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en.wikipedia.org

Chapter 1

Ackermanns formula

Ackermanns formula is a control system design method for solving the pole allocation problem. One of the primary

problems in control system design is to create controllers that will alter the dynamics of a system and take the poles

to a more suitable, sometimes more stable, state. Such a problem can be tackled by many dierent methods; one

such solution is the addition of a feedback loop in such a way that a gain is added to the input with which one can

change the poles of the original system. If the system is controllable, an ecient method for pole placement is the

Ackermanns formula, which will allow us to choose arbitrary poles to our system. [1][2]

Consider a linear time invariant system[3] with a state-space representation

y(t) = Cx(t)

where x(t) is the state vector, u(t) is the input vector, and A, B, C are matrices of compatible dimensions that

represent the dynamics of our system, and for simplicitys sake, assume D = 0 . An input-output description of this

system is given by the transfer function

Adj(sI A)

C(sI A)1 B = C B.

det(sI A)

det(sIA) , the denominator of the system is given by the characteristic polynomial of A . Thus,

the poles of the system are the eigenvalues of A .

If the system is unstable, or if it has a slow response or any other characteristic that does not specify the design

criteria, it could be advantageous to make changes to it. The realization given by {A, B, C} , however, represents

the dynamics of our system, and sometimes cannot be altered. Thus one approach to this problem might be to create

a feedback loop with a gain K that will feed the state variable into the input.

If the system is controllable, there is always an input u(t) such that any state x0 can be transferred to any other state

x(t) . With that in mind, a feedback loop can be added to the system with the control input u(t) = r(t) Kx(t) ,

such that the new dynamics of the system will be

y(t) = Cx(t).

2

1.2. ACKERMANNS FORMULA 3

In this new realization, the poles will be dependent on the characteristic polynomial new of A + BK , that is

Computing the characteristic polynomial and choosing a suitable feedback matrix can be a challenging task, especially

in larger systems. One way to make computations easier is through Ackermanns formula. For simplicitys sake, we

will consider a single input vector with no reference parameter r , such as

u(t) = k T x(t)

where k T is a feedback vector of compatible dimensions. Given that the system is still controllable, Ackermanns

method states that the design process can be simplied by the following equation:

k T = [0 0 0 1] C 1 new (A),

1.2.1 Proof

[4]

Assume that the system is controllable. Dening ACL := (A Bk T ) , we have

n1

(ACL ) = (ACL )n + k Ak1

CL

k=0

(ACL )0 = (A Bk T )0 = I

(ACL )1 = (A Bk T )1 = A Bk T

(ACL )2 = (ABk T )2 = A2 ABk T Bk T A+(Bk T )2 = A2 ABk T (Bk T )[A+Bk T ] = A2 ABk T Bk T ACL

(ACL )n = (A Bk T )n = An An1 Bk T An2 Bk T ACL Bk T An1

CL

n1

)+ +2 (A2 ABk T Bk T ACL )+1 (ABk T )+0

(ACL ) = (An +n1 An1 + +2 A2 +1 A+0 I)(An1 Bk T +An2 Bk T ACL + +Bk T An1

CL )+ +2 (ABk +Bk A

T T

CL )+ +2 (ABk +Bk ACL )+1 (A+Bk )

T T T

Rewriting the above equation as a matrix product and omitting the terms that k T does not appear isolated gives

4 CHAPTER 1. ACKERMANNS FORMULA

[ ]

[ ] ..

(ACL ) = (A) B AB An1 B .

kT

From the CayleyHamilton theorem, we have that (ACL ) = 0 , thus

[ ]

[ ] ..

B AB A n1

B . = (A)

kT

[ ]

Note that C = B AB An1 B is the controllability matrix of the system. Since the system is controllable, C

is invertible. Thus,

[ ]

..

. = C 1 (A)

kT

[ ]

We only want to nd k T , thus we can multiply both sides by the vector 0 0 0 1 . This yields

[ ]

[ ] .. [ ]

0 0 0 1 . = 0 0 0 1 C 1 (A)

kT

Thus,

[ ]

kT = 0 0 0 1 C 1 (A)

1.3 Example

Consider[5]

[ ] [ ]

1 1 1

x = x+ u

1 2 0

We know from the characteristic polynomial of A that the system is unstable: since det(sI A) = (s 1)(s 2)

,[ the matrix] A will only have positive eigenvalues. Thus, to stabilize the system we shall put a feedback gain K =

k1 k2 .

From Ackermanns formula, we can nd a matrix k that will change the system so that its characteristic equation will

be equal to a desired polynomial. Suppose we want desired (s) = s2 + 11s + 30 .

Thus, desired (A) = A2 + 11A + 30I and computing the controllability matrix yields

[ ]

[ ] 1 1

C= B AB =

0 1

[ ]

1 1 1

C = .

0 1

[ ]

2 2 3

Also, we have that A = .

3 5

Finally, from Ackermanns formula

[ ] [[ ] [ ] ]

[ ] 1 1 2 3 1 1

kT = 0 1 + 11 + 30I

0 1 3 5 1 2

[ ][ ] [ ]

[ ] 1 1 43 14 [ ] 29 43

kT = 0 1 = 0 1

0 1 14 57 14 57

[ ]

kT = 14 57

1.4. REFERENCES 5

1.4 References

[1] Modern Control System Theory and Design, 2nd Edition by Stanley M. Shinners

[3] Control Systems/State Feedback - Wikibooks, open books for an open world. en.wikibooks.org. Retrieved 6 July 2017.

[5] Topic #13 : 16.31 Feedback Control (PDF). Web.mit.edu. Retrieved 2017-07-06.

Chapter 2

In the mathematical eld of category theory, an allegory is a category that has some of the structure of the category

of sets and binary relations between them. Allegories can be used as an abstraction of categories of relations, and in

this sense the theory of allegories is a generalization of relation algebra to relations between dierent sorts. Allegories

are also useful in dening and investigating certain constructions in category theory, such as exact completions.

In this article we adopt the convention that morphisms compose from right to left, so RS means rst do S, then do

R".

2.1 Denition

An allegory is a category in which

R = R and (RS) = SR; and

every pair of morphisms R,S : X Y with common domain/codomain is associated with an intersection, i.e.

a morphism RS : X Y

intersections are idempotent (RR = R), commutative (RS = SR), and associative (RS)T = R(ST);

anti-involution distributes over intersection ((RS) = SR);

composition is semi-distributive over intersection (R(ST)RSRT, (RS)TRTST); and

the modularity law is satised: (RST(RTS)S).

Here, we are abbreviating using the order dened by the intersection: "RS" means "R = RS".

A rst example of an allegory is the category of sets and relations. The objects of this allegory are sets, and a morphism

X Y is a binary relation between X and Y. Composition of morphisms is composition of relations; intersection of

morphisms is intersection of relations.

In a category C, a relation between objects X, Y is a span of morphisms XRY that is jointly-monic. Two such

spans XSY and XTY are considered equivalent when there is an isomorphism between S and T that make

everything commute, and strictly speaking relations are only dened up to equivalence (one may formalise this either

6

2.3. REFERENCES 7

using equivalence classes or using bicategories). If the category C has products, a relation between X and Y is the

same thing as a monomorphism into XY (or an equivalence class of such). In the presence of pullbacks and a proper

factorization system, one can dene the composition of relations. The composition of XRYSZ is found by

rst pulling back the cospan RYS and then taking the jointly-monic image of the resulting span XRSZ.

Composition of relations will be associative if the factorization system is appropriately stable. In this case one can

consider a category Rel(C), with the same objects as C, but where morphisms are relations between the objects. The

identity relations are the diagonals XXX.

Recall that a regular category is a category with nite limits and images in which covers are stable under pullback. A

regular category has a stable regular epi/mono factorization system. The category of relations for a regular category

is always an allegory. Anti-involution is dened by turning the source/target of the relation around, and intersections

are intersections of subobjects, computed by pullback.

A morphism R in an allegory A is called a map if it is entire (1RR) and deterministic (RR1). Another way of

saying this: a map is a morphism that has a right adjoint in A, when A is considered, using the local order structure,

as a 2-category. Maps in an allegory are closed under identity and composition. Thus there is a subcategory Map(A)

of A, with the same objects but only the maps as morphisms. For a regular category C, there is an isomorphism of

categories CMap(Rel(C)). In particular, a morphism in Map(Rel(Set)) is just an ordinary set function.

In an allegory, a morphism R:XY is tabulated by a pair of maps f:ZX, g:ZY if gf=R and ffgg=1. An

allegory is called tabular if every morphism has a tabulation. For a regular category C, the allegory Rel(C) is always

tabular. On the other hand, for any tabular allegory A, the category Map(A) of maps is a locally regular category: it

has pullbacks, equalizers and images that are stable under pullback. This is enough to study relations in Map(A) and,

in this setting, ARel(Map(A)).

A unit in an allegory is an object U for which the identity is the largest morphism UU, and such that from every

other object there is an entire relation to U. An allegory with a unit is called unital. Given a tabular allegory A, the

category Map(A) is a regular category (it has a terminal object) if and only if A is unital.

Additional properties of allegories can be axiomatized. Distributive allegories have a union-like operation that is

suitably well-behaved, and division allegories have a generalization of the division operation of relation algebra.

Power allegories are distributive division allegories with additional powerset-like structure. The connection between

allegories and regular categories can be developed into a connection between power allegories and toposes.

2.3 References

Peter Freyd, Andre Scedrov (1990). Categories, Allegories. Mathematical Library Vol 39. North-Holland.

ISBN 978-0-444-70368-2.

Peter Johnstone (2003). Sketches of an Elephant: A Topos Theory Compendium. Oxford Science Publications.

OUP. ISBN 0-19-852496-X.

Chapter 3

In mathematics, more specically in multilinear algebra, an alternating multilinear map is a multilinear map with

all arguments belonging to the same space (e.g., a bilinear form or a multilinear form) that is zero whenever any two

adjacent arguments are equal.

The notion of alternatization (or alternatisation in British English) is used to derive an alternating multilinear map

from any multilinear map with all arguments belonging to the same space.

3.1 Denition

A multilinear map of the form f : V n W is said to be alternating if f (x1 , . . . , xn ) = 0 whenever there exists

1 i n 1 such that xi = xi+1 . [1][2]

3.2 Example

In a Lie algebra, the multiplication is an alternating bilinear map called the Lie bracket.

3.3 Properties

If any distinct pair of components of an alternating multilinear map are equal, then such a map is zero:[1][3]

If the components of an alternating multilinear map are linearly dependent, then such a map is zero.

If any component xi of an alternating multilinear map is replaced by xi + c xj for any j i and c in the base ring

R, then the value of that map is not changed.[3]

If n! is a unit in the base ring R, then every antisymmetric n-multilinear form is alternating.

3.4 Alternatization

n n

Given a multilinear

g(x1 , . . . , xn ) := Sn sgn()f (x(1) , . . . , x(n) ) is said to be the alternatization of f .

Properties

8

3.5. SEE ALSO 9

The alternatization of a bilinear map is bilinear. Most notably, the alternatization of any cocycle is bilinear. This

fact plays a crucial role in identifying the second cohomology group of a lattice with the group of alternating

bilinear forms on a lattice.

Alternating algebra

Bilinear map

Exterior algebra Alternating multilinear forms

Map (mathematics)

Multilinear algebra

Multilinear map

Multilinear form

Symmetrization

3.6 Notes

[1] Lang 2002, pp. 511512.

3.7 References

Bourbaki, N. (2007). Elments de mathmatique. Algbre Chapitres 1 3 (reprint ed.). Springer.

Dummit, David S.; Foote, Richard M. (2004). Abstract Algebra (3rd ed.). Wiley.

Lang, Serge (2002). Algebra. Graduate Texts in Mathematics. 211 (revised 3rd ed.). Springer. ISBN 978-0-

387-95385-4. OCLC 48176673.

Rotman, Joseph J. (1995). An Introduction to the Theory of Groups. Graduate Texts in Mathematics. 148 (4th

ed.). Springer. ISBN 0-387-94285-8. OCLC 30028913.

Chapter 4

Bidirectional transformation

In computer programming, bidirectional transformations (bx) are programs in which a single piece of code can

be run in several ways, such that the same data are sometimes considered as input, and sometimes as output. For

example, a bx run in the forward direction might transform input I into output O, while the same bx run backward

would take as input versions of I and O and produce a new version of I as its output.

Bidirectional model transformations are an important special case in which a model is input to such a program.

Some bidirectional languages are bijective. The bijectivity of a language is a severe restriction of its bidirectionality,[1]

because a bijective language is merely relating two dierent ways to present the very same information.

More general is a lens language, in which there is a distinguished forward direction (get) that takes a concrete input

to an abstract output, discarding some information in the process: the concrete state includes all the information that

is in the abstract state, and usually some more. The backward direction (put) takes a concrete state and an abstract

state and computes a new concrete state. Lenses are required to obey certain conditions to ensure sensible behaviour.

The most general case is that of symmetric bidirectional transformations. Here the two states that are related typically

share some information, but each also includes some information that is not included in the other.

4.1 Usage

Bidirectional transformations can be used to:

Provide an 'abstract view' to easily manipulate data and write them back to their source

4.2 Vocabulary

A bidirectional program which obeys certain round-trip laws is called a lens.

Boomerang is a programming language which allows writing lenses to process text data formats bidirectionally

Augeas is a conguration management library whose lens language is inspired by the Boomerang project

10

4.4. SEE ALSO 11

Bidirectionalization

Reverse computation

4.5 References

[1] http://grace.gsdlab.org/images/e/e2/Nate-short.pdf

[2] http://www.cs.cornell.edu/~{}jnfoster/papers/grace-report.pdf

[3] http://arbre.is.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~{}hahosoya/papers/bixid.pdf

[4] http://www.brics.dk/xsugar/

GRACE International Meeting on Bidirectional Transformations

Chapter 5

Bijection

X Y

1 D

2 B

3 C

4 A

A bijective function, f: X Y, where set X is {1, 2, 3, 4} and set Y is {A, B, C, D}. For example, f(1) = D.

In mathematics, a bijection, bijective function or one-to-one correspondence is a function between the elements

of two sets, where each element of one set is paired with exactly one element of the other set, and each element of the

other set is paired with exactly one element of the rst set. There are no unpaired elements. In mathematical terms,

12

5.1. DEFINITION 13

a bijective function f: X Y is a one-to-one (injective) and onto (surjective) mapping of a set X to a set Y.

A bijection from the set X to the set Y has an inverse function from Y to X. If X and Y are nite sets, then the existence

of a bijection means they have the same number of elements. For innite sets the picture is more complicated, leading

to the concept of cardinal number, a way to distinguish the various sizes of innite sets.

A bijective function from a set to itself is also called a permutation.

Bijective functions are essential to many areas of mathematics including the denitions of isomorphism, homeomorphism,

dieomorphism, permutation group, and projective map.

5.1 Denition

For more details on notation, see Function (mathematics) Notation.

For a pairing between X and Y (where Y need not be dierent from X) to be a bijection, four properties must hold:

2. no element of X may be paired with more than one element of Y,

3. each element of Y must be paired with at least one element of X, and

4. no element of Y may be paired with more than one element of X.

Satisfying properties (1) and (2) means that a bijection is a function with domain X. It is more common to see

properties (1) and (2) written as a single statement: Every element of X is paired with exactly one element of Y.

Functions which satisfy property (3) are said to be "onto Y " and are called surjections (or surjective functions).

Functions which satisfy property (4) are said to be "one-to-one functions" and are called injections (or injective

functions).[1] With this terminology, a bijection is a function which is both a surjection and an injection, or using

other words, a bijection is a function which is both one-to-one and onto.

Bijections are sometimes denoted by a two-headed rightwards arrow with tail (U+2916 RIGHTWARDS TWO-

HEADED ARROW WITH TAIL), as in f : X Y. This symbol is a combination of the two-headed rightwards arrow

(U+21A0 RIGHTWARDS TWO HEADED ARROW) sometimes used to denote surjections and the rightwards

arrow with a barbed tail (U+21A3 RIGHTWARDS ARROW WITH TAIL) sometimes used to denote injections.

5.2 Examples

Consider the batting line-up of a baseball or cricket team (or any list of all the players of any sports team where every

player holds a specic spot in a line-up). The set X will be the players on the team (of size nine in the case of baseball)

and the set Y will be the positions in the batting order (1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc.) The pairing is given by which player

is in what position in this order. Property (1) is satised since each player is somewhere in the list. Property (2) is

satised since no player bats in two (or more) positions in the order. Property (3) says that for each position in the

order, there is some player batting in that position and property (4) states that two or more players are never batting

in the same position in the list.

In a classroom there are a certain number of seats. A bunch of students enter the room and the instructor asks them

all to be seated. After a quick look around the room, the instructor declares that there is a bijection between the set

of students and the set of seats, where each student is paired with the seat they are sitting in. What the instructor

observed in order to reach this conclusion was that:

14 CHAPTER 5. BIJECTION

3. Every seat had someone sitting there (there were no empty seats), and

The instructor was able to conclude that there were just as many seats as there were students, without having to count

either set.

For any set X, the identity function 1X: X X, 1X(x) = x, is bijective.

The function f: R R, f(x) = 2x + 1 is bijective, since for each y there is a unique x = (y 1)/2 such that f(x)

= y. In more generality, any linear function over the reals, f: R R, f(x) = ax + b (where a is non-zero) is a

bijection. Each real number y is obtained from (paired with) the real number x = (y - b)/a.

The function f: R (-/2, /2), given by f(x) = arctan(x) is bijective since each real number x is paired

with exactly one angle y in the interval (-/2, /2) so that tan(y) = x (that is, y = arctan(x)). If the codomain

(-/2, /2) was made larger to include an integer multiple of /2 then this function would no longer be onto

(surjective) since there is no real number which could be paired with the multiple of /2 by this arctan function.

The exponential function, g: R R, g(x) = ex , is not bijective: for instance, there is no x in R such that g(x) =

1, showing that g is not onto (surjective). However, if the codomain is restricted to the positive real numbers

R+ (0, +) , then g becomes bijective; its inverse (see below) is the natural logarithm function ln.

The function h: R R+ , h(x) = x2 is not bijective: for instance, h(1) = h(1) = 1, showing that h is not one-

0 [0, +) , then h becomes bijective; its inverse

to-one (injective). However, if the domain is restricted to R+

is the positive square root function.

5.4 Inverses

A bijection f with domain X (indicated by f: X Y in functional notation) also denes a relation starting in Y and

going to X (by turning the arrows around). The process of turning the arrows around for an arbitrary function does

not, in general, yield a function, but properties (3) and (4) of a bijection say that this inverse relation is a function with

domain Y. Moreover, properties (1) and (2) then say that this inverse function is a surjection and an injection, that is,

the inverse function exists and is also a bijection. Functions that have inverse functions are said to be invertible. A

function is invertible if and only if it is a bijection.

Stated in concise mathematical notation, a function f: X Y is bijective if and only if it satises the condition

Continuing with the baseball batting line-up example, the function that is being dened takes as input the name of

one of the players and outputs the position of that player in the batting order. Since this function is a bijection, it has

an inverse function which takes as input a position in the batting order and outputs the player who will be batting in

that position.

5.5 Composition

The composition gf of two bijections f: X Y and g: Y Z is a bijection. The inverse of gf is (g f )1 =

(f 1 ) (g 1 ) .

Conversely, if the composition g f of two functions is bijective, we can only say that f is injective and g is surjective.

5.6. BIJECTIONS AND CARDINALITY 15

X Y Z

1 D P

2 B Q

3 C R

If X and Y are nite sets, then there exists a bijection between the two sets X and Y if and only if X and Y have

the same number of elements. Indeed, in axiomatic set theory, this is taken as the denition of same number of

elements (equinumerosity), and generalising this denition to innite sets leads to the concept of cardinal number,

a way to distinguish the various sizes of innite sets.

5.7 Properties

A function f: R R is bijective if and only if its graph meets every horizontal and vertical line exactly once.

If X is a set, then the bijective functions from X to itself, together with the operation of functional composition

(), form a group, the symmetric group of X, which is denoted variously by S(X), SX, or X! (X factorial).

Bijections preserve cardinalities of sets: for a subset A of the domain with cardinality |A| and subset B of the

codomain with cardinality |B|, one has the following equalities:

If X and Y are nite sets with the same cardinality, and f: X Y, then the following are equivalent:

1. f is a bijection.

2. f is a surjection.

3. f is an injection.

For a nite set S, there is a bijection between the set of possible total orderings of the elements and the set of

bijections from S to S. That is to say, the number of permutations of elements of S is the same as the number

of total orderings of that setnamely, n!.

16 CHAPTER 5. BIJECTION

Bijections are precisely the isomorphisms in the category Set of sets and set functions. However, the bijections are not

always the isomorphisms for more complex categories. For example, in the category Grp of groups, the morphisms

must be homomorphisms since they must preserve the group structure, so the isomorphisms are group isomorphisms

which are bijective homomorphisms.

The notion of one-to-one correspondence generalizes to partial functions, where they are called partial bijections,

although partial bijections are only required to be injective. The reason for this relaxation is that a (proper) partial

function is already undened for a portion of its domain; thus there is no compelling reason to constrain its inverse

to be a total function, i.e. dened everywhere on its domain. The set of all partial bijections on a given base set is

called the symmetric inverse semigroup.[2]

Another way of dening the same notion is to say that a partial bijection from A to B is any relation R (which turns

out to be a partial function) with the property that R is the graph of a bijection f:A B, where A is a subset of A

and B is a subset of B.[3]

When the partial bijection is on the same set, it is sometimes called a one-to-one partial transformation.[4] An

example is the Mbius transformation simply dened on the complex plane, rather than its completion to the extended

complex plane.[5]

This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

Multivalued function

Bijection, injection and surjection

Symmetric group

Bijective numeration

Bijective proof

Category theory

AxGrothendieck theorem

5.12 Notes

[1] There are names associated to properties (1) and (2) as well. A relation which satises property (1) is called a total relation

and a relation satisfying (2) is a single valued relation.

[2] Christopher Hollings (16 July 2014). Mathematics across the Iron Curtain: A History of the Algebraic Theory of Semigroups.

American Mathematical Society. p. 251. ISBN 978-1-4704-1493-1.

[3] Francis Borceux (1994). Handbook of Categorical Algebra: Volume 2, Categories and Structures. Cambridge University

Press. p. 289. ISBN 978-0-521-44179-7.

[4] Pierre A. Grillet (1995). Semigroups: An Introduction to the Structure Theory. CRC Press. p. 228. ISBN 978-0-8247-

9662-4.

5.13. REFERENCES 17

[5] John Meakin (2007). Groups and semigroups: connections and contrasts. In C.M. Campbell, M.R. Quick, E.F. Robert-

son, G.C. Smith. Groups St Andrews 2005 Volume 2. Cambridge University Press. p. 367. ISBN 978-0-521-69470-4.

preprint citing Lawson, M. V. (1998). The Mbius Inverse Monoid. Journal of Algebra. 200 (2): 428. doi:10.1006/jabr.1997.7242.

5.13 References

This topic is a basic concept in set theory and can be found in any text which includes an introduction to set theory.

Almost all texts that deal with an introduction to writing proofs will include a section on set theory, so the topic may

be found in any of these:

Smith; Eggen; St.Andre (2006). A Transition to Advanced Mathematics (6th Ed.). Thomson (Brooks/Cole).

O'Leary (2003). The Structure of Proof: With Logic and Set Theory. Prentice-Hall.

Maddox (2002). Mathematical Thinking and Writing. Harcourt/ Academic Press.

Fletcher; Patty. Foundations of Higher Mathematics. PWS-Kent.

Devlin, Keith (2004). Sets, Functions, and Logic: An Introduction to Abstract Mathematics. Chapman & Hall/

CRC Press.

D'Angelo; West (2000). Mathematical Thinking: Problem Solving and Proofs. Prentice Hall.

Bond. Introduction to Abstract Mathematics. Brooks/Cole.

Ash. A Primer of Abstract Mathematics. MAA.

Hazewinkel, Michiel, ed. (2001) [1994], Bijection, Encyclopedia of Mathematics, Springer Science+Business

Media B.V. / Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN 978-1-55608-010-4

Earliest Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics: entry on Injection, Surjection and Bijection has the history

of Injection and related terms.

Chapter 6

In mathematics, injections, surjections and bijections are classes of functions distinguished by the manner in which

arguments (input expressions from the domain) and images (output expressions from the codomain) are related or

mapped to each other.

A function maps elements from its domain to elements in its codomain. Given a function f : X Y

The function is injective (one-to-one) if every element of the codomain is mapped to by at most one element

of the domain. An injective function is an injection. Notationally:

x, x X, f (x) = f (x ) x = x .

Or, equivalently (using logical transposition),

x, x X, x = x f (x) = f (x ).

The function is surjective (onto) if every element of the codomain is mapped to by at least one element of the

domain. (That is, the image and the codomain of the function are equal.) A surjective function is a surjection.

Notationally:

The function is bijective (one-to-one and onto or one-to-one correspondence) if every element of the

codomain is mapped to by exactly one element of the domain. (That is, the function is both injective and

surjective.) A bijective function is a bijection.

An injective function need not be surjective (not all elements of the codomain may be associated with arguments),

and a surjective function need not be injective (some images may be associated with more than one argument). The

four possible combinations of injective and surjective features are illustrated in the diagrams to the right.

6.1 Injection

Main article: Injective function

For more details on notation, see Function (mathematics) Notation.

A function is injective (one-to-one) if every possible element of the codomain is mapped to by at most one argument.

Equivalently, a function is injective if it maps distinct arguments to distinct images. An injective function is an

injection. The formal denition is the following.

A function f : X Y is injective if and only if X is empty or f is left-invertible; that is, there is a function g :

f(X) X such that g o f = identity function on X. Here f(X) is the image of f.

18

6.2. SURJECTION 19

X Y Z

1 D P

2 B Q

3 C R

A S

Since every function is surjective when its codomain is restricted to its image, every injection induces a bijection

onto its image. More precisely, every injection f : X Y can be factored as a bijection followed by an inclusion

as follows. Let fR : X f(X) be f with codomain restricted to its image, and let i : f(X) Y be the inclusion

map from f(X) into Y. Then f = i o fR. A dual factorisation is given for surjections below.

The composition of two injections is again an injection, but if g o f is injective, then it can only be concluded

that f is injective. See the gure at right.

Every embedding is injective.

6.2 Surjection

Main article: Surjective function

A function is surjective (onto) if every possible image is mapped to by at least one argument. In other words, every

element in the codomain has non-empty preimage. Equivalently, a function is surjective if its image is equal to its

codomain. A surjective function is a surjection. The formal denition is the following.

A function f : X Y is surjective if and only if it is right-invertible, that is, if and only if there is a function

g: Y X such that f o g = identity function on Y. (This statement is equivalent to the axiom of choice.)

By collapsing all arguments mapping to a given xed image, every surjection induces a bijection dened on a

quotient of its domain. More precisely, every surjection f : X Y can be factored as a non-bijection followed

by a bijection as follows. Let X/~ be the equivalence classes of X under the following equivalence relation: x

~ y if and only if f(x) = f(y). Equivalently, X/~ is the set of all preimages under f. Let P(~) : X X/~ be the

projection map which sends each x in X to its equivalence class [x]~, and let fP : X/~ Y be the well-dened

function given by fP([x]~) = f(x). Then f = fP o P(~). A dual factorisation is given for injections above.

The composition of two surjections is again a surjection, but if g o f is surjective, then it can only be concluded

that g is surjective. See the gure.

20 CHAPTER 6. BIJECTION, INJECTION AND SURJECTION

X Y Z

1 D P

2 B Q

3 C R

4 A

6.3 Bijection

Main article: Bijective function

A function is bijective if it is both injective and surjective. A bijective function is a bijection (one-to-one corre-

spondence). A function is bijective if and only if every possible image is mapped to by exactly one argument. This

equivalent condition is formally expressed as follow.

The function f : X Y is bijective i for all y Y , there is a unique x X such that f (x) = y.

A function f : X Y is bijective if and only if it is invertible, that is, there is a function g: Y X such that

g o f = identity function on X and f o g = identity function on Y. This function maps each image to its unique

preimage.

The composition of two bijections is again a bijection, but if g o f is a bijection, then it can only be concluded

that f is injective and g is surjective. (See the gure at right and the remarks above regarding injections and

surjections.)

The bijections from a set to itself form a group under composition, called the symmetric group.

6.4 Cardinality

Suppose you want to dene what it means for two sets to have the same number of elements. One way to do this is

to say that two sets have the same number of elements if and only if all the elements of one set can be paired with

the elements of the other, in such a way that each element is paired with exactly one element. Accordingly, we can

dene two sets to have the same number of elements if there is a bijection between them. We say that the two sets

have the same cardinality.

Likewise, we can say that set X has fewer than or the same number of elements as set Y if there is an injection

from X to Y . We can also say that set X has fewer than the number of elements in set Y if there is an injection

from X to Y but not a bijection between X and Y .

6.5. EXAMPLES 21

X Y Z

1 D P

2 B Q

3 C R

Bijective composition: the rst function need not be surjective and the second function need not be injective.

6.5 Examples

It is important to specify the domain and codomain of each function since by changing these, functions which we

think of as the same may have dierent jectivity.

For every set X the identity function idX and thus specically R R : x 7 x .

R+ R+ : x 7 x2 and thus also its inverse R+ R+ : x 7 x .

The exponential function exp : R R+ : x 7 ex and thus also its inverse the natural logarithm ln : R+

R : x 7 ln x

R R : x 7 (x 1)x(x + 1) = x3 x

R [1, 1] : x 7 sin(x)

R R : x 7 sin(x)

22 CHAPTER 6. BIJECTION, INJECTION AND SURJECTION

6.6 Properties

For every function f, subset X of the domain and subset Y of the codomain we have X f 1 (f(X)) and

f(f 1 (Y)) Y. If f is injective we have X = f 1 (f(X)) and if f is surjective we have f(f 1 (Y)) = Y.

For every function h : X Y we can dene a surjection H : X h(X) : x h(x) and an injection I : h(X)

Y : x x. It follows that h = I H. This decomposition is unique up to isomorphism.

In the category of sets, injections, surjections, and bijections correspond precisely to monomorphisms, epimorphisms,

and isomorphisms, respectively.

6.8 History

This terminology was originally coined by the Bourbaki group.

Bijective function

Horizontal line test

Injective module

Injective function

Permutation

Surjective function

Earliest Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics: entry on Injection, Surjection and Bijection has the history

of Injection and related terms.

Chapter 7

Boolean-valued

in most applied elds: something taking one of two values (example: True or False, On or O, 1 or 0) referring

to two-element Boolean algebra (the Boolean domain), e.g. Boolean-valued function or Boolean data type

in mathematics: something taking values over an arbitrary, abstract Boolean algebra, for example Boolean-

valued model

Boolean algebra further explains the distinction

23

Chapter 8

Canonical cover

A canonical cover Fc for F (a set of functional dependencies on a relation scheme) is a set of dependencies such that

F logically implies all dependencies in Fc , and Fc logically implies all dependencies in F.

The set Fc has two important properties:

2. Each left side of a functional dependency in Fc is unique. That is, there are no two dependencies a b and

c d in Fc such that a = c .

1. Fc = F

2. Repeat:

(a) Use the union rule to replace any dependencies in Fc of the form a b and a d with a bd ..

(b) Find a functional dependency in Fc with an extraneous attribute and delete it from Fc

8.2 References

[1] Database system concepts by Abraham Silberschatz et al

24

Chapter 9

Cointerpretability

In mathematical logic, cointerpretability is a binary relation on formal theories: a formal theory T is cointerpretable

in another such theory S, when the language of S can be translated into the language of T in such a way that S proves

every formula whose translation is a theorem of T. The translation here is required to preserve the logical structure

of formulas.

This concept, in a sense dual to interpretability, was introduced by Japaridze (1993), who also proved that, for theories

of Peano arithmetic and any stronger theories with eective axiomatizations, cointerpretability is equivalent to 1

-conservativity.

Cotolerance

interpretability logic.

Tolerance (in logic)

9.2 References

Japaridze (Dzhaparidze), Giorgi (Giorgie) (1993), A generalized notion of weak interpretability and the corre-

sponding modal logic, Annals of Pure and Applied Logic, 61 (1-2): 113160, MR 1218658, doi:10.1016/0168-

0072(93)90201-N.

