Techni ues for Drawing

Written by Hikaru Hayashi

1/ l

Techniq:ues for Drawing Female Manga Characters


/ ....

I,· -,

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 The tv'I:)uth and Ups .. . 84

Drawing the Female figure: The Basic Rules .5 Effects You Can .Acllieve wilh Black and Shooing 85

The Three Basic Rules lor DraWIng the Female Rgu 6 The Ears and Earnngs .. 00

The Human Body....................................... . "" 8 The Hair , ", 87

Characteristics of the Female Figure 10 Coloring theH air , ".... . 88

Seeinglhe Body as a Wire Frame andwlth Contour Shadows 12 A Catalogueof Undergarments 00

Dtlterenlia.~ng BodyTypes 14 Q & A . 93

Some Tips for Differentiating the Three Physical Types , 16

Differences in Figure According to.fV;Ja... . 17

Differences of Face According 10 ~ , ...18

Q&A ,...................... . 2)

The Female Figure Goes 10 5rnool .

1 Getting Dressed: The Blouse ..

2. Getting Dressed: Shoes and Socks

3. Getting Dressed: In Front otthe Mirror. 00

.. 'Jl

.. r;n

..................................... 00

4 .. Running Down the Hallway 100

Chapter 2 5. Sitting on a Cl'lair....... . 101

Drawing the Female figure: The Parts of the Body..... . 21 S On the Playgr,ound al Noon: In Uniform 100

True-to-Llla vs. Manga. 7. In the locker Room 100

What In Exaggerate and What to Simplify 22 8. Dressed for Gym Class, " -- 104

The Breasts. . __ .24 I g. More Tips tor DraWIng Gym Clothes -- --., 05

Effects You Can Achieve With !he Breasts . __ ........_, ~ 10. Regulation Bathing Suits ..

___ .. . 100

Bust Une Fashion Statements __ " co •• __ •• __ __ 33 • 11. Riding a Bicycle -- " 1 07

The Bullocks __ . .. __ __ __ 43 12. On the Way Home: Walking Outdoors , ,, __ __ l00

Omerent Vi.ews of the Buttocks __ no .41

The Contour 01 the Buttocks __ 42 . Chapter 4

EHects You Can Achieve with the Buttocks 44 Leamfrom me Pros __ __ 100

The Crotch 46 Girl in Middy Uniform (MasartJI Kaku) 110

Using Curved Lines to Show DimenSion In I!le Crotch __ .46 Beautywlth Bouquet(Jun Matsubara) .• . __ 112

The lower Ebdy in Action 52 Alluring Adult (Yasuo Matsumoto).. . ...• __ 11.4

The RelatiOn Between the Buttocks, Crotch, and legs 54 Dream Fantasy (M::Jrio Harada) 116

The Legs " 56 Girl Athlete (BanchoHoshino).. . -- .. 118

The Neck. Connectinglhe Head 10 tt1e Body __ __ .64 Sexy Babe (Ganma Suzuki) .. --. . .. 120

The Bent Badk - When You Can't Draw a Tapered Waist __ 00 Humorous Illustration (Shoko AnOO) -- .. -- t22

The EttectoH)nderwear and Bathing Suijts on tM Female Figure €13 Coquettish Maiden (Yu Manabe) ,..... __ .. 124

Watecr Droplets and Beads of Sweat 70 Glamourous Beauty (Noriyoshi Inoue). . ,126

Wire Frames - Getting a Grasp althe Body's Curves 72

Using Wire Frames 74

Q & A............... . __ __ ,.,,76

Chapter 3

Drawing ·the Iremale Figure: Using Detail lor Effect __ J]

Different Types 01 Nalls.. .. __ , __ • __ __ 78

Eyes. Eyelids, and Eyelashes __ 8)

Chapter 1

Drawing the Female Figure:

The Basic Rules

The Three Basic Rules for Drawing the Female Figure

.,AVOid Straight Lines I

The female figUire is soft and supple, In order to express this quality, use rounded lines as much as possible,

+EnViSion a Tiriangle ,

Shoulder and Hip Width of the Male Figure

The female figure characteristically / ... -----------------------------------------'

has a larger pelvis than the male figure. The hips should be drawn wide


Vv'hen drawing the male figure,

the shoulders should be wider than the hips.

When drawing a woman with broad shoulders,

Vllhen blocking out your drawing, it's helpful to think ot a triangle whose base is the width of the pelvis and whose apex is the top of the head,


,A I

Even when 'a man has narrow shoulders, the hips should be drawn narrower than the shoulders,

A woman with wide shoulders becomes more feminine if drawn with her hip sticking out.

+EnViSlon a Figure 'Eight I

The secret to drawingl a shapely female figure is to give her a slender waist and broad hips. In essence, you want to think of a figure 8.

