Power System Representation and Equations

A one-line diagram of a simple power system




Oil or liquid circuit breaker Rotating machine




Two-winding power transformer Wye connection, neutral ground

Per-Phase, Per Unit System

( )
base , 3
2
base L,
base
base
base L,
base
base L,
base , 3
base
3
3
Φ
Φ
=
=
=
S
V
Z
I
V
Z
V
S
I


quantity of value base
value actual
unit per in Quantity =

As we have seen in Chapter 2, many transformers and machines have their internal
impedances specified as per unit resistances and reactances, using the voltage and
apparent power ratings of the device itself as the base quantity. If these impedances are
expressed in per unit to a base other than the one selected as a base for a power system,
we must convert the impedances to per unit on the new base. This conversion could be
done by using the original base impedance to convert the impedances back into ohms,
Bus 1 Bus 2
Load B
1 2
Load A
and then using the power system base impedance to convert the value on ohms to per unit
on the new base. Alternatively, we may combine the two steps into a single equation:

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
− = −
given
new
2
new
given
given new
V
V
unit per unit Per
S
S
Z Z


Example
A simple power system consisting of one synchronous generator and one synchronous
motor connected by two transformers and a transmission line is shown in the following
Figure. Develop a per-phase, per unit equivalent system for this power system using a
base apparent power of 100 MVA and a base line voltage at generator G
1
of 13.8 kV.


Solution:

kV 8 . 13
base,1
= V
Region 1
kV 110
kV 8 . 13
kV 110
base,1 base,2
= |
.
|

\
|
=V V
Region 2
kV 2 . 13
kV 120
kV 4 . 14
base,2 base,3
= |
.
|

\
|
= V V
Region 3

The corresponding base impedances in each region are:

( )
( )
Ω = = = 904 . 1
MVA 100
kV 8 . 13
2
base 3φφ
2
base L,
base,1
S
V
Z
Region 1
( )
( )
Ω = = = 121
MVA 100
kV 110
2
base 3φφ
2
base L,
base,2
S
V
Z
Region 2
1 2
Load A
G
1
rating:
100 MVA
13.8 kV
R = 0.1 pu
X
S
=0.9 pu
T
1
ratings:
100 MVA
13.8/110 kV
R = 0.01 pu
X=0.05 pu
L
1

R=15Ω
X=75Ω
T
2
ratings:
50 MVA
120/14.4 kV
R = 0.01 pu
X=0.05 pu
M rating
50 MVA
13.8 kV
R = 0.1 pu
X
2
=1.1 pu
Region 1 Region 2 Region 3
( )
( )
Ω = = = 743 . 1
MVA 100
kV 2 . 13
2
base 3φφ
2
base L,
base,3
S
V
Z
Region 3

unit per 05 . 0
unit per 01 . 0
unit per 9 . 0
unit per 1 . 0
pu T1,
pu T1,
pu G1,
pu G1,
=
=
=
=
X
R
X
R


unit per 620 . 0
121
75
unit per 124 . 0
121
15
system line,
system line,
= |
.
|

\
|


=
= |
.
|

\
|


=
X
R


|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
− = −
given
new
2
new
given
given new
V
V
unit per unit Per
S
S
Z Z

( )
( ) unit per 119 . 0
MA 50
MA 100
kV 2 . 13
kV 4 . 14
05 . 0
unit per 238 . 0
MA 50
MA 100
kV 2 . 13
kV 4 . 14
01 . 0
2
pu T2,
2
pu T2,
= |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
= |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
X
R



|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
− = −
given
new
2
new
given
given new
V
V
unit per unit Per
S
S
Z Z

( )
( ) unit per 405 . 2
MA 50
MA 100
kV 2 . 13
kV 8 . 13
05 . 0
unit per 219 . 0
MA 50
MA 100
kV 2 . 13
kV 8 . 13
01 . 0
2
pu M2,
2
pu M2,
= |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
= |
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
X
R



Per-phase, per unit equivalent circuit of the simple power system.