Japaridze, Giorgi; de Jongh, Dick (1998), The logic of provability, in Buss, Samuel R., Handbook of Proof

Theory, Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics, 137, Amsterdam: North-Holland, pp. 475546,

MR 1640331, doi:10.1016/S0049-237X(98)80022-0.

25

Chapter 10

Composition of relations

In mathematics, the composition of binary relations is a concept of forming a new relation S R from two given

relations R and S, having as its best-known special case the composition of functions.

10.1 Denition

If R X Y and S Y Z are two binary relations, then their composition S R is the relation

In other words, S R X Z is dened by the rule that says (x, z) S R if and only if there is an element

y Y such that x R y S z (i.e. (x, y) R and (y, z) S ).

In particular elds, authors might denote by R S what is dened here to be S R. The convention chosen here is

such that function composition (with the usual notation) is obtained as a special case, when R and S are functional

relations. Some authors[1] prefer to write l and r explicitly when necessary, depending whether the left or the right

relation is the rst one applied.

A further variation encountered in computer science is the Z notation: is used to denote the traditional (right)

composition, but ; (a fat open semicolon with Unicode code point U+2A3E) denotes left composition.[2][3] This use

of semicolon coincides with the notation for function composition used (mostly by computer scientists) in Category

theory,[4] as well as the notation for dynamic conjunction within linguistic dynamic semantics.[5] The semicolon

notation (with this semantic) was introduced by Ernst Schrder in 1895.[6]

The binary relations R X Y are sometimes regarded as the morphisms R : X Y in a category Rel which

has the sets as objects. In Rel, composition of morphisms is exactly composition of relations as dened above. The

category Set of sets is a subcategory of Rel that has the same objects but fewer morphisms. A generalization of this

is found in the theory of allegories.

10.2 Properties

Composition of relations is associative.

The inverse relation of S R is (S R)1 = R1 S 1 . This property makes the set of all binary relations on a set a

semigroup with involution.

The composition of (partial) functions (i.e. functional relations) is again a (partial) function.

If R and S are injective, then S R is injective, which conversely implies only the injectivity of R.

If R and S are surjective, then S R is surjective, which conversely implies only the surjectivity of S.

The set of binary relations on a set X (i.e. relations from X to X) together with (left or right) relation composition

forms a monoid with zero, where the identity map on X is the neutral element, and the empty set is the zero element.

26

10.3. JOIN: ANOTHER FORM OF COMPOSITION 27

Main article: Join (relational algebra)

Other forms of composition of relations, which apply to general n-place relations instead of binary relations, are

found in the join operation of relational algebra. The usual composition of two binary relations as dened here can

be obtained by taking their join, leading to a ternary relation, followed by a projection that removes the middle

component.

If R is a relation between two nite sets then one obtains an associated adjacency matrix MR (see here). Then if R

and S are two relations which can be composed, the matrix MSR is exactly the matrix product MR MS , where it is

understood that 1 + 1 = 1 . (Note also the reversal of order of R and S .)

Binary relation

Relation algebra

Demonic composition

Function composition

Join (SQL)

Logical matrix

10.6 Notes

[1] Kilp, Knauer & Mikhalev, p. 7

[3] http://www.fileformat.info/info/unicode/char/2a3e/index.htm

[4] http://www.math.mcgill.ca/triples/Barr-Wells-ctcs.pdf, p. 6

[5] http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/dynamic-semantics/#EncDynTypLog

[6] Paul Taylor (1999). Practical Foundations of Mathematics. Cambridge University Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-521-63107-5.

A free HTML version of the book is available at http://www.cs.man.ac.uk/~{}pt/Practical_Foundations/

10.7 References

M. Kilp, U. Knauer, A.V. Mikhalev, Monoids, Acts and Categories with Applications to Wreath Products and

Graphs, De Gruyter Expositions in Mathematics vol. 29, Walter de Gruyter, 2000, ISBN 3-11-015248-7.

Chapter 11

Contour set

everything superior or equivalent to something

everything inferior to something

everything inferior or equivalent to something.

Given a relation on pairs of elements of set X

X2

and an element x of X

xX

The upper contour set of x is the set of all y that are related to x :

{y y x}

The lower contour set of x is the set of all y such that x is related to them:

{y x y}

The strict upper contour set of x is the set of all y that are related to x without x being in this way related to any

of them:

{y (y x) (x y)}

The strict lower contour set of x is the set of all y such that x is related to them without any of them being in this

way related to x :

{y (x y) (y x)}

28

11.2. EXAMPLES 29

The formal expressions of the last two may be simplied if we have dened

= {(a, b) (a b) (b a)}

so that a is related to b but b is not related to a , in which case the strict upper contour set of x is

{y y x}

{y x y}

In the case of a function f () considered in terms of relation , reference to the contour sets of the function is implicitly

to the contour sets of the implied relation

(a b) [f (a) f (b)]

11.2 Examples

11.2.1 Arithmetic

Consider a real number x , and the relation . Then

the upper contour set of x would be the set of numbers that were greater than or equal to x ,

the strict upper contour set of x would be the set of numbers that were greater than x ,

the lower contour set of x would be the set of numbers that were less than or equal to x , and

the strict lower contour set of x would be the set of numbers that were less than x .

(a b) [f (a) f (b)]

Then

the upper contour set of x would be the set of all y such that f (y) f (x) ,

the strict upper contour set of x would be the set of all y such that f (y) > f (x) ,

the lower contour set of x would be the set of all y such that f (x) f (y) , and

the strict lower contour set of x would be the set of all y such that f (x) > f (y) .

(a b) [f (a) f (b)]

30 CHAPTER 11. CONTOUR SET

In the case of a real-valued function f () (whose arguments might or might not be themselves real numbers), reference

to the contour sets of the function is implicitly to the contour sets of the relation

(a b) [f (a) f (b)]

Note that the arguments to f () might be vectors, and that the notation used might instead be

11.2.2 Economic

In economics, the set X could be interpreted as a set of goods and services or of possible outcomes, the relation

as strict preference, and the relationship as weak preference. Then

the upper contour set, or better set,[1] of x would be the set of all goods, services, or outcomes that were at

least as desired as x ,

the strict upper contour set of x would be the set of all goods, services, or outcomes that were more desired

than x ,

the lower contour set, or worse set,[1] of x would be the set of all goods, services, or outcomes that were no

more desired than x , and

the strict lower contour set of x would be the set of all goods, services, or outcomes that were less desired than

x.

the upper contour set of x would be the set of all y such that u(y) u(x) ,

the strict upper contour set of x would be the set of all y such that u(y) > u(x) ,

the lower contour set of x would be the set of all y such that u(x) u(y) , and

the strict lower contour set of x would be the set of all y such that u(x) > u(y) .

11.3 Complementarity

On the assumption that is a total ordering of X , the complement of the upper contour set is the strict lower contour

set.

X 2 \ {y y x} = {y x y}

X 2 \ {y x y} = {y y x}

and the complement of the strict upper contour set is the lower contour set.

X 2 \ {y y x} = {y x y}

X 2 \ {y x y} = {y y x}

11.4. SEE ALSO 31

Epigraph

Hypograph

11.5 References

[1] Robert P. Gilles (1996). Economic Exchange and Social Organization: The Edgeworthian Foundations of General Equilib-

rium Theory. Springer. p. 35.

11.6 Bibliography

Andreu Mas-Colell, Michael D. Whinston, and Jerry R. Green, Microeconomic Theory (LCC HB172.M6247

1995), p43. ISBN 0-19-507340-1 (cloth) ISBN 0-19-510268-1 (paper)

Chapter 12

Degeneracy (mathematics)

This article is about degeneracy in mathematics. For the degeneracy of a graph, see degeneracy (graph theory). For

other uses, see Degeneracy (disambiguation).

In mathematics, a degenerate case is a limiting case in which an element of a class of objects is qualitatively dierent

from the rest of the class and hence belongs to another, usually simpler, class. Degeneracy is the condition of being

a degenerate case.

The denitions of many classes of composite or structured objects include (often implicitly) inequalities. For example,

the angles and the side lengths of a triangle are supposed to be positive. The limiting cases, where one or several of

these inequalities become equalities, are degeneracies. In the case of triangles, one has a degenerate triangle if at least

one side length or angle is zero.

Often, the degenerate cases are the exceptional cases where changes to the usual dimension or the cardinality of the

object (or of some part of it) occur. For example, a triangle is an object of dimension two, and a degenerate triangle

is contained in a line, and its dimension is thus one. Similarly, the solution set of a system of equations that depends

on parameters generally has a xed cardinality and dimension, but cardinality and/or dimension may be dierent for

some exceptional values, called degenerate cases. In such a degenerate case, the solution set is said to be degenerate.

For some classes of composite objects, the degenerate cases depend on the properties that are specically studied. In

particular, the class of objects may often be dened or characterized by systems of equations. Commonly, a given

class of objects may be dened by several dierent systems of equations, and these dierent systems of equations

may lead to dierent degenerate cases, while characterizing the same non-degenerate cases. This may be the reason

for which there is no general denition of degeneracy, although the concept is widely used, and dened, if needed, in

each specic situation.

A degenerate case thus has special features, which makes it non-generic. However, not all non-generic cases are de-

generate. For example, right triangles, isosceles triangles and equilateral triangles are non-generic and non-degenerate.

Frequently, degenerate cases correspond to singularities either in the object or in some conguration space. For ex-

ample, a conic section is degenerate if and only if it has singular points.

12.1 In geometry

Main article: Degenerate conic

A degenerate conic is a conic section (a second-degree plane curve, dened by a polynomial equation of degree two)

that fails to be an irreducible curve.

The line is a degenerate case of a parabola if the parabola resides on a tangent plane. In inversive geometry, a

line is a degenerate case of a circle, with innite radius.

32

12.1. IN GEOMETRY 33

A line segment can be viewed as a degenerate case of an ellipse in which the semiminor axis goes to zero, the

foci go to the endpoints, and the eccentricity goes to one.

A hyperbola can degenerate into two lines crossing at a point, through a family of hyperbolae having those

lines as common asymptotes.

12.1.2 Triangle

A degenerate triangle has collinear vertices and zero area, and thus coincides with a segment covered twice.

12.1.3 Rectangle

For any non-empty subset S {1, 2, . . . , n} , there is a bounded, axis-aligned degenerate rectangle

/ S)}

where x [x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ] and ai , bi , ci are constant (with ai bi for all i ). The number of degenerate sides of R

is the number of elements of the subset S . Thus, there may be as few as one degenerate side or as many as n (in

which case R reduces to a singleton point).

A convex polygon is degenerate if at least two consecutive sides coincide at least partially, or at least one side

has zero length, or at least one angle is 180. Thus a degenerate convex polygon of n sides looks like a polygon

with fewer sides. In the case of triangles, this denition coincides with the one that has been given above.

A convex polyhedron is degenerate if either two adjacent facets are coplanar or two edges are aligned. In the

case of a tetrahedron, this is equivalent to say that all of its vertices lie in the same plane, giving it zero volume.

A sphere is a degenerate standard torus where the axis of revolution passes through the center of the generating

circle, rather than outside it.

12.1.7 Sphere

When the radius of a sphere goes to zero, the resulting degenerate sphere of zero volume is a point.

12.1.8 Other

34 CHAPTER 12. DEGENERACY (MATHEMATICS)

12.2 Elsewhere

A set containing a single point is a degenerate continuum.

Objects such as the digon and monogon can be viewed as degenerate cases of polygons: valid in a general

abstract mathematical sense, but not part of the original Euclidean conception of polygons.

A random variable which can only take one value has a degenerate distribution; if that value is the real number

0, its probability density is the Dirac delta function.

Similarly, roots of a polynomial are said to be degenerate if they coincide, since generically the n roots of an

nth degree polynomial are all distinct. This usage carries over to eigenproblems: a degenerate eigenvalue (i.e.

a multiple coinciding root of the characteristic polynomial) is one that has more than one linearly independent

eigenvector.

In quantum mechanics any such multiplicity in the eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian operator gives rise to

degenerate energy levels. Usually any such degeneracy indicates some underlying symmetry in the system.

Degeneracy (graph theory)

Degenerate form

Trivial (mathematics)

Pathological (mathematics)

Vacuous truth

Weisstein, Eric W. Degenerate. MathWorld.

Chapter 13

Demonic composition

In mathematics, demonic composition is an operation on binary relations that is somewhat comparable to ordinary

composition of relations but is robust to renement of the relations into (partial) functions or injective relations.

Unlike ordinary composition of relations, demonic composition is not associative.

13.1 Denition

Suppose R is a binary relation between X and Y and S is a relation between Y and Z. Their right demonic composition

R ; S is a relation between X and Z. Its graph is dened as

{(x, z) | x (S R) z y Y (x R y y S z)}.

{(x, z) | x (S R) z y Y (y S z x R y)}.

13.2 References

Backhouse, Roland; van der Woude, Jaap (1993), Demonic operators and monotype factors, Mathematical

Structures in Computer Science, 3 (4): 417433, MR 1249420, doi:10.1017/S096012950000030X.

35

Chapter 14

Homogeneous relation

Relation (mathematics)" redirects here. For a more general notion of relation, see nitary relation. For a more

combinatorial viewpoint, see theory of relations. For other uses, see Relation (disambiguation).

In mathematics, a binary relation on a set A is a collection of ordered pairs of elements of A. In other words, it is a

subset of the Cartesian product A2 = A A. More generally, a binary relation between two sets A and B is a subset

of A B. The terms correspondence, dyadic relation and 2-place relation are synonyms for binary relation.

An example is the "divides" relation between the set of prime numbers P and the set of integers Z, in which every

prime p is associated with every integer z that is a multiple of p (but with no integer that is not a multiple of p). In

this relation, for instance, the prime 2 is associated with numbers that include 4, 0, 6, 10, but not 1 or 9; and the

prime 3 is associated with numbers that include 0, 6, and 9, but not 4 or 13.

Binary relations are used in many branches of mathematics to model concepts like "is greater than", "is equal to", and

divides in arithmetic, "is congruent to" in geometry, is adjacent to in graph theory, is orthogonal to in linear

algebra and many more. The concept of function is dened as a special kind of binary relation. Binary relations are

also heavily used in computer science.

A binary relation is the special case n = 2 of an n-ary relation R A1 An, that is, a set of n-tuples where the

jth component of each n-tuple is taken from the jth domain Aj of the relation. An example for a ternary relation on

ZZZ is " ... lies between ... and ..., containing e.g. the triples (5,2,8), (5,8,2), and (4,9,7).

In some systems of axiomatic set theory, relations are extended to classes, which are generalizations of sets. This

extension is needed for, among other things, modeling the concepts of is an element of or is a subset of in set

theory, without running into logical inconsistencies such as Russells paradox.

A binary relation R between arbitrary sets (or classes) X (the set of departure) and Y (the set of destination or

codomain) is specied by its graph G, which is a subset of the Cartesian product X Y. The binary relation R itself

is usually identied with its graph G, but some authors dene it as an ordered triple (X, Y, G), which is otherwise

referred to as a correspondence.[1]

The statement (x, y) G is read "x is R-related to y", and is denoted by xRy or R(x, y). The latter notation corresponds

to viewing R as the characteristic function of the subset G of X Y, i.e. R(x, y) equals to 1 (true), if (x, y) G, and

0 (false) otherwise.

The order of the elements in each pair of G is important: if a b, then aRb and bRa can be true or false, independently

of each other. Resuming the above example, the prime 3 divides the integer 9, but 9 doesn't divide 3.

The domain of R is the set of all x such that xRy for at least one y. The range of R is the set of all y such that xRy

for at least one x. The eld of R is the union of its domain and its range.[2][3][4]

36

14.2. SPECIAL TYPES OF BINARY RELATIONS 37

According to the denition above, two relations with identical graphs but dierent domains or dierent codomains

are considered dierent. For example, if G = {(1, 2), (1, 3), (2, 7)} , then (Z, Z, G) , (R, N, G) , and (N, R, G) are

three distinct relations, where Z is the set of integers, R is the set of real numbers and N is the set of natural numbers.

Especially in set theory, binary relations are often dened as sets of ordered pairs, identifying binary relations with

their graphs. The domain of a binary relation R is then dened as the set of all x such that there exists at least one

y such that (x, y) R , the range of R is dened as the set of all y such that there exists at least one x such that

(x, y) R , and the eld of R is the union of its domain and its range.[2][3][4]

A special case of this dierence in points of view applies to the notion of function. Many authors insist on distin-

guishing between a functions codomain and its range. Thus, a single rule, like mapping every real number x to

x2 , can lead to distinct functions f : R R and f : R R+ , depending on whether the images under that

rule are understood to be reals or, more restrictively, non-negative reals. But others view functions as simply sets of

ordered pairs with unique rst components. This dierence in perspectives does raise some nontrivial issues. As an

example, the former camp considers surjectivityor being ontoas a property of functions, while the latter sees it

as a relationship that functions may bear to sets.

Either approach is adequate for most uses, provided that one attends to the necessary changes in language, notation,

and the denitions of concepts like restrictions, composition, inverse relation, and so on. The choice between the two

denitions usually matters only in very formal contexts, like category theory.

14.1.2 Example

Example: Suppose there are four objects {ball, car, doll, gun} and four persons {John, Mary, Ian, Venus}. Suppose

that John owns the ball, Mary owns the doll, and Venus owns the car. Nobody owns the gun and Ian owns nothing.

Then the binary relation is owned by is given as

R = ({ball, car, doll, gun}, {John, Mary, Ian, Venus}, {(ball, John), (doll, Mary), (car, Venus)}).

Thus the rst element of R is the set of objects, the second is the set of persons, and the last element is a set of ordered

pairs of the form (object, owner).

The pair (ball, John), denoted by RJ means that the ball is owned by John.

Two dierent relations could have the same graph. For example: the relation

({ball, car, doll, gun}, {John, Mary, Venus}, {(ball, John), (doll, Mary), (car, Venus)})

is dierent from the previous one as everyone is an owner. But the graphs of the two relations are the same.

Nevertheless, R is usually identied or even dened as G(R) and an ordered pair (x, y) G(R)" is usually denoted as

"(x, y) R".[5]

Some important types of binary relations R between two sets X and Y are listed below. To emphasize that X and Y

can be dierent sets, some authors call such binary relations heterogeneous.[6][7]

Uniqueness properties:

injective (also called left-unique[8] ): for all x and z in X and y in Y it holds that if xRy and zRy then x = z. For

example, the green relation in the diagram is injective, but the red relation is not, as it relates e.g. both x = 5

and z = +5 to y = 25.

functional (also called univalent[9] or right-unique[8] or right-denite[10] ): for all x in X, and y and z in Y

it holds that if xRy and xRz then y = z; such a binary relation is called a partial function. Both relations in

the picture are functional. An example for a non-functional relation can be obtained by rotating the red graph

clockwise by 90 degrees, i.e. by considering the relation x=y2 which relates e.g. x=25 to both y=5 and z=+5.

38 CHAPTER 14. HOMOGENEOUS RELATION

one-to-one (also written 1-to-1): injective and functional. The green relation is one-to-one, but the red is not.

Totality properties (only denable if the sets of departure X resp. destination Y are specied; not to be confused with

a total relation):

left-total:[8] for all x in X there exists a y in Y such that xRy. For example, R is left-total when it is a function

or a multivalued function. Note that this property, although sometimes also referred to as total, is dierent

from the denition of total in the next section. Both relations in the picture are left-total. The relation x=y2 ,

obtained from the above rotation, is not left-total, as it doesn't relate, e.g., x = 14 to any real number y.

surjective (also called right-total[8] or onto): for all y in Y there exists an x in X such that xRy. The green

relation is surjective, but the red relation is not, as it doesn't relate any real number x to e.g. y = 14.

14.3. RELATIONS OVER A SET 39

A function: a relation that is functional and left-total. Both the green and the red relation are functions.

A bijection: a surjective one-to-one or surjective injective function is said to be bijective, also known as

one-to-one correspondence.[11] The green relation is bijective, but the red is not.

14.2.1 Difunctional

Less commonly encountered is the notion of difunctional (or regular) relation, dened as a relation R such that

R=RR1 R.[12]

To understand this notion better, it helps to consider a relation as mapping every element xX to a set xR = { yY

| xRy }.[12] This set is sometimes called the successor neighborhood of x in R; one can dene the predecessor

neighborhood analogously.[13] Synonymous terms for these notions are afterset and respectively foreset.[6]

A difunctional relation can then be equivalently characterized as a relation R such that wherever x1 R and x2 R have a

non-empty intersection, then these two sets coincide; formally x1 R x2 R implies x1 R = x2 R.[12]

As examples, any function or any functional (right-unique) relation is difunctional; the converse doesn't hold. If one

considers a relation R from set to itself (X = Y), then if R is both transitive and symmetric (i.e. a partial equivalence

relation), then it is also difunctional.[14] The converse of this latter statement also doesn't hold.

A characterization of difunctional relations, which also explains their name, is to consider two functions f: A C

and g: B C and then dene the following set which generalizes the kernel of a single function as joint kernel: ker(f,

g) = { (a, b) A B | f(a) = g(b) }. Every difunctional relation R A B arises as the joint kernel of two functions

f: A C and g: B C for some set C.[15]

In automata theory, the term rectangular relation has also been used to denote a difunctional relation. This ter-

minology is justied by the fact that when represented as a boolean matrix, the columns and rows of a difunctional

relation can be arranged in such a way as to present rectangular blocks of true on the (asymmetric) main diagonal.[16]

Other authors however use the term rectangular to denote any heterogeneous relation whatsoever.[7]

If X = Y then we simply say that the binary relation is over X, or that it is an endorelation over X.[17] In computer

science, such a relation is also called a homogeneous (binary) relation.[7][17][18] Some types of endorelations are

widely studied in graph theory, where they are known as simple directed graphs permitting loops.

The set of all binary relations Rel(X) on a set X is the set 2X X which is a Boolean algebra augmented with the

involution of mapping of a relation to its inverse relation. For the theoretical explanation see Relation algebra.

Some important properties that a binary relation R over a set X may have are:

reexive: for all x in X it holds that xRx. For example, greater than or equal to () is a reexive relation but

greater than (>) is not.

irreexive (or strict): for all x in X it holds that not xRx. For example, > is an irreexive relation, but is not.

coreexive relation: for all x and y in X it holds that if xRy then x = y.[19] An example of a coreexive relation

is the relation on integers in which each odd number is related to itself and there are no other relations. The

equality relation is the only example of a both reexive and coreexive relation, and any coreexive relation is

a subset of the identity relation.

The previous 3 alternatives are far from being exhaustive; e.g. the red relation y=x2 from the

above picture is neither irreexive, nor coreexive, nor reexive, since it contains the pair

(0,0), and (2,4), but not (2,2), respectively.

40 CHAPTER 14. HOMOGENEOUS RELATION

symmetric: for all x and y in X it holds that if xRy then yRx. Is a blood relative of is a symmetric relation,

because x is a blood relative of y if and only if y is a blood relative of x.

antisymmetric: for all x and y in X, if xRy and yRx then x = y. For example, is anti-symmetric; so is >, but

vacuously (the condition in the denition is always false).[20]

asymmetric: for all x and y in X, if xRy then not yRx. A relation is asymmetric if and only if it is both

anti-symmetric and irreexive.[21] For example, > is asymmetric, but is not.

transitive: for all x, y and z in X it holds that if xRy and yRz then xRz. For example, is ancestor of is transitive,

while is parent of is not. A transitive relation is irreexive if and only if it is asymmetric.[22]

total: for all x and y in X it holds that xRy or yRx (or both). This denition for total is dierent from left total

in the previous section. For example, is a total relation.

trichotomous: for all x and y in X exactly one of xRy, yRx or x = y holds. For example, > is a trichotomous

relation, while the relation divides on natural numbers is not.[23]

Right Euclidean: for all x, y and z in X it holds that if xRy and xRz, then yRz.

Left Euclidean: for all x, y and z in X it holds that if yRx and zRx, then yRz.

Euclidean: A Euclidean relation is both left and right Euclidean. Equality is a Euclidean relation because if

x=y and x=z, then y=z.

serial: for all x in X, there exists y in X such that xRy. "Is greater than" is a serial relation on the integers. But

it is not a serial relation on the positive integers, because there is no y in the positive integers such that 1>y.[24]

However, "is less than" is a serial relation on the positive integers, the rational numbers and the real numbers.

Every reexive relation is serial: for a given x, choose y=x. A serial relation can be equivalently characterized

as every element having a non-empty successor neighborhood (see the previous section for the denition of this

notion). Similarly an inverse serial relation is a relation in which every element has non-empty predecessor

neighborhood.[13]

set-like (or local): for every x in X, the class of all y such that yRx is a set. (This makes sense only if relations

on proper classes are allowed.) The usual ordering < on the class of ordinal numbers is set-like, while its inverse

> is not.

A relation that is reexive, symmetric, and transitive is called an equivalence relation. A relation that is symmetric,

transitive, and serial is also reexive. A relation that is only symmetric and transitive (without necessarily being

reexive) is called a partial equivalence relation.

A relation that is reexive, antisymmetric, and transitive is called a partial order. A partial order that is total is called

a total order, simple order, linear order, or a chain.[25] A linear order where every nonempty subset has a least element

is called a well-order.

If R, S are binary relations over X and Y, then each of the following is a binary relation over X and Y:

Union: R S X Y, dened as R S = { (x, y) | (x, y) R or (x, y) S }. For example, is the union of >

and =.

If R is a binary relation over X and Y, and S is a binary relation over Y and Z, then the following is a binary relation

over X and Z: (see main article composition of relations)

14.4. OPERATIONS ON BINARY RELATIONS 41

Composition: S R, also denoted R ; S (or R S), dened as S R = { (x, z) | there exists y Y, such that (x, y)

R and (y, z) S }. The order of R and S in the notation S R, used here agrees with the standard notational

order for composition of functions. For example, the composition is mother of is parent of yields is

maternal grandparent of, while the composition is parent of is mother of yields is grandmother of.

A relation R on sets X and Y is said to be contained in a relation S on X and Y if R is a subset of S, that is, if x R y

always implies x S y. In this case, if R and S disagree, R is also said to be smaller than S. For example, > is contained

in .

If R is a binary relation over X and Y, then the following is a binary relation over Y and X:

Inverse or converse: R 1 , dened as R 1 = { (y, x) | (x, y) R }. A binary relation over a set is equal to its

inverse if and only if it is symmetric. See also duality (order theory). For example, is less than (<) is the

inverse of is greater than (>).

If R is a binary relation over X, then each of the following is a binary relation over X:

Reexive closure: R = , dened as R = = { (x, x) | x X } R or the smallest reexive relation over X containing

R. This can be proven to be equal to the intersection of all reexive relations containing R.

Reexive reduction: R , dened as R

= R \ { (x, x) | x X } or the largest irreexive relation over X

contained in R.

Transitive closure: R + , dened as the smallest transitive relation over X containing R. This can be seen to be

equal to the intersection of all transitive relations containing R.

Reexive transitive closure: R *, dened as R * = (R + ) = , the smallest preorder containing R.

Reexive transitive symmetric closure: R , dened as the smallest equivalence relation over X containing

R.

14.4.1 Complement

If R is a binary relation over X and Y, then the following too:

The complement S is dened as x S y if not x R y. For example, on real numbers, is the complement of >.

If X = Y, the complement has the following properties:

The complement of a reexive relation is irreexive and vice versa.

The complement of a strict weak order is a total preorder and vice versa.

14.4.2 Restriction

The restriction of a binary relation on a set X to a subset S is the set of all pairs (x, y) in the relation for which x and

y are in S.

If a relation is reexive, irreexive, symmetric, antisymmetric, asymmetric, transitive, total, trichotomous, a partial

order, total order, strict weak order, total preorder (weak order), or an equivalence relation, its restrictions are too.

However, the transitive closure of a restriction is a subset of the restriction of the transitive closure, i.e., in general

not equal. For example, restricting the relation "x is parent of y" to females yields the relation "x is mother of

the woman y"; its transitive closure doesn't relate a woman with her paternal grandmother. On the other hand, the

42 CHAPTER 14. HOMOGENEOUS RELATION

transitive closure of is parent of is is ancestor of"; its restriction to females does relate a woman with her paternal

grandmother.

Also, the various concepts of completeness (not to be confused with being total) do not carry over to restrictions.

For example, on the set of real numbers a property of the relation "" is that every non-empty subset S of R with an

upper bound in R has a least upper bound (also called supremum) in R. However, for a set of rational numbers this

supremum is not necessarily rational, so the same property does not hold on the restriction of the relation "" to the

set of rational numbers.

The left-restriction (right-restriction, respectively) of a binary relation between X and Y to a subset S of its domain

(codomain) is the set of all pairs (x, y) in the relation for which x (y) is an element of S.

Various operations on binary endorelations can be treated as giving rise to an algebraic structure, known as relation

algebra. It should not be confused with relational algebra which deals in nitary relations (and in practice also nite

and many-sorted).

For heterogenous binary relations, a category of relations arises.[7]

Despite their simplicity, binary relations are at the core of an abstract computation model known as an abstract

rewriting system.

Certain mathematical relations, such as equal to, member of, and subset of, cannot be understood to be binary

relations as dened above, because their domains and codomains cannot be taken to be sets in the usual systems of

axiomatic set theory. For example, if we try to model the general concept of equality as a binary relation =, we

must take the domain and codomain to be the class of all sets, which is not a set in the usual set theory.

In most mathematical contexts, references to the relations of equality, membership and subset are harmless because

they can be understood implicitly to be restricted to some set in the context. The usual work-around to this problem

is to select a large enough set A, that contains all the objects of interest, and work with the restriction =A instead of

=. Similarly, the subset of relation needs to be restricted to have domain and codomain P(A) (the power set of

a specic set A): the resulting set relation can be denoted A. Also, the member of relation needs to be restricted

to have domain A and codomain P(A) to obtain a binary relation A that is a set. Bertrand Russell has shown that

assuming to be dened on all sets leads to a contradiction in naive set theory.

Another solution to this problem is to use a set theory with proper classes, such as NBG or MorseKelley set theory,

and allow the domain and codomain (and so the graph) to be proper classes: in such a theory, equality, membership,

and subset are binary relations without special comment. (A minor modication needs to be made to the concept of

the ordered triple (X, Y, G), as normally a proper class cannot be a member of an ordered tuple; or of course one

can identify the function with its graph in this context.)[26] With this denition one can for instance dene a function

relation between every set and its power set.

2

The number of distinct binary relations on an n-element set is 2n (sequence A002416 in the OEIS):

Notes:

The number of strict partial orders (irreexive transitive relations) is the same as that of partial orders.

The number of strict weak orders is the same as that of total preorders.

The total orders are the partial orders that are also total preorders. The number of preorders that are neither

a partial order nor a total preorder is, therefore, the number of preorders, minus the number of partial orders,

minus the number of total preorders, plus the number of total orders: 0, 0, 0, 3, and 85, respectively.

14.7. EXAMPLES OF COMMON BINARY RELATIONS 43

the number of equivalence relations is the number of partitions, which is the Bell number.

The binary relations can be grouped into pairs (relation, complement), except that for n = 0 the relation is its own

complement. The non-symmetric ones can be grouped into quadruples (relation, complement, inverse, inverse com-

plement).

order relations, including strict orders:

greater than

greater than or equal to

less than

less than or equal to

divides (evenly)

is a subset of

equivalence relations:

equality

is parallel to (for ane spaces)

is in bijection with

isomorphy

independency relation, a symmetric, irreexive relation which is the complement of some dependency relation.

Conuence (term rewriting)

Hasse diagram

Incidence structure

Logic of relatives

Order theory

Triadic relation

14.9 Notes

[1] Encyclopedic dictionary of Mathematics. MIT. 2000. pp. 13301331. ISBN 0-262-59020-4.

[2] Suppes, Patrick (1972) [originally published by D. van Nostrand Company in 1960]. Axiomatic Set Theory. Dover. ISBN

0-486-61630-4.

[3] Smullyan, Raymond M.; Fitting, Melvin (2010) [revised and corrected republication of the work originally published in

1996 by Oxford University Press, New York]. Set Theory and the Continuum Problem. Dover. ISBN 978-0-486-47484-7.

[4] Levy, Azriel (2002) [republication of the work published by Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg and New York in 1979].

Basic Set Theory. Dover. ISBN 0-486-42079-5.

[5] Megill, Norman (5 August 1993). df-br (Metamath Proof Explorer)". Retrieved 18 November 2016.