2. Draw a figure 8 for the body under the head.

3. Draw small circles where the arms and legs 'Mil be attached. These will become the joints.

4. Flesh out the waist and draw the arms and legs .

• You can vary the body type by drawing a tal! and slender B or short and squat 8.

o The size of the circles drawn for the joints determines the thickness of the arms and legs.


(The Human 'Body)

The flesh is essentially clothing for the bones. Ask "What kind of clothes do I want these bones to wear?" You can create an endless variety of figures by changing how you "dress" the bones with flesh.

Wearing overcoat

In skirt and blouse

In undergarments


The human body is built upon a skeleton of bones, which are covered with muscle, fat, and skin. Bone structure and the flesh (muscle and fat) attached to it vary from person to person.




Transparent view



The female figure is defined most prominently by the bust, the waist, and the hips ..

Breasts: Shape, size, position, and preferences among breasts are as varied as their owners.

See page 22.

Hibs: A lightly-drawn rib line gives the stomach and torso a trim look

(but be careful: if tile line is too heavy, it creates a gaunt look)


Neck: A thick neck makes the figure look like a small child; for a grown woman, draw a long, slender neck.

Hips: From the front. the widest part of the hips are determined by the bones.

Crotch: There is always a space between the thighs at the crotch even when standing with knees together.


The shoulder, upper arm. and armpit are crucial in showing maturity.

The line leading down to the navel expresses the subtle curve of the stomach and lower abdomen.

The position of the navel should be a little below the waist and one hand up from the crotch.

Immature figure: Even when the arms are lifted,

Mature figure: The arrmlt must be drawn to show three-dimensional

a single hne is adequate for showing the armpit.

The tapering of the ribs


The width of the pelvis

The difference between the tapering of the ribs and the width of the pelvis determines 1he size of the waist.

Note that the position of the waist is slightly different when viewed from the front and the side.

Fromthe navel down to the crotch

should appear as a gently rounded curve. You can achieve this impression from the front by applying screentones.

The curve of the crotch can be either flat or mounded.

t i

8eeinv. the Body 88 a Wire Frame and With Contour Shadows .


By getting a clear sense of the basic contours of the female figure, you will be able to create

a more realistic and effective feeling of solidity

Shadows Formed by the Body's Contours When Illuminated


I f you understand how the differences in bone structure and body type atfecttheir proportions, you'U be able to draw a wide variety of female figures.


~verage Build

• The stomach and lower abdomen are both slightly rounded.

• The chest and body as a whole are curvaceous, and the torso is quite short.

• The shoulders, arms, and legs are all somewhat fleshy; even when the legs and arms are long, they have a fullness to them

• The sides of the chest and hips form a shapely curve.

• The hips are broad.

• The neck is long and slim.

• The shoulders are narrow, the chest is thin, and the waist is small.

• The torso is relatively long.

• The arms and legs are long and thin, without excess muscles.

• The sides of the chest and hips form a much gentler curve.

• .A prominent breastbone

• Broad shoulders to house well-developed lungs.

• limbs are drawn more tapered at the elbows and knees, wrists and ankles

(but be caretui not to overdo it, or you will create a beefy look).

• Although the thighs are thick, the muscles taper at the knee creating the sharpest curve


Some Tlpa tor DIHereatlatlng the Three Physlca' Type. J

The key points to note are:

1 The curve from the back to the hips

2. The line from the shoulder down the arm

3. The rib line below the breast

4. The thickness of the thighs

An athletic figure superimposed on an average figure.


A slender figure superimposed on an average figure.

(DIfferences In Figure According to Age)

Finger length represents one of lhe

most prominent dirterences between the figures of adult and Child. Also, for adolescent girls you can create a youthful appearance by drawing the body 01 an adult, but with more rounded lines overall.

An adult ligure

An adult hand

large head

Neck: Thick and relatively short

Shoulders: Rounded

Limbs: Even when long, not fully extended

Wrists & ankles: relatively thick

An adolescent hand

Barely tapered wrists and ankles

A child's figure

x An adolescent figure

Some Rules of Thumb

Adult Adolescent Child
Agerallge 18 ana up 131017 12 ana under
Height by head size 7-8 heads or more 5-7 heads S heads or less
Curvature of body Yes Some Almost none
Wrists & ankles Slender Average Thick
Limbs Long and fully Not fully extended Not fully extended
Drawing tips Draw the head Drawthe pelvis Draw head large:
small; make wrists relatively thin; arms and legs are
and ankles slim. keep arms and like sticks.
legs relatively
short Note: VJomen In the 18 to 19-'year-01d range iMll have elements of both the adult and adolescent figure.


~., ~piJ'.

