find Relative Humidity

4.8 Uses laws of Thermodynamics Student will be able to; 04

thermodynamic Explanation of heat as a state of relates a rise in temperature of a body to an increase in

s to analyze the transfer of energy its internal energy.

Internal energy

various explains the first law of thermodynamics.

thermodynamic First law of thermodynamics

uses the first law of thermodynamics to explain the

processes. changes of a gas.

Special instances where the first law

of thermodynamics is applicable conducts simple activities to demonstrate isothermal

Constant pressure processes adiabatic , constant pressure and constant volume

Constant volume processes processes.

Isothermal processes carries out numerical calculations using the first law

Adiabatic processes of thermodynamics.

Cyclic processes

Pressure volume curves for

above processes

23

Competency Competency Content Learning No. of

Level outcomes Periods

4.9 Designs Transfer of heat Student will be able to; 06

daily and Conduction describes heat transfer mechanisms indicating

scientific Thermal conductivity conduction, convection and radiation.

work by Equation for the rate of carries out numerical calculations related to

considering conduction of heat thermal conduction.

the methods Temperature variation of lagged illustrates temperature distribution of lagged and

and amount & non lagged uniform rods. non lagged uniform rods graphically.

of transfer of Determination of thermal explains convection and radiation qualitatively.

heat. conductivity of a metal conducts an experiment to determine thermal

Searle's method conductivity.

Convection

Radiation

24

Unit 5 - Gravitational Field (20 periods)

Level outcomes Periods

5. Uses laws 5.1 Analyses the Gravitational force field Student will be able to; 08

and effect of Gravitational force uses Newton's law to calculate the gravitational

principles of gravitational Gravitational force between two force between two masses

gravitation force on masses states that all masses create gravitational field

to be objects using Newton's law of universal understands that gravitational field as a field of

productive Newton's law gravitation force.

in daily of Gravitational field explains the concept of gravitational field as

pursuits and gravitation. Gravitational field intensity actions at a distance.

scientific Field intensity at a point away from uses the concept of gravitational field to

work. a point mass calculate the force exert on a mass in a

Field intensity at a point outside a gravitational field

spherical mass defines gravitational field intensity.

Graphical representation of the uses Newton's law of gravitation to find

variation of field intensity gravitational field intensity at a point due to a

Gravitational potential point mass and spherical mass (away from the

Expression for gravitational potential sphere).

at a point distance r from a point defines gravitational potential at a point.

mass (derivation is not calculates gravitational potential at a point in a

gravitational field.

necessary)

uses the expression for the potential energy of a

Potential energy of a mass in a

mass in a gravitational field.

gravitational field

represents graphically the variation of

Graphical representation of the

gravitational field intensity and gravitational

variation of potential with distance

potential with the distance from a point mass and

Expression for the energy of a mass

outside a spherical mass.

m moving on a circular path of radius

uses the energy equation to determine the total

r taking centre as the centre of a

energy of a particle moving along circular path

spherical mass M (Energy equation)

around an isolated mass.

25

Competency Competency Content Learning No. of

Level outcomes Periods

5.2 Inquires Earth's gravitational field Student will be able to; 12

about the Gravitational field intensity near the uses knowledge obtained regarding gravitational

instances of Earth surface fields to deduce corresponding relationships in

using the Relationship between the Earths gravitational field.

knowledge on acceleration due to gravity and

Earth's derive the expression (mgh) for gravitational

gravitational field intensity

gravitational Earth satellites potential energy.

field to fulfill Geostationary satellites Find physical quantities related to satellite

human Escape velocity motion, describing conditions for such motions.

activities. carries out calculations related to satellite motion

in circular orbits.

appreciates the uses of satellites.

derives an expression for escape velocity.