44 CHAPTER 14. HOMOGENEOUS RELATION

[6] Christodoulos A. Floudas; Panos M. Pardalos (2008). Encyclopedia of Optimization (2nd ed.). Springer Science & Business

Media. pp. 299300. ISBN 978-0-387-74758-3.

[7] Michael Winter (2007). Goguen Categories: A Categorical Approach to L-fuzzy Relations. Springer. pp. xxi. ISBN

978-1-4020-6164-6.

[8] Kilp, Knauer and Mikhalev: p. 3. The same four denitions appear in the following:

Peter J. Pahl; Rudolf Damrath (2001). Mathematical Foundations of Computational Engineering: A Handbook.

Springer Science & Business Media. p. 506. ISBN 978-3-540-67995-0.

Eike Best (1996). Semantics of Sequential and Parallel Programs. Prentice Hall. pp. 1921. ISBN 978-0-13-

460643-9.

Robert-Christoph Riemann (1999). Modelling of Concurrent Systems: Structural and Semantical Methods in the High

Level Petri Net Calculus. Herbert Utz Verlag. pp. 2122. ISBN 978-3-89675-629-9.

[9] Gunther Schmidt, 2010. Relational Mathematics. Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-76268-7, Chapt. 5

[10] Ms, Stephan (2007), Reasoning on Spatial Semantic Integrity Constraints, Spatial Information Theory: 8th International

Conference, COSIT 2007, Melbourne, Australia, September 1923, 2007, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science,

4736, Springer, pp. 285302, doi:10.1007/978-3-540-74788-8_18

[11] Note that the use of correspondence here is narrower than as general synonym for binary relation.

[12] Chris Brink; Wolfram Kahl; Gunther Schmidt (1997). Relational Methods in Computer Science. Springer Science &

Business Media. p. 200. ISBN 978-3-211-82971-4.

[13] Yao, Y. (2004). Semantics of Fuzzy Sets in Rough Set Theory. Transactions on Rough Sets II. Lecture Notes in Computer

Science. 3135. p. 309. ISBN 978-3-540-23990-1. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-27778-1_15.

[14] William Craig (2006). Semigroups Underlying First-order Logic. American Mathematical Soc. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-8218-

6588-0.

[15] Gumm, H. P.; Zarrad, M. (2014). Coalgebraic Simulations and Congruences. Coalgebraic Methods in Computer Science.

Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 8446. p. 118. ISBN 978-3-662-44123-7. doi:10.1007/978-3-662-44124-4_7.

[16] Julius Richard Bchi (1989). Finite Automata, Their Algebras and Grammars: Towards a Theory of Formal Expressions.

Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 3537. ISBN 978-1-4613-8853-1.

[17] M. E. Mller (2012). Relational Knowledge Discovery. Cambridge University Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-521-19021-3.

[18] Peter J. Pahl; Rudolf Damrath (2001). Mathematical Foundations of Computational Engineering: A Handbook. Springer

Science & Business Media. p. 496. ISBN 978-3-540-67995-0.

[19] Fonseca de Oliveira, J. N., & Pereira Cunha Rodrigues, C. D. J. (2004). Transposing Relations: From Maybe Functions

to Hash Tables. In Mathematics of Program Construction (p. 337).

[20] Smith, Douglas; Eggen, Maurice; St. Andre, Richard (2006), A Transition to Advanced Mathematics (6th ed.), Brooks/Cole,

p. 160, ISBN 0-534-39900-2

[21] Nievergelt, Yves (2002), Foundations of Logic and Mathematics: Applications to Computer Science and Cryptography,

Springer-Verlag, p. 158.

[22] Flaka, V.; Jeek, J.; Kepka, T.; Kortelainen, J. (2007). Transitive Closures of Binary Relations I (PDF). Prague: School

of Mathematics Physics Charles University. p. 1. Lemma 1.1 (iv). This source refers to asymmetric relations as strictly

antisymmetric.

[24] Yao, Y.Y.; Wong, S.K.M. (1995). Generalization of rough sets using relationships between attribute values (PDF).

Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Joint Conference on Information Sciences: 3033..

[25] Joseph G. Rosenstein, Linear orderings, Academic Press, 1982, ISBN 0-12-597680-1, p. 4

[26] Tarski, Alfred; Givant, Steven (1987). A formalization of set theory without variables. American Mathematical Society. p.

3. ISBN 0-8218-1041-3.

14.10. REFERENCES 45

14.10 References

M. Kilp, U. Knauer, A.V. Mikhalev, Monoids, Acts and Categories: with Applications to Wreath Products and

Graphs, De Gruyter Expositions in Mathematics vol. 29, Walter de Gruyter, 2000, ISBN 3-11-015248-7.

Gunther Schmidt, 2010. Relational Mathematics. Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-76268-7.

Hazewinkel, Michiel, ed. (2001) [1994], Binary relation, Encyclopedia of Mathematics, Springer Science+Business

Media B.V. / Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN 978-1-55608-010-4

Chapter 15

Dimension

This article is about the dimension of a space. For the dimension of an object, see size. For the dimension of a

quantity, see Dimensional analysis. For other uses, see Dimension (disambiguation).

In physics and mathematics, the dimension of a mathematical space (or object) is informally dened as the minimum

From left to right: the square, the cube and the tesseract. The two-dimensional (2d) square is bounded by one-dimensional (1d) lines;

the three-dimensional (3d) cube by two-dimensional areas; and the four-dimensional (4d) tesseract by three-dimensional volumes.

For display on a two-dimensional surface such as a screen, the 3d cube and 4d tesseract require projection.

number of coordinates needed to specify any point within it.[1][2] Thus a line has a dimension of one because only

one coordinate is needed to specify a point on it for example, the point at 5 on a number line. A surface such as a

plane or the surface of a cylinder or sphere has a dimension of two because two coordinates are needed to specify a

point on it for example, both a latitude and longitude are required to locate a point on the surface of a sphere. The

inside of a cube, a cylinder or a sphere is three-dimensional because three coordinates are needed to locate a point

within these spaces.

46

15.1. IN MATHEMATICS 47

In classical mechanics, space and time are dierent categories and refer to absolute space and time. That conception

of the world is a four-dimensional space but not the one that was found necessary to describe electromagnetism. The

four dimensions of spacetime consist of events that are not absolutely dened spatially and temporally, but rather

are known relative to the motion of an observer. Minkowski space rst approximates the universe without gravity;

the pseudo-Riemannian manifolds of general relativity describe spacetime with matter and gravity. Ten dimensions

are used to describe string theory, eleven dimensions can describe supergravity and M-theory, and the state-space of

quantum mechanics is an innite-dimensional function space.

The concept of dimension is not restricted to physical objects. High-dimensional spaces frequently occur in mathe-

matics and the sciences. They may be parameter spaces or conguration spaces such as in Lagrangian or Hamiltonian

mechanics; these are abstract spaces, independent of the physical space we live in.

15.1 In mathematics

In mathematics, the dimension of an object is an intrinsic property independent of the space in which the object is

embedded. For example, a point on the unit circle in the plane can be specied by two Cartesian coordinates, but

a single polar coordinate (the angle) would be sucient, so the circle is 1-dimensional even though it exists in the

2-dimensional plane. This intrinsic notion of dimension is one of the chief ways the mathematical notion of dimension

diers from its common usages.

The dimension of Euclidean n-space En is n. When trying to generalize to other types of spaces, one is faced with

the question what makes En n-dimensional?" One answer is that to cover a xed ball in En by small balls of radius ,

one needs on the order of n such small balls. This observation leads to the denition of the Minkowski dimension

and its more sophisticated variant, the Hausdor dimension, but there are also other answers to that question. For

example, the boundary of a ball in En looks locally like En1 and this leads to the notion of the inductive dimension.

While these notions agree on En , they turn out to be dierent when one looks at more general spaces.

A tesseract is an example of a four-dimensional object. Whereas outside mathematics the use of the term dimension

is as in: A tesseract has four dimensions", mathematicians usually express this as: The tesseract has dimension 4",

or: The dimension of the tesseract is 4.

Although the notion of higher dimensions goes back to Ren Descartes, substantial development of a higher-dimensional

geometry only began in the 19th century, via the work of Arthur Cayley, William Rowan Hamilton, Ludwig Schli

and Bernhard Riemann. Riemanns 1854 Habilitationsschrift, Schlis 1852 Theorie der vielfachen Kontinuitt,

Hamiltons 1843 discovery of the quaternions and the construction of the Cayley algebra marked the beginning of

higher-dimensional geometry.

The rest of this section examines some of the more important mathematical denitions of the dimensions.

Complex dimensions appear in the study of complex manifolds and algebraic varieties. A complex number (x + iy)

has a real part x and an imaginary part y, where x and y are real numbers. A single complex coordinate system may be

applied to an object having two real dimensions. For example, an ordinary two-dimensional spherical surface, when

given a complex metric, becomes a Riemann sphere of one complex dimension.[3]

The dimension of a vector space is the number of vectors in any basis for the space, i.e. the number of coordinates

necessary to specify any vector. This notion of dimension (the cardinality of a basis) is often referred to as the Hamel

dimension or algebraic dimension to distinguish it from other notions of dimension.

48 CHAPTER 15. DIMENSION

15.1.3 Manifolds

The uniquely dened dimension of every connected topological manifold can be calculated. A connected topological

manifold is locally homeomorphic to Euclidean n-space, in which the number n is the manifolds dimension.

For connected dierentiable manifolds, the dimension is also the dimension of the tangent vector space at any point.

In geometric topology, the theory of manifolds is characterized by the way dimensions 1 and 2 are relatively ele-

mentary, the high-dimensional cases n > 4 are simplied by having extra space in which to work"; and the cases

n = 3 and 4 are in some senses the most dicult. This state of aairs was highly marked in the various cases of the

Poincar conjecture, where four dierent proof methods are applied.

15.1.4 Varieties

The dimension of an algebraic variety may be dened in various equivalent ways. The most intuitive way is probably

the dimension of the tangent space at any Regular point of an algebraic variety. Another intuitive way is to dene

the dimension as the number of hyperplanes that are needed in order to have an intersection with the variety that is

reduced to a nite number of points (dimension zero). This denition is based on the fact that the intersection of a

variety with a hyperplane reduces the dimension by one unless if the hyperplane contains the algebraic variety.

An algebraic set being a nite union of algebraic varieties, its dimension is the maximum of the dimensions of its

components. It is equal to the maximal length of the chains V0 V1 . . . Vd of sub-varieties of the given

algebraic set (the length of such a chain is the number of " ").

Each variety can be considered as an algebraic stack, and its dimension as variety agrees with its dimension as stack.

There are however many stacks which do not correspond to varieties, and some of these have negative dimension.

Specically, if V is a variety of dimension m and G is an algebraic group of dimension n acting on V, then the quotient

stack [V/G] has dimension mn.[4]

The Krull dimension of a commutative ring is the maximal length of chains of prime ideals in it, a chain of length n

being a sequence P0 P1 . . . Pn of prime ideals related by inclusion. It is strongly related to the dimension

of an algebraic variety, because of the natural correspondence between sub-varieties and prime ideals of the ring of

the polynomials on the variety.

For an algebra over a eld, the dimension as vector space is nite if and only if its Krull dimension is 0.

For any normal topological space X, the Lebesgue covering dimension of X is dened to be n if n is the smallest integer

for which the following holds: any open cover has an open renement (a second open cover where each element is a

subset of an element in the rst cover) such that no point is included in more than n + 1 elements. In this case dim

X = n. For X a manifold, this coincides with the dimension mentioned above. If no such integer n exists, then the

dimension of X is said to be innite, and one writes dim X = . Moreover, X has dimension 1, i.e. dim X = 1 if

and only if X is empty. This denition of covering dimension can be extended from the class of normal spaces to all

Tychono spaces merely by replacing the term open in the denition by the term "functionally open".

An inductive denition of dimension can be created as follows. Consider a discrete set of points (such as a nite

collection of points) to be 0-dimensional. By dragging a 0-dimensional object in some direction, one obtains a 1-

dimensional object. By dragging a 1-dimensional object in a new direction, one obtains a 2-dimensional object. In

general one obtains an (n + 1)-dimensional object by dragging an n-dimensional object in a new direction.

The inductive dimension of a topological space may refer to the small inductive dimension or the large inductive

dimension, and is based on the analogy that (n + 1)-dimensional balls have n-dimensional boundaries, permitting an

inductive denition based on the dimension of the boundaries of open sets.

15.2. IN PHYSICS 49

The Hausdor dimension is useful for studying structurally complicated sets, especially fractals. The Hausdor

dimension is dened for all metric spaces and, unlike the dimensions considered above, can also have non-integer

real values.[5] The box dimension or Minkowski dimension is a variant of the same idea. In general, there exist more

denitions of fractal dimensions that work for highly irregular sets and attain non-integer positive real values. Fractals

have been found useful to describe many natural objects and phenomena.[6][7]

Every Hilbert space admits an orthonormal basis, and any two such bases for a particular space have the same

cardinality. This cardinality is called the dimension of the Hilbert space. This dimension is nite if and only if

the spaces Hamel dimension is nite, and in this case the two dimensions coincide.

15.2 In physics

Classical physics theories describe three physical dimensions: from a particular point in space, the basic directions in

which we can move are up/down, left/right, and forward/backward. Movement in any other direction can be expressed

in terms of just these three. Moving down is the same as moving up a negative distance. Moving diagonally upward

and forward is just as the name of the direction implies; i.e., moving in a linear combination of up and forward.

In its simplest form: a line describes one dimension, a plane describes two dimensions, and a cube describes three

dimensions. (See Space and Cartesian coordinate system.)

15.2.2 Time

A temporal dimension is a dimension of time. Time is often referred to as the "fourth dimension" for this reason,

but that is not to imply that it is a spatial dimension. A temporal dimension is one way to measure physical change.

It is perceived dierently from the three spatial dimensions in that there is only one of it, and that we cannot move

freely in time but subjectively move in one direction.

The equations used in physics to model reality do not treat time in the same way that humans commonly perceive it.

The equations of classical mechanics are symmetric with respect to time, and equations of quantum mechanics are

typically symmetric if both time and other quantities (such as charge and parity) are reversed. In these models, the

perception of time owing in one direction is an artifact of the laws of thermodynamics (we perceive time as owing

in the direction of increasing entropy).

The best-known treatment of time as a dimension is Poincar and Einstein's special relativity (and extended to general

relativity), which treats perceived space and time as components of a four-dimensional manifold, known as spacetime,

and in the special, at case as Minkowski space.

Extradimensional redirects here. For an album, see Extra Dimensional.

For other uses, see Extradimensional travel and Extra-dimensional black hole.

In physics, three dimensions of space and one of time is the accepted norm. However, there are theories that attempt

to unify the four fundamental forces by introducing extra dimensions. Most notably, superstring theory requires 10

spacetime dimensions, and originates from a more fundamental 11-dimensional theory tentatively called M-theory

which subsumes ve previously distinct superstring theories. To date, no experimental or observational evidence is

available to conrm the existence of these extra dimensions. If extra dimensions exist, they must be hidden from us by

some physical mechanism. One well-studied possibility is that the extra dimensions may be curled up at such tiny

scales as to be eectively invisible to current experiments. Limits on the size and other properties of extra dimensions

are set by particle experiments such as those at the Large Hadron Collider.[8]

50 CHAPTER 15. DIMENSION

At the level of quantum eld theory, KaluzaKlein theory unies gravity with gauge interactions, based on the realiza-

tion that gravity propagating in small, compact extra dimensions is equivalent to gauge interactions at long distances.

In particular when the geometry of the extra dimensions is trivial, it reproduces electromagnetism. However at su-

ciently high energies or short distances, this setup still suers from the same pathologies that famously obstruct direct

attempts to describe quantum gravity. Therefore, these models still require a UV completion, of the kind that string

theory is intended to provide. In particular, superstring theory requires six compact dimensions forming a Calabi

Yau manifold. Thus Kaluza-Klein theory may be considered either as an incomplete description on its own, or as a

subset of string theory model building.

In addition to small and curled up extra dimensions, there may be extra dimensions that instead aren't apparent

because the matter associated with our visible universe is localized on a (3 + 1)-dimensional subspace. Thus the extra

dimensions need not be small and compact but may be large extra dimensions. D-branes are dynamical extended

objects of various dimensionalities predicted by string theory that could play this role. They have the property that

open string excitations, which are associated with gauge interactions, are conned to the brane by their endpoints,

whereas the closed strings that mediate the gravitational interaction are free to propagate into the whole spacetime, or

the bulk. This could be related to why gravity is exponentially weaker than the other forces, as it eectively dilutes

itself as it propagates into a higher-dimensional volume.

Some aspects of brane physics have been applied to cosmology. For example, brane gas cosmology[9][10] attempts to

explain why there are three dimensions of space using topological and thermodynamic considerations. According to

this idea it would be because three is the largest number of spatial dimensions where strings can generically intersect.

If initially there are lots of windings of strings around compact dimensions, space could only expand to macroscopic

sizes once these windings are eliminated, which requires oppositely wound strings to nd each other and annihilate.

But strings can only nd each other to annihilate at a meaningful rate in three dimensions, so it follows that only three

dimensions of space are allowed to grow large given this kind of initial conguration.

Extra dimensions are said to be universal if all elds are equally free to propagate within them.

Some complex networks are characterized by fractal dimensions.[11] The concept of dimension can be generalized to

include networks embedded in space.[12] The dimension characterize their spatial constraints.

15.4 In literature

Science ction texts often mention the concept of dimension when referring to parallel or alternate universes or other

imagined planes of existence. This usage is derived from the idea that to travel to parallel/alternate universes/planes of

existence one must travel in a direction/dimension besides the standard ones. In eect, the other universes/planes are

just a small distance away from our own, but the distance is in a fourth (or higher) spatial (or non-spatial) dimension,

not the standard ones.

One of the most heralded science ction stories regarding true geometric dimensionality, and often recommended as

a starting point for those just starting to investigate such matters, is the 1884 novella Flatland by Edwin A. Abbott.

Isaac Asimov, in his foreword to the Signet Classics 1984 edition, described Flatland as The best introduction one

can nd into the manner of perceiving dimensions.

The idea of other dimensions was incorporated into many early science ction stories, appearing prominently, for

example, in Miles J. Breuer's The Appendix and the Spectacles (1928) and Murray Leinster's The Fifth-Dimension

Catapult (1931); and appeared irregularly in science ction by the 1940s. Classic stories involving other dimensions

include Robert A. Heinlein's And He Built a Crooked House (1941), in which a California architect designs a house

based on a three-dimensional projection of a tesseract; and Alan E. Nourse's Tiger by the Tail and The Universe

Between (both 1951). Another reference is Madeleine L'Engle's novel A Wrinkle In Time (1962), which uses the fth

dimension as a way for tesseracting the universe or folding space in order to move across it quickly. The fourth

and fth dimensions were also a key component of the book The Boy Who Reversed Himself by William Sleator.

15.5. IN PHILOSOPHY 51

15.5 In philosophy

Immanuel Kant, in 1783, wrote: That everywhere space (which is not itself the boundary of another space) has three

dimensions and that space in general cannot have more dimensions is based on the proposition that not more than

three lines can intersect at right angles in one point. This proposition cannot at all be shown from concepts, but rests

immediately on intuition and indeed on pure intuition a priori because it is apodictically (demonstrably) certain.[13]

Space has Four Dimensions is a short story published in 1846 by German philosopher and experimental psychologist

Gustav Fechner under the pseudonym Dr. Mises. The protagonist in the tale is a shadow who is aware of and able

to communicate with other shadows, but who is trapped on a two-dimensional surface. According to Fechner, this

shadow-man would conceive of the third dimension as being one of time.[14] The story bears a strong similarity to

the "Allegory of the Cave" presented in Plato's The Republic (c. 380 BC).

Simon Newcomb wrote an article for the Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society in 1898 entitled The Phi-

losophy of Hyperspace.[15] Linda Dalrymple Henderson coined the term hyperspace philosophy, used to describe

writing that uses higher dimensions to explore metaphysical themes, in her 1983 thesis about the fourth dimension

in early-twentieth-century art.[16] Examples of hyperspace philosophers include Charles Howard Hinton, the rst

writer, in 1888, to use the word tesseract";[17] and the Russian esotericist P. D. Ouspensky.

Degrees of freedom in mechanics / physics and chemistry / statistics

Zero

Point

Zero-dimensional space

Integer

One

Line

Curve

Graph (combinatorics)

Real number

Two

Complex number

Cartesian coordinate system

List of uniform tilings

Surface

Three

Platonic solid

52 CHAPTER 15. DIMENSION

3-manifold

Knots

Four

Spacetime

Fourth spatial dimension

Convex regular 4-polytope

Quaternion

4-manifold

Fourth dimension in art

Fourth dimension in literature

Higher dimensions

in mathematics

Octonion

Vector space

Curse of dimensionality

in physics

KaluzaKlein theory

String theory

M-theory

Innite

Hilbert space

Function space

15.8 References

[1] Curious About Astronomy. Curious.astro.cornell.edu. Archived from the original on 2014-01-11. Retrieved 2014-03-

03.

[3] Yau, S-T and Nadis, S.; The Shape of Inner Space, Basic Books, 2010, Chapter 4.

[4] Fantechi, Barbara (2001), Stacks for everybody (PDF), European Congress of Mathematics Volume I, Progr. Math., 201,

Birkhuser, pp. 349359

[6] Bunde, Armin; Havlin, Shlomo, eds. (1991). Fractals and Disordered Systems. Springer.

[7] Bunde, Armin; Havlin, Shlomo, eds. (1994). Fractals in Science. Springer.

[8] CMS Collaboration, Search for Microscopic Black Hole Signatures at the Large Hadron Collider (arxiv.org)

15.9. FURTHER READING 53

[11] Song, Chaoming; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernn A. (2005). Self-similarity of complex networks. Nature. 433 (7024).

Bibcode:2005Natur.433..392S. arXiv:cond-mat/0503078v1 . doi:10.1038/nature03248.

[12] Daqing, Li; Kosmidis, Kosmas; Bunde, Armin; Havlin, Shlomo (2011). Dimension of spatially embedded networks.

Nature Physics. 7 (6). Bibcode:2011NatPh...7..481D. doi:10.1038/nphys1932.

[13] Prolegomena, 12

[14] Bancho, Thomas F. (1990). From Flatland to Hypergraphics: Interacting with Higher Dimensions. Interdisciplinary

Science Reviews. 15 (4): 364. doi:10.1179/030801890789797239.

[15] Newcomb, Simon (1898). The Philosophy of Hyperspace. Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society. 4 (5): 187.

doi:10.1090/S0002-9904-1898-00478-0.

[16] Kruger, Runette (2007). Art in the Fourth Dimension: Giving Form to Form The Abstract Paintings of Piet Mondrian

(PDF). Spaces of Utopia: an Electronic Journal (5): 11.

[17] Pickover, Cliord A. (2009), Tesseract, The Math Book: From Pythagoras to the 57th Dimension, 250 Milestones in the

History of Mathematics, Sterling Publishing Company, Inc., p. 282, ISBN 9781402757969.

Katta G Murty, Systems of Simultaneous Linear Equations (Chapter 1 of Computational and Algorithmic

Linear Algebra and n-Dimensional Geometry, World Scientic Publishing: 2014 (ISBN 978-981-4366-62-5).

Edwin A. Abbott, Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions (1884) (Public domain: Online version with

ASCII approximation of illustrations at Project Gutenberg).

Thomas Bancho, Beyond the Third Dimension: Geometry, Computer Graphics, and Higher Dimensions, Sec-

ond Edition, W. H. Freeman and Company: 1996.

Cliord A. Pickover, Surng through Hyperspace: Understanding Higher Universes in Six Easy Lessons, Oxford

University Press: 1999.

Kaku, Michio (1994). Hyperspace, a Scientic Odyssey Through the 10th Dimension. Oxford University Press.

ISBN 0-19-286189-1.

Krauss, Lawrence M. (2005). Hiding in the Mirror. Viking Press. ISBN 0670033952.

Copeland, Ed (2009). Extra Dimensions. Sixty Symbols. Brady Haran for the University of Nottingham.

Chapter 16

Exceptional isomorphism

members ai and bj of two families (usually innite) of mathematical objects, that is not an example of a pattern of

such isomorphisms.[note 1] These coincidences are at times considered a matter of trivia,[1] but in other respects they

can give rise to other phenomena, notably exceptional objects.[1] In the below, coincidences are listed in all places

they occur.

16.1 Groups

The exceptional isomorphisms between the series of nite simple groups mostly involve projective special linear

groups and alternating groups, and are:[1]

L2 (4)

= L2 (5)

= A5 , the smallest non-abelian simple group (order 60);

L2 (7)

= L3 (2), the second-smallest non-abelian simple group (order 168) PSL(2,7);

L2 (9)

= A6 ,

L4 (2)

= A8 ,

PSU4 (2)

= PSp4 (3), between a projective special orthogonal group and a projective symplectic group.

In addition to the aforementioned, there are some isomorphisms involving SL, PSL, GL, PGL, and the natural maps

between these. For example, the groups over F5 have a number of exceptional isomorphisms:

PSL(2, 5)

= A5

= I, the alternating group on ve elements, or equivalently the icosahedral group;

PGL(2, 5)

= S5 , the symmetric group on ve elements;

SL(2, 5)

= 2 A5

= 2I, the double cover of the alternating group A5 , or equivalently the binary icosahedral

group.

There are coincidences between alternating groups and small groups of Lie type:

L2 (4)

= L2 (5)

= A5 ,

54

16.1. GROUPS 55

The compound of ve tetrahedra expresses the exceptional isomorphism between the icosahedral group and the alternating group on

ve letters.

L2 (9)

= Sp4 (2)

= A6 ,

Sp4 (2)

= S6 ,

L4 (2)

= O6 (+, 2)

= A8 ,

O6 (+, 2)

= S8 .

These can all be explained in a systematic way by using linear algebra (and the action of Sn on ane n -space) to

dene the isomorphism going from the right side to the left side. (The above isomorphisms for A8 and S8 are linked

via the exceptional isomorphism SL4 /2 = SO6 .) There are also some coincidences with symmetries of regular

polyhedra: the alternating group A5 agrees with the icosahedral group (itself an exceptional object), and the double

cover of the alternating group A5 is the binary icosahedral group.

Cyclic groups of small order especially arise in various ways, for instance:

C2

= {1}

= O(1)

= Spin(1)

= Z , the last being the group of units of the integers

56 CHAPTER 16. EXCEPTIONAL ISOMORPHISM

16.1.5 Spheres

The spheres S0 , S1 , and S3 admit group structures, which arise in various ways:

S0

= O(1) ,

S1

= SO(2)

= U(1)

= Spin(2) ,

S3

= Spin(3)

= SU(2)

= Sp(1) .

B2 C2

A3 D3

A4 E 4

D5 E 5

16.2. LIE THEORY 57

There are some exceptional isomorphisms of Coxeter diagrams, yielding isomorphisms of the corresponding Coxeter

groups and of polytopes realizing the symmetries. These are:

BC2 = I2(4) (2-cube (square) = 2-cross-polytope (diamond) = regular 4-gon)

A3 = D3 (3-simplex (tetrahedron) is 3-demihypercube (demicube), as per diagram)

A1 = B1 = C1 (= D1?)

D2 = A1 A1

A4 = E4

D5 = E5

In low dimensions, there are isomorphisms among the classical Lie algebras and classical Lie groups called acciden-

tal isomorphisms. For instance, there are isomorphisms between low-dimensional spin groups and certain classical

Lie groups, due to low-dimensional isomorphisms between the root systems of the dierent families of simple Lie

algebras, visible as isomorphisms of the corresponding Dynkin diagrams:

Trivially, A0 = B0 = C0 = D0

A1 = B1 = C1, or sl2

= so3

= sp1

B2 = C2, or so5

= sp2

D2 = A1 A1, or so4

= sl2 sl2 ; note that these are disconnected, but part of the D-series

A3 = D3 sl4

= so6

A4 = E4; the E-series usually starts at 6, but can be started at 4, yielding isomorphisms

D5 = E5

Spin(1) = O(1)

Spin(2) = U(1) = SO(2)

Spin(3) = Sp(1) = SU(2)

Spin(4) = Sp(1) Sp(1)

Spin(5) = Sp(2)

Spin(6) = SU(4)

Exceptional object

Mathematical coincidence, for numerical coincidences

16.4 Notes

[1] Because these series of objects are presented dierently, they are not identical objects (do not have identical descriptions),

but turn out to describe the same object, hence one refers to this as an isomorphism, not an equality (identity).

58 CHAPTER 16. EXCEPTIONAL ISOMORPHISM

16.5 References

[1] Wilson, Robert A. (2009), Chapter 1: Introduction, The nite simple groups, Graduate Texts in Mathematics 251, 251,

Berlin, New York: Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-1-84800-987-5, Zbl 1203.20012, doi:10.1007/978-1-84800-988-2, 2007

preprint; Chapter doi:10.1007/978-1-84800-988-2_1.

Chapter 17

Fiber (mathematics)

In mathematics, the term ber (or bre in British English) can have two meanings, depending on the context:

1. In naive set theory, the ber of the element y in the set Y under a map f : X Y is the inverse image of the

singleton {y} under f.

2. In algebraic geometry, the notion of a ber of a morphism of schemes must be dened more carefully because,

in general, not every point is closed.

17.1 Denitions

Let f : X Y be a map. The ber of an element y Y , commonly denoted by f 1 (y) , is dened as

the preimage of {y} under the map f

the level set of the function f at the point y.

The term level set is only used if f maps into the real numbers and so y is simply a number. If f is a continuous

function and if y is in the image of f, then the level set of y under f is a curve in 2D, a surface in 3D, and more

generally a hypersurface of dimension d-1.

In algebraic geometry, if f : X Y is a morphism of schemes, the ber of a point p in Y is the bered product

X Y Spec k(p) where k(p) is the residue eld at p.

The recommended practice is to use the terms ber, inverse image, preimage, and level set as follows:

59

60 CHAPTER 17. FIBER (MATHEMATICS)

the preimage of the set {y} under the map f

the level set of the function f at the point y.

By abuse of language, the following terminology is sometimes used but should be avoided:

the inverse image of the map f at the element y

the preimage of the map f at the element y

the level set of the point y under the map f.

Fibration

Fiber bundle

Fiber product

Image (category theory)

Image (mathematics)

Inverse relation

Kernel (mathematics)

Level set

Preimage

Relation

Zero set

Chapter 18

Finitary relation

This article is about the set-theoretic notion of relation. For the common case, see binary relation.

For other uses, see Relation (disambiguation).

In mathematics, a nitary relation has a nite number of places. In set theory and logic, a relation is a property

that assigns truth values to k -tuples of individuals. Typically, the property describes a possible connection between

the components of a k -tuple. For a given set of k -tuples, a truth value is assigned to each k -tuple according to

whether the property does or does not hold.

An example of a ternary relation (i.e., between three individuals) is: " X was introduced to Y by Z ", where (X, Y, Z)

is a 3-tuple of persons; for example, "Beatrice Wood was introduced to Henri-Pierre Roch by Marcel Duchamp" is

true, while "Karl Marx was introduced to Friedrich Engels by Queen Victoria" is false.

Relation is formally dened in the next section. In this section we introduce the concept of a relation with a familiar

everyday example. Consider the relation involving three roles that people might play, expressed in a statement of the

form "X thinks that Y likes Z ". The facts of a concrete situation could be organized in a table like the following:

Each row of the table records a fact or makes an assertion of the form "X thinks that Y likes Z ". For instance, the

rst row says, in eect, Alice thinks that Bob likes Denise. The table represents a relation S over the set P of people

under discussion:

The data of the table are equivalent to the following set of ordered triples:

S = {(Alice, Bob, Denise), (Charles, Alice, Bob), (Charles, Charles, Alice), (Denise, Denise, Denise)}.

By a slight abuse of notation, it is usual to write S(Alice, Bob, Denise) to say the same thing as the rst row of

the table. The relation S is a ternary relation, since there are three items involved in each row. The relation itself

is a mathematical object dened in terms of concepts from set theory (i.e., the relation is a subset of the Cartesian

product on {Person X, Person Y, Person Z}), that carries all of the information from the table in one neat package.

Mathematically, then, a relation is simply an ordered set.

The table for relation S is an extremely simple example of a relational database. The theoretical aspects of databases

are the specialty of one branch of computer science, while their practical impacts have become all too familiar in our

everyday lives. Computer scientists, logicians, and mathematicians, however, tend to see dierent things when they

look at these concrete examples and samples of the more general concept of a relation.