To dn1erentiate the faces of adults and children, pay attention to these t'M) elements:

1. The distance between the eyes and the mouth

2. The bridge of the nose

Profiles in manga-style drawings


Profiles in illustrator-style drawings

Some RUles of Thumb

Adl,Jlt Features Child· Featurasl
Dist~nce between '~y~ Far apart Close together
and: mouth
ShaPe Of face Slightly longer Round
Eyes Small Large
Bridgeofn~ Draw clearly Don't emphasize
Nook Slender and long Thick
Head Small Large 18

By adjllsting the distance between eyes and mouth, yuu can differentiate between an adult and a child with or without the bridge line drawn in.


What if you want to draw an older woman with·a rounClface, or a child with· 8 slightl

-Iflnger lace 'and poinw chin? .

-----------:~ A grown woman (~t:1_~ with around face


A child with agrown-up face.

1 . Keep the eyes small.

2 Maintain distance between eyes and mouth.

• For a somewhat baby-faced look, make the eyes larger.

. Round faces tend to look too large,

so it helps to reduce the amount of hair.

1. Draw large eyes.

2. Tighten the distance between eyes and mouth.

3. Minimize the nose.

4. Make the head larqer by givingl more volume to the hair.

,~------ ---- -- - - --- -- ----- -- - - -'----'-_ ...

A Grown Woman with a Round Face

In order to make, a woman with a round lace, large eyes, and big nair look more grown-up.

1. Give her a I:ong neck, and draw in the collarbone.

2. Draw her figure to adult proportions.

3. Broaden the shoulders and use other means to make the head look smaller .

• Smaller eyes always make the face look more grown·up

• It also helps to draw large ears and make the neck short and thick


Drawing the Female Figure:

The Parts of t ~y


True-to-Life vs. Manga

VVhat to Exaggerate and If.Ihat to Simplify

VVnen lIsing a photograph or other model for

yow drawing, exaggerate or simplify various aspects

of the madelia create a figure that su'ts your own taste,

True-Io-Lile figure

Tip#': The distance from shoulder to breast If you follow the mocel too closely,

the breasts can seem oddly distant from t he lace. Unless you are striving for

a realistic enect. pos'non the breasts a lillie higher than they really' are.

Torso line

Tip #2: Drawing the breasts

In real lite. breasts seldom protrude beyond the torso lines unless they are very large, Bulla represent this accurately makes for an unappealil)g

frontal view. so .


Tip#4, Knees

Keep the knees simple. A single arc is all it takes to create cute knees

Tip #3: The legs

In general, the thigh and the Shin are roughly equal in length, but drawing the shin s!i,ghtly longer makes

22 a more attract ive leg,

Manga Figure

<~_T_h_e_B_aC_I< _ __j)

The contour of the back includes many bumps and dips" but normally only the following need be drawn:

1. Lines for the spine and shoulder blades 2 The buttocks

Draw t he neck longer and slimmer than the model. At some angles a lonqer neck may look odd, though, so care is needed.


Back Tip #1 : Creases

Many creases tend 10 form around the neck and shoulder blades as well as at the waist ,

but you should omit most of them for a prettier back

Tip #6: Taper the waist sharply

The angle from armpit to waist will often leave

the figure waist less if drawn realistically, so it almost always calis for exaggeration. Follow imaginary lines drawn from the armpits to the crotch

~ \


p #7: The position of the waist

- , For the cutest look place the waist about one breast-height below the breasts.

A more realistic distance is about

one head below the breasts.



Back Tip #2: The buttocks

A simple standing pose cannot fully illustrate manga-style buttocks, See page 38.

Tip #8: The distance from waist to crotch

The waist and crotch are normally about one head apart. If tlnis distance is too short, the hips/pelvis will look too slight and

the figure unbalanced


The Breasts

The Structure ~o:;f---;;:-------:-and How Th the Breast·

ey Attach S,

The breasts grow .

the armpit line .. dnectlytrorn

There is as

pace between the b

, 1_ reasts.



-_ ----'.~)-


es turn outward.


View from overhead

The breasts and nipples lace outward al roughly a 90 angle to one another.

In 3/4 view, one breast laces straight forward.



<~ p_r_O_f_lIe_._V_I_e_w_s ~)


I "

-, - ~J" :-

( .~, The breasts are made of

, ~ »>. fatt.y tissue resting atop

//, the greater pectoral

- 0:;// muscles althe chest


Boun.d tight with muslin



The muscular structure 26 of the armpit

Because breasts are son and pliable. you can achieve very different effects by how you dress the figure.



Clothing that accentuates size and shape

The Rib Cage


Differentiating the Size of the Breasts


I ~

Y~ This line is crucial for establishing '___!)('\

( ) the curvature of the breast, as well as

a sense of solidity and weight, so it must

Average size be drawn w~h special care

Somewhat small

Somewhat large

The larger the breast the more it sags under its own weight.