Writing Node Equations for Equivalent Circuit

Once the per-phase, per unit equivalent circuit of a power system is created, it may be
used to find the voltages, currents, and powers present at various points in a power
system. The most common technique used to solve such circuits is nodal analysis. In
nodal analysis, we use Kirchhoff’s current law equations to determine the voltages at
each node (each bus) in the power system, and then using the resulting voltages to
calculate the currents and power flows at various points in the power system, and then
use the resulting voltages to calculate the currents and power flows at various points in
the system.Consider the following simple three-phase power system containing three
busses connected by three transmission lines. The system includes a generator connected
to bus 1, a load connected to bus 2, and a motor connected to bus 3.

+
-

+
-
G
1
M
2

0.01 + j0.05 pu
0.1 + j0.9 pu
0.124 + j0.62 pu 0.023 + j0.119 pu
0.219 + j2.405 pu

A simple three-phase power system









G
1
M
3

Line 1
Line 2 Line 3
T
1
T
2
T
3

T
4

T
5
T
6
Load 2


Sum of currents out of a node = sum of currents into the node
Apply KCL on node 1
( ) ( )
1 1 3 1 2 1
I V V V V V = + − + −
d b a
Y Y Y
Apply KCL on node 2
( ) ( )
2 2 3 2 1 2
I V V V V V = + − + −
e c a
Y Y Y
Apply KCL on node 3
( ) ( )
3 3 2 3 1 3
I V V V V V = + − + −
f c b
Y Y Y
Rearrange these equations to collect the terms in each voltage
( )
( )
( )
3 3 2 1
2 3 2 1
1 3 2 1
I V V _ V _
I V _ V V
I V V V
= + + +
= + + + −
= − − + +
f c b c b
c e c a a
b a d b a
Y Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y Y

The above equation can be expressed in matrix form

=

+ + −
+ + −
+ +
3
2
1
3
2
1

I
I
I
V
V
V


- -
f c b c a
c e c a a
b a d b a
Y Y Y -Y Y
-Y Y Y Y Y
Y Y Y Y Y

This equation is of the form
I V Y
bus
=
Where Y
bus
is the self admittance of a system.





Y
a
Y
c
Y
b
Y
d

I
1

V
1

1
Y
e
I
2

V
3

V
2

2
3
n
I
3

Y
f

There are many ways for solving systems of simultaneous linear equations, such as
substitution, Gaussian elimination, LU factorization, and so forth! For us, MATLAB has
very efficient equation solvers built directly into it! If a system of n simultaneous linear
equations in n unknowns can be expressed in the form:

b Ax =

Where A is n × n matrix, and b is a n-element column vector. It may be expressed as

b A x
1 −
=

Where A
-1
is the inverse of a matrix!

and then using the power system base impedance to convert the value on ohms to per unit on the new base.8 kV )2 = 1.4 kV R = 0.1 pu Solution: Vbase.base ) S 3φφ base S3φφbase 100 MVA 2 Region 1 Region 2 = (110 kV )2 100 MVA = 121 Ω .904 Ω (VL.8 kV.2   = 13. Region 1 Region 2 Region 3 1 2 L1 R=15Ω X=75Ω G1 rating: 100 MVA 13.8 kV  110 kV  Vbase.2 = Vbase.8 kV   14.3 = Vbase.1 = 13. Alternatively.01 pu X=0.9 pu T1 ratings: 100 MVA 13.8/110 kV R = 0.1   = 110 kV  13. per unit equivalent system for this power system using a base apparent power of 100 MVA and a base line voltage at generator G1 of 13.4 kV  Vbase.2 = (VL.1 pu XS=0.01 pu X=0. we may combine the two steps into a single equation:  Vgiven Per − unit Z new = per − unit Z given  V  new     2  S new   S given      Example A simple power system consisting of one synchronous generator and one synchronous motor connected by two transformers and a transmission line is shown in the following Figure.05 pu Load A M rating 50 MVA 13.2 kV  120 kV  Region 1 Region 2 Region 3 The corresponding base impedances in each region are: Z base.8 kV R = 0.05 pu T2 ratings: 50 MVA 120/14.1 = Z base. Develop a per-phase.base )2 = (13.8 kV R = 0.1 pu X2=1.