For one thing, databases are designed to deal with empirical data, and experience is always nite, whereas mathematics

at the very least concerns itself with potential innity. This dierence in perspective brings up a number of ideas that

may be usefully introduced at this point, if by no means covered in depth.

61

62 CHAPTER 18. FINITARY RELATION

The variable k giving the number of "places" in the relation, 3 for the above example, is a non-negative integer,

called the relations arity, adicity, or dimension. A relation with k places is variously called a k -ary, a k -adic, or

a k -dimensional relation. Relations with a nite number of places are called nite-place or nitary relations. It

is possible to generalize the concept to include innitary relations between innitudes of individuals, for example

innite sequences; however, in this article only nitary relations are discussed, which will from now on simply be

called relations.

Since there is only one 0-tuple, the so-called empty tuple ( ), there are only two zero-place relations: the one that

always holds, and the one that never holds. They are sometimes useful for constructing the base case of an induction

argument. One-place relations are called unary relations. For instance, any set (such as the collection of Nobel

laureates) can be viewed as a collection of individuals having some property (such as that of having been awarded

the Nobel prize). Two-place relations are called binary relations or, in the past, dyadic relations. Binary relations are

very common, given the ubiquity of relations such as:

Equality and inequality, denoted by signs such as ' = ' and ' < ' in statements like ' 5 < 12 ';

Being a divisor of, denoted by the sign ' | ' in statements like ' 13 | 143 ';

Set membership, denoted by the sign ' ' in statements like ' 1 N '.

When two objects, qualities, classes, or attributes, viewed together by the mind, are seen under some

connexion, that connexion is called a relation.

Augustus De Morgan[1]

The simpler of the two denitions of k-place relations encountered in mathematics is:

Denition 1. A relation L over the sets X1 , , Xk is a subset of their Cartesian product, written L X1 Xk.

Relations are classied according to the number of sets in the dening Cartesian product, in other words, according

to the number of terms following L. Hence:

Luv or uLv denote a binary relation;

Luvw denotes a ternary relation;

Luvwx denotes a quaternary relation.

Relations with more than four terms are usually referred to as k-ary or n-ary, for example, a 5-ary relation. A k-ary

relation is simply a set of k-tuples.

The second denition makes use of an idiom that is common in mathematics, stipulating that such and such is an

n-tuple in order to ensure that such and such a mathematical object is determined by the specication of n component

mathematical objects. In the case of a relation L over k sets, there are k + 1 things to specify, namely, the k sets plus

a subset of their Cartesian product. In the idiom, this is expressed by saying that L is a (k + 1)-tuple.

Denition 2. A relation L over the sets X1 , , Xk is a (k + 1)-tuple L = (X1 , , Xk, G(L)), where G(L) is a subset

of the Cartesian product X1 Xk. G(L) is called the graph of L.

Elements of a relation are more briey denoted by using boldface characters, for example, the constant element a =

(a1 , , ak) or the variable element x = (x1 , , xk).

A statement of the form "a is in the relation L " or "a satises L " is taken to mean that a is in L under the rst

denition and that a is in G(L) under the second denition.

The following considerations apply under either denition:

18.4. HISTORY 63

The sets Xj for j = 1 to k are called the domains of the relation. Under the rst denition, the relation does not

uniquely determine a given sequence of domains.

If all of the domains Xj are the same set X, then it is simpler to refer to L as a k-ary relation over X.

If any of the domains Xj is empty, then the dening Cartesian product is empty, and the only relation over such

a sequence of domains is the empty relation L = . Hence it is commonly stipulated that all of the domains

be nonempty.

As a rule, whatever denition best ts the application at hand will be chosen for that purpose, and anything that falls

under it will be called a relation for the duration of that discussion. If it becomes necessary to distinguish the two

denitions, an entity satisfying the second denition may be called an embedded or included relation.

If L is a relation over the domains X1 , , Xk, it is conventional to consider a sequence of terms called variables, x1 ,

, xk, that are said to range over the respective domains.

Let a Boolean domain B be a two-element set, say, B = {0, 1}, whose elements can be interpreted as logical values,

typically 0 = false and 1 = true. The characteristic function of the relation L, written L or (L), is the Boolean-valued

function L : X1 Xk B, dened in such a way that L( x ) = 1 just in case the k-tuple x is in the relation L.

Such a function can also be called an indicator function, particularly in probability and statistics, to avoid confusion

with the notion of a characteristic function in probability theory.

It is conventional in applied mathematics, computer science, and statistics to refer to a Boolean-valued function like L

as a k-place predicate. From the more abstract viewpoint of formal logic and model theory, the relation L constitutes

a logical model or a relational structure that serves as one of many possible interpretations of some k-place predicate

symbol.

Because relations arise in many scientic disciplines as well as in many branches of mathematics and logic, there

is considerable variation in terminology. This article treats a relation as the set-theoretic extension of a relational

concept or term. A variant usage reserves the term relation to the corresponding logical entity, either the logical

comprehension, which is the totality of intensions or abstract properties that all of the elements of the relation in

extension have in common, or else the symbols that are taken to denote these elements and intensions. Further, some

writers of the latter persuasion introduce terms with more concrete connotations, like relational structure, for the

set-theoretic extension of a given relational concept.

18.4 History

The logician Augustus De Morgan, in work published around 1860, was the rst to articulate the notion of relation

in anything like its present sense. He also stated the rst formal results in the theory of relations (on De Morgan and

relations, see Merrill 1990). Charles Sanders Peirce restated and extended De Morgans results. Bertrand Russell

(1938; 1st ed. 1903) was historically important, in that it brought together in one place many 19th century results on

relations, especially orders, by Peirce, Gottlob Frege, Georg Cantor, Richard Dedekind, and others. Russell and A.

N. Whitehead made free use of these results in their Principia Mathematica.

18.5 Notes

[1] De Morgan, A. (1858) On the syllogism, part 3 in Heath, P., ed. (1966) On the syllogism and other logical writings.

Routledge. P. 119,

Correspondence (mathematics)

Functional relation

Incidence structure

Hypergraph

64 CHAPTER 18. FINITARY RELATION

Logic of relatives

Logical matrix

Partial order

Projection (set theory)

Reexive relation

Relation algebra

Sign relation

Transitive relation

Relational algebra

Relational model

Predicate (mathematical logic)

18.7 References

Peirce, C.S. (1870), Description of a Notation for the Logic of Relatives, Resulting from an Amplication

of the Conceptions of Booles Calculus of Logic, Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 9,

31778, 1870. Reprinted, Collected Papers CP 3.45149, Chronological Edition CE 2, 359429.

Ulam, S.M. and Bednarek, A.R. (1990), On the Theory of Relational Structures and Schemata for Parallel

Computation, pp. 477508 in A.R. Bednarek and Franoise Ulam (eds.), Analogies Between Analogies: The

Mathematical Reports of S.M. Ulam and His Los Alamos Collaborators, University of California Press, Berkeley,

CA.

18.8 Bibliography

Bourbaki, N. (1994) Elements of the History of Mathematics, John Meldrum, trans. Springer-Verlag.

Carnap, Rudolf (1958) Introduction to Symbolic Logic with Applications. Dover Publications.

Halmos, P.R. (1960) Naive Set Theory. Princeton NJ: D. Van Nostrand Company.

Lawvere, F.W., and R. Rosebrugh (2003) Sets for Mathematics, Cambridge Univ. Press.

Lucas, J. R. (1999) Conceptual Roots of Mathematics. Routledge.

Maddux, R.D. (2006) Relation Algebras, vol. 150 in 'Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics.

Elsevier Science.

Merrill, Dan D. (1990) Augustus De Morgan and the logic of relations. Kluwer.

Peirce, C.S. (1984) Writings of Charles S. Peirce: A Chronological Edition, Volume 2, 1867-1871. Peirce

Edition Project, eds. Indiana University Press.

Russell, Bertrand (1903/1938) The Principles of Mathematics, 2nd ed. Cambridge Univ. Press.

Suppes, Patrick (1960/1972) Axiomatic Set Theory. Dover Publications.

Tarski, A. (1956/1983) Logic, Semantics, Metamathematics, Papers from 1923 to 1938, J.H. Woodger, trans.

1st edition, Oxford University Press. 2nd edition, J. Corcoran, ed. Indianapolis IN: Hackett Publishing.

Ulam, S.M. (1990) Analogies Between Analogies: The Mathematical Reports of S.M. Ulam and His Los Alamos

Collaborators in A.R. Bednarek and Franoise Ulam, eds., University of California Press.

R. Frass, Theory of Relations (North Holland; 2000).

Chapter 19

Homogeneous relation

Relation (mathematics)" redirects here. For a more general notion of relation, see nitary relation. For a more

combinatorial viewpoint, see theory of relations. For other uses, see Relation (disambiguation).

In mathematics, a binary relation on a set A is a collection of ordered pairs of elements of A. In other words, it is a

subset of the Cartesian product A2 = A A. More generally, a binary relation between two sets A and B is a subset

of A B. The terms correspondence, dyadic relation and 2-place relation are synonyms for binary relation.

An example is the "divides" relation between the set of prime numbers P and the set of integers Z, in which every

prime p is associated with every integer z that is a multiple of p (but with no integer that is not a multiple of p). In

this relation, for instance, the prime 2 is associated with numbers that include 4, 0, 6, 10, but not 1 or 9; and the

prime 3 is associated with numbers that include 0, 6, and 9, but not 4 or 13.

Binary relations are used in many branches of mathematics to model concepts like "is greater than", "is equal to", and

divides in arithmetic, "is congruent to" in geometry, is adjacent to in graph theory, is orthogonal to in linear

algebra and many more. The concept of function is dened as a special kind of binary relation. Binary relations are

also heavily used in computer science.

A binary relation is the special case n = 2 of an n-ary relation R A1 An, that is, a set of n-tuples where the

jth component of each n-tuple is taken from the jth domain Aj of the relation. An example for a ternary relation on

ZZZ is " ... lies between ... and ..., containing e.g. the triples (5,2,8), (5,8,2), and (4,9,7).

In some systems of axiomatic set theory, relations are extended to classes, which are generalizations of sets. This

extension is needed for, among other things, modeling the concepts of is an element of or is a subset of in set

theory, without running into logical inconsistencies such as Russells paradox.

A binary relation R between arbitrary sets (or classes) X (the set of departure) and Y (the set of destination or

codomain) is specied by its graph G, which is a subset of the Cartesian product X Y. The binary relation R itself

is usually identied with its graph G, but some authors dene it as an ordered triple (X, Y, G), which is otherwise

referred to as a correspondence.[1]

The statement (x, y) G is read "x is R-related to y", and is denoted by xRy or R(x, y). The latter notation corresponds

to viewing R as the characteristic function of the subset G of X Y, i.e. R(x, y) equals to 1 (true), if (x, y) G, and

0 (false) otherwise.

The order of the elements in each pair of G is important: if a b, then aRb and bRa can be true or false, independently

of each other. Resuming the above example, the prime 3 divides the integer 9, but 9 doesn't divide 3.

The domain of R is the set of all x such that xRy for at least one y. The range of R is the set of all y such that xRy

for at least one x. The eld of R is the union of its domain and its range.[2][3][4]

65

66 CHAPTER 19. HOMOGENEOUS RELATION

According to the denition above, two relations with identical graphs but dierent domains or dierent codomains

are considered dierent. For example, if G = {(1, 2), (1, 3), (2, 7)} , then (Z, Z, G) , (R, N, G) , and (N, R, G) are

three distinct relations, where Z is the set of integers, R is the set of real numbers and N is the set of natural numbers.

Especially in set theory, binary relations are often dened as sets of ordered pairs, identifying binary relations with

their graphs. The domain of a binary relation R is then dened as the set of all x such that there exists at least one

y such that (x, y) R , the range of R is dened as the set of all y such that there exists at least one x such that

(x, y) R , and the eld of R is the union of its domain and its range.[2][3][4]

A special case of this dierence in points of view applies to the notion of function. Many authors insist on distin-

guishing between a functions codomain and its range. Thus, a single rule, like mapping every real number x to

x2 , can lead to distinct functions f : R R and f : R R+ , depending on whether the images under that

rule are understood to be reals or, more restrictively, non-negative reals. But others view functions as simply sets of

ordered pairs with unique rst components. This dierence in perspectives does raise some nontrivial issues. As an

example, the former camp considers surjectivityor being ontoas a property of functions, while the latter sees it

as a relationship that functions may bear to sets.

Either approach is adequate for most uses, provided that one attends to the necessary changes in language, notation,

and the denitions of concepts like restrictions, composition, inverse relation, and so on. The choice between the two

denitions usually matters only in very formal contexts, like category theory.

19.1.2 Example

Example: Suppose there are four objects {ball, car, doll, gun} and four persons {John, Mary, Ian, Venus}. Suppose

that John owns the ball, Mary owns the doll, and Venus owns the car. Nobody owns the gun and Ian owns nothing.

Then the binary relation is owned by is given as

R = ({ball, car, doll, gun}, {John, Mary, Ian, Venus}, {(ball, John), (doll, Mary), (car, Venus)}).

Thus the rst element of R is the set of objects, the second is the set of persons, and the last element is a set of ordered

pairs of the form (object, owner).

The pair (ball, John), denoted by RJ means that the ball is owned by John.

Two dierent relations could have the same graph. For example: the relation

({ball, car, doll, gun}, {John, Mary, Venus}, {(ball, John), (doll, Mary), (car, Venus)})

is dierent from the previous one as everyone is an owner. But the graphs of the two relations are the same.

Nevertheless, R is usually identied or even dened as G(R) and an ordered pair (x, y) G(R)" is usually denoted as

"(x, y) R".[5]

Some important types of binary relations R between two sets X and Y are listed below. To emphasize that X and Y

can be dierent sets, some authors call such binary relations heterogeneous.[6][7]

Uniqueness properties:

injective (also called left-unique[8] ): for all x and z in X and y in Y it holds that if xRy and zRy then x = z. For

example, the green relation in the diagram is injective, but the red relation is not, as it relates e.g. both x = 5

and z = +5 to y = 25.

functional (also called univalent[9] or right-unique[8] or right-denite[10] ): for all x in X, and y and z in Y

it holds that if xRy and xRz then y = z; such a binary relation is called a partial function. Both relations in

the picture are functional. An example for a non-functional relation can be obtained by rotating the red graph

clockwise by 90 degrees, i.e. by considering the relation x=y2 which relates e.g. x=25 to both y=5 and z=+5.

19.2. SPECIAL TYPES OF BINARY RELATIONS 67

one-to-one (also written 1-to-1): injective and functional. The green relation is one-to-one, but the red is not.

Totality properties (only denable if the sets of departure X resp. destination Y are specied; not to be confused with

a total relation):

left-total:[8] for all x in X there exists a y in Y such that xRy. For example, R is left-total when it is a function

or a multivalued function. Note that this property, although sometimes also referred to as total, is dierent

from the denition of total in the next section. Both relations in the picture are left-total. The relation x=y2 ,

obtained from the above rotation, is not left-total, as it doesn't relate, e.g., x = 14 to any real number y.

surjective (also called right-total[8] or onto): for all y in Y there exists an x in X such that xRy. The green

relation is surjective, but the red relation is not, as it doesn't relate any real number x to e.g. y = 14.

68 CHAPTER 19. HOMOGENEOUS RELATION

A function: a relation that is functional and left-total. Both the green and the red relation are functions.

A bijection: a surjective one-to-one or surjective injective function is said to be bijective, also known as

one-to-one correspondence.[11] The green relation is bijective, but the red is not.

19.2.1 Difunctional

Less commonly encountered is the notion of difunctional (or regular) relation, dened as a relation R such that

R=RR1 R.[12]

To understand this notion better, it helps to consider a relation as mapping every element xX to a set xR = { yY

| xRy }.[12] This set is sometimes called the successor neighborhood of x in R; one can dene the predecessor

neighborhood analogously.[13] Synonymous terms for these notions are afterset and respectively foreset.[6]

A difunctional relation can then be equivalently characterized as a relation R such that wherever x1 R and x2 R have a

non-empty intersection, then these two sets coincide; formally x1 R x2 R implies x1 R = x2 R.[12]

As examples, any function or any functional (right-unique) relation is difunctional; the converse doesn't hold. If one

considers a relation R from set to itself (X = Y), then if R is both transitive and symmetric (i.e. a partial equivalence

relation), then it is also difunctional.[14] The converse of this latter statement also doesn't hold.

A characterization of difunctional relations, which also explains their name, is to consider two functions f: A C

and g: B C and then dene the following set which generalizes the kernel of a single function as joint kernel: ker(f,

g) = { (a, b) A B | f(a) = g(b) }. Every difunctional relation R A B arises as the joint kernel of two functions

f: A C and g: B C for some set C.[15]

In automata theory, the term rectangular relation has also been used to denote a difunctional relation. This ter-

minology is justied by the fact that when represented as a boolean matrix, the columns and rows of a difunctional

relation can be arranged in such a way as to present rectangular blocks of true on the (asymmetric) main diagonal.[16]

Other authors however use the term rectangular to denote any heterogeneous relation whatsoever.[7]

If X = Y then we simply say that the binary relation is over X, or that it is an endorelation over X.[17] In computer

science, such a relation is also called a homogeneous (binary) relation.[7][17][18] Some types of endorelations are

widely studied in graph theory, where they are known as simple directed graphs permitting loops.

The set of all binary relations Rel(X) on a set X is the set 2X X which is a Boolean algebra augmented with the

involution of mapping of a relation to its inverse relation. For the theoretical explanation see Relation algebra.

Some important properties that a binary relation R over a set X may have are:

reexive: for all x in X it holds that xRx. For example, greater than or equal to () is a reexive relation but

greater than (>) is not.

irreexive (or strict): for all x in X it holds that not xRx. For example, > is an irreexive relation, but is not.

coreexive relation: for all x and y in X it holds that if xRy then x = y.[19] An example of a coreexive relation

is the relation on integers in which each odd number is related to itself and there are no other relations. The

equality relation is the only example of a both reexive and coreexive relation, and any coreexive relation is

a subset of the identity relation.

The previous 3 alternatives are far from being exhaustive; e.g. the red relation y=x2 from the

above picture is neither irreexive, nor coreexive, nor reexive, since it contains the pair

(0,0), and (2,4), but not (2,2), respectively.

19.4. OPERATIONS ON BINARY RELATIONS 69

symmetric: for all x and y in X it holds that if xRy then yRx. Is a blood relative of is a symmetric relation,

because x is a blood relative of y if and only if y is a blood relative of x.

antisymmetric: for all x and y in X, if xRy and yRx then x = y. For example, is anti-symmetric; so is >, but

vacuously (the condition in the denition is always false).[20]

asymmetric: for all x and y in X, if xRy then not yRx. A relation is asymmetric if and only if it is both

anti-symmetric and irreexive.[21] For example, > is asymmetric, but is not.

transitive: for all x, y and z in X it holds that if xRy and yRz then xRz. For example, is ancestor of is transitive,

while is parent of is not. A transitive relation is irreexive if and only if it is asymmetric.[22]

total: for all x and y in X it holds that xRy or yRx (or both). This denition for total is dierent from left total

in the previous section. For example, is a total relation.

trichotomous: for all x and y in X exactly one of xRy, yRx or x = y holds. For example, > is a trichotomous

relation, while the relation divides on natural numbers is not.[23]

Right Euclidean: for all x, y and z in X it holds that if xRy and xRz, then yRz.

Left Euclidean: for all x, y and z in X it holds that if yRx and zRx, then yRz.

Euclidean: A Euclidean relation is both left and right Euclidean. Equality is a Euclidean relation because if

x=y and x=z, then y=z.

serial: for all x in X, there exists y in X such that xRy. "Is greater than" is a serial relation on the integers. But

it is not a serial relation on the positive integers, because there is no y in the positive integers such that 1>y.[24]

However, "is less than" is a serial relation on the positive integers, the rational numbers and the real numbers.

Every reexive relation is serial: for a given x, choose y=x. A serial relation can be equivalently characterized

as every element having a non-empty successor neighborhood (see the previous section for the denition of this

notion). Similarly an inverse serial relation is a relation in which every element has non-empty predecessor

neighborhood.[13]

set-like (or local): for every x in X, the class of all y such that yRx is a set. (This makes sense only if relations

on proper classes are allowed.) The usual ordering < on the class of ordinal numbers is set-like, while its inverse

> is not.

A relation that is reexive, symmetric, and transitive is called an equivalence relation. A relation that is symmetric,

transitive, and serial is also reexive. A relation that is only symmetric and transitive (without necessarily being

reexive) is called a partial equivalence relation.

A relation that is reexive, antisymmetric, and transitive is called a partial order. A partial order that is total is called

a total order, simple order, linear order, or a chain.[25] A linear order where every nonempty subset has a least element

is called a well-order.

If R, S are binary relations over X and Y, then each of the following is a binary relation over X and Y:

Union: R S X Y, dened as R S = { (x, y) | (x, y) R or (x, y) S }. For example, is the union of >

and =.

If R is a binary relation over X and Y, and S is a binary relation over Y and Z, then the following is a binary relation

over X and Z: (see main article composition of relations)

70 CHAPTER 19. HOMOGENEOUS RELATION

Composition: S R, also denoted R ; S (or R S), dened as S R = { (x, z) | there exists y Y, such that (x, y)

R and (y, z) S }. The order of R and S in the notation S R, used here agrees with the standard notational

order for composition of functions. For example, the composition is mother of is parent of yields is

maternal grandparent of, while the composition is parent of is mother of yields is grandmother of.

A relation R on sets X and Y is said to be contained in a relation S on X and Y if R is a subset of S, that is, if x R y

always implies x S y. In this case, if R and S disagree, R is also said to be smaller than S. For example, > is contained

in .

If R is a binary relation over X and Y, then the following is a binary relation over Y and X:

Inverse or converse: R 1 , dened as R 1 = { (y, x) | (x, y) R }. A binary relation over a set is equal to its

inverse if and only if it is symmetric. See also duality (order theory). For example, is less than (<) is the

inverse of is greater than (>).

If R is a binary relation over X, then each of the following is a binary relation over X:

Reexive closure: R = , dened as R = = { (x, x) | x X } R or the smallest reexive relation over X containing

R. This can be proven to be equal to the intersection of all reexive relations containing R.

Reexive reduction: R , dened as R

= R \ { (x, x) | x X } or the largest irreexive relation over X

contained in R.

Transitive closure: R + , dened as the smallest transitive relation over X containing R. This can be seen to be

equal to the intersection of all transitive relations containing R.

Reexive transitive closure: R *, dened as R * = (R + ) = , the smallest preorder containing R.

Reexive transitive symmetric closure: R , dened as the smallest equivalence relation over X containing

R.

19.4.1 Complement

If R is a binary relation over X and Y, then the following too:

The complement S is dened as x S y if not x R y. For example, on real numbers, is the complement of >.

If X = Y, the complement has the following properties:

The complement of a reexive relation is irreexive and vice versa.

The complement of a strict weak order is a total preorder and vice versa.

19.4.2 Restriction

The restriction of a binary relation on a set X to a subset S is the set of all pairs (x, y) in the relation for which x and

y are in S.

If a relation is reexive, irreexive, symmetric, antisymmetric, asymmetric, transitive, total, trichotomous, a partial

order, total order, strict weak order, total preorder (weak order), or an equivalence relation, its restrictions are too.

However, the transitive closure of a restriction is a subset of the restriction of the transitive closure, i.e., in general

not equal. For example, restricting the relation "x is parent of y" to females yields the relation "x is mother of

the woman y"; its transitive closure doesn't relate a woman with her paternal grandmother. On the other hand, the

19.5. SETS VERSUS CLASSES 71

transitive closure of is parent of is is ancestor of"; its restriction to females does relate a woman with her paternal

grandmother.

Also, the various concepts of completeness (not to be confused with being total) do not carry over to restrictions.

For example, on the set of real numbers a property of the relation "" is that every non-empty subset S of R with an

upper bound in R has a least upper bound (also called supremum) in R. However, for a set of rational numbers this

supremum is not necessarily rational, so the same property does not hold on the restriction of the relation "" to the

set of rational numbers.

The left-restriction (right-restriction, respectively) of a binary relation between X and Y to a subset S of its domain

(codomain) is the set of all pairs (x, y) in the relation for which x (y) is an element of S.

Various operations on binary endorelations can be treated as giving rise to an algebraic structure, known as relation

algebra. It should not be confused with relational algebra which deals in nitary relations (and in practice also nite

and many-sorted).

For heterogenous binary relations, a category of relations arises.[7]

Despite their simplicity, binary relations are at the core of an abstract computation model known as an abstract

rewriting system.

Certain mathematical relations, such as equal to, member of, and subset of, cannot be understood to be binary

relations as dened above, because their domains and codomains cannot be taken to be sets in the usual systems of

axiomatic set theory. For example, if we try to model the general concept of equality as a binary relation =, we

must take the domain and codomain to be the class of all sets, which is not a set in the usual set theory.

In most mathematical contexts, references to the relations of equality, membership and subset are harmless because

they can be understood implicitly to be restricted to some set in the context. The usual work-around to this problem

is to select a large enough set A, that contains all the objects of interest, and work with the restriction =A instead of

=. Similarly, the subset of relation needs to be restricted to have domain and codomain P(A) (the power set of

a specic set A): the resulting set relation can be denoted A. Also, the member of relation needs to be restricted

to have domain A and codomain P(A) to obtain a binary relation A that is a set. Bertrand Russell has shown that

assuming to be dened on all sets leads to a contradiction in naive set theory.

Another solution to this problem is to use a set theory with proper classes, such as NBG or MorseKelley set theory,

and allow the domain and codomain (and so the graph) to be proper classes: in such a theory, equality, membership,

and subset are binary relations without special comment. (A minor modication needs to be made to the concept of

the ordered triple (X, Y, G), as normally a proper class cannot be a member of an ordered tuple; or of course one

can identify the function with its graph in this context.)[26] With this denition one can for instance dene a function

relation between every set and its power set.

2

The number of distinct binary relations on an n-element set is 2n (sequence A002416 in the OEIS):

Notes:

The number of strict partial orders (irreexive transitive relations) is the same as that of partial orders.

The number of strict weak orders is the same as that of total preorders.

The total orders are the partial orders that are also total preorders. The number of preorders that are neither

a partial order nor a total preorder is, therefore, the number of preorders, minus the number of partial orders,

minus the number of total preorders, plus the number of total orders: 0, 0, 0, 3, and 85, respectively.

72 CHAPTER 19. HOMOGENEOUS RELATION

the number of equivalence relations is the number of partitions, which is the Bell number.

The binary relations can be grouped into pairs (relation, complement), except that for n = 0 the relation is its own

complement. The non-symmetric ones can be grouped into quadruples (relation, complement, inverse, inverse com-

plement).

order relations, including strict orders:

greater than

greater than or equal to

less than

less than or equal to

divides (evenly)

is a subset of

equivalence relations:

equality

is parallel to (for ane spaces)

is in bijection with

isomorphy

independency relation, a symmetric, irreexive relation which is the complement of some dependency relation.

Conuence (term rewriting)

Hasse diagram

Incidence structure

Logic of relatives

Order theory

Triadic relation

19.9 Notes

[1] Encyclopedic dictionary of Mathematics. MIT. 2000. pp. 13301331. ISBN 0-262-59020-4.

[2] Suppes, Patrick (1972) [originally published by D. van Nostrand Company in 1960]. Axiomatic Set Theory. Dover. ISBN

0-486-61630-4.

[3] Smullyan, Raymond M.; Fitting, Melvin (2010) [revised and corrected republication of the work originally published in

1996 by Oxford University Press, New York]. Set Theory and the Continuum Problem. Dover. ISBN 978-0-486-47484-7.

[4] Levy, Azriel (2002) [republication of the work published by Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg and New York in 1979].

Basic Set Theory. Dover. ISBN 0-486-42079-5.

[5] Megill, Norman (5 August 1993). df-br (Metamath Proof Explorer)". Retrieved 18 November 2016.

19.9. NOTES 73

[6] Christodoulos A. Floudas; Panos M. Pardalos (2008). Encyclopedia of Optimization (2nd ed.). Springer Science & Business

Media. pp. 299300. ISBN 978-0-387-74758-3.

[7] Michael Winter (2007). Goguen Categories: A Categorical Approach to L-fuzzy Relations. Springer. pp. xxi. ISBN

978-1-4020-6164-6.

[8] Kilp, Knauer and Mikhalev: p. 3. The same four denitions appear in the following:

Peter J. Pahl; Rudolf Damrath (2001). Mathematical Foundations of Computational Engineering: A Handbook.

Springer Science & Business Media. p. 506. ISBN 978-3-540-67995-0.

Eike Best (1996). Semantics of Sequential and Parallel Programs. Prentice Hall. pp. 1921. ISBN 978-0-13-

460643-9.

Robert-Christoph Riemann (1999). Modelling of Concurrent Systems: Structural and Semantical Methods in the High

Level Petri Net Calculus. Herbert Utz Verlag. pp. 2122. ISBN 978-3-89675-629-9.

[9] Gunther Schmidt, 2010. Relational Mathematics. Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-76268-7, Chapt. 5

[10] Ms, Stephan (2007), Reasoning on Spatial Semantic Integrity Constraints, Spatial Information Theory: 8th International

Conference, COSIT 2007, Melbourne, Australia, September 1923, 2007, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science,

4736, Springer, pp. 285302, doi:10.1007/978-3-540-74788-8_18

[11] Note that the use of correspondence here is narrower than as general synonym for binary relation.

[12] Chris Brink; Wolfram Kahl; Gunther Schmidt (1997). Relational Methods in Computer Science. Springer Science &

Business Media. p. 200. ISBN 978-3-211-82971-4.

[13] Yao, Y. (2004). Semantics of Fuzzy Sets in Rough Set Theory. Transactions on Rough Sets II. Lecture Notes in Computer

Science. 3135. p. 309. ISBN 978-3-540-23990-1. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-27778-1_15.

[14] William Craig (2006). Semigroups Underlying First-order Logic. American Mathematical Soc. p. 72. ISBN 978-0-8218-

6588-0.

[15] Gumm, H. P.; Zarrad, M. (2014). Coalgebraic Simulations and Congruences. Coalgebraic Methods in Computer Science.

Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 8446. p. 118. ISBN 978-3-662-44123-7. doi:10.1007/978-3-662-44124-4_7.

[16] Julius Richard Bchi (1989). Finite Automata, Their Algebras and Grammars: Towards a Theory of Formal Expressions.

Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 3537. ISBN 978-1-4613-8853-1.

[17] M. E. Mller (2012). Relational Knowledge Discovery. Cambridge University Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-521-19021-3.

[18] Peter J. Pahl; Rudolf Damrath (2001). Mathematical Foundations of Computational Engineering: A Handbook. Springer

Science & Business Media. p. 496. ISBN 978-3-540-67995-0.

[19] Fonseca de Oliveira, J. N., & Pereira Cunha Rodrigues, C. D. J. (2004). Transposing Relations: From Maybe Functions

to Hash Tables. In Mathematics of Program Construction (p. 337).

[20] Smith, Douglas; Eggen, Maurice; St. Andre, Richard (2006), A Transition to Advanced Mathematics (6th ed.), Brooks/Cole,

p. 160, ISBN 0-534-39900-2

[21] Nievergelt, Yves (2002), Foundations of Logic and Mathematics: Applications to Computer Science and Cryptography,

Springer-Verlag, p. 158.

[22] Flaka, V.; Jeek, J.; Kepka, T.; Kortelainen, J. (2007). Transitive Closures of Binary Relations I (PDF). Prague: School

of Mathematics Physics Charles University. p. 1. Lemma 1.1 (iv). This source refers to asymmetric relations as strictly

antisymmetric.

[24] Yao, Y.Y.; Wong, S.K.M. (1995). Generalization of rough sets using relationships between attribute values (PDF).

Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Joint Conference on Information Sciences: 3033..

[25] Joseph G. Rosenstein, Linear orderings, Academic Press, 1982, ISBN 0-12-597680-1, p. 4

[26] Tarski, Alfred; Givant, Steven (1987). A formalization of set theory without variables. American Mathematical Society. p.

3. ISBN 0-8218-1041-3.

74 CHAPTER 19. HOMOGENEOUS RELATION

19.10 References

M. Kilp, U. Knauer, A.V. Mikhalev, Monoids, Acts and Categories: with Applications to Wreath Products and

Graphs, De Gruyter Expositions in Mathematics vol. 29, Walter de Gruyter, 2000, ISBN 3-11-015248-7.