Very large


Adjust the size of the breasts in frontal view by raising or lowering the underside of

the breast.

The larger the breast, the more heavily the line under the breast should be drawn.


< Breasts of Different Shapes)



< The Posision of the Breasts)

In general, breasts fall into

three basic shapes, but countless variations are possible among them.


Breasts that are predominant among Westerners

The impression created varies gr'eatly by h,QW the breasts

are positioned.



Breasts that are predominant among Asians




\ )APPIYShad,ng wnn screentones '0

T create a feeling 01 sonouv

Scraping away some of

~he screentones enhances the appearance of skin.



When the figure is dressed, ,"

you can create a more provocative: sense of dimension with

solid black fill and pen touch-ups.

The Breast from

Diagonally Behind

Typically, this part the breast is visibte (though size is a factor).

I I Generally, the nipple is not visible

: in a 3/4 rear view, but it depends on I

\ the type of breast. I



< The Nipple and the AreOla)

Since the areola is in effect a circle drawn on a sphere, it must be dra.wn with care

ill order to maintain proper perspective. VVhen the areola will be toward the side, draw a circle on a ball first 'to see exactly what shape it needs to be on paper.

<,--"-~_s_o_m __ e~E_x_a_m_p_._le_s~____;>

Screentones only, without any pen work.


Pen work combined with screentones, handled with relative simplicity.

Combining pen work and layered screentones gives the drawing more dimension and makes the nipple and areola appear more real.

(L~S_h_O_W~in_g~M_O_v_e_m_e_n_, t_o_' _th_e_B_r_e_a_s_t_s._J)

The nipples are generally at the same height on both sides. so they provide useful reference points wtlen blocking out

your drawing or determining the position of the breasts.

Movement is shown by changing the shape of the breasts and the position of the nipples.

,-----~~~-/~----~ ------~~n-----~"",,_--__,



< Bending Forward)

-' small breasts

Even relatively n attractive

take on a the figure is

shape when

bent forward.

'zed breasts Average-51


( 1

, h breasts, the more.( .

The fuller I .8 ull of gravi y_

d cop from the p they r

(From·on All Fours to.~Ylng·.·FaceDown )

Flat on the floor

The shape of the breasts is affected by how much weight is being placed on them (or not).

The breasts press against the floor

and are flattened by the weight 01 the body.

If the breasts are large. they take the shape of a flattened ball.


How Moving the Shoulders and Arms Affects the Shape of the Breasts

Vllhen the arms are raised,

the muscles in the chest are also pulled upwards. and the breasts change shape.

Subtle differences between when

the arms are down and when they are raised can be seen clearly in side view.

With arms raised, the chest thrusts forward.


r Drawing Slender Arms \

! ) ~


~ i

To draw slender arms, tighten up \tIJhen drawing a figure with A slender upper torso

the shoulder muscles and reduce raised arms, keep the upper that gives a more

the height between shoulder and armpit. torso relatively thin. muscular impression )

, L ~

V\tJen a figure is given broad shoulders, the arms also tend

to grow thicker.


(The Shape of the Breasts When Lying Face up)

\o\"tlen a IMJmanlies face up, her breasts naturally flatten under their own weight. You can show this effect by how you position the nipples.

The nipples still point outward, even when lying face up.

Small breasts do not flatten as much, but you should still draw the nipples

a little to the outside.

The flattened effect is shown The larger the breasts,

by drawing the nipples farther apart. the more unattractively they

flatten out when lying in this position.



of Upper Torso

________________ t_

Large breasts

Petite breasts

Small but shapely breasts


(The Differences __ In Line>

Thin. even-width lines. ~



-~-- '"

Both the angle and the pose emphasize . the breasts. Special attention to

the curves brings out the softness

and fullness of the breasts

(Covering or Ho!ldlng a Breast>

A small breast covered with a hand

A small breast held firmly


A larger breast

Flesh pressing between

the fingers shows the fullness of the breast



The heavier lines

of a felt-tipped pen

Nipple peeking slightly through the fingers

Shift the position of the nipple to show softness or forceful manipulation of the breast.

(lqueezlng the Breasts Together>

Create ample cleavage by squeezing the breasts together with arms across the chest.

If desired, the nipples may be' shown peeking from beneath the arms,



The fullness of the breasts can be accentuated by drawing them close together.


t If the breasts are squeezed in Worl<ing With Cleavage

! very tightly. the nipples need not I be shoWJl even with an extremely I low-cut neckline like this.


\ I




Focusing only on the cleavage )

can produce lopsided results. ~"-:::::. .

WIlen drawing a bust with The effect of u~

cleavage, be sure to keep a push-up bra to

Illustration in mind the position of the deliberately accentuate

breasts. cleavage. I



1. Show the Natural Shape


Middy Blouse


(Styles of Necklln!)