26

Unit 6 - Electric Field (60 periods)

Level outcomes Periods

6. Uses laws 6.1 Uses the Electrostatic force Student will be able to; 15

and laws related Force electro static force between uses coulomb's law to calculate the electro static

principles of to two charges force between two charge

electrostatic electrostatic Coulomb's law states that all charges create electric fields

field for force Electric field intensity uses the concept of electric field to explain how

scientific appropriately Electric field lines a force exerts on a charge in an electric field

work and to find the Around a point charge defines electric field intensity.

daily pursuits distribution

Around two point charges uses the equation to find the force on a

effectively. and

Between two charged parallel charge placed in an electrostatic (electric) field.

magnitude of

plates uses the concept of electric field lines to

electrostatic

Field intensity of a point due to a illustrate the electric field

field

produced by point charge draws Electric field lines in various electric

various Graphical representation of the fields.

charged variation of field intensity calculates the field intensity at a point in an

objects. electric field using Coulombs law.

graphically represents the variation of electric

field intensity with the distance from a point

charge.

6.2 Quantifies Flux model Student will be able to;

the electrostatic Electric flux explains the flux model using suitable examples 15

field using the Gauss's theorem applies the Gausss theorem to find electrostatic

flux model. Finding electrostatic field intensities field intensity.

using Gauss's theorem represents graphically the variation of field

Around a point charge intensity with distance from the centre of the

Near an infinite charge plate sphere.

27

Competency Competency Content Learning No. of

Level outcomes Periods

Around a charged conducting calculates electric field intensity due to

sphere different charged objects using relevant

Outside the sphere expressions.

On the surface of the

sphere

Inside the sphere

Field intensity at a distance r

from an infinitely long charged

thin wire

6.3 Quantifies Electric potential Student will be able to; 15

the potential Definition of potential at a point in an defines electric potential.

energy of electrostatic field finds the electric potential at a point due to a

charges Potential at a point due to a point point charge and distribution of point charges.

placed in an charge, (derivation is not illustrates graphically the variation of electric

electrostatic potential with the distance from the centre of

field. necessary)

Potential at a point due to distribution conducting sphere.

of point charges finds electric potential energy of a charge in an

Potential difference between two electric field.

points defines potential difference between two points

Work done in moving a charge across in an electric field.

a potential difference defines electron volt as a unit of energy.

Potential energy of a charge in an expresses the relation between potential gradient

electric field and electric field intensity.

Potential energy of a system with two carries out numerical calculations to solve

charges problems related to electric potential and

Potential gradient potential energy.

Relationship between potential draws equipotential surfaces in different fields.

gradient and electric field intensity

Equipotential surfaces

Equipotential surfaces in different

28

fields

Near a point charge

Near like point, charges Near unlike

point charges

capacitors Definition of capacitance defines the capacitance of a parallel plate 15

appropriately in Parallel plate capacitor capacitor.

electrical

Derivation of the equation derives the expression for capacitance of a

circuits. parallel plate capacitor and a conducting sphere.

Capacitance of a spherical conductor

(spherical capacitors are not included) obtains the equivalent capacitance of capacitors

in series and capacitors in parallel.

Combination of capacitors

derives expressions for energy stored in a

Series combination

charged capacitor.

Parallel combination

solves problems related to capacitors.

Energy stored in a charged capacitor

Interpret the charge distribution of conductors

Derivation of expression for energy

having different shapes using diagrams.

Distribution of charges on conductors

having different shapes

Point discharge (corona discharge)

29

Unit 7 Magnetic fields (40 periods)

Level outcomes Periods

7. Uses the 7.1 Manipulates Magnetic force Student will be able to; 10

effects of the variables Force acting on a current carrying states that moving charges or current carrying

interrelations to control the conductor placed in a magnetic field conductor creates magnetic field

hips between force acting Expression for the magnitude of force demonstrates the nature of electromagnetic

electricity and on a current Magnetic flux density force using current balance

magnetism for carrying Fleming's left hand rule defines magnetic flux density.

scientific conductor Force acting on a charge moving in a expresses the magnetic force in terms of

work and and moving magnetic field magnetic flux density, current and the length

daily pursuits. charge placed

Magnitude of the force of the conductor.

in a magnetic uses the expression for force acting on a

Direction of the force

field.