Gunther Schmidt, 2010. Relational Mathematics. Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-76268-7.

Hazewinkel, Michiel, ed. (2001) [1994], Binary relation, Encyclopedia of Mathematics, Springer Science+Business

Media B.V. / Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN 978-1-55608-010-4

Chapter 20

Hypostatic abstraction

Hypostatic abstraction in mathematical logic, also known as hypostasis or subjectal abstraction, is a formal

operation that transforms a predicate into a relation; for example Honey is sweet is transformed into Honey has

sweetness. The relation is created between the original subject and a new term that represents the property expressed

by the original predicate.

Hypostasis changes a propositional formula of the form X is Y to another one of the form X has the property of being

Y or X has Y-ness. The logical functioning of the second object Y-ness consists solely in the truth-values of those

propositions that have the corresponding abstract property Y as the predicate. The object of thought introduced in

this way may be called a hypostatic object and in some senses an abstract object and a formal object.

The above denition is adapted from the one given by Charles Sanders Peirce (CP 4.235, The Simplest Mathematics

(1902), in Collected Papers, CP 4.227323). As Peirce describes it, the main point about the formal operation of

hypostatic abstraction, insofar as it operates on formal linguistic expressions, is that it converts an adjective or predicate

into an extra subject, thus increasing by one the number of subject slots -- called the arity or adicity -- of the main

predicate.

The transformation of honey is sweet into honey possesses sweetness can be viewed in several ways:

The grammatical trace of this hypostatic transformation is a process that extracts the adjective sweet from the

predicate is sweet, replacing it by a new, increased-arity predicate possesses, and as a by-product of the reaction,

as it were, precipitating out the substantive sweetness as a second subject of the new predicate.

The abstraction of hypostasis takes the concrete physical sense of taste found in honey is sweet and gives it formal

metaphysical characteristics in honey has sweetness.

75

76 CHAPTER 20. HYPOSTATIC ABSTRACTION

20.2 References

Peirce, C.S., Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce, vols. 16 (19311935), Charles Hartshorne and Paul

Weiss, eds., vols. 78 (1958), Arthur W. Burks, ed., Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

J. Jay Zeman, Peirce on Abstraction

Chapter 21

Idempotence

Idempotence (UK: /dmpotns/;[1] US: /admpotns/ EYE-dm-POH-tns)[2] is the property of certain operations

in mathematics and computer science, that can be applied multiple times without changing the result beyond the initial

application. The concept of idempotence arises in a number of places in abstract algebra (in particular, in the theory of

projectors and closure operators) and functional programming (in which it is connected to the property of referential

transparency).

The term was introduced by Benjamin Peirce[3] in the context of elements of algebras that remain invariant when

raised to a positive integer power, and literally means "(the quality of having) the same power, from idem + potence

(same + power).

There are several meanings of idempotence, depending on what the concept is applied to:

A unary operation (or function) is idempotent if, whenever it is applied twice to any value, it gives the same

result as if it were applied once; i.e., ((x)) (x). For example, the absolute value function, where abs(abs(x))

abs(x), is idempotent.

Given a binary operation, an idempotent element (or simply an idempotent) for the operation is a value for

which the operation, when given that value for both of its operands, gives that value as the result. For example,

the number 1 is an idempotent of multiplication: 1 1 = 1.

A binary operation is called idempotent if all elements are idempotent elements with respect to the operation.

In other words, whenever it is applied to two equal values, it gives that value as the result. For example, the

function giving the maximum value of two equal values is idempotent: max(x, x) x.

21.1 Denitions

A unary operation f , that is, a map from some set S into itself, is called idempotent if, for all x in S ,

f (f (x)) = f (x)

In particular, the identity function idS , dened by idS (x) = x , is idempotent, as is the constant function Kc , where

c is an element of S , dened by Kc (x) = c .

An important class of idempotent functions is given by projections in a vector space. An example of a projection is

the function xy dened by xy (x, y, z) = (x, y, 0) , which projects an arbitrary point in 3D space to a point on the

xy -plane, where the third coordinate ( z ) is equal to 0.

77

78 CHAPTER 21. IDEMPOTENCE

A unary operation f : S S is idempotent if it maps each element of S to a xed point of f . We can partition a

set with n elements into k chosen xed points and n k non-xed points, and then k nk is the number of dierent

idempotent functions. Hence, taking into account all possible partitions,

n ( )

n

k nk

k

k=0

is the total number of possible idempotent functions on the set. The integer sequence of the number of idempotent

functions as given by the sum above for n = {0, 1, 2, . . . } starts with 1, 1, 3, 10, 41, 196, 1057, 6322, 41393, . . . .

(sequence A000248 in the OEIS)

Neither the property of being idempotent nor that of being not is preserved under composition of unary functions.[4]

As an example for the former, f(x) = x mod 3 and g(x) = max(x, 5) are both idempotent, but f g is not,[5] although

g f happens to be.[6] As an example for the latter, the negation function on truth values isn't idempotent, but

is.

Given a binary operation on a set S , an element x is said to be idempotent (with respect to ) if:

x x = x.

In particular an identity element of , if it exists, is idempotent with respect to the operation , and the same is

true of an absorbing element. The binary operation itself is called idempotent if every element of S is idempotent.

That is, for all x S where denotes set membership:

x x = x.

For example, the operations of set union and set intersection are both idempotent, as are logical conjunction and

logical disjunction, and, in general, the meet and join operations of a lattice.

21.1.3 Connections

The statement that the binary operation on a set S is idempotent, is equivalent to the statement that every

element of S is idempotent for .

The dening property of unary idempotence, f(f(x)) = f(x) for x in the domain of f, can equivalently be

rewritten as f f = f, using the binary operation of function composition denoted by . Thus, the statement

that f is an idempotent unary operation on S is equivalent to the statement that f is an idempotent element with

respect to the function composition operation on functions from S to S.

21.2.1 Functions

As mentioned above, the identity map and the constant maps are always idempotent maps. The absolute value function

of a real or complex argument, and the oor function of a real argument are idempotent.

The function that assigns to every subset U of some topological space X the closure of U is idempotent on the power

set P (X) of X . It is an example of a closure operator; all closure operators are idempotent functions.

21.3. COMPUTER SCIENCE MEANING 79

The operation of subtracting the mean of a list of numbers from every number in the list is idempotent. For example,

consider the numbers 3, 6, 8, 8, and10 . The mean is 3+6+8+8+10 5 = 35

5 = 7 . Subtracting 7 from every number in

(4)+(1)+1+1+3

the list yields (4) , (1) , 1, 1, 3 . The mean of that list is 5 = 05 = 0 . Subtracting 0 from every

number in that list yields the same list.

The Kleene star and Kleene plus operators used to express repetition in formal languages are idempotent.

Main article: Idempotent (ring theory)

An idempotent element of a ring is, by denition, an element that is idempotent for the rings multiplication.[7] That

is, an element a is idempotent precisely when a2 = a.

Idempotent elements of rings yield direct decompositions of modules, and play a role in describing other homological

properties of the ring. While idempotent usually refers to the multiplication operation of a ring, there are rings in

which both operations are idempotent: Boolean algebras are such an example.

In Boolean algebra, both the logical and and the logical or operations are idempotent. This implies that every element

of Boolean algebra is idempotent with respect to both of these operations. Specically, x x = x and x x = x

for all x . In linear algebra, projections are idempotent. In fact, the projections of a vector space are exactly the

idempotent elements of the ring of linear transformations of the vector space. After xing a basis, it can be shown

that the matrix of a projection with respect to this basis is an idempotent matrix. An idempotent semiring (also

sometimes called a dioid) is a semiring whose addition (not multiplication) is idempotent. If both operations of the

semiring are idempotent, then the semiring is called doubly idempotent.[8]

See also: Referential transparency (computer science), Reentrant (subroutine), and Stable sort

In computer science, the term idempotent is used more comprehensively to describe an operation that will produce

the same results if executed once or multiple times.[9] This may have a dierent meaning depending on the context

in which it is applied. In the case of methods or subroutine calls with side eects, for instance, it means that the

modied state remains the same after the rst call. In functional programming, though, an idempotent function is

one that has the property f(f(x)) = f(x) for any value x.[10]

This is a very useful property in many situations, as it means that an operation can be repeated or retried as often

as necessary without causing unintended eects. With non-idempotent operations, the algorithm may have to keep

track of whether the operation was already performed or not.

21.3.1 Examples

A function looking up a customers name and address in a database is typically idempotent, since this will not cause

the database to change. Similarly, changing a customers address is typically idempotent, because the nal address

will be the same no matter how many times it is submitted. However, placing an order for a car for the customer is

typically not idempotent, since running the call several times will lead to several orders being placed. Canceling an

order is idempotent, because the order remains canceled no matter how many requests are made.

A composition of idempotent methods or subroutines, however, is not necessarily idempotent if a later method in

the sequence changes a value that an earlier method depends on idempotence is not closed under composition. For

80 CHAPTER 21. IDEMPOTENCE

example, suppose the initial value of a variable is 3 and there is a sequence that reads the variable, then changes it to 5,

and then reads it again. Each step in the sequence is idempotent: both steps reading the variable have no side eects

and changing a variable to 5 will always have the same eect no matter how many times it is executed. Nonetheless,

executing the entire sequence once produces the output (3, 5), but executing it a second time produces the output (5,

5), so the sequence is not idempotent.[11]

In the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), idempotence and safety are the major attributes that separate HTTP

verbs. Of the major HTTP verbs, GET, PUT, and DELETE should be implemented in an idempotent manner

according to the standard, but POST need not be.[11] GET retrieves a resource; PUT stores content at a resource;

and DELETE eliminates a resource. As in the example above, reading data usually has no side eects, so it is

idempotent (in fact nullipotent). Storing and deleting a given set of content are each usually idempotent as long as the

request species a location or identier that uniquely identies that resource and only that resource again in the future.

The PUT and DELETE operations with unique identiers reduce to the simple case of assignment to an immutable

variable of either a value or the null-value, respectively, and are idempotent for the same reason; the end result is

always the same as the result of the initial execution.

Violation of the unique identication requirement in storage or deletion typically causes violation of idempotence.

For example, storing or deleting a given set of content without specifying a unique identier: POST requests, which

do not need to be idempotent, often do not contain unique identiers, so the creation of the identier is delegated

to the receiving system which then creates a corresponding new record. Similarly, PUT and DELETE requests with

nonspecic criteria may result in dierent outcomes depending on the state of the system - for example, a request to

delete the most recent record. In each case, subsequent executions will further modify the state of the system, so they

are not idempotent.

In Event Stream Processing, idempotence refers to the ability of a system to produce the same outcome, even if an

event or message is received more than once.

In a load-store architecture, instructions that might possibly cause a page fault are idempotent. So if a page fault

occurs, the OS can load the page from disk and then simply re-execute the faulted instruction. In a processor where

such instructions are not idempotent, dealing with page faults is much more complex.

When reformatting output, pretty-printing is expected to be idempotent. In other words, if the output is already

pretty, there should be nothing to do for the pretty-printer.

Applied examples that many people could encounter in their day-to-day lives include elevator call buttons and cross-

walk buttons.[12] The initial activation of the button moves the system into a requesting state, until the request is

satised. Subsequent activations of the button between the initial activation and the request being satised have no

eect.

Closure operator

Fixed point (mathematics)

Idempotent of a code

Nilpotent

Idempotent matrix

Idempotent relation a generalization of idempotence to binary relations

List of matrices

Pure function

Referential transparency

Iterated function

21.6. REFERENCES 81

Biordered set

Involution (mathematics)

21.6 References

[1] idempotence. Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. 2010.

[4] If f and g commute, i.e. if f g = g f, then idempotency of both f and g implies that of f g, since (f g) (f g) = (f

f) (g g) = f g, using the associativity of composition.

[6] also showing that commutation of f and g is not a necessary condition for idempotency preservation

[8] Gondran & Minoux. Graphs, dioids and semirings. Springer, 2008, p. 34

[9] Rodriguez, Alex. RESTful Web services: The basics. IBM developerWorks. IBM. Retrieved 24 April 2013.

[10] http://foldoc.org/idempotent

[11] IETF, Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content. See also HyperText Transfer Protocol.

ication includes detailed algorithm for when elevator cars will respond to subsequent calls for service

idempotent at FOLDOC

Goodearl, K. R. (1991), von Neumann regular rings (2 ed.), Malabar, FL: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Co.

Inc., pp. xviii+412, ISBN 0-89464-632-X, MR 1150975 (93m:16006)

Based on a workshop, Bristol, UK, October 37, 1994 (PDF), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp.

149, Zbl 0898.16032

Hazewinkel, Michiel, ed. (2001) [1994], Idempotent, Encyclopedia of Mathematics, Springer Science+Business

Media B.V. / Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN 978-1-55608-010-4

Hazewinkel, Michiel; Gubareni, Nadiya; Kirichenko, V. V. (2004), Algebras, rings and modules. vol. 1,

Mathematics and its Applications, 575, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. xii+380, ISBN 1-4020-

2690-0, MR 2106764 (2006a:16001)

Lam, T. Y. (2001), A rst course in noncommutative rings, Graduate Texts in Mathematics, 131 (2 ed.), New

York: Springer-Verlag, pp. xx+385, ISBN 0-387-95183-0, MR 1838439 (2002c:16001)

Lang, Serge (1993), Algebra (Third ed.), Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, ISBN 978-0-201-55540-0, Zbl

0848.13001 p. 443

Peirce, Benjamin. Linear Associative Algebra 1870.

Polcino Milies, Csar; Sehgal, Sudarshan K. (2002), An introduction to group rings, Algebras and Applications,

1, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. xii+371, ISBN 1-4020-0238-6, MR 1896125 (2003b:16026)

Chapter 22

In mathematics, the inverse trigonometric functions (occasionally also called arcus functions,[1][2][3][4][5] an-

titrigonometric functions[6] or cyclometric functions[7][8][9] ) are the inverse functions of the trigonometric func-

tions (with suitably restricted domains). Specically, they are the inverses of the sine, cosine, tangent, cotangent,

secant, and cosecant functions, and are used to obtain an angle from any of the angles trigonometric ratios. Inverse

trigonometric functions are widely used in engineering, navigation, physics, and geometry.

22.1 Notation

There are several notations used for the inverse trigonometric functions.

The most common convention is to name inverse trigonometric functions using an arc- prex, e.g., arcsin(x), arccos(x),

arctan(x), etc.[6] This convention is used throughout the article. When measuring in radians, an angle of radians

will correspond to an arc whose length is r, where r is the radius of the circle. Thus, in the unit circle, the arc

whose cosine is x is the same as the angle whose cosine is x, because the length of the arc of the circle in radii is

the same as the measurement of the angle in radians.[10] Similarly, in computer programming languages the inverse

trigonometric functions are usually called asin, acos, atan.

The notations sin1 (x), cos1 (x), tan1 (x), etc., as introduced by John Herschel in 1813,[11][12] are often used as

well in English[6] sources, but this convention logically conicts with the common semantics for expressions like

sin2 (x), which refer to numeric power rather than function composition, and therefore may result in confusion between

multiplicative inverse and compositional inverse. The confusion is somewhat ameliorated by the fact that each of the

reciprocal trigonometric functions has its own namefor example, (cos(x))1 = sec(x). Nevertheless, certain authors

advise against using it for its ambiguity.[6][13]

Another convention used by a few authors[14] is to use a majuscule (capital/upper-case) rst letter along with a 1

superscript, e.g., Sin1 (x), Cos1 (x), Tan1 (x), etc., which avoids confusing them with the multiplicative inverse,

which should be represented by sin1 (x), cos1 (x), etc.

Since none of the six trigonometric functions are one-to-one, they are restricted in order to have inverse functions.

Therefore the ranges of the inverse functions are proper subsets of the domains of the original functions

For example, using function in the sense of multivalued functions, just as the square root function y = x could be

dened from y2 = x, the function y = arcsin(x) is dened so that sin(y) = x. For a given real number x, with 1 x

1, there are multiple (in fact, countably innitely many) numbers y such that sin(y) = x; for example, sin(0) = 0,

but also sin() = 0, sin(2) = 0, etc. When only one value is desired, the function may be restricted to its principal

branch. With this restriction, for each x in the domain the expression arcsin(x) will evaluate only to a single value,

called its principal value. These properties apply to all the inverse trigonometric functions.

82

22.2. BASIC PROPERTIES 83

(Note: Some authors dene the range of arcsecant to be ( 0 y < /2 or y < 3/2 ), because the tangent

function is nonnegative on this domain. This makes some computations more consistent. For example using this

range, tan(arcsec(x)) = x2 1, whereas with the range ( 0 y < /2 or /2 < y ), we would have to write

tan(arcsec(x)) = x2 1, since tangent is nonnegative on 0 y < /2 but nonpositive on /2 < y . For a similar

reason, the same authors dene the range of arccosecant to be < y /2 or 0 < y /2.)

If x is allowed to be a complex number, then the range of y applies only to its real part.

tions

Trigonometric functions of inverse trigonometric functions are tabulated below. A quick way to derive them is by

considering the geometry of a right-angled triangle, with one side of length 1, and another side of length x (any real

number between 0 and 1), then applying the Pythagorean theorem and denitions of the trigonometric ratios. Purely

algebraic derivations are longer.

Complementary angles:

arccos(x) = arcsin(x)

2

arccot(x) = arctan(x)

2

arccsc(x) = arcsec(x)

2

Negative arguments:

arcsin(x) = arcsin(x)

arccos(x) = arccos(x)

arctan(x) = arctan(x)

arccot(x) = arccot(x)

arcsec(x) = arcsec(x)

arccsc(x) = arccsc(x)

Reciprocal arguments:

84 CHAPTER 22. INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

( )

1

arccos = arcsec(x)

x

( )

1

arcsin = arccsc(x)

x

( )

1

arctan = arctan(x) = arccot(x) , if x > 0

x 2

( )

1

arctan = arctan(x) = arccot(x) , if x < 0

x 2

( )

1

arccot = arccot(x) = arctan(x) , if x > 0

x 2

( )

1 3

arccot = arccot(x) = + arctan(x) , if x < 0

x 2

( )

1

arcsec = arccos(x)

x

( )

1

arccsc = arcsin(x)

x

( )

arccos(x) = arcsin 1 x2 , if 0 x 1

1 ( )

arccos(x) = arccos 2x2 1 , if 0 x 1

2

1 ( )

arcsin(x) = arccos 1 2x2 , if 0 x 1

2 ( )

x

arctan(x) = arcsin

x2 + 1

Whenever the square root of a complex number is used here, we choose the root with the positive real part (or positive

imaginary part if the square was negative real).

( ) sin()

From the half-angle formula, tan 2 = 1+cos() , we get:

( )

x

arcsin(x) = 2 arctan

1 + 1 x2

( )

1 x2

arccos(x) = 2 arctan , if 1 < x +1

1+x

( )

x

arctan(x) = 2 arctan

1 + 1 + x2

( )

u+v

arctan(u) + arctan(v) = arctan (mod ) , uv = 1 .

1 uv

This is derived from the tangent addition formula

tan() + tan()

tan( + ) = ,

1 tan() tan()

22.3. IN CALCULUS 85

by letting

= arctan(u) , = arctan(v) .

22.3 In calculus

d 1

arcsin(z) = ; z = 1, +1

dz 1 z2

d 1

arccos(z) = ; z = 1, +1

dz 1 z2

d 1

arctan(z) = ; z = i, +i

dz 1 + z2

d 1

arccot(z) = ; z = i, +i

dz 1 + z2

d 1

arcsec(z) = ; z = 1, 0, +1

dz z 1 1

2

z2

d 1

arccsc(z) = ; z = 1, 0, +1

dz z2 1 1

z2

d 1

arcsec(x) = ; |x| > 1

dx |x| x2 1

d 1

arccsc(x) = ; |x| > 1

dx |x| x2 1

d arcsin(x) d d 1 1 1

= = = = =

dx d sin() cos()d cos()

1 sin2 () 1 x2

Integrating the derivative and xing the value at one point gives an expression for the inverse trigonometric function

as a denite integral:

86 CHAPTER 22. INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

x

1

arcsin(x) = dz , |x| 1

0 1 z2

1

1

arccos(x) = dz , |x| 1

1 z2

xx

1

arctan(x) = 2+1

dz ,

z

0

1

arccot(x) = 2+1

dz ,

x z

x 1

1 1

arcsec(x) = dz = + dz , x1

z z 12 z z2 1

1 x x

1 1

arccsc(x) = dz = dz , x1

x z z 12

z z 1

2

When x equals 1, the integrals with limited domains are improper integrals, but still well-dened.

Like the sine and cosine functions, the inverse trigonometric functions can be calculated using power series, as follows.

1

For arcsine, the series can be derived by expanding its derivative, 1z 2

, as a binomial series, and integrating term

by term (using the integral denition as above). The series for arctangent can similarly be derived by expanding its

1

derivative 1+z 2 in a geometric series and applying the integral denition above (see Leibniz series).

( ) 3 ( ) ( )

1 z 1 3 z5 1 3 5 z7

arcsin(z) = z + + + +

2 3 24 5 246 7

(2n 1)!! z 2n+1

=

n=0

(2n)!! 2n + 1

(2n)

2n+1

n z

= ; |z| 1

n=0

4n (2n + 1)

z3 z5 z7 (1)n z 2n+1

arctan(z) = z + + = ; |z| 1 z = i, i

3 5 7 n=0

2n + 1

Series for the other inverse trigonometric functions can be given in terms of these according to the relationships given

above. For example, arccos(x) = /2 arcsin(x) , arccsc(x) = arcsin(1/x) , and so on. Another series is given

by:[15]

( ( x ))2

x2n

2 arcsin = ( )

2 n=1

n2 2n

n

Leonhard Euler found a more ecient series for the arctangent, which is:

n

z 2kz 2

arctan(z) = 2

.

1 + z n=0 (2k + 1)(1 + z 2 )

k=1

(Notice that the term in the sum for n = 0 is the empty product which is 1.)

Alternatively, this can be expressed:

22n (n!)2 z 2n+1

arctan(z) =

n=0

(2n + 1)! (1 + z 2 )n+1

22.3. IN CALCULUS 87

Two alternatives to the power series for arctangent are these generalized continued fractions:

z z

arctan(z) = =

(1z)2 (1z)2

1+ 1+

(3z)2 (2z)2

3 1z 2 + 3+

(5z)2 (3z)2

5 3z 2 + 5+

(7z)2 (4z)2

7 5z 2 + 7+

. .

9 7z 2 + . . 9 + ..

The second of these is valid in the cut complex plane. There are two cuts, from i to the point at innity, going down

the imaginary axis, and from i to the point at innity, going up the same axis. It works best for real numbers running

from 1 to 1. The partial denominators are the odd natural numbers, and the partial numerators (after the rst) are

just (nz)2 , with each perfect square appearing once. The rst was developed by Leonhard Euler; the second by Carl

Friedrich Gauss utilizing the Gaussian hypergeometric series.

For real and complex values of z:

arcsin(z) dz = z arcsin(z) + 1 z2 + C

arccos(z) dz = z arccos(z) 1 z2 + C

1 ( )

arctan(z) dz = z arctan(z) ln 1 + z 2 + C

2

1 ( )

arccot(z) dz = z arccot(z) + ln 1 + z 2 + C

2

[ ( )]

z2 1

arcsec(z) dz = z arcsec(z) ln z 1 + +C

z2

[ ( )]

z2 1

arccsc(z) dz = z arccsc(z) + ln z 1 + +C

z2

For real x 1:

( )

arcsec(x) dx = x arcsec(x) ln x + x2 1 + C

( )

arccsc(x) dx = x arccsc(x) + ln x + x2 1 + C

( )

arcsec(x) dx = x arcsec(x) sgn(x) ln x + x2 1 + C

( )

arccsc(x) dx = x arccsc(x) + sgn(x) ln x + x2 1 + C

The absolute value is necessary to compensate for both negative and positive values of the arcsecant and arccosecant

functions. The signum function is also necessary due to the absolute values in the derivatives of the two functions,

which create two dierent solutions for positive and negative values of x. These can be further simplied using the

logarithmic denitions of the inverse hyperbolic functions:

88 CHAPTER 22. INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

The absolute value in the argument of the arcosh function creates a negative half of its graph, making it identical to

the signum logarithmic function shown above.

All of these antiderivatives can be derived using integration by parts and the simple derivative forms shown above.

Example

Using u dv = uv v du (i.e. integration by parts), set

u = arcsin(x) dv = dx

dx

du = v=x

1 x2

Then

x

arcsin(x) dx = x arcsin(x) dx,

1 x2

which by a simple substitution yields the nal result:

arcsin(x) dx = x arcsin(x) + 1 x2 + C

Since the inverse trigonometric functions are analytic functions, they can be extended from the real line to the complex

plane. This results in functions with multiple sheets and branch points. One possible way of dening the extensions

is:

z

dx

arctan(z) = z = i, +i

0 1 + x2

where the part of the imaginary axis which does not lie strictly between i and +i is the cut between the principal

sheet and other sheets;

( )

z

arcsin(z) = arctan z = 1, +1

1 z2

where (the square-root function has its cut along the negative real axis and) the part of the real axis which does not

lie strictly between 1 and +1 is the cut between the principal sheet of arcsin and other sheets;

arccos(z) = arcsin(z) z = 1, +1

2

which has the same cut as arcsin;

arccot(z) = arctan(z) z = i, i

2

22.4. EXTENSION TO COMPLEX PLANE 89

( )

1

arcsec(z) = arccos z = 1, 0, +1

z

where the part of the real axis between 1 and +1 inclusive is the cut between the principal sheet of arcsec and other

sheets;

( )

1

arccsc(z) = arcsin z = 1, 0, +1

z

These functions may also be expressed using complex logarithms. This extends in a natural fashion their domain to

the complex plane.

( ) ( )

1

arcsin(z) = i ln iz + 1 z2 = arccsc

z

( ) ( ) ( )

1

arccos(z) = i ln z + z 2 1 = + i ln iz + 1 z 2 = arcsin(z) = arcsec

2 2 z

( )

1

arctan(z) = 1

2 i [ln (1 iz) ln (1 + iz)] = arccot

z

[ ( ) ( )] ( )

i i 1

arccot(z) = 1

2i ln 1 ln 1 + = arctan

z z z

( ) ( ) ( )

1 1 1 i 1

arcsec(z) = i ln 2

1+ = i ln 1 2 + + = arccsc(z) = arccos

z z z z 2 2 z

( ) ( )

1 i 1

arccsc(z) = i ln 1 2 + = arcsin

z z z

Elementary proofs of these relations proceed via expansion to exponential forms of the trigonometric functions.

Example proof

sin() = z

= arcsin(z)

Using the exponential denition of sine, one obtains

ei ei

z=

2i

Let

= ei

90 CHAPTER 22. INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

Solving for

1

z=

2i

1

2iz =

1

2iz =0

2 2iz 1 = 0

= iz 1 z 2 = ei

( )

i = ln iz 1 z 2

( )

= i ln iz 1 z 2

( )

= arcsin(z) = i ln iz + 1 z 2

22.5 Applications

Each of the trigonometric functions is periodic in the real part of its argument, running through all its values twice in

each interval of 2. Sine and cosecant begin their period at 2k /2 (where k is an integer), nish it at 2k + /2,

and then reverse themselves over 2k + /2 to 2k + 3/2. Cosine and secant begin their period at 2k, nish it at

2k + , and then reverse themselves over 2k + to 2k + 2. Tangent begins its period at 2k /2, nishes it at

2k + /2, and then repeats it (forward) over 2k + /2 to 2k + 3/2. Cotangent begins its period at 2k, nishes

it at 2k + , and then repeats it (forward) over 2k + to 2k + 2.

This periodicity is reected in the general inverses where k is some integer:

tan(y) = x y = arctan(x) + k

cot(y) = x y = arccot(x) + k

22.5. APPLICATIONS 91

Inverse trigonometric functions are useful when trying to determine the remaining two angles of a right triangle when

the lengths of the sides of the triangle are known. Recalling the right-triangle denitions of sine, for example, it

follows that

( )

opposite

= arcsin .

hypotenuse

Often, the hypotenuse is unknown and would need to be calculated before using arcsine or arccosine using the

Pythagorean Theorem: a2 + b2 = h2 where h is the length of the hypotenuse. Arctangent comes in handy in

this situation, as the length of the hypotenuse is not needed.

( )

opposite

= arctan .

adjacent

For example, suppose a roof drops 8 feet as it runs out 20 feet. The roof makes an angle with the horizontal, where

may be computed as follows:

( ) ( ) ( )

opposite rise 8

= arctan = arctan = arctan 21.8 .

adjacent run 20

Two-argument variant of arctangent

The two-argument atan2 function computes the arctangent of y / x given y and x, but with a range of (, ]. In

other words, atan2(y, x) is the angle between the positive x-axis of a plane and the point (x, y) on it, with positive

sign for counter-clockwise angles (upper half-plane, y > 0), and negative sign for clockwise angles (lower half-plane,

y < 0). It was rst introduced in many computer programming languages, but it is now also common in other elds

of science and engineering.

In terms of the standard arctan function, that is with range of (/2, /2), it can be expressed as follows:

y

arctan( x ) x>0

arctan( xy ) + y0, x<0

arctan( y ) y<0, x<0

atan2(y, x) = x

y>0, x=0

2

2

y<0, x=0

undened y=0, x=0

It also equals the principal value of the argument of the complex number x + iy.

This function may also be dened using the tangent half-angle formulae as follows:

( )

y

atan2(y, x) = 2 arctan

x2 + y 2 + x

provided that either x > 0 or y 0. However this fails if given x 0 and y = 0 so the expression is unsuitable for

computational use.

The above argument order (y, x) seems to be the most common, and in particular is used in ISO standards such as

the C programming language, but a few authors may use the opposite convention (x, y) so some caution is warranted.

These variations are detailed at atan2.

92 CHAPTER 22. INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

In many applications the solution y of the equation x = tan(y) is to come as close as possible to a given value

< < . The adequate solution is produced by the parameter modied arctangent function

( )

arctan(x)

y = arctan (x) := arctan(x) + rni .

Numerical accuracy

For angles near 0 and , arccosine is ill-conditioned and will thus calculate the angle with reduced accuracy in a

computer implementation (due to the limited number of digits).[16] Similarly, arcsine is inaccurate for angles near

/2 and /2.

Inverse exsecant

Inverse versine

Trigonometric function

22.7 References

[1] Taczanowski, Stefan (1978-10-01). On the optimization of some geometric parameters in 14 MeV neutron activation

analysis. Nuclear Instruments and Methods. ScienceDirect. 155 (3): 543546. Retrieved 2017-07-26.

[2] Hazewinkel, Michiel (1994) [1987]. Encyclopaedia of Mathematics (unabridged reprint ed.). Kluwer Academic Publishers

/ Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-155608010-4. ISBN 1556080107.

[3] Ebner, Dieter (2005-07-25). Preparatory Course in Mathematics (PDF) (6 ed.). Department of Physics, University of

Konstanz. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-07-26. Retrieved 2017-07-26.

[4] Mejlbro, Leif (2010-11-11). Stability, Riemann Surfaces, Conformal Mappings - Complex Functions Theory (PDF) (1 ed.).

Ventus Publishing ApS / Bookboon. ISBN 978-87-7681-702-2. ISBN 87-7681-702-4. Archived (PDF) from the original

on 2017-07-26. Retrieved 2017-07-26.

[5] Durn, Mario (2012). Mathematical methods for wave propagation in science and engineering. 1: Fundamentals (1 ed.).

Ediciones UC. p. 88. ISBN 978-956141314-6. ISBN 956141314-0.

[6] Hall, Arthur Graham; Frink, Fred Goodrich (January 1909). Chapter II. The Acute Angle [14] Inverse trigonometric

functions. Written at Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. Trigonometry. Part I: Plane Trigonometry. New York, USA: Henry

Holt and Company / Norwood Press / J. S. Cushing Co. - Berwick & Smith Co., Norwood, Massachusetts, USA. p.

15. Retrieved 2017-08-12. [] = arcsin m: It is frequently read "arc-sine m" or "anti-sine m, since two mutually

inverse functions are said each to be the anti-function of the other. [] A similar symbolic relation holds for the other

trigonometric functions. [] This notation is universally used in Europe and is fast gaining ground in this country. A less

desirable symbol, = sin1 m, is still found in English and American texts. The notation = inv sin m is perhaps better

still on account of its general applicability. []

[7] Klein, Christian Felix (1924) [1902]. Elementarmathematik vom hheren Standpunkt aus: Arithmetik, Algebra, Analysis

(in German). 1 (3rd ed.). Berlin: J. Springer.