Y -cut dress

v-cut dress

Bathing suit

(OtherH Styles>

A dress shirt squeezes breasts tog.ether.

Push-up bra

Tank top

Breasts that are wide apart

U-CUI dress

Halter top

No cleavage even wtlen puned together with abra.

Breasts til at are The slightest pull creates

close together cleavage (though only if I

full.figured). I

\ I

'- .... _----------,------------------------------.;'


The Buttocks

The key to attractive buttocks is in how you draw the crevice. Think of it as

an extension of the spine.

< Dlfleren~Type_8 ~t Butt()CkS)

Not sagging, but somewhat flat buttocks


Viewed from head on,

the crevice of the buttocks is virtually a straight line.

There is an opening between the thighs. at the crotch.

Firm, smooth, well-modulated curves make the best looking buttocks. Uneven curves create

less appealing results.

Slightly sagging buttocks

Firm, well-rounded buttocks

Different Views of the Buttock.

Naked buttocks are remarkably simple.

(Minga buttocks)


crovered" buttocks)

Leather pants

~-- - _ ...... _---------- - -- - - - _. - - _.-- - -_ .... '----- .....

, ,

I Buttocks and Hearts





Buttocks are often said to resemble an upside dowm heart, as in this ililustrati.on.

Buttocks actually 'look like this only when the filgure is seated or viewed trorn above.


, I

,_._---------_._------ -- ------- --------~




Ordinary panties


The secret to drawing an attractive buttocks is in thinking of the crevice as an extension 01 the spine.

2. Drawthe legs. The buttocks do not really take shape yet.

< How to Draw the ButtOCk~)

1. Sketch the basic outlines

3. Extend tile line of the spine along the curve of the buttocks.


I Wny Getting the Crevice Right is So Vital '

Knowing how to draw the crevice is Imponant wtlen drawing the buttocks in slacks or jeans

as well.

The crevice follows along the Une of the spine, and represents the center of the lower body.




4. Finished

(The Buttocks from a Low Angle>

S,tarting Framework for Pelvis

Center line, This becomes the crevice.

2, Drawthe legs

Oval that determines the thickness of the legs

L 3.~~~---v€--~th-e-c-o-rn-e-rs----------

and fill iln the curves,

< The Buttocks, When Walking)



With the left foot forward

With the legs together

IN'nen standing with legs apart


With the right foot forward


< Olllere"t- Views)

There are a fairly limt,ted number of poses arnd angles that let you take advantage of the curvature arnd fullness of the buttocks.


Looking past the breasts to the hips

Viewed from the feel

View featuring the back

With upper torso lifted


< Techniques of Exp,resslon )

Use underwear to accentuate the sense of reality.

Apply screentones to bring out the curvature and f'leshiness.

Use angle and shading to draw the reader's interest.


The Crotch

< 1. Standing on Knees>

3/4 view

Front view from a slightly \owangle


The secret to drawing the \O'Ne1 abdomen and crotch lies in how you capture the gentle slope of the abdomen in the curved lines of the underpants.

Front view from a slightly elevated angle

Drawing these lines straight

will make it look more like a male crotch.

The lines in the underwear

show the contours of the crotch.

( 2. Sitting on Knees)

Side view: Tne erotch does not touch the tloor

The buttocks are soft, so the heel digs in.

VVnen the legs turn outward, the buttocks are pulled apart and the crevice opens up.


Wearing high-cut or

string bikini-type underwear

View trom below: the thighs and the buttocks press nat against the floor.


< 3. u~uattlng on Toes and· Knees)

The pelvis I (buttocks)

The hip joint


Front view from a. slightly elevated angle

3/4 Iront view trom a slightly 48 elevated angle

The crotch of a standing figure looks much the same when viewed from above,

(4. Sitting on Buttocks,Part1 >

Draw a line in the thigh here to show that the buttocks are thrust forward.

Depeooing on what the fig,ure is wearing and how it fils, the crevice

of the buttocks may need to be shown.

Ordinary panties.

Note the difference in the curves.

A flat bottom reflects a hard floor.

High-cut - type underwear


< 5. Sitting on Butt()ckS, Part 2 )

Even for essentially the same sitting position, the appearance of the crotch will be-different depending on whether the figure is leaning forward or back.

Showingllhe thighbone

It you draw the crotch area in too much detail, the effect 'Nill be obscene.

\Aihen leaning forward with head In front of hips


< 6., Failing Over BaokwardS>

You can achieve the illusion of tumbling backwards by showing the full curve of the buttocks. This clearly distinguishes it frorm the crotch of a figure that is merely sitting with legs spread apart.

Falling with legs pressed together

An even harder fall

(SUCh as when falling off of a bed)

For greater realism, leave a little space between the seam of the underwear and the crease of the thigh joint.