Hall effect moving charge in a magnetic field.

Qualitative explanation finds the direction of the above magnetic

Derivation of an expression for Hall force by Flemings left hand rule.

voltage solves problems related to magnetic force and

magnetic flux density.

explains Hall effect.

solves problems related to Hall effect.

gives examples for the applications of Hall

effect

7.2 Constructs Magnetic force field Student will be able to; 15

magnetic Biot Savart law interprets Biot-Savart law by relevant

fields by Maxwells corkscrew rule expression

manipulating Magnetic flux density near a current derives the expression for magnetic flux

variables for carrying infinitely long straight conductor density at the centre of a current carrying

the needs. (derivation is not necessary) circular coil.

Magnetic flux density at the centre of a mentions the expressions for magnetic flux

current carrying circular coil density outside an infinitely long straight

conductor and along the axis of a long

solenoid carrying currents.

30

Competency Competency Content Learning No. of

Level outcomes Periods

Magnetic flux density along the axis derives the expression for the force between two

of a current carrying long solenoid parallel infinitely long current carrying

(derivation is not necessary) conductors.

Magnitude of the force between two solves problems related to magnetic flux density

current carrying infinitely long of current carrying infinitely long straight

parallel conductors conductor, circular coil and long solenoid.

Definition of Ampere defines "Ampere"

7.3 Inquires the Torque acting on a current loop Student will be able to; 15

rotational Rectangular coil placed in a derives expressions for torque acting on a current

effect due to uniform magnetic field carrying rectangular coil placed in a uniform

the inter- Rectangular coil placed in a radial magnetic field.

relationship magnetic field deduces the expression for the torque acting on a

of electricity Moving coil galvanometer current carrying rectangular coil placed in a

and Expression for deflection radial magnetic field.

magnetism. Factors affecting the current solves problems related to torque acting on a

sensitivity current loop.

Direct current motor explains the structure and the function of moving

coil galvanometer.

derives an expression for the deflection of the

moving coil galvanometer

describes current sensitivity of the moving coil

galvanometer.

describes the structure and function of a direct

current motor with one armature coil.

31

Unit 8 - Current Electricity (70 periods)

Level outcomes Periods

8. Uses the 8.1 Manipulates Fundamental concepts Student will be able to; 10

laws the physical Electric charges and electric current defines electric current as the rate of flow of

principles and quantities charges.

effects of related to explains the mechanism of conduction of

current current Mechanism of conduction of

electric current through a metallic conductor.

electricity through a metallic

electricity electricity derives an expression for the relationship

productively wherever conductor

between current and drift velocity.

Expression for the relationship

and appropriate. deduces an expression for current density.

appropriately. between current and drift velocity

defines resistance, and resistivity.

Current density

explains variation of resistance with temperature

Potential difference

of conductors and insulators.

Resistance and resistivity appreciates the properties of superconductors.

Variation of resistance with explains the behavior of ohmic and non-ohmic

temperature conductors using. I- V Curves.

Temperature coefficient of uses potential divider circuit to obtain variable

resistance voltages

Superconductivity finds equivalent resistance of simple networks

Behavior of superconductors solves problems using ohms law

Super conducting materials

Properties of superconductors

Uses of superconductors

Combination of resistors

Series combination

Parallel combination

Ohm's law

Conditions for validity of

Ohm's law

32

I-V curves

Ohmic conductors

Non-ohmic conductors

Potential divider circuit

8.2 Quantifies Energy and power Student will be able to; 05

the energy Expression for energy dissipated due conduct simple activities to demonstrate that

and power in to flow of charges energy dissipates through any electrical

direct current and apparatus when current flows.

(dc) circuits. Expression for power ( rate of expresses formulae for energy dissipation due to

dissipation of energy) flow of charges.

Obtaining , and expresses formulae for rate of dissipation of

energy.

, applies and for any electrical

Application of and appliance.

any electrical uses , , and

appliance

Application of , to find the dissipation of heat for

passive resistors.

