© All Rights Reserved

36 views

© All Rights Reserved

- Robust Linear Parameter-Varying Control of Air-breathing Hypersonic Vehicle Considering Input Constraints _IEEE
- Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
- P. Karasudhi Foundations of Solid Mechanic
- Principal Component Analysis Primer
- Product Bases and Endomorphisms of Products of Integers
- Head Box
- Triangulation(2)
- 129097905-Engineering-Mathematics.pdf
- MATLAB Tutorial
- 22_3_rptd_eigen_vals_symm_mtrx.pdf
- Modal Analysis of Rotating Structures
- Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers and Analytic Hierarchy Process for Project Selection
- Lec1_27
- Yearly Lesson Plan Mathematics Form5 2017
- Maths Lecture Notes 2015 16
- Matrix Practice questions
- Matlab Cheatsheet
- LABORATORY Manual Numerical Analysis (1)
- On the Schur Complement Form of the Dirichlet-To-Neumann Operator
- c08s5

You are on page 1of 11

mathematics, science and engineering. A matrix (plural matrices,

or less commonly matrixes) is a rectangular array of numbers called

entries. Matrices have a long history of both study and application,

leading to diverse ways of classifying matrices. A first group is

matrices satisfying concrete conditions of the entries, including

constant matrices. An important example is the identity matrix

given by

subsets of each other.

Further ways of classifying matrices are according to their eigenvalues or by imposing conditions on the

product of the matrix with other matrices. Finally, many domains, both in mathematics and other sciences

including physics and chemistry have particular matrices that are applied chiefly in these areas.

Contents

1 Matrices with explicitly constrained entries

1.1 Constant matrices

2 Matrices with conditions on eigenvalues or eigenvectors

3 Matrices satisfying conditions on products or inverses

4 Matrices with specific applications

5 Matrices used in statistics

6 Matrices used in graph theory

7 Matrices used in science and engineering

8 Other matrix-related terms and definitions

9 See also

10 Notes

11 References

The following lists matrices whose entries are subject to certain conditions. Many of them apply to square

matrices only, that is matrices with the same number of columns and rows. The main diagonal of a square

matrix is the diagonal joining the upper left corner and the lower right one or equivalently the entries ai,i. The

other diagonal is called anti-diagonal (or counter-diagonal).

Name Explanation Notes, References

(0,1)-matrix A matrix with all elements either 0 or 1.

and logical matrix.

Alternant matrix

applied to their entries.

Anti-diagonal A square matrix with all entries off the anti-diagonal equal to

matrix zero.

Anti-Hermitian

Synonym for skew-Hermitian matrix.

matrix

Anti-symmetric

Synonym for skew-symmetric matrix.

matrix

Arrowhead A square matrix containing zeros in all entries except for the first

matrix row, first column, and main diagonal.

Band matrix

diagonal band.

Bidiagonal A matrix with elements only on the main diagonal and either the

Sometimes defined differently, see article.

matrix superdiagonal or subdiagonal.

Binary matrix A matrix whose entries are all either 0 or 1.

or logical matrix.[1]

matrix diagonal and its main cross-diagonal.

Block-diagonal

A block matrix with entries only on the diagonal.

matrix

Block tridiagonal A block matrix which is essentially a tridiagonal matrix but with

matrix submatrices in place of scalar elements

Boolean matrix A matrix whose entries are all either 0 or 1.

logical matrix.

A matrix whose elements are of the form 1/(xi + yj) for (xi), (yj)

Cauchy matrix

injective sequences (i.e., taking every value only once).

Centrosymmetric

A matrix symmetric about its center; i.e.,aij = ani+1,nj+1

matrix

matrix diagonal, such that CTC is a multiple of the identity matrix.

Complex

A matrix with all rows and columns mutually orthogonal, whose

Hadamard

entries are unimodular.

matrix

matrix is nonnegative for every nonnegative vectorx

Diagonally

|aii| > ji |aij|.

dominant matrix

Diagonal matrix

to zero.