You can create the irnpression of more dynamic movement by drawing muscle lines in the thighs.



Of hip and thigh Close-up ...

" ibl parts in orca

"IlVISI e . '

Sketch in the I fix on the relattonsn

to gel a better ks and thigh" between buttocl

an even lower all91 From re to the front ano rro

VVhen drawin .

gIve particul g a fIgure with a I· I .

the uncle ar attention to th eg ~p In the air

, rwear. Lin ' . e wrinkles i '

~;ev~e;" Ihe bun'::Xlend;ng fromlh:

e pubic mound' and from

give a teen

mg of reahs m.


The Relation letwean

the Buttock8,Crotch, and Leg_


lJIIhern viewed from the side,

this point is slightly otf the floor.

Drawing lines where the thighs enter the buttocks gives the buttocks a well-rounded look.

The crucial lines. WIthout these lines,

the buttocks will appear flat


Face down

You can draw a line down tna

center for a crease in the underwear,

Face up

On a hard floor, there will be a gap between the waist and the tloor.

The Legs

The bones

If you extend the thigh directly off of the buttocks, it will tend to be quite fat.

< A Side View of the Leg at the Hip)


,I 'J


Thick thigh

When you want to drawa less beefy thigh, draw the thigh first in the desired proportion and then adjust the buttocks as necessary for a natural fit.

The thickness of the thigh where It attaches

to the pelvis determines the shape of the buttocks.

Average thigh

Thin thigh

(The Relation Between PE!lvls Hand Legs)

The bones


High-cut style underwear reveals the thigh joint

i I I I I

Even for legs that look skinny from the: front, the thighs will look fat when :

\ <){2' viewed in different poses or from ~~_) 57 angles

@fferent Types of Legs)

Thick-set from thigh to foot

Slender but pretty legs, with smooth curves.


Shapely, sexy legs

Legs that are quite shapely in spite of thick-set thighs.

Drawing the calf with heavy lines creates a muscular look.

Skinny, shapeless legs

Sexy thighs

Excessi'V'ely sk.inny thighs

Ihe hips are wide and the legs are heavy-set as weill.

For shapelier legs, taper the lines running from sbin and calf to ankle,

A superimposed view.

The hips and buttocks are small but the legs are heavy-set.

If the line tracing frrom hip to thigh curves too wide. the leg will look lat.

The hips are wide but the legs are shapely.

The hips and buttocks are small and the legs are slim,


(Exarnples ofPrettynLegs,)



The contours of the le:gs from behind.

The contours of the legs from the front.


Various ways to Draw Knees

Focus on the Knees

Side view 01 curvaceous leg.

,~- --,-------,-- ------ - -- - ----- ----------"

t Up-skirt Effect ' I I I I I I I

The skirt's shadow enhances the




sense of dimension and realism, The edge Of the shadow should be curved to retlect the cylindrical nature or the thighs.

Shadow cast on cylindrical object


The buttocks and thighs are quite soft, and they change shape accormnq to 'how weight is being placed on them as 'Nell as how hard or soft the underlying surface is.

A hard floor

Supporting the bOdy on hands and feet, with buttocks lifted off the floor

Sitting on the floor with legs extended forward

Sifting on a Chair: Howlhe Thighs Change Shape


Sitting on a low chair with legs apart

Sitting on a narrow beam or steel bat

ex n Sitlling forward m - knee' tog;,th.,

The same posture from an elevated angle

leaning back jJr

with knees relaxed . ~ .



The Neck

Connecting the Head to the Body

< Looking Down From Above )

Tile relative positions of head, neck and torso are easier to see

If you draw them from an overneao perspective. Orawlhe figure in stages, adding one element at a time.

Neck 0


4. Finished.

3. Add the head.


2 Add the neck.

1. Orawthe body.

(Showing the Neck and Nape of the Neck)

~ Drawing Tips

1, Drawsmooth lines where the neck

~~. meets the jaw and the shoulders,


2. Ilmw in 111. collar bone and u~. showing the neck muscles, 1e5 ~

,.. r


Many creases form when the neck is turned. bl:lt it's comroon to omit most of them in manga drawings,

A composition that clearly

shows the relation of head ~ .

~tobOdy, ...____:n~


The Bent Back

When You Can't Draw a Tapered Waist

Vv'hen a woman bends forward with

a rounded back. creases form across her stomach no matter how trim she might be.

Structural drawing

Reachillg to pick something up

Structurally speaking, one side constricts while the other stretches.

This side constricts and the 'body bends torward.