22.8. EXTERNAL LINKS 93

[8] Klein, Christian Felix (2004) [1932]. Elementary Mathematics from an Advanced Standpoint: Arithmetic, Algebra, Analysis.

Translated by Hedrick, E. R.; Noble, C. A. (Translation of 3rd German ed.). Dover Publications, Inc. / The Macmillan

Company. ISBN 978-0-48643480-3. ISBN 0-48643480-X. Retrieved 2017-08-13.

[9] Drrie, Heinrich (1965). Triumph der Mathematik. Translated by Antin, David. Dover Publications. p. 69. ISBN 0-486-

61348-8.

[10] Beach, Frederick Converse; Rines, George Edwin, eds. (1912). Inverse trigonometric functions. The Americana: a

universal reference library. 21.

[11] Cajori, Florian (1919). A History of Mathematics (2 ed.). New York, USA: The Macmillan Company. p. 272.

[12] Herschel, John Frederick William (1813). On a remarkable Application of Cotess Theorem. Philosophical Transactions.

Royal Society, London. 103 (1): 8.

[13] Korn, Grandino Arthur; Korn, Theresa M. (2000) [1961]. 21.2.4. Inverse Trigonometric Functions. Mathematical

handbook for scientists and engineers: Denitions, theorems, and formulars for reference and review (3 ed.). Mineola, New

York, USA: Dover Publications, Inc. p. 811. ISBN 978-0-486-41147-7.

[14] Bhatti, Sanaullah; Nawab-ud-Din; Ahmed, Bashir; Yousuf, S. M.; Taheem, Allah Bukhsh (1999). Dierentiation of

Trigonometric, Logarithmic and Exponential Functions. In Ellahi, Mohammad Maqbool; Dar, Karamat Hussain; Hussain,

Faheem. Calculus and Analytic Geometry (1 ed.). Lahore: Punjab Textbook Board. p. 140.

[15] Borwein, Jonathan; Bailey, David; Gingersohn, Roland (2004). Experimentation in Mathematics: Computational Paths to

Discovery (1 ed.). Wellesley, MA, USA: :A. K. Peters. p. 51. ISBN 1-56881-136-5.

[16] Gade, Kenneth (2010). A non-singular horizontal position representation (PDF). The Journal of Navigation. Cambridge

University Press. 63 (3): 395417. doi:10.1017/S0373463309990415.

Weisstein, Eric W. Inverse Trigonometric Functions. MathWorld.

94 CHAPTER 22. INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

22.8. EXTERNAL LINKS 95

The usual principal values of the arctan(x) and arccot(x) functions graphed on the cartesian plane.

Principal values of the arcsec(x) and arccsc(x) functions graphed on the cartesian plane.

96 CHAPTER 22. INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS

A right triangle.

Chapter 23

Klln function

The Klln function, also known as triangle function, is a polynomial function in three variables, which appears in

geometry and particle physics. In the latter eld it is usually denoted by the symbol . It is named after the theoretical

physicist Gunnar Klln, who introduced it as a short-hand in his textbook Elementary Particle Physics.[1]

23.1 Denition

The function is given by a quadratic polynomial in three variables

23.2 Applications

In geometry the function describes the area A of a triangle with side lengths a, b, c :

1

A= (a2 , b2 , c2 ).

4

See also Herons formula.

The function appears naturally in the Kinematics of relativistic particles, e.g. when expressing the energy and mo-

mentum components in the center of mass frame by Mandelstam variables.[2]

23.3 Properties

The function is (obviously) symmetric in permutations of its arguments, as well as independent of a common sign ip

of its arguments:

(x, y, z) = (x ( y + z)2 )(x ( y z)2 ).

97

98 CHAPTER 23. KLLN FUNCTION

(x, y, z) = ( x + y + z)( x + y + z)( x y + z)( x + y z).

23.4 References

[1] G. Klln, Elementary Particle Physics, (Addison-Wesley, 1964)

[2] E. Byckling, K. Kajantie, Particle Kinematics, (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 1973)

Chapter 24

In mathematics, a limiting case of a mathematical object is a special case that arises when one or more components

of the object take on their most extreme possible values. For example:

In statistics, the limiting case of the binomial distribution is the Poisson distribution. As the number of events

tends to innity in the binomial distribution, the random variable changes from the binomial to the Poisson

distribution.

A circle is a limiting case of various other gures, including the Cartesian oval, the ellipse, the superellipse, and

the Cassini oval. Each type of gure is a circle for certain values of the dening parameters, and the generic

gure appears more and more like a circle as the limiting values are approached.

Archimedes calculated an approximate value of by treating the circle as the limiting case of a regular polygon

with 3 2n sides, as n gets large.

In electricity and magnetism, the long wavelength limit is the limiting case when the wavelength is much larger

than the system size.

In economics, two limiting cases of a demand curve or supply curve are those in which the elasticity is zero

(the totally inelastic case) or innity (the innitely elastic case).

In nance, continuous compounding is the limiting case of compound interest in which the compounding period

becomes innitesimally small, achieved by taking the limit as the number of compounding periods per year

goes to innity.

A limiting case is sometimes a degenerate case in which some qualitative properties dier from the corresponding

properties of the generic case. For example:

An ellipse can degenerate into a single point or a line segment.

99

Chapter 25

Line (geometry)

The notion of line or straight line was introduced by ancient mathematicians to represent straight objects (i.e.,

y

4

x

4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4

1

2 y=2.0x+1

y=0.5x1

3

y=0.5x+1

4

The red and blue lines on this graph have the same slope (gradient); the red and green lines have the same y-intercept (cross the

y-axis at the same place).

100

25.1. DEFINITIONS VERSUS DESCRIPTIONS 101

having no curvature) with negligible width and depth. Lines are an idealization of such objects. Until the 17th

century, lines were dened in this manner: The [straight or curved] line is the rst species of quantity, which has

only one dimension, namely length, without any width nor depth, and is nothing else than the ow or run of the point

which [] will leave from its imaginary moving some vestige in length, exempt of any width. [] The straight line

is that which is equally extended between its points.[1]

Euclid described a line as breadthless length which lies equally with respect to the points on itself"; he introduced

several postulates as basic unprovable properties from which he constructed all of geometry, which is now called

Euclidean geometry to avoid confusion with other geometries which have been introduced since the end of the 19th

century (such as non-Euclidean, projective and ane geometry).

In modern mathematics, given the multitude of geometries, the concept of a line is closely tied to the way the geometry

is described. For instance, in analytic geometry, a line in the plane is often dened as the set of points whose

coordinates satisfy a given linear equation, but in a more abstract setting, such as incidence geometry, a line may be

an independent object, distinct from the set of points which lie on it.

When a geometry is described by a set of axioms, the notion of a line is usually left undened (a so-called primitive

object). The properties of lines are then determined by the axioms which refer to them. One advantage to this

approach is the exibility it gives to users of the geometry. Thus in dierential geometry a line may be interpreted

as a geodesic (shortest path between points), while in some projective geometries a line is a 2-dimensional vector

space (all linear combinations of two independent vectors). This exibility also extends beyond mathematics and, for

example, permits physicists to think of the path of a light ray as being a line.

All denitions are ultimately circular in nature since they depend on concepts which must themselves have denitions,

a dependence which can not be continued indenitely without returning to the starting point. To avoid this vicious

circle certain concepts must be taken as primitive concepts; terms which are given no denition.[2] In geometry, it

is frequently the case that the concept of line is taken as a primitive.[3] In those situations where a line is a dened

concept, as in coordinate geometry, some other fundamental ideas are taken as primitives. When the line concept is

a primitive, the behaviour and properties of lines are dictated by the axioms which they must satisfy.

In a non-axiomatic or simplied axiomatic treatment of geometry, the concept of a primitive notion may be too

abstract to be dealt with. In this circumstance it is possible that a description or mental image of a primitive notion

is provided to give a foundation to build the notion on which would formally be based on the (unstated) axioms.

Descriptions of this type may be referred to, by some authors, as denitions in this informal style of presentation.

These are not true denitions and could not be used in formal proofs of statements. The denition of line in Euclids

Elements falls into this category.[4] Even in the case where a specic geometry is being considered (for example,

Euclidean geometry), there is no generally accepted agreement among authors as to what an informal description of

a line should be when the subject is not being treated formally.

See also: Euclidean geometry

When geometry was rst formalised by Euclid in the Elements, he dened a general line (straight or curved) to be

breadthless length with a straight line being a line which lies evenly with the points on itself.[5] These denitions

serve little purpose since they use terms which are not, themselves, dened. In fact, Euclid did not use these denitions

in this work and probably included them just to make it clear to the reader what was being discussed. In modern

geometry, a line is simply taken as an undened object with properties given by axioms,[6] but is sometimes dened

102 CHAPTER 25. LINE (GEOMETRY)

as a set of points obeying a linear relationship when some other fundamental concept is left undened.

In an axiomatic formulation of Euclidean geometry, such as that of Hilbert (Euclids original axioms contained various

aws which have been corrected by modern mathematicians),[7] a line is stated to have certain properties which relate

it to other lines and points. For example, for any two distinct points, there is a unique line containing them, and any

two distinct lines intersect in at most one point.[8] In two dimensions, i.e., the Euclidean plane, two lines which do

not intersect are called parallel. In higher dimensions, two lines that do not intersect are parallel if they are contained

in a plane, or skew if they are not.

Any collection of nitely many lines partitions the plane into convex polygons (possibly unbounded); this partition is

known as an arrangement of lines.

Lines in a Cartesian plane or, more generally, in ane coordinates, can be described algebraically by linear equations.

In two dimensions, the equation for non-vertical lines is often given in the slope-intercept form:

y = mx + b

where:

b is the y-intercept of the line.

x is the independent variable of the function y = f(x).

The slope of the line through points A(xa , ya ) and B(xb , yb ) , when xa = xb , is given by m = (yb ya )/(xb xa )

and the equation of this line can be written y = m(x xa ) + ya .

In R , every line L (including vertical lines) is described by a linear equation of the form

L = {(x, y) | ax + by = c}

with xed real coecients a, b and c such that a and b are not both zero. Using this form, vertical lines correspond

to the equations with b = 0.

There are many variant ways to write the equation of a line which can all be converted from one to another by algebraic

manipulation. These forms (see Linear equation for other forms) are generally named by the type of information (data)

about the line that is needed to write down the form. Some of the important data of a line is its slope, x-intercept,

known points on the line and y-intercept.

The equation of the line passing through two dierent points P0 (x0 , y0 ) and P1 (x1 , y1 ) may be written as

y1 y0

y = (x x0 ) + y0

x1 x0

or

y1 y0 x1 y0 x0 y1

y=x + .

x1 x0 x1 x0

In three dimensions, lines can not be described by a single linear equation, so they are frequently described by

parametric equations:

25.2. IN EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY 103

x = x0 + at

y = y0 + bt

z = z0 + ct

where:

x, y, and z are all functions of the independent variable t which ranges over the real numbers.

(x0 , y0 , z0 ) is any point on the line.

a, b, and c are related to the slope of the line, such that the vector (a, b, c) is parallel to the line.

They may also be described as the simultaneous solutions of two linear equations

a1 x + b1 y + c1 z d1 = 0

a2 x + b2 y + c2 z d2 = 0

such that (a1 , b1 , c1 ) and (a2 , b2 , c2 ) are not proportional (the relations a1 = ta2 , b1 = tb2 , c1 = tc2 imply t = 0 ).

This follows since in three dimensions a single linear equation typically describes a plane and a line is what is common

to two distinct intersecting planes.

In normal form

The normal form (also called the Hesse normal form,[9] after the German mathematician Ludwig Otto Hesse), is based

on the normal segment for a given line, which is dened to be the line segment drawn from the origin perpendicular

to the line. This segment joins the origin with the closest point on the line to the origin. The normal form of the

equation of a straight line on the plane is given by:

y sin + x cos p = 0,

where is the angle of inclination of the normal segment (the oriented angle from the unit vector of the x axis to this

segment), and p is the (positive) length of the normal segment. The normal form can be derived from the general

form by dividing all of the coecients by

|c| 2

a + b2 .

c

Unlike the slope-intercept and intercept forms, this form can represent any line but also requires only two nite

parameters, and p, to be specied. Note that if p > 0, then is uniquely dened modulo 2. On the other hand,

if the line is through the origin (c = 0, p = 0), one drops the |c|/(c) term to compute sin and cos, and is only

dened modulo .

In polar coordinates on the Euclidean plane the slope-intercept form of the equation of a line is expressed as:

mr cos + b

r= ,

sin

104 CHAPTER 25. LINE (GEOMETRY)

where m is the slope of the line and b is the y-intercept. When = 0 the graph will be undened. The equation can

be rewritten to eliminate discontinuities in this manner:

r sin = mr cos + b.

In polar coordinates on the Euclidean plane, the intercept form of the equation of a line that is non-horizontal, non-

vertical, and does not pass through pole may be expressed as,

1

r= cos sin

xo + yo

where xo and yo represent the x and y intercepts respectively. The above equation is not applicable for vertical and

horizontal lines because in these cases one of the intercepts does not exist. Moreover, it is not applicable on lines

passing through the pole since in this case, both x and y intercepts are zero (which is not allowed here since xo and

yo are denominators). A vertical line that doesn't pass through the pole is given by the equation

r cos = xo .

Similarly, a horizontal line that doesn't pass through the pole is given by the equation

r sin = yo .

The equation of a line which passes through the pole is simply given as:

tan = m

The vector equation of the line through points A and B is given by r = OA + AB (where is a scalar).

If a is vector OA and b is vector OB, then the equation of the line can be written: r = a + (b a) .

A ray starting at point A is described by limiting . One ray is obtained if 0, and the opposite ray comes from

0.

In three-dimensional space, a rst degree equation in the variables x, y, and z denes a plane, so two such equations,

provided the planes they give rise to are not parallel, dene a line which is the intersection of the planes. More

generally, in n-dimensional space n1 rst-degree equations in the n coordinate variables dene a line under suitable

conditions.

In more general Euclidean space, Rn (and analogously in every other ane space), the line L passing through two

dierent points a and b (considered as vectors) is the subset

L = {(1 t) a + t b | t R}

The direction of the line is from a (t = 0) to b (t = 1), or in other words, in the direction of the vector b a. Dierent

choices of a and b can yield the same line.

25.2. IN EUCLIDEAN GEOMETRY 105

Collinear points

Three points are said to be collinear if they lie on the same line. Three points usually determine a plane, but in the

case of three collinear points this does not happen.

In ane coordinates, in n-dimensional space the points X=(x1 , x2 , ..., x ), Y=(y1 , y2 , ..., y ), and Z=(z1 , z2 , ..., z )

are collinear if the matrix

1 x1 x2 ... xn

1 y1 y2 ... yn

1 z1 z2 ... zn

has a rank less than 3. In particular, for three points in the plane (n = 2), the above matrix is square and the points

are collinear if and only if its determinant is zero.

Equivalently for three points in a plane, the points are collinear if and only if the slope between one pair of points

equals the slope between any other pair of points (in which case the slope between the remaining pair of points will

equal the other slopes). By extension, k points in a plane are collinear if and only if any (k1) pairs of points have

the same pairwise slopes.

In Euclidean geometry, the Euclidean distance d(a,b) between two points a and b may be used to express the collinear-

ity between three points by:[10][11]

The points a, b and c are collinear if and only if d(x,a) = d(c,a) and d(x,b) = d(c,b) implies x=c.

However, there are other notions of distance (such as the Manhattan distance) for which this property is not true.

In the geometries where the concept of a line is a primitive notion, as may be the case in some synthetic geometries,

other methods of determining collinearity are needed.

In a sense,[12] all lines in Euclidean geometry are equal, in that, without coordinates, one can not tell them apart from

one another. However, lines may play special roles with respect to other objects in the geometry and be divided into

types according to that relationship. For instance, with respect to a conic (a circle, ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola),

lines can be:

secant lines, which intersect the conic at two points and pass through its interior;

exterior lines, which do not meet the conic at any point of the Euclidean plane; or

a directrix, whose distance from a point helps to establish whether the point is on the conic.

In the context of determining parallelism in Euclidean geometry, a transversal is a line that intersects two other lines

that may or not be parallel to each other.

For more general algebraic curves, lines could also be:

106 CHAPTER 25. LINE (GEOMETRY)

central lines.

For a convex quadrilateral with at most two parallel sides, the Newton line is the line that connects the midpoints of

the two diagonals.

For a hexagon with vertices lying on a conic we have the Pascal line and, in the special case where the conic is a pair

of lines, we have the Pappus line.

Parallel lines are lines in the same plane that never cross. Intersecting lines share a single point in common. Coinci-

dental lines coincide with each otherevery point that is on either one of them is also on the other.

Perpendicular lines are lines that intersect at right angles.

In three-dimensional space, skew lines are lines that are not in the same plane and thus do not intersect each other.

Further information: Projective geometry

In many models of projective geometry, the representation of a line rarely conforms to the notion of the straight

curve as it is visualised in Euclidean geometry. In elliptic geometry we see a typical example of this.[13] In the

spherical representation of elliptic geometry, lines are represented by great circles of a sphere with diametrically

opposite points identied. In a dierent model of elliptic geometry, lines are represented by Euclidean planes passing

through the origin. Even though these representations are visually distinct, they satisfy all the properties (such as, two

points determining a unique line) that make them suitable representations for lines in this geometry.

25.4 Extensions

25.4.1 Ray

Given a line and any point A on it, we may consider A as decomposing this line into two parts. Each such part is

called a ray (or half-line) and the point A is called its initial point. The point A is considered to be a member of the

ray.[14] Intuitively, a ray consists of those points on a line passing through A and proceeding indenitely, starting at A,

in one direction only along the line. However, in order to use this concept of a ray in proofs a more precise denition

is required.

Given distinct points A and B, they determine a unique ray with initial point A. As two points dene a unique line,

this ray consists of all the points between A and B (including A and B) and all the points C on the line through A and

B such that B is between A and C.[15] This is, at times, also expressed as the set of all points C such that A is not

between B and C.[16] A point D, on the line determined by A and B but not in the ray with initial point A determined

by B, will determine another ray with initial point A. With respect to the AB ray, the AD ray is called the opposite ray.

A B C

Ray

Thus, we would say that two dierent points, A and B, dene a line and a decomposition of this line into the disjoint

union of an open segment (A, B) and two rays, BC and AD (the point D is not drawn in the diagram, but is to the left

of A on the line AB). These are not opposite rays since they have dierent initial points.

In Euclidean geometry two rays with a common endpoint form an angle.

The denition of a ray depends upon the notion of betweenness for points on a line. It follows that rays exist only for

geometries for which this notion exists, typically Euclidean geometry or ane geometry over an ordered eld. On

25.5. SEE ALSO 107

the other hand, rays do not exist in projective geometry nor in a geometry over a non-ordered eld, like the complex

numbers or any nite eld.

In topology, a ray in a space X is a continuous embedding R+ X. It is used to dene the important concept of end

of the space.

Main article: Line segment

A line segment is a part of a line that is bounded by two distinct end points and contains every point on the line

between its end points. Depending on how the line segment is dened, either of the two end points may or may not

be part of the line segment. Two or more line segments may have some of the same relationships as lines, such as

being parallel, intersecting, or skew, but unlike lines they may be none of these, if they are coplanar and either do not

intersect or are collinear.

25.4.3 Geodesics

Main article: Geodesics

The shortness and straightness of a line, interpreted as the property that the distance along the line between any

two of its points is minimized (see triangle inequality), can be generalized and leads to the concept of geodesics in

metric spaces.

Line coordinates

Line segment

Curve

Locus

Ane function

Incidence (geometry)

Plane (geometry)

Polyline

Rectilinear

25.6 Notes

[1] In (rather old) French: La ligne est la premire espece de quantit, laquelle a tant seulement une dimension savoir

longitude, sans aucune latitude ni profondit, & n'est autre chose que le ux ou coulement du poinct, lequel [] laissera

de son mouvement imaginaire quelque vestige en long, exempt de toute latitude. [] La ligne droicte est celle qui est

galement estendu entre ses poincts. Pages 7 and 8 of Les quinze livres des lments gomtriques d'Euclide Megarien,

traduits de Grec en Franois, & augmentez de plusieurs gures & demonstrations, avec la corrections des erreurs commises

s autres traductions, by Pierre Mardele, Lyon, MDCXLV (1645).

108 CHAPTER 25. LINE (GEOMETRY)

[9] Bcher, Maxime (1915), Plane Analytic Geometry: With Introductory Chapters on the Dierential Calculus, H. Holt, p. 44.

[10] Alessandro Padoa, Un nouveau systme de dnitions pour la gomtrie euclidienne, International Congress of Mathe-

maticians, 1900

[12] Technically, the collineation group acts transitively on the set of lines.

[14] On occasion we may consider a ray without its initial point. Such rays are called open rays, in contrast to the typical ray

which would be said to be closed.

25.7 References

Coxeter, H.S.M (1969), Introduction to Geometry (2nd ed.), New York: John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 0-471-

18283-4

Faber, Richard L. (1983). Foundations of Euclidean and Non-Euclidean Geometry. New York: Marcel Dekker.

ISBN 0-8247-1748-1.

Pedoe, Dan (1988), Geometry: A Comprehensive Course, Mineola, NY: Dover, ISBN 0-486-65812-0

Wylie, Jr., C. R. (1964), Foundations of Geometry, New York: McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-072191-2

Hazewinkel, Michiel, ed. (2001) [1994], Line (curve)", Encyclopedia of Mathematics, Springer Science+Business

Media B.V. / Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN 978-1-55608-010-4

Chapter 26

places

Aarhus integral

Anarboricity, a number assigned to nite graphs, dened as the size of the largest partition of the graph into

edge-disjoint subgraphs, each containing at least one cycle (graph theory). It is named in honor of the city of

Ann Arbor by Frank Harary.[1]

Arctic circle theorem describing the boundary of domino tilings

Atlantic City algorithm

Babylonian square root method, an iterative numerical method for improving an approximation to the square

root of a positive number. It is so called because its earliest known use was in ancient Babylonia.

Basel problem

Byzantine generals problem

Cairo pentagonal tiling

Canadian traveller problem

Chinese postman problem

Chinese remainder theorem, a theorem in number theory concerning solutions of systems of linear Diophantine

equations, in the present day usually stated in the language of modular arithmetic. It is so called because it was

discovered in China in the 3rd century AD.

Chinese restaurant process, a stochastic process with applications in population genetics. It is so called because

of an analogy to the custom of table-sharing in Chinese restaurants.

Chinese square root method

Complex Mexican hat wavelet

ConwayPatersonMoscow theorem

Delian problem

Dubrovnik polynomial

Egyptian fraction, a way of representing a positive rational number as a sum of distinct (i.e. no two the same)

reciprocals of positive integers. These were a part of a numeral system used in ancient Egypt.

Egyptian multiplication

109

110 CHAPTER 26. LIST OF MATHEMATICAL CONCEPTS NAMED AFTER PLACES

Erlangen program, the program for future research in mathematics proposed by Felix Klein in 1872 while he

was at the University of Erlangen in Germany.

French railroad metric

HamiltonWaterloo problem

Hawaiian earring, a topological space homeomorphic to the one-point compactication of the union of a count-

ably innite family of open intervals. It is so called because of the appearance of a picture of the space, showing

an innite sequence of circles mutually tangent at a common point.

Hungarian algorithm

Indian numerals

Irish logarithm

Italian squares which include Latin squares, Tuscan squares, Roman squares, Florentine squares and Vatican

squares

Japanese ring

Japanese theorem for cyclic polygons, a geometric theorem found in a Shinto shrine during Japans Edo period

Las Vegas algorithm

Ljubljana graph

Manhattan distance

Mexican hat wavelet

Monte Carlo method, any of many methods of simulation involving pseudo-randomness. The name alludes to

the randomness of gambling casinos for which Monte Carlo is famous.

Montral functor

Nauru graph

Nottingham group

Oberwolfach problem

Paris metric

Paxos algorithm

Polish notation

Polish space (in topology)

Riga P-point

Roman surface, a self-intersecting mapping of the real projective plane into three-dimensional space, with an

unusually high degree of symmetry. It is so called because Jakob Steiner was in Rome when he thought of it.

Russian constructivism

Russian peasant multiplication

St. Petersburg paradox

Scottish Book

Seven bridges of Knigsberg, a famous problem in what would become graph theory, originally phrased as the

problem of nding a way to walk across all of Knigsberg's seven bridges and return to ones starting point

without walking across any bridge more than once.

Swiss cheese (one type in complex analysis, another in cosmology)

26.1. REFERENCES 111

Syracuse problem

Toronto space

Tower of Hanoi

Tropical geometry, algebraic geometry with addition in place of multiplication and the min operator in place

of addition. It is so called because it was developed by Brazilian mathematicians.

Warsaw circle

Woods Hole formula, a xed-point theorem discussed at a meeting in 1964 in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

26.1 References

[1] Weisstein, Eric W. Anarboricity. MathWorld.

Chapter 27

Mathematical diagram

This article is about general diagrams in mathematics. For diagrams in the category theoretical sense, see Diagram

(category theory).

Mathematical diagrams are diagrams in the eld of mathematics, and diagrams using mathematics such as charts

and graphs, that are mainly designed to convey mathematical relationships, for example, comparisons over time.[1]

A complex number can be visually represented as a pair of numbers forming a vector on a diagram called an Argand

diagram The complex plane is sometimes called the Argand plane because it is used in Argand diagrams. These are

named after Jean-Robert Argand (17681822), although they were rst described by Norwegian-Danish land surveyor

and mathematician Caspar Wessel (17451818).[2] Argand diagrams are frequently used to plot the positions of the

poles and zeroes of a function in the complex plane.

The concept of the complex plane allows a geometric interpretation of complex numbers. Under addition, they add

like vectors. The multiplication of two complex numbers can be expressed most easily in polar coordinates the

magnitude or modulus of the product is the product of the two absolute values, or moduli, and the angle or argument

of the product is the sum of the two angles, or arguments. In particular, multiplication by a complex number of

modulus 1 acts as a rotation.

In the context of fast Fourier transform algorithms, a buttery is a portion of the computation that combines the

results of smaller discrete Fourier transforms (DFTs) into a larger DFT, or vice versa (breaking a larger DFT up into

subtransforms). The name buttery comes from the shape of the data-ow diagram in the radix-2 case, as described

below. The same structure can also be found in the Viterbi algorithm, used for nding the most likely sequence of

hidden states.

The buttery diagram show a data-ow diagram connecting the inputs x (left) to the outputs y that depend on them

(right) for a buttery step of a radix-2 Cooley-Tukey FFT. This diagram resembles a buttery as in the morpho

buttery shown for comparison), hence the name.

In mathematics, and especially in category theory a commutative diagram is a diagram of objects, also known as

vertices, and morphisms, also known as arrows or edges, such that when selecting two objects any directed path

through the diagram leads to the same result by composition.

Commutative diagrams play the role in category theory that equations play in algebra.

112

27.1. SPECIFIC TYPES OF MATHEMATICAL DIAGRAMS 113

114 CHAPTER 27. MATHEMATICAL DIAGRAM

Im

a+bi

b

Re

0 a

Argand diagram.

A Hasse diagram is a simple picture of a nite partially ordered set, forming a drawing of the partial orders transitive

reduction. Concretely, one represents each element of the set as a vertex on the page and draws a line segment or curve

that goes upward from x to y precisely when x < y and there is no z such that x < z < y. In this case, we say y covers x, or

y is an immediate successor of x. In a Hasse diagram, it is required that the curves be drawn so that each meets exactly

two vertices: its two endpoints. Any such diagram (given that the vertices are labeled) uniquely determines a partial

order, and any partial order has a unique transitive reduction, but there are many possible placements of elements in

the plane, resulting in dierent Hasse diagrams for a given order that may have widely varying appearances.

In Knot theory a useful way to visualise and manipulate knots is to project the knot onto a plane;think of the knot

casting a shadow on the wall. A small perturbation in the choice of projection will ensure that it is one-to-one except

at the double points, called crossings, where the shadow of the knot crosses itself once transversely[3]

27.1. SPECIFIC TYPES OF MATHEMATICAL DIAGRAMS 115

Buttery diagram

At each crossing we must indicate which section is over and which is under, so as to be able to recreate the original

knot. This is often done by creating a break in the strand going underneath. If by following the diagram the knot

alternately crosses itself over and under, then the diagram represents a particularly well-studied class of knot,

alternating knots.

A Venn diagram is a representation of mathematical sets: a mathematical diagram representing sets as circles, with

their relationships to each other expressed through their overlapping positions, so that all possible relationships be-

116 CHAPTER 27. MATHEMATICAL DIAGRAM

Commutative diagram.

The Venn diagram is constructed with a collection of simple closed curves drawn in the plane. The principle of these

diagrams is that classes be represented by regions in such relation to one another that all the possible logical relations

of these classes can be indicated in the same diagram. That is, the diagram initially leaves room for any possible

relation of the classes, and the actual or given relation, can then be specied by indicating that some particular region

is null or is notnull.[5]

A Voronoi diagram is a special kind of decomposition of a metric space determined by distances to a specied discrete

set of objects in the space, e.g., by a discrete set of points. This diagram is named after Georgy Voronoi, also called

a Voronoi tessellation, a Voronoi decomposition, or a Dirichlet tessellation after Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet.

In the simplest case, we are given a set of points S in the plane, which are the Voronoi sites. Each site s has a Voronoi

cell V(s) consisting of all points closer to s than to any other site. The segments of the Voronoi diagram are all the

points in the plane that are equidistant to two sites. The Voronoi nodes are the points equidistant to three (or more)

sites

27.1. SPECIFIC TYPES OF MATHEMATICAL DIAGRAMS 117

{x,y,z}

Hasse diagram.

A wallpaper group or plane symmetry group or plane crystallographic group is a mathematical classication of a two-

dimensional repetitive pattern, based on the symmetries in the pattern. Such patterns occur frequently in architecture

and decorative art. There are 17 possible distinct groups.

Wallpaper groups are two-dimensional symmetry groups, intermediate in complexity between the simpler frieze

groups and the three-dimensional crystallographic groups, also called space groups. Wallpaper groups categorize

patterns by their symmetries. Subtle dierences may place similar patterns in dierent groups, while patterns which

are very dierent in style, color, scale or orientation may belong to the same group.

A Young diagram or Young tableau, also called Ferrers diagram, is a nite collection of boxes, or cells, arranged in

left-justied rows, with the row sizes weakly decreasing (each row has the same or shorter length than its predecessor).

Listing the number of boxes in each row gives a partition of a positive integer n, the total number of boxes of the

diagram. The Young diagram is said to be of shape , and it carries the same information as that partition. Listing

the number of boxes in each column gives another partition, the conjugate or transpose partition of ; one obtains

a Young diagram of that shape by reecting the original diagram along its main diagonal.

Young tableaux were introduced by Alfred Young, a mathematician at Cambridge University, in 1900. They were

then applied to the study of symmetric group by Georg Frobenius in 1903. Their theory was further developed by

many mathematicians.

Cremona diagram

118 CHAPTER 27. MATHEMATICAL DIAGRAM

Knot diagram.

De Finetti diagram

Dynkin diagram

Elementary diagram

Euler diagram

Stellation diagram

Ulam spiral

Taylor diagram

Category theory

27.3. REFERENCES 119

A B

C

Venn diagram.

Logic diagram

Mathematical jargon

Mathematical model

Mathematics as a language

Mathematical visualization

Statistical model

27.3 References

[1] Working with diagrams at LearningSpace.

[2] Wessels memoir was presented to the Danish Academy in 1797; Argands paper was published in 1806.

(Whittaker, Edmund Taylor; Watson, G.N. (1927). A Course of Modern Analysis: An Introduction to the General Theory

of Innite Processes and of Analytic Functions, with an Account of the Principal Transcendental Functions. Cambridge

University Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-521-58807-2.)

[3] Rolfsen, Dale (1976). Knots and links. Publish or Perish. ISBN 978-0-914098-16-4.

120 CHAPTER 27. MATHEMATICAL DIAGRAM

Voronoi centerlines.

[4] Venn diagram, Encarta World English Dictionary, North American Edition 2007. Archived 2009-11-01.

[5] Clarence Irving Lewis (1918). A Survey of Symbolic Logic. Republished in part by Dover in 1960. p. 157.