Discrete Fourier

Transform Multiplying by a vector gives the DFT of the vector as result.

Matrix

matrix operation to the identity matrix.

Equivalent A matrix that can be derived from another matrix through a

matrix sequence of elementary row or column operations.

Frobenius matrix

arbitrary entries in one column below the main diagonal.

Generalized

A square matrix with precisely one nonzero element in each row

permutation

and column.

matrix

Hadamard A square matrix with entries +1, 1 whose rows are mutually

matrix orthogonal.

Hankel matrix A square Hankel matrix is symmetric.

Toeplitz matrix.

Hermitian matrix

A*.

g

matrix matrix has zero entries below the first subdiagonal.

Hollow matrix

elements.

Logical matrix A matrix with all entries either 0 or 1. Boolean matrix. Can be used to represent a

k-adic relation.

Markov matrix

each row sum to 1.

Monomial A square matrix with exactly one non-zero entry in each row and Synonym for generalized permutation

matrix column. matrix.

A row consists of a, aq, aq, etc., and each row uses a different

Moore matrix

variable.

Nonnegative

A matrix with all nonnegative entries.

matrix

, a matrix

Synonym for block matrix.

matrix whose entries are themselves matrices rather than scalars

In theory of spin-glasses is also known as a

Parisi matrix along the diagonal, each block is itself a Parisi matrix of a

replica matrix.

smaller size.

Pentadiagonal A matrix with the only nonzero entries on the main diagonal and

matrix the two diagonals just above and below the main one.

matrix exactly one 1 in each row and column, and all other elements 0.

matrix diagonal, i.e., aij = anj+1,ni+1

Polynomial

A matrix whose entries arepolynomials.

matrix

Quaternionic

A matrix whose entries arequaternions.

matrix

Signature matrix A diagonal matrix where the diagonal elements are either +1 or

1.

Single-entry A matrix where a single element is one and the rest of the

matrix elements are zero.

matrix transpose, A* = A.

Skew-symmetric

A matrix which is equal to the negative of itstranspose, AT = A.

matrix

Skyline matrix

less space.

Sparse matrix A matrix with relatively few non-zero elements. sparse matrices that are utterly impractical

for dense matrix algorithms.

A square matrix whose entries come from coefficients of two

Sylvester matrix only if the two polynomials arecoprime to

polynomials.

each other.

matrix aj,i).

A matrix with all entries above the main diagonal equal to zero

Triangular

(lower triangular) or with all entries below the main diagonal

matrix

equal to zero (upper triangular).

Tridiagonal A matrix with the only nonzero entries on the main diagonal and

matrix the diagonals just above and below the main one.

matrix variable.

Walsh matrix which are +1 or -1, and the property that the dot product of any

two distinct rows (or columns) is zero.

Constant matrices

The list below comprises matrices whose elements are constant for any given dimension (size) of matrix. The

matrix entries will be denoted aij. The table below uses the Kronecker delta ij for two integers i and j which is

1 if i = j and 0 else.

Symbolic

Name Explanation description of Notes

the entries

Exchange matrix aij = n + 1 i,j

everywhere else. matrix.

Identity matrix aij = ij

equal to 1, and the rest 0

Lehmer matrix

max(i,j). symmetric matrix.

Pauli matrices combined with the I2 identity matrix, they form an orthogonal basis

for the 2 2 complex Hermitian matrices.

aij are 1 if i

divides j or if j =

Redheffer matrix A (0, 1)-matrix.

1; otherwise, aij

= 0.

Multiplication by it

A matrix with ones on the superdiagonal or subdiagonal and zeroes aij = i+1,j or aij shifts matrix

Shift matrix

elsewhere. = i1,j elements by one

position.

Name Explanation Notes

Companion

A matrix whose eigenvalues are equal to the roots of the polynomial.

matrix

A square matrix whose successive powers approach thezero matrix.

matrix than one.