< Bending Over in Other Ways)

Vv'hen knocked forcefully ott one's feet


ure and the angle, Depending on the POsS~ay or may not show,

he stomach crease f a fat belly, _

t 'd the appearance 0 'n your drawing,

To avo! ' to a minimum I

keep the creases


The Effect of Underwear and Bathing Suits on the Female Figure

You can show the softness of the flesh in how it yields to the pressure of various items of clothing, In the case of underwear or bathing suits, it may be either the elastic along the edges or the fabric itself that presses into the skin.

Panties press into the hips


Some kinds of fabric provide a glove-like tit that makes virtually 110 impression on the skil

(Other Examples)

Some body suits alter the person's entire figure.

The pull of elastic on the buttocks

Natural figure

With body suit

A bathing suit that's one size too small

Long tights pressing into thighs


Water Droplets and Beads of Sweat

Always keep the contours of the body in mind when drawing droplets of wate:r or sweat.

(1. Wa.ter flows along· body contours. >

Don't simply draw little round circles. o. Always remember that the beads 01

water or sweat lie on a curved surface.

If you simply draw little round circles, they wHilook like drops of water resting on a sheet of glass in Iront of the figure.

The flow of water or sweat should follow the body's curves:

(2. Walter obeys the ru'lesof gravity.)

Beads of water and sweat are drawn downward by the pull of gravity.


3. Water. Is affected b

the direction of Y.



The basic tecnru u '

whether tile figUlr~i~;~ :sential1Y ~he same

beads of sweat sweaf shown with a lew or drenched w'lh' eatmg profusely

I water '

Beads of water and s ....

by the flow of air or th weat are affected

as they flow along th·e speed of an action e contours 01 the body

( Degrees of Wetness) ,

Heavy sweat flying in every direction


Wire Frames

Getting a Grasp of the Body's Curves


(From Low Angle>

< From High Angle)


(Using V\liii!§~ames)

Undergarments and clothing of

aH kinds generally conform to the contours of the body. Wire frames are especially helpful when drawing the ovoid curves at the neckline, the cuff 01 a sleeve,

or the hem of a skirt.

Vlihen drawing a V-neck.

use the vertical lines for reference.

The basic shape of a T-shirt and skirt

Clothing is in essence a figure's second skin.

< 2. Drawing a figure in water)

The surtacs of the water should follow the curves of the body.


< 3. Drawingl logos>

Refer lathe wire frame when drawing logos and other designs on the clothing.

(5. Drawing. skirtS)

Refer to the wire frame to figure out

the curve of the skirt as seen from below.

< 4. Drawing underpants>

Following this line will give you high-cut panties.

Choosing a lower line gives a more ordinary cut.

Draw the desired clothing over the frame to find the appropriate curve

Wire frame of the desired angle

The frame also shows the curve of the socks.



, What If you want to draw a female figure without drawing atbIntlon to the bust or hips?

Answer 0

1. Draw a long, slender neck.

2. Even if' you don't draw breasts o~ hips, db taper the waist to give the figure a certain amount 01 contour, 3, Give the figure narrow shoulders,

4. Make the head relatively small.

and draw a body about 7 to 9 heads h iglh,

Answer~ Draw the figure as slim and delicate. In Ihis case, the shoulders can sli,1I be somewhat broad.


Drawa Clear collarbone.

Answer<e> 1. Use taclal features, hair style,

or clothing fashions to distinguish grown women and little girls,

2. Drawstraight. skinny leqs.

lA/hen drawing children. there is almost no difference between male and female (iglmes.


Chapter 3

Drawing the Female Figure:

Using Detail for Effect

Different Types of Nails

Uncanny fingernails Trimmed fingernails

< Examples of Hands and Nalls)


Elliptical fingernails Rounded fingernails

<Showing iMa.nicuredNa i Is)

Spotled b~lack

Variously snaoeo with screernones

SpoUedblack with while for reflected light

~ ......... ---.--- ... --_._------,---- -.--- .... -- ..... _ ..... _ ,-_ ............ _ ------ ..... _' ... - ..... ,_._-- -_ ... - ....

, ,

I Using screentones to represent different colors I

Customarily. red and green nails

are spotted. black or represented with a graduated screentone, lighl pink and yeillow nails are representeownb

a IIgh\ screemone in tile #H) 10 #19 range, while blue nails are represented w1lh

a 1142 or #5.2 screentons.





1 Light pink


\ I



Neatly c!iipped

< Toenails)

Front view

View from above


Eyes, Eyelids, and Eyelashes

< The Structure of the Eye)


Lipper eyelid

Lower eyelid

Exposed portion of the eye

(HOW Eyelashes uGrow)


< A Selection of Eyelids with FOlldS)






Slanted eyes are slanted even when viewed from the side

< Different Types of' Eyelashes)

Slanted eyes with thin eyelashes


~ ~

Ordinary eyes with ordinary eyelashes


(Eyelashes from Different Angles)

< DlfferentuTypes of Eyes)




Realistic Eyes

Closed tightly ~~


LookinQi sideways ~--...... ~_-::; ......