, and

for appliances producing heat

only (Joule heating)

Student will be able to;

8.3 Inquires the Electromotive force explain the formation of e.m.f. using simple cell. 10

power supply Formation of potential difference describe the energy transformation in different

of an electric between plates of a simple cell types of sources of electromotive force (emf).

circuit define electromotive force (e.m.f.) in terms of the

quantitatively energy transformation in a source

33

Competency Competency Content Learning No. of

Level outcomes Periods

Transformation of different forms of Student will be able to;

energy in various sources of expresses that rate of energy supply from the

Electromotive force source as the product .

Definition of electromotive force expresses the voltage difference across a source

Introduction of internal resistance of emf with internal resistance in a closed circuit.

Application of the law of conservation of understands the effects of the internal resistance

energy to a circuit having a source of of an electric source of on the terminal potential

electromotive force difference.

Expression for the potential expresses the effective emf of combination of

difference between the terminals of a cell series cell and identical parallel cells.

in a closed circuit explains the condition for maximum power

Determination of electromotive force transfer using graph of power versus resistance.

and internal resistance of a cell conducts an experiment to determine

(graphical method) electromotive force and internal resistance of a

Combination of sources of electromotive cell.

force

Series connection

Parallel connection of identical

sources

Graphical representation of the

relationship between resistance and

power dissipation of a resistor

Condition for maximum power transfer

(derivation is not necessary)

8.4 Uses the Electric circuits Student will be able to; 05

laws and Kirchhoff's laws explains Kirchhoff's first law on the basis of

principles First law (conservation of conservation of charge.

related to charges) describes Kirchhoff's second law as one form of

current Second law (conservation of conservation of energy.

electricity for energy) applies Kirchhoff's laws to electrical networks to

designing solve problems.

circuits.

34

Competency Competency Content Learning No. of

Level outcomes Periods

8.5 Selects Electrical measuring instruments based on Student will be able to; 04

suitable moving coil galvanometer describe the construction of ammeter, voltmeter

instruments Ammeter and ohm - meter.

according to Arrangement uses ammeters and voltmeters correctly and

the quantity Properties of an ideal ammeter protectively according to the needs.

to be Changing the range of an ammeter solves numerical problems on conversion of

measured and Voltmeter moving coil galvanometer to ammeter and

uses Arrangement voltmeter.

electrical

Properties of an ideal voltmeter Conduct activities to use multimeter correctly

measuring according to the appropriate situations.

instruments Changing the range of a voltmeter

accurately Ohm meter

and

protectively.

8.6 Uses Relationship between resistances for derives relationship among resistances of a

Wheatstone balanced condition. balanced Wheatstone bridge.

bridge Meter bridge uses Wheatstone bridge relationship to find

facts to be considered in using meter equivalent resistance of simple networks.

bridge. uses meter bridge accurately to find the

Uses of meter bridge temperature coefficient of resistnace.

Finding temperature coefficient explains the facts to be considered in using metre

of resistance bridge.

carries out numerical calculations to solve

problems using Wheatstone bridge

35

Competency Competency Content Learning No. of

Level outcomes Periods

8.7 Uses Potentiometer Student will be able to

potentiometer Principle of potentiometer explains the facts to be considered in using 10

by setting up the Calibration of potentiometer potentiometer.

circuit Facts to be considered in using describes the principle of potentiometer.

appropriately. potentiometer uses potentiometer to compare electromotive

Uses of potentiometer forces and to compare resistances.

Comparison of uses potentiometer to determine internal

electromotive forces resistance.

Comparison of resistances compares advantages and disadvantage of using

Determination of internal potentiometer

resistance of a cell solves problems related to potentiometer.