Defective A square matrix that does not have a complete basis ofeigenvectors,

matrix and is thus not diagonalisable.

Diagonalizable

A square matrix similar to a diagonal matrix. set of linearly independent

matrix

eigenvectors.

Hurwitz

system of differential equations may be represented by a Hurwitz

matrix

matrix.

Positive-

A Hermitian matrix with every eigenvalue positive.

definite matrix

Stability

Synonym for Hurwitz matrix.

matrix

f-diagonal

Special case of an M-matrix.

matrix entries.

A number of matrix-related notions is about properties of products or inverses of the given matrix. The matrix

product of a m-by-n matrix A and a n-by-k matrix B is the m-by-k matrix C given by

This matrix product is denoted AB. Unlike the product of numbers, matrix products are not commutative, that is

to say AB need not be equal to BA. A number of notions are concerned with the failure of this commutativity.

An inverse of square matrix A is a matrix B (necessarily of the same dimension as A) such that AB = I.

Equivalently, BA = I. An inverse need not exist. If it exists, B is uniquely determined, and is also called the

inverse of A, denoted A1.

Name Explanation Notes

Circular matrix

or A matrix whose inverse is equal to its entrywise complex conjugate:

Compare with unitary matrices.

Coninvolutory A1 = A.

matrix

Congruent Two matrices A and B are congruent if there exists an invertible matrix

Compare with similar matrices.

matrix P such that PT A P = B.

Idempotent from the observation of projection of a

matrix or point multiple

A matrix that has the propertyA = AA = A.

Projection times onto a subspace(plane or a line)

Matrix giving the same result asone

projection.

Invertible A square matrix having a multiplicativeinverse, that is, a matrix B Invertible matrices form thegeneral

matrix such that AB = BA = I. linear group.

Matrices (Also known as 'reflection

Involutory

A square matrix which is its own inverse, i.e.,AA = I. matrices'

matrix

to reflect a point about a plane or line)

have this property.

Nilpotent matrix A square matrix satisfyingAq = 0 for some positive integerq.

is 0.

A square matrix that commutes with itsconjugate transpose: AA = They are the matrices to which the

Normal matrix

AA spectral theorem applies.

Orthogonal

A matrix whose inverse is equal to itstranspose, A1 = AT. They form the orthogonal group.

matrix

Orthonormal

A matrix whose columns areorthonormal vectors.

matrix

An invertible matrix with entries in the integers integer

( matrix)

matrix 1.

A square matrix with all eigenvalues equal to 1.

matrix also unipotent group.

Unitary matrix

= A*.

unimodular unimodular. This has some implications in thelinear programming

matrix relaxation of an integer program.

Weighing A square matrix the entries of which are in{0, 1, 1}, such that AAT =

matrix wI for some positive integerw.

Name Explanation Used in Notes

The matrix containingminors of a given square matrix.

matrix Laplace's formula.

Alternating Dodgson condensationto calculate

the sum of each row and column is 1 and the nonzero

sign matrix determinants

entries in each row and column alternate in sign.

Calculating inverse matrices.

matrix two smaller matrices.

Bzout matrix Control theory, Stable polynomials

efficient location of polynomial zeros

matrix multiplication of matrices.

Cartan matrix associative algebra, or a semisimple Lie algebra(the

two meanings are distinct).

Circulant A matrix where each row is a circular shift of its System of linear equations, discrete

matrix predecessor. Fourier transform

Cofactor matrix

given matrix.

matrix a matrix into the vectorized form of its transpose.

Coxeter matrix

symmetries in a structure or system.

matrix less than n.

See also

A square matrix containing the distances, taken Euclidean

Distance matrix Computer vision, network analysis.

pairwise, of a set of points. distance

matrix.

matrix half-vectorizations of matrices intovectorizations.

matrix vectorizations of matrices into half-vectorizations.

See also

Euclidean A matrix that describes the pairwise distances between

distance

distance matrix points in Euclidean space.

matrix.