Barker-Plummer, Dave; Bailin, Sidney C. (1997). The Role of Diagrams in Mathematical Proofs. Machine

Graphics and Vision. 6 (1): 2556. 10.1.1.49.4712. (Special Issue on Diagrammatic Representation and

Reasoning).

Barker-Plummer, Dave; Bailin, Sidney C. (2001). On the practical semantics of mathematical diagrams.

In Anderson, M. Reasoning with Diagrammatic Representations. Springer Verlag. ISBN 978-1-85233-242-6.

CiteSeerX: 10.1.1.30.9246.

Kidman, G. (2002). The Accuracy of mathematical diagrams in curriculum materials. In Cockburn, A.;

Nardi, E. Proceeding of the PME 26. 3. University of East Anglia. pp. 2018.

Bancerek, Grzegorz; Trybulec, Andrzej. Mathematical knowledge management: third international conference,

MKM 2004, Biaowiea, Poland, September 1921, 2004 : Proceedings. Springer. pp. 191204. ISBN 978-3-

540-23029-8.

Puphaiboon, K.; Woodcock, A.; Scrivener, S. (25 March 2005). Design method for developing mathematical

diagrams. In Bust, Philip D.; McCabe, P.T. Contemporary ergonomics 2005 Proceedings of the International

Conference on Contemporary Ergonomics (CE2005). Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-37448-4.

Diagrams. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Fall 2008.

Kulpa, Zenon. Diagrammatics: The art of thinking with diagrams. Archived from the original on April 25,

2013.

27.5. EXTERNAL LINKS 121

Lomas, Dennis (1998). Diagrams in Mathematical Education: A Philosophical Appraisal. Philosophy of

Education Society. Archived from the original on 2011.

122 CHAPTER 27. MATHEMATICAL DIAGRAM

Young diagram.

Chapter 28

Near sets

In mathematics, near sets are either spatially close or descriptively close. Spatially close sets have nonempty intersection.

In other words, spatially close sets are not disjoint sets, since they always have at least one element in common. De-

scriptively close sets contain elements that have matching descriptions. Such sets can be either disjoint or non-disjoint

sets. Spatially near sets are also descriptively near sets.

The underlying assumption with descriptively close sets is that such sets contain elements that have location and

measurable features such as colour and frequency of occurrence. The description of the element of a set is dened

by a feature vector. Comparison of feature vectors provides a basis for measuring the closeness of descriptively near

123

124 CHAPTER 28. NEAR SETS

sets. Near set theory provides a formal basis for the observation, comparison, and classication of elements in sets

based on their closeness, either spatially or descriptively. Near sets oer a framework for solving problems based on

human perception that arise in areas such as image processing, computer vision as well as engineering and science

problems.

Near sets have a variety of applications in areas such as topology[37] , pattern detection and classication[50] , abstract al-

gebra[51] , mathematics in computer science[38] , and solving a variety of problems based on human perception[42][82][47][52][56]

that arise in areas such as image analysis[54][14][46][17][18] , image processing[40] , face recognition[13] , ethology[64] , as

well as engineering and science problems[55][64][42][19][17][18] . From the beginning, descriptively near sets have proved

to be useful in applications of topology[37] , and visual pattern recognition [50] , spanning a broad spectrum of applica-

tions that include camouage detection, micropaleontology, handwriting forgery detection, biomedical image analy-

sis, content-based image retrieval, population dynamics, quotient topology, textile design, visual merchandising, and

topological psychology.

As an illustration of the degree of descriptive nearness between two sets, consider an example of the Henry colour

model for varying degrees of nearness between sets of picture elements in pictures (see, e.g.,[17] 4.3). The two pairs

of ovals in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 contain coloured segments. Each segment in the gures corresponds to an equivalence

class where all pixels in the class have similar descriptions, i.e., picture elements with similar colours. The ovals in

Fig.1 are closer to each other descriptively than the ovals in Fig. 2.

28.1. HISTORY 125

28.1 History

It has been observed that the simple concept of nearness unies various concepts of topological structures[20] inas-

much as the category Near of all nearness spaces and nearness preserving maps contains categories sTop (symmetric

topological spaces and continuous maps[3] ), Prox (proximity spaces and -maps[8][67] ), Unif (uniform spaces and uni-

formly continuous maps[81][77] ) and Cont (contiguity spaces and contiguity maps[24] ) as embedded full subcategories[20][59] .

The categories AN ear and AM er are shown to be full supercategories of various well-known categories, in-

cluding the category sT op of symmetric topological spaces and continuous maps, and the category M et of

extended metric spaces and nonexpansive maps. The notation A , B reads category A is embedded in category B

. The categories AM er and AN ear are supercategories for a variety of familiar categories[76] shown in Fig. 3.

Let AN ear denote the category of all -approach nearness spaces and contractions, and let AM er denote the

category of all -approach merotopic spaces and contractions.

Figure 3. Supercats

Among these familiar categories is sT op , the symmetric form of T op (see category of topological spaces), the cat-

egory with objects that are topological spaces and morphisms that are continuous maps between them[1][32] . M et

with objects that are extended metric spaces is a subcategory of AP (having objects -approach spaces and con-

tractions) (see also[57][75] ). Let X , Y be extended pseudometrics on nonempty sets X, Y , respectively. The map

f : (X, X ) (Y, Y ) is a contraction if and only if f : (X, DX ) (Y, DY ) is a contraction. For

nonempty subsets A, B 2X , the distance function D : 2X 2X [0, ] is dened by

{

inf {(a, b) : a A, b B}, ifA and Bempty not are ,

D (A, B) =

, ifA or Bempty is .

Thus AP is embedded as a full subcategory in AN ear by the functor F : AP AN ear dened by

F ((X, )) = (X, D ) and F (f ) = f . Then f : (X, X ) (Y, Y ) is a contraction if and only if f :

126 CHAPTER 28. NEAR SETS

functor F : AP AN ear dened by F ((X, )) = (X, D ) and F (f ) = f. Since the category M et

of extended metric spaces and nonexpansive maps is a full subcategory of AP , therefore, AN ear is also a full

supercategory of M et . The category AN ear is a topological construct[76] .

The notions of near and far[A] in mathematics can be traced back to works by Johann Benedict Listing and Felix

Hausdor. The related notions of resemblance and similarity can be traced back to J.H. Poincar, who introduced

sets of similar sensations (nascent tolerance classes) to represent the results of G.T. Fechners sensation sensitivity

experiments[10] and a framework for the study of resemblance in representative spaces as models of what he termed

physical continua[63][60][61] . The elements of a physical continuum (pc) are sets of sensations. The notion of a pc

and various representative spaces (tactile, visual, motor spaces) were introduced by Poincar in an 1894 article on

the mathematical continuum[63] , an 1895 article on space and geometry[60] and a compendious 1902 book on science

28.2. NEARNESS OF SETS 127

and hypothesis[61] followed by a number of elaborations, e.g.,[62] . The 1893 and 1895 articles on continua (Pt. 1,

ch. II) as well as representative spaces and geometry (Pt. 2, ch IV) are included as chapters in[61] . Later, F. Riesz

introduced the concept of proximity or nearness of pairs of sets at the International Congress of Mathematicians

(ICM) in 1908[65] .

During the 1960s, E.C. Zeeman introduced tolerance spaces in modelling visual perception[83] . A.B. Sossinsky

observed in 1986[71] that the main idea underlying tolerance space theory comes from Poincar, especially[60] . In

2002, Z. Pawlak and J. Peters[B] considered an informal approach to the perception of the nearness of physical objects

such as snowakes that was not limited to spatial nearness. In 2006, a formal approach to the descriptive nearness of

objects was considered by J. Peters, A. Skowron and J. Stepaniuk[C] in the context of proximity spaces[39][33][35][21] .

In 2007, descriptively near sets were introduced by J. Peters[D][E] followed by the introduction of tolerance near

sets[41][45] . Recently, the study of descriptively near sets has led to algebraic[22][51] , topological and proximity space[37]

foundations of such sets.

The adjective near in the context of near sets is used to denote the fact that observed feature value dierences of

distinct objects are small enough to be considered indistinguishable, i.e., within some tolerance.

The exact idea of closeness or 'resemblance' or of 'being within tolerance' is universal enough to appear, quite naturally,

in almost any mathematical setting (see, e.g.,[66] ). It is especially natural in mathematical applications: practical

problems, more often than not, deal with approximate input data and only require viable results with a tolerable level

of error[71] .

The words near and far are used in daily life and it was an incisive suggestion of F. Riesz[65] that these intuitive

concepts be made rigorous. He introduced the concept of nearness of pairs of sets at the ICM in Rome in 1908. This

concept is useful in simplifying teaching calculus and advanced calculus. For example, the passage from an intuitive

denition of continuity of a function at a point to its rigorous epsilon-delta denition is sometime dicult for teachers

to explain and for students to understand. Intuitively, continuity can be explained using nearness language, i.e., a

function f : R R is continuous at a point c , provided points {x} near c go into points {f (x)} near f (c) . Using

Rieszs idea, this denition can be made more precise and its contrapositive is the familiar denition[4][36] .

From a spatial point of view, nearness (aka proximity) is considered a generalization of set intersection. For disjoint

sets, a form of nearness set intersection is dened in terms of a set of objects (extracted from disjoint sets) that have

similar features within some tolerance (see, e.g., 3 in[80] ). For example, the ovals in Fig. 1 are considered near each

other, since these ovals contain pairs of classes that display similar (visually indistinguishable) colours.

Let X denote a metric topological space that is endowed with one or more proximity relations and let 2X denote the

collection of all subsets of X . The collection 2X is called the power set of X .

There are many ways to dene Efremovi proximities on topological spaces (discrete proximity, standard proximity,

metric proximity, ech proximity, Alexandro proximity, and Freudenthal proximity), For details, see 2, pp. 93

94 in[6] . The focus here is on standard proximity on a topological space. For A, B X , A is near B (denoted by

A B ), provided their closures share a common point.

The closure of a subset A 2X (denoted by cl(A) ) is the usual Kuratowski closure of a set[F] , introduced in 4, p.

20[27] , is dened by

D(x, A) = inf {d(x, a) : a A} .

i.e. cl(A) is the set of all points x in X that are close to A ( D(x, A) is the Hausdor distance (see 22, p. 128,

128 CHAPTER 28. NEAR SETS

in[15] ) between x and the set A and d(x, a) = |x a| (standard distance)). A standard proximity relation is dened

by

{ }

= (A, B) 2X 2X : cl(A) cl(B) = .

Whenever sets A and B have no points in common, the sets are farfrom each other (denoted A B ).

The following EF-proximity[G] space axioms are given by Jurij Michailov Smirnov[67] based on what Vadim Arsenye-

vi Efremovi introduced during the rst half of the 1930s[8] . Let A, B, E 2X .

EF.2 A B is close to E , if and only if, at least one of the sets A or B is close to E .

EF.3 Two points are close, if and only if, they are the same point.

EF.5 For any two sets A and B which are far from each other, there exists C, D 2X , C D = X , such that A

is far from C and B is far from D (Efremovi-axiom).

The pair (X, ) is called an EF-proximity space. In this context, a space is a set with some added structure. With

a proximity space X , the structure of X is induced by the EF-proximity relation . In a proximity space X , the

closure of A in X coincides with the intersection of all closed sets that contain A .

Theorem 1[67] The closure of any set A in the proximity space X is the set of points x X that are close to A .

Let the set X be represented by the points inside the rectangular region in Fig. 5. Also, let A, B be any two non-

intersection subsets (i.e. subsets spatially far from each other) in X , as shown in Fig. 5. Let C c = X\C (complement

of the set C ). Then from the EF-axiom, observe the following:

A B,

B C,

D = C c,

X = D C,

A D, hence, we can write

A B A C and B D, for some C, D in X so that C D = X.

Descriptively near sets were introduced as a means of solving classication and pattern recognition problems arising

from disjoint sets that resemble each other[44][43] . Recently, the connections between near sets in EF-spaces and near

sets in descriptive EF-proximity spaces have been explored in[53][48] .

Again, let X be a metric topological space and let = {1 , . . . , n } a set of probe functions that represent features

of each x X . The assumption made here is X contains non-abstract points that have measurable features such as

gradient orientation. A non-abstract point has a location and features that can be measured (see 3 in [26] ).

A probe function : X R represents a feature of a sample point in X . The mapping : X Rn is dened

by (x) = (1 (x), . . . , n (x)) , where Rn is an n-dimensional real Euclidean vector space. (x) is a feature vector

for x , which provides a description of x X . For example, this leads to a proximal view of sets of picture points

in digital images[48] .

28.6. DESCRIPTIVE PROXIMITY SPACE 129

X

Cc C

B

A

To obtain a descriptive proximity relation (denoted by ), one rst chooses a set of probe functions. Let Q : 2X

n n

2R be a mapping on a subset of 2X into a subset of 2R . For example, let A, B 2X and Q(A), Q(B) denote

sets of descriptions of points in A, B , respectively. That is,

Q(A) = {(a) : a A} ,

Q(B) = {(b) : b B} .

The expression A B reads A is descriptively near B . Similarly, A B reads A is descriptively far from B . The

descriptive proximity of A and B is dened by

A B Q(cl(A)) Q(cl(B)) = .

A B = {x A B : Q(A) Q(B)} .

That is, x A B is in A B , provided (x) = (a) = (b) for some a A, b B . Observe that A and B

can be disjoint and yet A B can be nonempty. The descriptive proximity relation is dened by

{ }

= (A, B) 2X 2X : cl(A) cl(B) = .

Whenever sets A and B have no points with matching descriptions, the sets are descriptively far from each other

(denoted by A B ).

The binary relation is a descriptive EF-proximity, provided the following axioms are satised for A, B, E X .

130 CHAPTER 28. NEAR SETS

dEF.2 A B is descriptively close to E , if and only if, at least one of the sets A or B is descriptively close to E .

dEF.3 Two points x, y X are descriptively close, if and only if, the description of x matches the description of

y.

dEF.4 All nonempty sets are descriptively far from the empty set .

dEF.5 For any two sets A and B which are descriptively far from each other, there exists C, D 2X , C D = X

, such that A is descriptively far from C and B is descriptively far from D (Descriptive Efremovi axiom).

A relator is a nonvoid family of relations R on a nonempty set X [72] . The pair (X, R) (also denoted X(R) ) is

called a relator space. Relator spaces are natural generalizations of ordered sets and uniform spaces[73][74] }. With the

introduction of a family of proximity relations R on X , we obtain a proximal relator space (X, R ) . For simplicity,

we consider only two proximity relations, namely, the Efremovi proximity [8] and the descriptive proximity in

dening the descriptive relator R [53][48] . The pair (X, R ) is called a proximal relator space [49] . In this work, X

denotes a metric topological space that is endowed with the relations in a proximal relator. With the introduction of

(X, R ) , the traditional closure of a subset (e.g., [9][7] ) can be compared with the more recent descriptive closure

of a subset.

In a proximal relator space X , the descriptive closure of a set A (denoted by cl (A) ) is dened by

cl (A) = {x X : (x)Q(cl(A))} .

That is, x X is in the descriptive closure of A , provided the closure of (x) and the closure of Q(cl(A)) have at

least one element in common.

Theorem 2 [50] The descriptive closure of any set A in the descriptive EF-proximity space (X, R ) is the set of

points x X that are descriptively close to A .

Theorem 3 [50] Kuratowski closure of a set A is a subset of the descriptive closure of A in a descriptive EF-proximity

space.

Theorem 4 [49] Let (X, R ) be a proximal relator space, A X . Then cl(A) cl (A) .

Proof Let (x) Q(X \ cl(A)) such that (x) = (a) for some a clA . Consequently, (x) Q(cl (A)) .

Hence, cl(A) cl (A)

In a proximal relator space, EF-proximity leads to the following results for descriptive proximity .

1

A B implies A B .

2

(A B) C implies (A B) C .

3

clA clB implies clA clB .

Proof

28.8. DESCRIPTIVE -NEIGHBOURHOODS 131

1

A B A B = . For x A B, (x) Q(A) and (x) Q(B) . Consequently, A B .

1 2

3

clA clB implies that clA and clA have at least one point in common. Hence, 1 o 3o .

X

X \E 2 E2

B

E1

A

In a pseudometric proximal relator space X , the neighbourhood of a point x X (denoted by Nx, ), for > 0 , is

dened by

The interior of a set A (denoted by int(A) ) and boundary of A (denoted by bdy(A) ) in a proximal relator space X

are dened by

int(A) = {x X : Nx, A} .

132 CHAPTER 28. NEAR SETS

A set A has a natural strong inclusion in a set B associated with [5][6] } (denoted by A B ), provided A intB

, i.e., A X \ intB ( A is far from the complement of intB ). Correspondingly, a set A has a descriptive strong

inclusion in a set B associated with (denoted by A B ), provided Q(A) Q(intB) , i.e., A X \ intB (

Q(A) is far from the complement of intB ).

Let be a descriptive -neighbourhood relation dened by

{ }

= (A, B) 2X 2X : Q(A) Q(intB) .

That is, A B , provided the description of each a A is contained in the set of descriptions of the points b intB

. Now observe that any A, B in the proximal relator space X such that A B have disjoint -neighbourhoods,

i.e.,

Theorem 6 [50] Any two sets descriptively far from each other belong to disjoint descriptive -neighbourhoods in

a descriptive proximity space X .

A consideration of strong containment of a nonempty set in another set leads to the study of hit-and-miss topologies

and the Wijsman topology[2] .

Let be a real number greater than zero. In the study of sets that are proximally near within some tolerance, the set

of proximity relations R is augmented with a pseudometric tolerance proximity relation (denoted by , ) dened

by

n

d((a), (a)) = |i (a) i (b)|,

{ i=1 }

, = (A, B) 2X 2X : |D(cl(A), cl(B))| < .

Let R, = R {, } . In other words, a nonempty set equipped with the proximal relator R, has underlying

structure provided by the proximal relator R and provides a basis for the study of tolerance near sets in X that are

near within some tolerance. Sets A, B in a descriptive pseudometric proximal relator space (X, R, ) are tolerance

near sets (i.e., A , B ), provided

D (A, B) < .

Relations with the same formal properties as similarity relations of sensations considered by Poincar[62] are nowadays,

after Zeeman[83] , called tolerance relations. A tolerance on a set O is a relation O O that is reexive and

symmetric. In algebra, the term tolerance relation is also used in a narrow sense to denote reexive and symmetric

relations dened on universes of algebras that are also compatible with operations of a given algebra, i.e., they are

generalizations of congruence relations (see e.g.,[12] ). In referring to such relations, the term algebraic tolerance or

the term algebraic tolerance relation is used. Transitive tolerance relations are equivalence relations. A set O together

with a tolerance is called a tolerance space (denoted (O, ) ). A set A O is a -preclass (or briey preclass

when is understood) if and only if for any x, y A , (x, y) .

The family of all preclasses of a tolerance space is naturally ordered by set inclusion and preclasses that are maximal

with respect to set inclusion are called -classes or just classes, when is understood. The family of all classes of

the space (O, ) is particularly interesting and is denoted by H (O) . The family H (O) is a covering of O [58] .

28.10. TOLERANCE CLASSES AND PRECLASSES 133

The work on similarity by Poincar and Zeeman presage the introduction of near sets[44][43] and research on similarity

relations, e.g.,[79] . In science and engineering, tolerance near sets are a practical application of the study of sets that

are near within some tolerance. A tolerance (0, ] is directly related to the idea of closeness or resemblance

(i.e., being within some tolerance) in comparing objects. By way of application of Poincar's approach in dening

visual spaces and Zeemans approach to tolerance relations, the basic idea is to compare objects such as image patches

in the interior of digital images.

28.10.1 Examples

Simple Example

The following simple example demonstrates the construction of tolerance classes from real data. Consider the 20

objects in the table below with || = 1 .

H

{x2 , x7 , x18 , x19 },

{x3 , x12 , x17 },

{x4 , x13 , x20 }, {x4 , x18 },

{x5 , x6 , x15 , x16 }, {x5 , x6 , x15 , x20 },

{x6 , x13 , x20 }}.

Observe that each object in a tolerance class satises the condition (x) (y) 2 , and that almost all of the

objects appear in more than one class. Moreover, there would be twenty classes if the indiscernibility relation was

used since there are no two objects with matching descriptions.

Image Processing Example

Figure 7. Example of images that are near each other. (a) and (b) Images from the freely available LeavesDataset (see, e.g.,

www.vision.caltech.edu/archive.html).

The following example provides an example based on digital images. Let a subimage be dened as a small subset of

pixels belonging to a digital image such that the pixels contained in the subimage form a square. Then, let the sets X

and Y respectively represent the subimages obtained from two dierent images, and let O = {X Y } . Finally, let

the description of an object be given by the Green component in the RGB color model. The next step is to nd all

134 CHAPTER 28. NEAR SETS

the tolerance classes using the tolerance relation dened in the previous example. Using this information, tolerance

classes can be formed containing objects that have similar (within some small ) values for the Green component

in the RGB colour model. Furthermore, images that are near (similar) to each other should have tolerance classes

divided among both images (instead of a tolerance classes contained solely in one of the images). For example, the

gure accompanying this example shows a subset of the tolerance classes obtained from two leaf images. In this

gure, each tolerance class is assigned a separate colour. As can be seen, the two leaves share similar tolerance

classes. This example highlights a need to measure the degree of nearness of two sets.

Let (U, R, ) denote a particular descriptive pseudometric EF-proximal relator space equipped with the proximity

relation , and with nonempty subsets X, Y 2U and with the tolerance relation =, dened in terms of a set of

probes and with (0, ] , where

Figure 8. Examples of degree of nearness between two sets: (a) High degree of nearness, and (b) Low degree of nearness.

Further, assume Z = X Y and let H, (Z) denote the family of all classes in the space (Z, , ) .

Let A X, B Y . The distance DtN M : 2U 2U : [0, ] is dened by

{

1 tN M (A, B), if X and Y are not empty,

DtN M (X, Y ) =

, if X or Y is empty,

where

( )1

min(|C A|, |[C B|)

tN M (A, B) = |C| |C| .

max(|C A|, |C B|)

CH, (Z) CH, (Z)

The details concerning tN M are given in[14][16][17] . The idea behind tN M is that sets that are similar should have

a similar number of objects in each tolerance class. Thus, for each tolerance class obtained from the covering of

Z = X Y , tN M counts the number of objects that belong to X and Y and takes the ratio (as a proper fraction) of

their cardinalities. Furthermore, each ratio is weighted by the total size of the tolerance class (thus giving importance

to the larger classes) and the nal result is normalized by dividing by the sum of all the cardinalities. The range of

tN M is in the interval [0,1], where a value of 1 is obtained if the sets are equivalent (based on object descriptions)

and a value of 0 is obtained if they have no descriptions in common.

As an example of the degree of nearness between two sets, consider gure below in which each image consists of two

sets of objects, X and Y . Each colour in the gures corresponds to a set where all the objects in the class share the

28.12. NEAR SET EVALUATION AND RECOGNITION (NEAR) SYSTEM 135

same description. The idea behind tN M is that the nearness of sets in a perceptual system is based on the cardinality

of tolerance classes that they share. Thus, the sets in left side of the gure are closer (more near) to each other in

terms of their descriptions than the sets in right side of the gure.

The Near set Evaluation and Recognition (NEAR) system, is a system developed to demonstrate practical applications

of near set theory to the problems of image segmentation evaluation and image correspondence. It was motivated

by a need for a freely available software tool that can provide results for research and to generate interest in near

set theory. The system implements a Multiple Document Interface (MDI) where each separate processing task is

performed in its own child frame. The objects (in the near set sense) in this system are subimages of the images being

processed and the probe functions (features) are image processing functions dened on the subimages. The system

was written in C++ and was designed to facilitate the addition of new processing tasks and probe functions. Currently,

the system performs six major tasks, namely, displaying equivalence and tolerance classes for an image, performing

segmentation evaluation, measuring the nearness of two images, performing Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR),

and displaying the output of processing an image using a specic probe function.

The Proximity System is an application developed to demonstrate descriptive-based topological approaches to near-

ness and proximity within the context of digital image analysis. The Proximity System grew out of the work of S.

Naimpally and J. Peters on Topological Spaces. The Proximity System was written in Java and is intended to run in

two dierent operating environments, namely on Android smartphones and tablets, as well as desktop platforms run-

136 CHAPTER 28. NEAR SETS

ning the Java Virtual Machine. With respect to the desktop environment, the Proximity System is a cross-platform

Java application for Windows, OSX, and Linux systems, which has been tested on Windows 7 and Debian Linux

using the Sun Java 6 Runtime. In terms of the implementation of the theoretical approaches, both the Android and

the desktop based applications use the same back-end libraries to perform the description-based calculations, where

the only dierences are the user interface and the Android version has less available features due to restrictions on

system resources.

Alternative set theory

Category:Mathematical relations

Category:Topology

Feature vector

Proximity space

Rough set

Topology

28.15 Notes

1. ^ J.R. Isbell observed that the notions near and far are important in a uniform space. Sets A, B are far

(uniformaly distal), provided the {A, B} is a discrete collection. A nonempty set U is a uniform neighbour-

hood of a set A , provided the complement of U is far from U . See, 33 in [23]

2. ^ The intuition that led to the discovery of descriptively near sets is given in Pawlak, Z.;Peters, J.F. (2002,

2007) Jak blisko (How Near)". Systemy Wspomagania Decyzji I 57 (109)

3. ^ Descriptively near sets are introduced in[48] . The connections between traditional EF-proximity and descrip-

tive EF-proximity are explored in [37] .

28.16. REFERENCES 137

4. ^ Reminiscent of M. Pavels approach, descriptions of members of sets objects are dened relative to vectors

of values obtained from real-valued functions called probes. See, Pavel, M. (1993). Fundamentals of pattern

recognition. 2nd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker, for the introduction of probe functions considered in the

context of image registration.

5. ^ A non-spatial view of near sets appears in, C.J. Mozzochi, M.S. Gagrat, and S.A. Naimpally, Symmetric

generalized topological structures, Exposition Press, Hicksville, NY, 1976., and, more recently, nearness of

disjoint sets X and Y based on resemblance between pairs of elements x X, y Y (i.e. x and y have

similar feature vectors (x), (y) and the norm (x) (y) p < ) See, e.g.,[43][42][53] .

6. ^ The basic facts about closure of a set were rst pointed out by M. Frchet in[11] , and elaborated by B. Knaster

and C. Kuratowski in[25] .

7. ^ Observe that up to the 1970s, proximity meant EF-proximity, since this is the one that was studied intensively.

The pre-1970 work on proximity spaces is exemplied by the series of papers by J. M. Smirnov during the

rst half of the 1950s[68][67][69][70] , culminating in the compendious collection of results by S.A. Naimpally and

B.D. Warrack[34] . But in view of later developments, there is a need to distinguish between various proximities.

A basic proximity or ech-proximity was introduced by E. ech during the late 1930s (see 25 A.1, pp. 439-

440 in [78] ). The conditions for the non-symmetric case for a proximity were introduced by S. Leader[28] and

for the symmetric case by M.W. Lodato[29][30][31] .

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58. ^ Peters, J. F.; Wasilewski, P. (2012). Tolerance spaces: Origins, theoretical aspects and applications. In-

formation Sciences. 195: 211225. doi:10.1016/j.ins.2012.01.023.

59. ^ Picado, J. Weil nearness spaces. Portugaliae Mathematica. 55 (2): 233254.

60. ^ a b c Poincar, J. H. (1895). L'espace et la gomtrie. Revue de m'etaphysique et de morale. 3: 631646.

61. ^ a b c Poincar, J. H. (1902). Sur certaines surfaces algbriques; troisime complment 'a l'analysis situs.

Bulletin de la Socit de France. 30: 4970.

62. ^ a b Poincar, J. H. (1913 & 2009). Dernires penses, trans. by J.W. Bolduc as Mathematics and science: Last

essays. Paris & NY: Flammarion & Kessinger. Check date values in: |date= (help)

63. ^ a b Poincar, J. H. (1894). Sur la nature du raisonnement mathmatique. Revue de maphysique et de

morale. 2: 371384.

64. ^ a b Ramanna, S.; Meghdadi, A. H. (2009). Measuring resemblances between swarm behaviours: A percep-

tual tolerance near set approach. Fundamenta Informaticae. 95 (4): 533552. doi:10.3233/FI-2009-163.

65. ^ a b Riesz, F. (1908). Stetigkeitsbegri und abstrakte mengenlehre (PDF). Atti del IV Congresso Inter-

nazionale dei Matematici II: 1824.

66. ^ Shreider, J. A. (1975). Equality, resemblance, and order. Russia: Mir Publishers. p. 279.

67. ^ a b c d Smirnov, J. M. (1952). On proximity spaces. Mat. Sb. (N.S.). 31 (73): 543574 (English translation:

Amer. Math. Soc. Trans. Ser. 2, 38, 1964, 535).

68. ^ Smirnov, J. M. (1952). On proximity spaces in the sense of V.A. Efremovi". Math. Sb. (N.S.). 84:

895898, English translation: Amer. Math. Soc. Trans. Ser. 2, 38, 1964, 14.

69. ^ Smirnov, J. M. (1954). On the completeness of proximity spaces. I.. Trudy Moskov. Mat. Ob. 3:

271306, English translation: Amer. Math. Soc. Trans. Ser. 2, 38, 1964, 3774.

70. ^ Smirnov, J. M. (1955). On the completeness of proximity spaces. II.. Trudy Moskov. Mat. Ob. 4:

421438, English translation: Amer. Math. Soc. Trans. Ser. 2, 38, 1964, 7594.

71. ^ a b Sossinsky, A. B. (1986). Tolerance space theory and some applications. Acta Applicandae Mathemati-

cae. 5 (2): 137167. doi:10.1007/bf00046585.

72. ^ Szz, . (1997). Uniformly, proximally and topologically compact relators. Mathematica Pannonica. 8

(1): 103116.

73. ^ Szz, . (1987). Basic tools and mild continuities in relator spaces. Acta Mathematica Hungarica. 50:

177201. doi:10.1007/bf01903935.

74. ^ Szz, (2000). An extension of Kelleys closed relation theorem to relator spaces. FILOMAT. 14: 4971.

75. ^ Tiwari, S. (2010), Some aspects of general topology and applications. Approach merotopic structures and

applications, Ph.D. thesis, Dept. of Math., Allahabad (U.P.), India, supervisor: M. khare

76. ^ a b Tiwari, S.; Peters, J. F. (2013). A new approach to the study of extended metric spaces. Mathematica

Aeterna. 3 (7): 565577.

77. ^ Tukey, J. W. (1940), Convergence and uniformity in topology, Annals of Mathematics Studies, AM2,

Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, p. 90 Missing or empty |title= (help)

78. ^ ech, E. (1966). Topological spaces, revised ed. by Z. Frolik and M. Kattov. London: John Wiley & Sons.

p. 893.

79. ^ Wasilewski, P. (2004), On selected similarity relations and their applications into cognitive science, Ph.D.

thesis, Dept. Logic

80. ^ Wasilewski, P.; Peters, J. F.; Ramanna, S. (2011). Perceptual tolerance intersection. Transactions on

Rough Sets XIII: 159174.

81. ^ Weil, A. (1938), Sur les espaces structure uniforme et sur la topologie gnrale, Actualits scientique

et industrielles, Paris: Harmann & cie Missing or empty |title= (help)

28.17. FURTHER READING 141

82. ^ Wolski, M. (2010). Perception and classication. A note on near sets and rough sets. Fundamenta Infor-

maticae. 101: 143155.

83. ^ a b Zeeman, E. C. (1962), The topology of the brain and visual perception, in Fort, Jr., M. K., Topology

of 3-Manifolds and Related Topics, University of Georgia Institute Conference Proceedings (1962): Prentice-

Hall, pp. 240256 Missing or empty |title= (help)

Naimpally, S. A.; Peters, J. F. (2013). Topology with Applications. Topological Spaces via Near and Far.

World Scientic Publishing . Co. Pte. Ltd. ISBN 978-981-4407-65-6.

Naimpally, S. A.; Peters, J. F.; Wolski, M. (2013), Near Set Theory and Applications, Mathematics in Computer

Science, 7 (1), Berlin: Springer

Peters, J. F. (2014), Topology of Digital Images. Visual Pattern Discovery in Proximity Spaces, Intelligent

Systems Reference Library, 63, Berlin: Springer

Henry, C. J.; Peters, J. F. (2012), Near set evaluation and recognition (NEAR) system V3.0, UM CI Laboratory

Technical Report No. TR-2009-015, Computational Intelligence Laboratory, University of Manitoba

Concilio, A. Di (2014). Proximity: A powerful tool in extension theory, function spaces, hyperspaces, boolean

algebras and point-free geometry. Computational Intelligence Laboratory, University of Manitoba. UM CI

Laboratory Technical Report No. TR-2009-021.