Advantages and disadvantage of

using potentiometer

laws and Magnetic flux and flux linkage demonstrates the laws of electromagnetic 20

rules in Laws of electromagnetic induction induction.

electromagne derives expressions for induced electromotive

Faraday's law

tic induction

for technical Lenz's law force of a rod moving/ rotating in magnetic field

needs. Demonstrating the laws of derives expressions for induced electromotive

electromagnetic induction force of a disc rotating in magnetic field

Electromotive force induced in a straight derives expressions for maximum value of

rod moving in a uniform magnetic field induced electromotive force of a rectangular coil

Expression for induced electromotive rotating in a magnetic field.

force describes the structure of the alternating current

Fleming's right hand rule generator.

expresses graphically the variation of e. m. f. of

36

Electromotive force induced in a rod alternating current generator.

rotating in a magnetic field Explain the formation of back e. m. f.

Electromotive force induced in a disc explains the purpose of starter switch.

rotating in a magnetic field explains the structure and function of a

Electromotive force induced in a transformer.

rectangular coil rotating in a magnetic carries out calculations related to transformers.

field and expression for maximum value explains elements of alternating current.

Alternating current generator States the relationship between r. m. s. value and

Arrangement peak value of the voltage of the voltage and

Graphical representation of the variation current.

of electromotive force with time explains transmission of electric power

Introduction to alternating current and qualitatively.

voltage carries out numerical calculations to solve

r.m.s value and peak value of current related problems.

and voltage.

Average power in watts in a resistive

circuits.

Eddy currents and their uses

Back e.m.f. of an electric motor

Demonstration of back e. m. f. of electric

motor

Effect of the back e.m.f. on the armature

current

Controlling the initial current /starter

swich

Transformers

Structure

Relationship between the number of

turns and the voltages of primary and

secondary coils for ideal transformers.

37

Step-down and step-up transformers

Input and output power of the

transformer

The product VI, as input / output

power of a transformer

Energy loss in a transformer

Loss due to Joule heating

Loss due to eddy current

Method to minimize energy

loss.

Uses of transformers

Transmission of electric power

38

Unit 9 - Electronics (40 periods)

Level outcomes Periods

9. Uses 9.1 Inquires Semiconductors Student will be able to;

electronic about the Intrinsic semiconductors identifies pure silicon and germanium as 10

circuits to fulfill principle of Extrinsic semiconductors intrinsic semiconductors.

human needs action of a n type describes extrinsic semiconductors.

efficiently. semiconductor p- type explains the formation of depletion region and

diode. Junction diode voltage barrier of a p n junction.

p-n junction represents graphically the characteristic of a

Depletion layer practical diode and ideal diode.

Forward bias explains the action of diode in forward bias and

Reverse bias reverse bias conditions.

Characteristic curves of a diode Design an experiment to obtain I V curve of a

I-V curve of ideal diode practical diode.

I-V curve of a practical diode explains with relevant diagrams the uses of

Diode as a rectifier diode as a rectifier.

Half wave rectification explains the action of a diode as a switch.

Solves numerical problems related to diodes.

Full wave rectification

conducts simple activities to demonstrate

Smoothing

rectification and switching.

Demonstration of rectification

explains voltage regulation of zener diode.

using CRO

Diode as a switch explains qualitatively the action of LED and

photo diode.

Types of diodes

Zener diode

Voltage regulation using

Zener diode

Light emitting diode(LED)

Photo diode

Solar power

39

Competency Competency Content Learning No. of

Level outcomes Periods

9.2 Uses the Transistor Student will be able to; 14

action of Bipolar transistor explains the structure of npn and pnp transistors.

transistor for Structure and circuit symbol of npn describes the action of a npn transistor with

practical needs. and pnp transistors respect to electrons and holes.

npn transistor circuits describes with appropriate diagrams, the

Action of a transistor common base, common emitter and common

Circuit configuration collector configuration of a transistor.

Common base conduct experiments to interpret graphically the

Common emitter input, output and transfer characteristics of

Common collector common emitter configuration of a transistor.

Action of a transistor explains the biasing of npn transistors with

Investigating the suitable diagrams.

characteristics of common describes the action and uses of a transistor in

emitter configuration of a common emitter configuration as a current

transistor amplifier and as a voltage amplifier.

Input characteristic solves problems related to transistors.

Transfer characteristic describes the action of a transistor as a switch.

Output characteristic explains the structure, action and characteristics

Biasing a transistor of a n-channel and p-channel JFET.