Fundamental

matrix (linear A matrix containing the fundamental solutions of a

differential linear ordinary differential equation.

equation)

Coding theory

matrix code.

They are

A matrix containing the pairwise angles of given Test linear independence of vectors,

Gramian matrix real

vectors in an inner product space. including ones in function spaces.

symmetric.

A square matrix of second partial derivativesof a scalar-valued functions in several

Hessian matrix

scalar-valued function. variables; Blob detection (computer

vision)

matrix algorithms.

A matrix of first-order partial derivatives of a vector

- Implicit function theorem; Smooth

Jacobian matrix

valued function. morphisms (algebraic geometry).

Moment matrix Sum-of-squares optimization.

of common row/column index dependentmonomials.

Payoff matrix represents the payoffs in a normal form game where

players move simultaneously

Pick matrix

interpolation problems.

Random matrix

from some specified random distribution.

Rotation matrix Special orthogonal group, Euler angles

transformation.

Seifert matrix Alexander polynomial

analysis of topological properties of knots and links.

Shear matrix

transformation is a shear transformation.

Sequence alignment

matrix between two data points.

Symplectic group, symplectic manifold.

matrix form.

Totally positive A matrix with determinants of all its square Generating the reference points ofBzier

matrix submatrices positive. curve in computer graphics.

Transformation

from one co-ordinate space to another to facilitate a

matrix

geometric transform or projection.

Analysis of matrix decompositions

matrix for rank-reduction & biconjugate decompositions

X-Y-Z matrix

cuboidal form (a 3-dimensional array of entries).

The following matrices find their main application in statistics and probability theory.

Bernoulli matrix a square matrix with entries +1, 1, with equal probability of each.

Centering matrix a matrix which, when multiplied with a vector, has the same effect as subtracting the

mean of the components of the vector from every component.

Correlation matrix a symmetric nn matrix, formed by the pairwise correlation coefficients of several

random variables.

Covariance matrix a symmetric nn matrix, formed by the pairwise covariances of several random

variables. Sometimes called a dispersion matrix.

Dispersion matrix another name for a covariance matrix.

Doubly stochastic matrix a non-negative matrix such that each row and each column sums to 1 (thus

the matrix is both left stochastic and right stochastic)

Fisher information matrix a matrix representing the variance of the partial derivative, with respect to a

parameter, of the log of the likelihood function of a random variable.

Hat matrix - a square matrix used in statistics to relate fitted values to observed values.

Precision matrix a symmetric nn matrix, formed by inverting the covariance matrix. Also called the

information matrix.

Stochastic matrix a non-negative matrix describing a stochastic process. The sum of entries of any

row is one.

Transition matrix a matrix representing the probabilities of conditions changing from one state to

another in a Markov chain

The following matrices find their main application in graph and network theory.

Adjacency matrix a square matrix representing a graph, with aij non-zero if vertex i and vertex j are

adjacent.

Biadjacency matrix a special class of adjacency matrix that describes adjacency in bipartite graphs.

Degree matrix a diagonal matrix defining the degree of each vertex in a graph.

Edmonds matrix a square matrix of a bipartite graph.

Incidence matrix a matrix representing a relationship between two classes of objects (usually vertices

and edges in the context of graph theory).

Laplacian matrix a matrix equal to the degree matrix minus the adjacency matrix for a graph, used to

find the number of spanning trees in the graph.

Seidel adjacency matrix a matrix similar to the usual adjacency matrix but with 1 for adjacency; +1

for nonadjacency; 0 on the diagonal.

Skew-adjacency matrix an adjacency matrix in which each non-zero aij is 1 or 1, accordingly as the

direction i j matches or opposes that of an initially specified orientation.

Tutte matrix a generalisation of the Edmonds matrix for a balanced bipartite graph.

Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix a unitary matrix used in particle physics to describe the strength

of flavour-changing weak decays.