405 per unit  13.05)     = 0.05)     = 2.01 per unit X T1.119 per unit  13.219 per unit  13.124 per unit  121 Ω   75 Ω  X line.238 per unit  13.743 Ω S 3φφ base 100 MVA Region 3 RG1.2 kV   50 MA  2 Per − unit Z new  Vgiven = per − unit Z given  V  new 2     2  S new   S given       13.Z base.1 per unit X G1.01)     = 0.4 kV   100 MA  RT2.8 kV   100 MA  X M2.9 per unit RT1.4 kV   100 MA  X T2. pu = (0. pu = (0.2 kV )2 = 1. pu = 0. pu = 0. system =   = 0.05 per unit  15 Ω  Rline.2 kV   50 MA   14. pu = (0.base )2 = (13.2 kV   50 MA  2 .01)     = 0. pu = (0.620 per unit  121 Ω   Vgiven Per − unit Z new = per − unit Z given  V  new 2     2  S new   S given       14. system =   = 0. pu = 0.8 kV   100 MA  RM2. pu = 0.2 kV   50 MA   13.3 = (VL.

1 + j0.05 pu 0. currents.0.9 pu 0. and then use the resulting voltages to calculate the currents and power flows at various points in the system. and then using the resulting voltages to calculate the currents and power flows at various points in the power system.124 + j0. a load connected to bus 2. . Writing Node Equations for Equivalent Circuit Once the per-phase.62 pu 0.01 + j0.119 pu 0.Consider the following simple three-phase power system containing three busses connected by three transmission lines.405 pu + - G1 M2 + - Per-phase. In nodal analysis. per unit equivalent circuit of a power system is created. The most common technique used to solve such circuits is nodal analysis. and powers present at various points in a power system. The system includes a generator connected to bus 1. it may be used to find the voltages. we use Kirchhoff’s current law equations to determine the voltages at each node (each bus) in the power system.023 + j0.219 + j2. and a motor connected to bus 3. per unit equivalent circuit of the simple power system.

Line 1 T1 G1 T2 M3 Line 2 Line 3 T3 T4 T6 T5 Load 2 A simple three-phase power system .

Yb 1 Ya Yc 3 I1 Yd V1 2 V2 I2 Ye V3 Yf I3 n Sum of currents out of a node = sum of currents into the node Apply KCL on node 1 (V1 − V2 ) Ya + (V1 − V3 ) Yb + V1Yd Apply KCL on node 2 Apply KCL on node 3 = I1 (V2 − V1 ) Ya + (V2 − V3 ) Yc + V2Ye = I 2 (V3 − V1 ) Yb + (V3 − V2 ) Yc + V3Y f = I3 Rearrange these equations to collect the terms in each voltage (Ya + Yb + Yd ) V1 − Ya V2 − Yb V3 = I1 − Ya V1 + (Ya + Yc + Ye ) V2 _ Yc V3 = I 2 _ Yb V1 _ Yc V2 + Yb + Yc + Y f V3 = I 3 ( ) The above equation can be expressed in matrix form Ya + Yb + Yd   − Ya  −Y a  .Ya Ya + Yc + Ye -Yc  V1  I1      -Yc  V2  = I 2  Yb + Yc + Y f  V3  I3      .Yb This equation is of the form Ybus V = I Where Ybus is the self admittance of a system. .

and so forth! For us. LU factorization. It may be expressed as x = A−1b Where A-1 is the inverse of a matrix! . Gaussian elimination.There are many ways for solving systems of simultaneous linear equations. MATLAB has very efficient equation solvers built directly into it! If a system of n simultaneous linear equations in n unknowns can be expressed in the form: Ax = b Where A is n × n matrix. and b is a n-element column vector. such as substitution.

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