Common emitter transistor explains voltage amplification of a n-channel

amplifier JFET using characteristic curer.

Current amplification

Voltage amplification

Common emitter transistor

switch

Unipolar transistor (JFET)

Structure of p-channel and n-channel

JFET

Action of n-channel JFET

characteristic

40

Competency Competency Content Learning No. of

Level outcomes Periods

Student will be able to;

9.3 Investigates Operational amplifier identifies the pin numbers of operational 06

on the uses of Operational amplifier as an amplifier

operational integrated circuit (IC) describes the open loop characteristic of an

amplifier. Identification of pins operational amplifier.

Action of operational amplifier expresses the voltage gain of open loop state.

Characteristics of the open loop states the properties of operational amplifier.

state explains the purpose of negative feedback and

Uses of operational amplifier as a the effects on the gain of an operational

voltage amplifier amplifier.

Close loop state interprets graphically and with suitable circuit

Golden rules I and II diagrams the action of inverting and non-

Inverting amplifier inverting operational amplifier.

Non-inverting amplifier states the Golden rules I and II regarding an

Use of operational amplifier as a operational amplifier in operating in linear region

voltage comparator/ switch derives an expression for the voltage gain of

inverting and non - inverting amplifiers

explains the use of operational amplifier as a

voltage comparator.

solves problems related to operational amplifier.

9.4 Uses logic Digital electronics writes Boolean expressions and truth tables for 10

gates to Boolean expressions and truth tables of AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR, Ex-OR, and Ex-

control the logic gates NOR logic gates.

action of AND gate develops logic expressions for simple digital

digital OR gate logic circuits having two or three inputs.

circuits. NOT gate converts given logic expressions into logic

NAND gate circuits.

NOR gate designs simple logic circuits to suit given

EXOR gate conditions.

41

EXNOR gate explains basic feature of memory element using

Investigating the truth tables of NOR gates

basic logic gates explains the action of SR flip-flop using a truth

Logic expressions for simple table.

digital circuits (maximum of three

inputs)

Converting a given logic

expression to a logic gate circuit

Logic expression for a truth table

Designing simple logic circuits

Electronic memory

Single memory element with

NOR gates

Basic SR flip-flop (Bistable)

42

Unit 10 - Mechanical Properties of Matter (40 periods)

Level outcomes Periods

10 Applies the 10.1 Selects Elasticity of solids Student will be able to; 10

knowledge relevant Tension and extension conducts an experiment to investigate the

on materials Load-extension graph relationship between tension and extension of a

mechanical for day- Hooke's law string or spring.

properties today needs Tensile stress states Hook's law

of matter in life using Tensile strain defines the terms stress, strain and Young

quantitativ the Young modulus modulus

ely in knowledge

Determination of Young modulus explains the behavior of materials using stress-

scientific about strain graph

of a metal using a wire

activities elasticity. determines the Youngs modulus of a metal wire

Stress-strain graph

and daily gives an expression for energy stored in a string /

pursuits. Energy stored in a stretched string

a spring under a stress

carries out numerical calculations to solve

problems related to elasticity.

10.2 Uses the Viscosity Student will be able to; 15

knowledge on Viscous force demonstrate the differences of flowing of various

viscosity in Coefficient of viscosity liquids using simple activities.

scientific work describe viscosity in terms of tangential stress and

and daily F=Av1-v2) /d velocity gradient for a liquid flow.

pursuits. Poiseuille's equation for a fluid flow defines coefficient of viscosity.

Conditions of validity uses the expression for viscose force to solve

Correctness of the equation through problem

dimensional analysis expresses Poiseuille's for a liquid flow.

Determination of coefficient of conducts experiment to determine coefficient of

viscosity by using Poiseuille's viscosity of water by capillary flow method.

formula explains terminal velocity using v t graph of a

Motion of an object through viscous media body moving through a viscous media.

Forces acting on a spherical object solves simple numerical problems related to

Terminal velocity viscosity.