~~ ~



Wide Eyes

Manga Eyes == Tall Eyes

'V ~

..... ,_

(pen-Dra,wn Shading)



To apply shading with a pen, draw thin lines.

( Applying Shading with Screentones )

1. Apply the desired screentone.

2. Determine where light should strike and scrape off the shading.

3. Cut away the excess.


The Mouth and Lips

(The Shape of the LipS)

You can achieve many diff.erent effects with the mouth according

to what aspect you choose to highlight.


< Special Effects>



'vVnenseeking a particular effect with the mouth, focus attention on it

by cropping the frame 10 exclude the eyes.


( Accenttngthe outline)

Solid black plus hatching

Solid black

plus screentones


The Ears and Earrings


Since earrings are small, they are almost always drawn to obtain a very particular effect It's important to think carefully about what view of the ear will offer !Ihe desired effect.

< Some Tip. on Ears and Earrings)

The top of the ear is on the same level as the eyebrows, and the bottom of the ear is level with the base of the nose.

~en viewing the side 01 the head, the ear is at the center.

An ear with a pierced earring at different angles


The Hair


Hair styles are determined primarily by two characterlst los; how 51 iff

the hair is, and how much of it there is.

The Difference Between Coarse Hair and Fine Hair

If the hair is line and soft, it tends to lie flat against the scalp.

II the hair is coarse and still, it tends to grow outward from

{& tile scalp.



Fine hair

Coarse hair

Typical hair styles

< IHair Density)

Fine and thin

Coarse and thin

Coarse and full headed I dense


Outline only

Pen work only

Solid black

Black with white highlights


Black with white highlights

Graduated screentones, scraped

Layered screentones

(TipS for Draw'

Ing Hair)

Pony tail: take spec"

th lal care with

e flow of the h '


Wavy hair

Shaved hairline " use transfer s S

or screent creens


Curly hair


A Catalo'gue of Under'garments

( 1. Underpants )





, I I I I I I I I I I I ,





I ,




I I I I I I I I I ,


... .1 .

String panties







" ",1"

I I I I I I I I ,

1 J ,

I I 1 I I ,

I I I I , ,


_.- .. '


I I ,

I ,



Ordinary with lace on back

Ordinary with lace throughout

High-cut with lace throughout


( 2. Bras)

Ordinary: With lace

Ordinary: Plain





( . 3. Other Item s ) Body suit




Laced slip variations

,------------------------------------------------.------------_._-----------------_._._ .....

, ,

, Underpants: The Different Look of Different Fabrics '

When not being mm


Light weight puckering fabric Standard weight cotton-synthetic mix


• Hugs body curves faithfully.

• Wrinkles appear as very delicate lines.


Standard weight cotton-synthet.ic mix

. Draw only the outline and seams of the panties.

• A plain lOok, with the feeling tMt the panties hug the contours ofthe body.

& Ught weight puckering fabric

• Draw wrinkles along the ·top and bottom hems .

• A few wrinkles follow the contours at the crotch

and hips.

\,----------------------------------------,---------------------------------------- ,'



, j


Based strictly on bone structure, it is strange for the eyes to be set too far back from the nose, but in drawings, such a style may still be perfectly acceptable. There are many different ways in wtlich

the eyes, nose, and mouth can be !

distorted or exaggerated to good lin E,gyplian drawing sty le, Outline of the head:

effect, so you can develop your the face is presented in even the mouth

own style without being too worried profile, but the eye gazes protrudes quite a bit.

about actual bone structure. straight out at the viewer.

I Bone structure: i tile face is nearly flat. I

- ---





l J



The Female Figure Goes to School I

(1. Getting [)ressed: The Blouse>

Wrinkles in tile blouse should be drnwn with sharp.

dynamic lines

The bust with different blouses.

Use screentones to draw bra showing through blouse,

Fastening the bra


< 2. Getting Dressed: Shoes and SOCkS)

Vv'hen Ihefigure is seated, the surface of the bed or cushion conforms to the shape of the buttocks.

Some loose socks


Howthe invisible part of the buttocks presses into the mattress or cushion.

Slipping into her shoe in a seated position.

Lips and lipstick

(3. Gett:i"g Dressed: II" Front of the Mirror)

Even when the character is simply standing or sittling straight,

avoid making the figure completely rigid.

Supple figure, standing

Rigid nigure, standing

Supple figure, seated

R.igid figure, seated


< 4. Runnlng~ Down the Hallway )

The thigh of a riunning figure. You can achieve the impression of dynamic motion by showing the ripple of the muscles.


In real life, the rear flap of the collar does not actually lilt up so high.

A sudden stop:

momentum makes her skirt fly up.

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