Density matrix a matrix describing the statistical state of a quantum system. Hermitian, non-negative

and with trace 1.

Fundamental matrix (computer vision) a 3 3 matrix in computer vision that relates corresponding

points in stereo images.

Fuzzy associative matrix a matrix in artificial intelligence, used in machine learning processes.

Gamma matrices 4 4 matrices in quantum field theory.

Gell-Mann matrices a generalisation of the Pauli matrices; these matrices are one notable

representation of the infinitesimal generators of the special unitary group SU(3).

Hamiltonian matrix a matrix used in a variety of fields, including quantum mechanics and linear-

quadratic regulator (LQR) systems.

Irregular matrix a matrix used in computer science which has a varying number of elements in each

row.

Overlap matrix a type of Gramian matrix, used in quantum chemistry to describe the inter-relationship

of a set of basis vectors of a quantum system.

S matrix a matrix in quantum mechanics that connects asymptotic (infinite past and future) particle

states.

State transition matrix Exponent of state matrix in control systems.

Substitution matrix a matrix from bioinformatics, which describes mutation rates of amino acid or

DNA sequences.

Z-matrix a matrix in chemistry, representing a molecule in terms of its relative atomic geometry.

Jordan canonical form an 'almost' diagonalised matrix, where the only non-zero elements appear on

the lead and super-diagonals.

Linear independence two or more vectors are linearly independent if there is no way to construct one

from linear combinations of the others.

Matrix exponential defined by the exponential series.

Matrix representation of conic sections

Pseudoinverse a generalization of the inverse matrix.

Quaternionic matrix - matrix using quaternions as numbers

Row echelon form a matrix in this form is the result of applying the forward elimination procedure to

a matrix (as used in Gaussian elimination).

Wronskian the determinant of a matrix of functions and their derivatives such that row n is the (n-1)th

derivative of row one.

See also

Perfect matrix

Notes

1. Hogben 2006, Ch. 31.3

References

Hogben, Leslie (2006), Handbook of Linear Algebra (Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications), Boca

Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC, ISBN 978-1-58488-510-8

Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may

apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia is a registered

trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.

- Robust Linear Parameter-Varying Control of Air-breathing Hypersonic Vehicle Considering Input Constraints _IEEEUploaded byP_lee
- Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors - Wikipedia, The Free EncyclopediaUploaded bybmxengineering
- P. Karasudhi Foundations of Solid MechanicUploaded bySuraparb Keawsawasvong
- Principal Component Analysis PrimerUploaded byAri David Paul
- Product Bases and Endomorphisms of Products of IntegersUploaded byE Frank Cornelius
- Head BoxUploaded bytsvmpm1765
- Triangulation(2)Uploaded byAlan Badillo Salas
- 129097905-Engineering-Mathematics.pdfUploaded byGowsigan Adhimoolam
- MATLAB TutorialUploaded byAditya Gupta
- 22_3_rptd_eigen_vals_symm_mtrx.pdfUploaded byVaibhav Gupta
- Modal Analysis of Rotating StructuresUploaded bymatteo_1234
- Single Valued Neutrosophic Numbers and Analytic Hierarchy Process for Project SelectionUploaded byMia Amalia
- Lec1_27Uploaded byjuncos0729
- Yearly Lesson Plan Mathematics Form5 2017Uploaded byzamzandra
- Maths Lecture Notes 2015 16Uploaded byLuis Aragonés Ferri
- Matrix Practice questionsUploaded byeliotwint
- Matlab CheatsheetUploaded byRaja Swaidan
- LABORATORY Manual Numerical Analysis (1)Uploaded byHammad Fazal
- On the Schur Complement Form of the Dirichlet-To-Neumann OperatorUploaded bythgnguyen
- c08s5Uploaded bysteve4775
- determinantsUploaded byshashin17
- chap6q.pdfUploaded bySarthi G
- Lecture_04_OCLS.pdfUploaded byKoustav Yacha
- LA_Lectures-4-5.pdfUploaded bySarit Burman
- Eigenvalue execution wizard guideUploaded byZhao Ruidi
- FNS.pdfUploaded byHenry Duna
- mod-matrUploaded byChethan_Srinivas2404
- cim2Uploaded byArunsankar Nahoorpitchiah
- 11-03130_2964-2972_Uploaded byJoel Morales Perez
- Advance MathUploaded byRaine Lopez