Stokes law

43

Competency Competency Content Learning No. of

Level outcomes Periods

Correctness of formula through

dimensional analysis

Derivation of expressions for terminal

velocity

Object moving upwards

Object moving downwards

10.3 Uses the Surface tension Student will be able to; 15

knowledge on Definition of surface tension demonstrates the behavior of free surface of a

surface Angle of contact liquid using simple activities

tension to Relationship between nature of the explains the behavior of free surface of a liquid

explain the liquid meniscus and the angle of using inter-molecular forces

natural contact defines surface tension

phenomena Free surface energy obtain the relationship between surface energy and

and to fulfill Expression for the work done in surface tension.

the daily increasing the surface area of a describes the angle of contact with the help of

pursuits. liquid film isothermally diagrams.

Relationship between surface derives an expression for pressure difference

energy and surface tension across spherical meniscus in terms of surface

Expression for pressure difference tension and the radius of the meniscus.

across a spherical meniscus explains capillary rise using surface tension

Capillary rise phenomena.

Expression for capillary rise derives an expression for capillary rise in terms of

Determination of surface tension surface tension, angle of contact and radius of the

Using a microscope slide meniscus.

Capillary rise method conducts experiments to determine surface tension

Jaegar's method by using microscope slide method, capillary rise

method and Jaeger's method

solves problems related to surface tension.

44

Unit 11 - Matter and Radiation (30 periods)

Level outcomes Periods

11 Inquires the 11.1 Applies the Quantum nature of radiation Student will be able to; 08

Modern quantum Black body radiation explains thermal radiation of bodies at various

theories in theories to Stefan's law temperatures using activities and examples

physics. explain the Modification of the Stefan's law for explain the black body radiation.

intensity non-black bodies describes the intensity distribution of blackbody

distribution Intensity distribution of black radiation using the graph of intensity Vs wave

of black body body radiation length for various temperatures.

radiation. Wien's displacement law relate the temperature and intensity of black body

Failure of the classical physics radiation using Stefan's law.

to explain the distribution of use the modification of the Stefans law for non-

intensity of radiation black body radiation.

Plancks hypotheses use Wiens displacement law for relevant

instances.

describe the failure of classical physics in

explaining the black body radiation.

explain Planks hypothesis using the appropriate

terms.

accepts the quantum nature of radiation.

accept that planks theory can be used to explain

black body radiation.

11.2 Applies the Photoelectric effect Student will be able to; 08

quantum Threshold frequency explains the phenomenon of photoelectric effect

theories to I-V graphs using photoelectric effect experiment.

explain the Stopping potential identifies the threshold frequency (or cutoff

photoelectric Graph of frequency against stopping frequency)

effect. potential explain the stopping potential

Graphs for different metals

45

Competency Competency Content Learning No. of

Level outcomes Periods

Failure of the classical physics to accepts that classical physics cannot be used to

explain photoelectric effect explain the results of the photoelectric effect.

Hypotheses put forward by Einstein to states Einsteins hypotheses

explain the photoelectric effect explains the photoelectric effect using photon

Explaining photoelectric effect theory.

considering energy quanta (photon) explains Einsteins photoelectric equation by

Work function introducing its terms.

Einstein's photoelectric effect equation relates threshold frequency to the work function.

Relationship between work function relates stopping potential to the maximum kinetic

and threshold frequency energy.

Relationship between stopping solves numerical calculation using photo electric

potential and maximum kinetic energy equation

explains why the maximum kinetic energy is

independent of intensity, whereas the

photoelectric current is proportional to intensity.

states that the photoelectric effect provides

evidence for a particulate nature of

electromagnetic waves.

about wave de Broglie wavelength for matter gives evidence about wave nature of matter.

particle waves accept that any particle of a specific momentum

duality Evidences about wave nature of has an associated wavelength called the de

matter Broglie wavelength.

Principle of electron microscope applies the de Broglie hypothesis for

determination of the de Broglie wavelength of

matter waves associated with a moving particle.

explains the principle of electron microscope.