- complemented lattice.pdfUploaded bymars
- Critical Point (Set Theory)Uploaded bymars
- Compact ElementUploaded bymars
- Ultra FilterUploaded bymars
- Path (Graph Theory)Uploaded bymars
- Zermeloâ€“Fraenkel set theoryUploaded bymars
- Zermelo Fraenkel set theory_2.pdfUploaded bymars
- Transitive SetUploaded bymars
- Variety (universal algebra).pdfUploaded bymars
- Set (Mathematics)Uploaded bymars
- Restriction (Mathematics)Uploaded bymars
- Symmetric relations.pdfUploaded bymars
- Reflexive RelationsUploaded bymars
- Set-builder_notation.pdfUploaded bymars
- Restriction_(mathematics).pdfUploaded bymars
- Prenex Normal FormUploaded bymars
- Power_setUploaded bymars
- Quantifier (logic).pdfUploaded bymars
- Matroid aUploaded bymars
- Monotonic FunctionUploaded bymars
- Path_(graph_theory).pdfUploaded bymars
- Mathematical RelationsUploaded bymars
- Local FieldUploaded bymars
- List of mathematical jargon.pdfUploaded bymars
- Measure (mathematics) 1.pdfUploaded bymars
- List of Mathematical JargonUploaded bymars
- List of Large Cardinal PropertiesUploaded bymars
- Local field.pdfUploaded bymars
- Lattice (Order)Uploaded bymars
- IsomorphismUploaded bymars

- matlab-bUploaded byMannath Sungar
- 462 NotesUploaded byJhonny Corregidor
- Class XI Math Question 2011 the CollegiateUploaded bySyed Noaman
- Math t AssignmentUploaded byNurul Ain Kassim
- L031 the Matrix MenusUploaded byJulián Kaihara
- studmaxxUploaded byAnchit Gupta
- Handbook for Mechanical EngineeringUploaded byABIN
- Kumar Me Maths e MaterialsUploaded bysudhakar80
- Solution of Discretized EquationsUploaded bySandeep Kadam
- 07042317Uploaded byNusrat Hussain Fatema
- LabVIEW%20MathScriptUploaded byKemal Maulana Alhasa
- Eigen Values and Eigen Vectors GATE Study Material in PDF 1Uploaded byNeelJitsu
- Metode Numerice in CUploaded byleonardf
- 38th IMO 1997-FIXUploaded byGuffran septiahadi
- Ordination 10-11 TextUploaded bynndumia
- 8 Sistem Persamaan Linier SPLUploaded byIgor M Farhan
- Linear algebra ma106 iitbUploaded byAritra Lahiri
- 107B Numerical & Statistical MethodsUploaded bygowtham1990
- Diagonal IzationUploaded byorg25gr
- SVD_application_paper[1].pdfUploaded byAsva Abadila
- eee formula sheetUploaded byNaveen Kumar
- Lecture1 Notes EE543a 2009Uploaded bytrashmails
- 1445009365Krash_Sample.pdfUploaded byJagan Rampalli
- Math 15-1 week 1Uploaded byIan William De Las Alas
- 2003 Iterative Krylov Methods for Large Linear SystemsUploaded byMarcos Silva Montelo
- SF_THEORUploaded byriefsaldy
- Brownian MotionUploaded byTU
- Sparse Matrix SolutionUploaded byRonaldo Anticona Guillen
- BLOCK DECOUPLINGUploaded byhaggag83
- practicalUploaded byAlvaro