46

11.4 Uses X X rays Student will be able to; 02

rays to fulfill Production of X rays explains the discovery of X-rays

human needs. Properties of describes the method of production of X-rays

X rays explains the properties of X-rays

Uses of X rays explains qualitatively how X-rays can be used in

different fields (medical, industrial, et.).

11.5 Inquires Radioactivity Student will be able to; 06

about Natural radioactive decay explains the natural radioactivity and its

radioactivity Emission of - particles properties.

to fulfill Emission of - particles describes the radioactive decay, the radioactive

human needs. Emission of -rays disintegration law and the graph.

Radioactive disintegration law explains the decay constant, activity and half-life

Graphical representation time.

Decay constant explains the use of radioactivity in medicine,

Activity engineering, agriculture and radioactive dating.

Half life explains the background radiation, the health

Uses of radioactivity hazards and safety precautions.

Radioactive dating (C+14) Carry out numerical calculations to solve

In medicine, engineering and problems related to radioactivity.

agriculture

Health hazards of radiation and safety

precautions

Measurement of quantity of

radiation

Radiation dose (Gy)

RBE (Relative Biological

Effectiveness) / Q (Quality

Factor)

Effective dose (Sv)

Health hazards

time of expose

Area of the body which

exposed to radiation

Safety precaution

47

Competency Competency Content Learning No. of

Level outcomes Periods

11.6 Inquires Atomic nucleus Student will be able to; 04

about the Stability of nucleus identifies the atomic structure, the nucleus,

nuclear Unified atomic mass unit the isotopes, nuclear notation and the

energy and its Mass defect atomic mass unit.

uses Einstein's mass energy equation compares the energy released in chemical

Binding energy reactions and nuclear reactions.

Graphical representation between atomic explains the nuclear fission and the process

number and binding energy of a nucleon of chain reaction which may be controlled

Comparison of energy released in chemical (nuclear power) or uncontrolled (atomic

reaction and nuclear reaction bomb)

Nuclear energy explains the nuclear fusion, its process,

Nuclear fission fusion reaction inside the sun/in other stars,

Action of an atomic bomb and the production of elements.

Action of a nuclear power station

Nuclear fusion

Conditions necessary for fusion

reaction

Fusion reaction inside the sun

Attempt of using fusion reaction for

producing energy

48

4.0 Teaching - Learning Strategies

Global trend in present day education is to introduce competency based curricula which promote collaborative learning

through student-centred activities where learning predominates over teaching. It is intended for the students to actively

participate in activities which enhance the development of individual, social and mental skills. Emphasis is laid on the

following aspects.

Direct students to acquire knowledge and information through reliable sources wherever necessary.

The teacher has the liberty to follow any suitable teaching learning method to achieve the relevant learning outcomes.

It is expected that the theoretical components of each unit will be dealt with the relevant practical components, which are given in italics.

Capacity of students should be enhanced through extra-curricular activities, extensive use of supplementary reading materials and learning teaching aids

such as Computer Assisted Learning (CAL) software.

With a view to extending learning beyond the classroom activities and to highlight the students special abilities, it is expected to involve students in co-

curricular activities such as;

setting up school societies or clubs to pursue various aspects of chemistry

field trips to places where applications of chemistry can be observed and preparation of reports subsequently

organizing school exhibitions and competitions

organizing guest lectures on relevant topics by resource persons

producing school publications

organizing events such as debates, science days, etc.

49

School management is responsible in providing services such as lab equipments, computer facilities, etc. and assistance within the school and from

outside resources.

In order to develop school policy and programmes it would be desirable to form a committee comprising relevant teachers and students.

Most importantly, the school should serve as a role model to be followed by the students.

School will develop its annual programmes, consisting of a variety of activities for achieving policy goals. In determining the activities to be undertaken

during a particular year, the school will need to identify priorities and consider feasibility in relation to time and resource constraints.

Assessment and Evaluation should conform to the standards set by the Department of Examinations. However, school-based assessment should also be part

and parcel as it paves way to give direct feedback to learners.

50

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