Peters, J. F.; Naimpally, S. A. (2012). Applications of near sets (PDF). Notices of the American Mathematical

Society. 59 (4): 536542. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.371.7903 .

Chapter 29

Olog

The theory of ologs is an attempt to provide a rigorous mathematical framework for knowledge representation,

construction of scientic models and data storage using category theory, linguistic and graphical tools. Ologs were

introduced in 2010 by David Spivak,[1] a research scientist in the Department of Mathematics, MIT.

29.1 Etymology

The term olog is short for "ontology log. Ontology derives from onto-, from the Greek , being; that

which is, present participle of the verb be, and -, -logia: science, study, theory.

At the basic level an olog C is a category whose objects are represented as boxes containing sentences and whose

morphisms are represented as directed labeled arrows between boxes. The structures of the sentences for both the

142

29.3. OLOGS AND DATABASES 143

objects and the morphisms of C need to be compatible with the mathematical denition of C . This compatibility

cannot be checked mathematically, because it lies in the correspondence between mathematical ideas and natural

language.

Every olog has a target category, which is taken to be Set (Category of sets), the category of sets and functions, unless

otherwise mentioned. In that case, we are looking at a set of amino acids, a set of amine groups, and a function

that assigns to every amino acid its amine group. In this article we usually stick to Set , though sometimes using the

Kleisli category CP of the power set monad. Another possibility, though one we do not use here, would be to use the

Kleisli category of probability distributionsthe Giry monad[2] e.g., to obtain a generalization of Markov decision

processes.

The boxes in the above example refer to objects of Set . For example, the box containing the sentence an amino

acid refers to the set of all amino acids and the box containing the sentence a side chain refers to the set of all side

chains. The arrow labeled with has whose source is an amino acid and whose target is a side chain refers to a

morphism between two objects of Set and thus needs to be a function between two sets. Indeed, every amino acid

has a unique side chain so the arrow is a valid morphism of Set . The functional nature of the morphisms in Set is

expressed in an olog by labeling arrows with appropriate sentences (e.g. has).

For another example let (P, , ) be the power set monad on Set so given A Ob(Set) , P(A) is the power set of

A, the natural transformation sends a A to the singleton {a} and the natural transformation unionizes sets. A

morphism f : A B in the Kleisli category CP can be seen as establishing a binary relation R. Given a A and

b B we say that (a, b) R if b f (a) .

We can use CP as the target category for an olog. In this case the arrows in the olog need to reect the relational

nature of morphisms in CP . This can be done by labeling every arrow in the olog with either is related to, or is

greater than and so on.

An olog C can also be viewed as a database schema. Every box (object of C ) in the olog is a table T and the arrows

(morphisms) emanating from the box are columns in C . The assignment of a particular instance to an object of C is

done through a functor I : C Set . In the example above, the box an amino acid will be represented as a table

whose number of rows is equal to the number of types of amino acids and whose number of columns is three, one

column for each arrow emanating from that box.

Communication between dierent ologs which in practice can be communication between dierent models or world-

views is done using functors. Spivak coins the notions of a 'meaningful' and 'strongly meaningful' functors.[1] Let C

and D be two ologs, I : C Set , J : D Set functors (see the section on ologs and databases) and F : C D a

functor. We say that a F is meaningful if there exists a natural transformation m : I F J (the pullback of J by

F).

Taking as an example C and D as two dierent scientic models, the functor F is meaningful if predictions, which

are objects in Set , made by the rst model C can be translated to the second model D .

We say that F is strongly meaningful if given an object X C we have I(X) = J(F (X)) . This equality is equivalent

to requiring m to be a natural isomorphism.

Sometime it will be hard to nd a meaningful functor F from C to D . In such a case we may try to dene a new olog

B which represents the common ground of C and D and nd meaningful functors FC : B C and FD : B D .

If communication between ologs is limited to a two-way communication as described above then we may think

of a collection of ologs as nodes of a graph and of the edges as functors connecting the ologs. If a simultaneous

communication between more than two ologs is allowed then the graph becomes a symmetric simplicial complex.

144 CHAPTER 29. OLOG

Spivak provides some rules of good practice for writing an olog whose morphisms have a functional nature (see the

rst example in the section Mathematical formalism).[1] The text in a box should adhere to the following rules:

3. refer to a distinction for which there is well dened functor whose range is Set , i.e an instance can be docu-

mented. (Example: there is a set of all amino acids).

4. declare all variables in a compound structure. (Example: instead of writing in a box a man and a woman

write a man m and a woman w " or a pair (m, w) where m is a man and w is a woman).

The rst three rules ensure that the objects (the boxes) dened by the ologs author are well-dened sets. The fourth

rule improves the labeling of arrows in an olog.

29.6 Applications

The concept was experimentally documented by David Spivak and coauthors Associate Professor Markus J. Buehler

of the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (CEE) and CEE graduate student Tristan Giesa in a paper

that was published in the December 2011 issue of BioNanoScience in which the researchers establish a scientic

analogy between spider silk and musical composition.[3]

Hypergraph

Modeling language

Ontology language

Operad theory

Universal algebra

Universal logic

29.8 References

[1] Spivak (2011). Ologs: A categorical framework for knowledge representation. arXiv:1102.1889v1 [cs.LO].

[3] Giesa, Tristan; Spivak, David I.; Buehler, Markus J. (2011). Reoccurring patterns in hierarchical protein materials and

music: The power of analogies. arXiv:1111.5297v1 [q-bio.BM].

Spivak, David I. Categorical informatics. math.mit.edu. Retrieved 2 May 2017.

Spivak, David I. (2014). Category theory for the sciences. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 9780262028134.

OCLC 876833252.

Chapter 30

Parity (mathematics)

Cuisenaire rods: 5 (yellow) cannot be evenly divided in 2 (red) by any 2 rods of the same color/length, while 6 (dark green) can be

evenly divided in 2 by 3 (light green).

In mathematics, parity is the property of an integer's inclusion in one of two categories: even or odd. An integer is

even if it is evenly divisible by two and odd if it is not even.[1] For example, 6 is even because there is no remainder

when dividing it by 2. By contrast, 3, 5, 7, 21 leave a remainder of 1 when divided by 2. Examples of even numbers

include 4, 0, 8, and 1738. In particular, zero is an even number.[2] Some examples of odd numbers are 5, 3, 9, and

73.

A formal denition of an even number is that it is an integer of the form n = 2k, where k is an integer;[3] it can then

be shown that an odd number is an integer of the form n = 2k + 1. It is important to realize that the above denition

of parity applies only to integer numbers, hence it cannot be applied to numbers like 1/2, 4.201. See the section

Higher mathematics below for some extensions of the notion of parity to a larger class of numbers or in other

more general settings.

The sets of even and odd numbers can be dened as following:[4]

Even = {2k : k Z}

Odd = {2k + 1 : k Z}

145

146 CHAPTER 30. PARITY (MATHEMATICS)

A number (i.e., integer) expressed in the decimal numeral system is even or odd according to whether its last digit is

even or odd. That is, if the last digit is 1, 3, 5, 7, or 9, then it is odd; otherwise it is even. The same idea will work

using any even base. In particular, a number expressed in the binary numeral system is odd if its last digit is 1 and

even if its last digit is 0. In an odd base, the number is even according to the sum of its digits it is even if and only

if the sum of its digits is even.[5]

The following laws can be veried using the properties of divisibility. They are a special case of rules in modular

arithmetic, and are commonly used to check if an equality is likely to be correct by testing the parity of each side. As

with ordinary arithmetic, multiplication and addition are commutative and associative in modulo 2 arithmetic, and

multiplication is distributive over addition. However, subtraction in modulo 2 is identical to addition, so subtraction

also possesses these properties, which is not true for normal integer arithmetic.

even even = even;[1]

Rules analogous to these for divisibility by 9 are used in the method of casting out nines.

30.1.2 Multiplication

even even = even;[1]

The structure ({even, odd}, +, ) is in fact a eld with just two elements.

30.1.3 Division

The division of two whole numbers does not necessarily result in a whole number. For example, 1 divided by 4 equals

1/4, which is neither even nor odd, since the concepts even and odd apply only to integers. But when the quotient is

an integer, it will be even if and only if the dividend has more factors of two than the divisor.[6]

30.2 History

The ancient Greeks considered 1, the monad, to be neither fully odd nor fully even.[7] Some of this sentiment survived

into the 19th century: Friedrich Wilhelm August Frbel's 1826 The Education of Man instructs the teacher to drill

students with the claim that 1 is neither even nor odd, to which Frbel attaches the philosophical afterthought,

It is well to direct the pupils attention here at once to a great far-reaching law of nature and of

thought. It is this, that between two relatively dierent things or ideas there stands always a third, in a

sort of balance, seeming to unite the two. Thus, there is here between odd and even numbers one number

(one) which is neither of the two. Similarly, in form, the right angle stands between the acute and obtuse

angles; and in language, the semi-vowels or aspirants between the mutes and vowels. A thoughtful teacher

and a pupil taught to think for himself can scarcely help noticing this and other important laws.[8]

30.3. HIGHER MATHEMATICS 147

The two white bishops are conned to squares of opposite parity; the black knight can only jump to squares of alter-

nating parity.

Integer coordinates of points in Euclidean spaces of two or more dimensions also have a parity, usually dened as

the parity of the sum of the coordinates. For instance, the face-centered cubic lattice and its higher-dimensional

generalizations, the Dn lattices, consist of all of the integer points whose sum of coordinates is even.[9] This feature

manifests itself in chess, where the parity of a square is indicated by its color: bishops are constrained to squares

of the same parity; knights alternate parity between moves.[10] This form of parity was famously used to solve the

mutilated chessboard problem: if two opposite corner squares are removed from a chessboard, then the remaining

board cannot be covered by dominoes, because each domino covers one square of each parity and there are two more

squares of one parity than of the other.[11]

The parity of an ordinal number may be dened to be even if the number is a limit ordinal, or a limit ordinal plus a

nite even number, and odd otherwise.[12]

Let R be a commutative ring and let I be an ideal of R whose index is 2. Elements of the coset 0 + I may be called

even, while elements of the coset 1 + I may be called odd. As an example, let R = Z be the localization of Z at

the prime ideal (2). Then an element of R is even or odd if and only if its numerator is so in Z.

The even numbers form an ideal in the ring of integers,[13] but the odd numbers do not this is clear from the

fact that the identity element for addition, zero, is an element of the even numbers only. An integer is even if it is

congruent to 0 modulo this ideal, in other words if it is congruent to 0 modulo 2, and odd if it is congruent to 1

modulo 2.

All prime numbers are odd, with one exception: the prime number 2.[14] All known perfect numbers are even; it is

unknown whether any odd perfect numbers exist.[15]

Goldbachs conjecture states that every even integer greater than 2 can be represented as a sum of two prime numbers.

Modern computer calculations have shown this conjecture to be true for integers up to at least 4 1018 , but still no

general proof has been found.[16]

The parity of a permutation (as dened in abstract algebra) is the parity of the number of transpositions into which

the permutation can be decomposed.[17] For example (ABC) to (BCA) is even because it can be done by swapping A

and B then C and A (two transpositions). It can be shown that no permutation can be decomposed both in an even and

in an odd number of transpositions. Hence the above is a suitable denition. In Rubiks Cube, Megaminx, and other

twisting puzzles, the moves of the puzzle allow only even permutations of the puzzle pieces, so parity is important in

understanding the conguration space of these puzzles.[18]

The FeitThompson theorem states that a nite group is always solvable if its order is an odd number. This is an

example of odd numbers playing a role in an advanced mathematical theorem where the method of application of the

simple hypothesis of odd order is far from obvious.[19]

30.3.4 Analysis

The parity of a function describes how its values change when its arguments are exchanged with their negations. An

even function, such as an even power of a variable, gives the same result for any argument as for its negation. An odd

function, such as an odd power of a variable, gives for any argument the negation of its result when given the negation

of that argument. It is possible for a function to be neither odd nor even, and for the case f(x) = 0, to be both odd

and even.[20] The Taylor series of an even function contains only terms whose exponent is an even number, and the

Taylor series of an odd function contains only terms whose exponent is an odd number.[21]

148 CHAPTER 30. PARITY (MATHEMATICS)

In combinatorial game theory, an evil number is a number that has an even number of 1s in its binary representation,

and an odious number is a number that has an odd number of 1s in its binary representation; these numbers play an

important role in the strategy for the game Kayles.[22] The parity function maps a number to the number of 1s in its

binary representation, modulo 2, so its value is zero for evil numbers and one for odious numbers. The ThueMorse

sequence, an innite sequence of 0s and 1s, has a 0 in position i when i is evil, and a 1 in that position when i is

odious.[23]

In information theory, a parity bit appended to a binary number provides the simplest form of error detecting code.

If a single bit in the resulting value is changed, then it will no longer have the correct parity: changing a bit in the

original number gives it a dierent parity than the recorded one, and changing the parity bit while not changing the

number it was derived from again produces an incorrect result. In this way, all single-bit transmission errors may be

reliably detected.[24] Some more sophisticated error detecting codes are also based on the use of multiple parity bits

for subsets of the bits of the original encoded value.[25]

30.5. REFERENCES 149

In wind instruments with a cylindrical bore and in eect closed at one end, such as the clarinet at the mouthpiece, the

harmonics produced are odd multiples of the fundamental frequency. (With cylindrical pipes open at both ends, used

for example in some organ stops such as the open diapason, the harmonics are even multiples of the same frequency

for the given bore length, but this has the eect of the fundamental frequency being doubled and all multiples of this

fundamental frequency being produced.) See harmonic series (music).[26]

In some countries, house numberings are chosen so that the houses on one side of a street have even numbers and the

houses on the other side have odd numbers.[27] Similarly, among United States numbered highways, even numbers

primarily indicate east-west highways while odd numbers primarily indicate north-south highways.[28] Among airline

ight numbers, even numbers typically identify eastbound or northbound ights, and odd numbers typically identify

westbound or southbound ights.[29]

30.5 References

[1] A.V.Vijaya & Dora Rodriguez, Figuring Out Mathematics, Pearson Education India, pp. 2021, ISBN 9788131703571.

[2] Bna, Mikls (2011), A Walk Through Combinatorics: An Introduction to Enumeration and Graph Theory, World Scientic,

p. 178, ISBN 9789814335232.

[3] Bassarear, Tom (2010), Mathematics for Elementary School Teachers, Cengage Learning, p. 198, ISBN 9780840054630.

[4] Sidebotham, Thomas H. (2003), The A to Z of Mathematics: A Basic Guide, John Wiley & Sons, p. 181, ISBN 9780471461630.

[5] Owen, Ruth L. (1992), Divisibility in bases (PDF), The Pentagon: A Mathematics Magazine for Students, 51 (2): 1720.

[6] Plya, George; Tarjan, Robert E.; Woods, Donald R. (2009), Notes on Introductory Combinatorics, Springer, pp. 2122,

ISBN 9780817649524.

[7] Tankha (2006), Ancient Greek Philosophy: Thales to Gorgias, Pearson Education India, p. 136, ISBN 9788177589399.

[8] Froebel, Friedrich; Translator Josephine Jarvis (1885). The Education of Man. New York: A Lovell & Company. p. 240.

[9] Conway, J. H.; Sloane, N. J. A. (1999), Sphere packings, lattices and groups, Grundlehren der Mathematischen Wis-

senschaften [Fundamental Principles of Mathematical Sciences], 290 (3rd ed.), New York: Springer-Verlag, p. 10, ISBN

0-387-98585-9, MR 1662447.

[10] Pandolni, Bruce (1995), Chess Thinking: The Visual Dictionary of Chess Moves, Rules, Strategies and Concepts, Simon

and Schuster, pp. 273274, ISBN 9780671795023.

[11] Mendelsohn, N. S. (2004), Tiling with dominoes, The College Mathematics Journal, 35 (2): 115120, JSTOR 4146865,

doi:10.2307/4146865.

[12] Bruckner, Andrew M.; Bruckner, Judith B.; Thomson, Brian S. (1997), Real Analysis, p. 37, ISBN 0-13-458886-X.

[13] Stillwell, John (2003), Elements of Number Theory, Springer, p. 199, ISBN 9780387955872.

[14] Lial, Margaret L.; Salzman, Stanley A.; Hestwood, Diana (2005), Basic College Mathematics (7th ed.), Addison Wesley, p.

128, ISBN 9780321257802.

[15] Dudley, Underwood (1992), Perfect numbers, Mathematical Cranks, MAA Spectrum, Cambridge University Press, pp.

242244, ISBN 9780883855072.

[16] Oliveira e Silva, Toms; Herzog, Siegfried; Pardi, Silvio (2013), Empirical verication of the even Goldbach conjecture,

and computation of prime gaps, up to 41018 " (PDF), Mathematics of Computation, doi:10.1090/s0025-5718-2013-02787-

1. In press.

[17] Cameron, Peter J. (1999), Permutation Groups, London Mathematical Society Student Texts, 45, Cambridge University

Press, pp. 2627, ISBN 9780521653787.

[18] Joyner, David (2008), 13.1.2 Parity conditions, Adventures in Group Theory: Rubiks Cube, Merlins Machine, and Other

Mathematical Toys, JHU Press, pp. 252253, ISBN 9780801897269.

[19] Bender, Helmut; Glauberman, George (1994), Local analysis for the odd order theorem, London Mathematical Soci-

ety Lecture Note Series, 188, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-45716-5, MR 1311244; Peterfalvi,

Thomas (2000), Character theory for the odd order theorem, London Mathematical Society Lecture Note Series, 272,

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-64660-X, MR 1747393.

150 CHAPTER 30. PARITY (MATHEMATICS)

[20] Gustafson, Roy David; Hughes, Jerey D. (2012), College Algebra (11th ed.), Cengage Learning, p. 315, ISBN 9781111990909.

[21] Jain, R. K.; Iyengar, S. R. K. (2007), Advanced Engineering Mathematics, Alpha Science Int'l Ltd., p. 853, ISBN 9781842651858.

[22] Guy, Richard K. (1996), Impartial games, Games of no chance (Berkeley, CA, 1994), Math. Sci. Res. Inst. Publ., 29,

Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, pp. 6178, MR 1427957. See in particular p. 68.

[23] Bernhardt, Chris (2009), Evil twins alternate with odious twins, Mathematics Magazine, 82 (1): 5762, JSTOR 27643161,

doi:10.4169/193009809x469084.

[24] Moser, Stefan M.; Chen, Po-Ning (2012), A Students Guide to Coding and Information Theory, Cambridge University

Press, pp. 1920, ISBN 9781107015838.

[25] Berrou, Claude (2011), Codes and turbo codes, Springer, p. 4, ISBN 9782817800394.

[26] Randall, Robert H. (2005), An Introduction to Acoustics, Dover, p. 181, ISBN 9780486442518.

[27] Cromley, Ellen K.; McLaerty, Sara L. (2011), GIS and Public Health (2nd ed.), Guilford Press, p. 100, ISBN 9781462500628.

[28] Swift, Earl (2011), The Big Roads: The Untold Story of the Engineers, Visionaries, and Trailblazers Who Created the

American Superhighways, Houghton Miin Harcourt, p. 95, ISBN 9780547549132.

[29] Lauer, Chris (2010), Southwest Airlines, Corporations that changed the world, ABC-CLIO, p. 90, ISBN 9780313378638.

Chapter 31

Partial function

Not to be confused with partial function of a multilinear map or the mathematical concept of a piecewise function.

of X. It generalizes the concept of a function f: X Y by not forcing f to map every element of X to an element

of Y (only some subset X of X). If X = X, then f is called a total function and is equivalent to a function. Partial

functions are often used when the exact domain, X, is not known (e.g. many functions in computability theory).

Specically, we will say that for any x X, either:

f(x) is undened.

For example, we can consider the square root function restricted to the integers

g: Z Z

g(n) = n.

Thus g(n) is only dened for n that are perfect squares (i.e., 0, 1, 4, 9, 16, ...). So, g(25) = 5, but g(26) is undened.

There are two distinct meanings in current mathematical usage for the notion of the domain of a partial function.

Most mathematicians, including recursion theorists, use the term domain of f" for the set of all values x such that

f(x) is dened (X' above). But some, particularly category theorists, consider the domain of a partial function f:X

Y to be X, and refer to X' as the domain of denition. Similarly, the term range can refer to either the codomain or

the image of a function.

Occasionally, a partial function with domain X and codomain Y is written as f: X Y, using an arrow with vertical

stroke.

A partial function is said to be injective or surjective when the total function given by the restriction of the partial

function to its domain of denition is. A partial function may be both injective and surjective.

Because a function is trivially surjective when restricted to its image, the term partial bijection denotes a partial

function which is injective.[1]

An injective partial function may be inverted to an injective partial function, and a partial function which is both

injective and surjective has an injective function as inverse. Furthermore, a total function which is injective may be

inverted to an injective partial function.

The notion of transformation can be generalized to partial functions as well. A partial transformation is a function

f: A B, where both A and B are subsets of some set X.[1]

151

152 CHAPTER 31. PARTIAL FUNCTION

Total function is a synonym for function. The use of the adjective total is to suggest that it is a special case of a

partial function (specically, a total function with domain X is a special case of a partial function over X). The adjective

will typically be used for clarity in contexts where partial functions are common, for example in computability theory.

The rst diagram above represents a partial function that is not a total function since the element 1 in the left-hand set

is not associated with anything in the right-hand set. Whereas, the second diagram represents a total function since

every element on the left-hand set is associated with exactly one element in the right hand set.

Consider the natural logarithm function mapping the real numbers to themselves. The logarithm of a non-positive

real is not a real number, so the natural logarithm function doesn't associate any real number in the codomain with

any non-positive real number in the domain. Therefore, the natural logarithm function is not a total function when

viewed as a function from the reals to themselves, but it is a partial function. If the domain is restricted to only include

the positive reals (that is, if the natural logarithm function is viewed as a function from the positive reals to the reals),

then the natural logarithm is a total function.

Subtraction of natural numbers (non-negative integers) can be viewed as a partial function:

f :NNN

f (x, y) = x y.

It is dened only when x y .

In denotational semantics a partial function is considered as returning the bottom element when it is undened.

In computer science a partial function corresponds to a subroutine that raises an exception or loops forever. The IEEE

oating point standard denes a not-a-number value which is returned when a oating point operation is undened

and exceptions are suppressed, e.g. when the square root of a negative number is requested.

In a programming language where function parameters are statically typed, a function may be dened as a partial

function because the languages type system cannot express the exact domain of the function, so the programmer

instead gives it the smallest domain which is expressible as a type and contains the true domain.

In Category theory, when considering the operation of morphism composition in Concrete Categories, the compo-

sition operation : hom(C) hom(C) hom(C) is a total function if and only if ob(C) has one element. The

reason for this is that two morphisms f : X Y and g : U V can only be composed as g f if Y = U , that is,

the codomain of f must equal the domain of g .

The category of sets and partial functions is equivalent to but not isomorphic with the category of pointed sets and

point-preserving maps.[2] One textbook notes that This formal completion of sets and partial maps by adding im-

proper, innite elements was reinvented many times, in particular, in topology (one-point compactication) and

in theoretical computer science.[3]

The category of sets and partial bijections is equivalent to its dual.[4] It is the prototypical inverse category.[5]

31.4. SEE ALSO 153

Partial algebra generalizes the notion of universal algebra to partial operations. An example would be a eld, in which

the multiplicative inversion is the only proper partial operation (because division by zero is not dened).[6]

The set of all partial functions (partial transformations) on a given base set, X, forms a regular semigroup called the

semigroup of all partial transformations (or the partial transformation semigroup on X), typically denoted by PT X

.[7][8][9] The set of all partial bijections on X forms the symmetric inverse semigroup.[7][8]

Charts in the atlases which specify the structure of manifolds and ber bundles are partial functions. In the case of

manifolds, the domain is the point set of the manifold. In the case of ber bundles, the domain is the total space of

the ber bundle. In these applications, the most important construction is the transition map, which is the composite

of one chart with the inverse of another. The initial classication of manifolds and ber bundles is largely expressed

in terms of constraints on these transition maps.

The reason for the use of partial functions instead of total functions is to permit general global topologies to be

represented by stitching together local patches to describe the global structure. The patches are the domains where

the charts are dened.

Bijection

Injective function

Surjective function

Multivalued function

31.5 References

[1] Christopher Hollings (2014). Mathematics across the Iron Curtain: A History of the Algebraic Theory of Semigroups.

American Mathematical Society. p. 251. ISBN 978-1-4704-1493-1.

[2] Lutz Schrder (2001). Categories: a free tour. In Jrgen Koslowski and Austin Melton. Categorical Perspectives. Springer

Science & Business Media. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-8176-4186-3.

[3] Neal Koblitz; B. Zilber; Yu. I. Manin (2009). A Course in Mathematical Logic for Mathematicians. Springer Science &

Business Media. p. 290. ISBN 978-1-4419-0615-1.

[4] Francis Borceux (1994). Handbook of Categorical Algebra: Volume 2, Categories and Structures. Cambridge University

Press. p. 289. ISBN 978-0-521-44179-7.

[5] Marco Grandis (2012). Homological Algebra: The Interplay of Homology with Distributive Lattices and Orthodox Semi-

groups. World Scientic. p. 55. ISBN 978-981-4407-06-9.

[6] Peter Burmeister (1993). Partial algebras an introductory survey. In Ivo G. Rosenberg and Gert Sabidussi. Algebras

and Orders. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-0-7923-2143-9.

[7] Alfred Hoblitzelle Cliord; G. B. Preston (1967). The Algebraic Theory of Semigroups. Volume II. American Mathematical

Soc. p. xii. ISBN 978-0-8218-0272-4.

[8] Peter M. Higgins (1992). Techniques of semigroup theory. Oxford University Press, Incorporated. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-19-

853577-5.

[9] Olexandr Ganyushkin; Volodymyr Mazorchuk (2008). Classical Finite Transformation Semigroups: An Introduction.

Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 16 and 24. ISBN 978-1-84800-281-4.

154 CHAPTER 31. PARTIAL FUNCTION

Martin Davis (1958), Computability and Unsolvability, McGrawHill Book Company, Inc, New York. Re-

published by Dover in 1982. ISBN 0-486-61471-9.

Stephen Kleene (1952), Introduction to Meta-Mathematics, North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam,

Netherlands, 10th printing with corrections added on 7th printing (1974). ISBN 0-7204-2103-9.

Harold S. Stone (1972), Introduction to Computer Organization and Data Structures, McGrawHill Book Com-

pany, New York.

Chapter 32

Plane (geometry)

In mathematics, a plane is a at, two-dimensional surface that extends innitely far. A plane is the two-dimensional

analogue of a point (zero dimensions), a line (one dimension) and three-dimensional space. Planes can arise as

subspaces of some higher-dimensional space, as with a rooms walls extended innitely far, or they may enjoy an

independent existence in their own right, as in the setting of Euclidean geometry.

When working exclusively in two-dimensional Euclidean space, the denite article is used, so, the plane refers to

the whole space. Many fundamental tasks in mathematics, geometry, trigonometry, graph theory, and graphing are

155

156 CHAPTER 32. PLANE (GEOMETRY)

Main article: Euclidean geometry

Euclid set forth the rst great landmark of mathematical thought, an axiomatic treatment of geometry.[1] He selected

a small core of undened terms (called common notions) and postulates (or axioms) which he then used to prove

various geometrical statements. Although the plane in its modern sense is not directly given a denition anywhere in

the Elements, it may be thought of as part of the common notions.[2] Euclid never used numbers to measure length,

angle, or area. In this way the Euclidean plane is not quite the same as the Cartesian plane.

This section is solely concerned with planes embedded in three dimensions: specically, in R3 .

In a Euclidean space of any number of dimensions, a plane is uniquely determined by any of the following:

32.2. PLANES EMBEDDED IN 3-DIMENSIONAL EUCLIDEAN SPACE 157

32.2.2 Properties

The following statements hold in three-dimensional Euclidean space but not in higher dimensions, though they have

higher-dimensional analogues:

A line is either parallel to a plane, intersects it at a single point, or is contained in the plane.

Two distinct lines perpendicular to the same plane must be parallel to each other.

Two distinct planes perpendicular to the same line must be parallel to each other.

In a manner analogous to the way lines in a two-dimensional space are described using a point-slope form for their

equations, planes in a three dimensional space have a natural description using a point in the plane and a vector

orthogonal to it (the normal vector) to indicate its inclination.

Specically, let r0 be the position vector of some point P 0 = (x0 , y0 , z0 ), and let n = (a, b, c) be a nonzero vector.

The plane determined by the point P 0 and the vector n consists of those points P, with position vector r, such that

the vector drawn from P 0 to P is perpendicular to n. Recalling that two vectors are perpendicular if and only if their

dot product is zero, it follows that the desired plane can be described as the set of all points r such that

n (r r0 ) = 0.

(The dot here means a dot product, not scalar multiplication.) Expanded this becomes

which is the point-normal form of the equation of a plane.[3] This is just a linear equation

ax + by + cz + d = 0,

where

Conversely, it is easily shown that if a, b, c and d are constants and a, b, and c are not all zero, then the graph of the

equation

ax + by + cz + d = 0,

is a plane having the vector n = (a, b, c) as a normal.[4] This familiar equation for a plane is called the general form

of the equation of the plane.[5]

Thus for example a regression equation of the form y = d + ax + cz (with b = 1) establishes a best-t plane in

three-dimensional space when there are two explanatory variables.

158 CHAPTER 32. PLANE (GEOMETRY)

Alternatively, a plane may be described parametrically as the set of all points of the form

r = r0 + sv + tw,

where s and t range over all real numbers, v and w are given linearly independent vectors dening the plane, and

r0 is the vector representing the position of an arbitrary (but xed) point on the plane. The vectors v and w can be

visualized as vectors starting at r0 and pointing in dierent directions along the plane. Note that v and w can be

perpendicular, but cannot be parallel.

Let p1 =(x1 , y1 , z1 ), p2 =(x2 , y2 , z2 ), and p3 =(x3 , y3 , z3 ) be non-collinear points.

Method 1

The plane passing through p1 , p2 , and p3 can be described as the set of all points (x,y,z) that satisfy the following

determinant equations:

x x1 y y1 z z1 x x1 y y1 z z1

x2 x1 y2 y1 z2 z1 = x x2 y y2 z z2 = 0.

x3 x1 y3 y1 z3 z1 x x3 y y3 z z3

Method 2

To describe the plane by an equation of the form ax + by + cz + d = 0 , solve the following system of equations:

32.2. PLANES EMBEDDED IN 3-DIMENSIONAL EUCLIDEAN SPACE 159

This system can be solved using Cramers rule and basic matrix manipulations. Let

x1 y1 z1

D = x2 y2 z2

x3 y3 z3

If D is non-zero (so for planes not through the origin) the values for a, b and c can be calculated as follows:

1 y1 z1

d

a= 1 y2 z2

D

1 y3 z3

x 1 z1

d 1

b= x2 1 z2

D

x3 1 z3

x y1 1

d 1

c= x2 y2 1.

D

x3 y3 1

These equations are parametric in d. Setting d equal to any non-zero number and substituting it into these equations

will yield one solution set.

Method 3

This plane can also be described by the "point and a normal vector" prescription above. A suitable normal vector is

given by the cross product

n = (p2 p1 ) (p3 p1 ),

and the point r0 can be taken to be any of the given points p1 ,p2 or p3 [6] (or any other point in the plane).

Main article: Distance from a point to a plane

For a plane : ax + by + cz + d = 0 and a point p1 = (x1 , y1 , z1 ) not necessarily lying on the plane, the shortest

distance from p1 to the plane is

D= .

a2 + b2 + c2

It follows that p1 lies in the plane if and only if D=0.

If a2 + b2 + c2 = 1 meaning that a, b, and c are normalized[7] then the equation becomes

Another vector form for the equation of a plane, known as the Hesse normal form relies on the parameter D. This

form is:[5]

n r D0 = 0,

160 CHAPTER 32. PLANE (GEOMETRY)

where n is a unit normal vector to the plane, r a position vector of a point of the plane and D0 the distance of the

plane from the origin.

The general formula for higher dimensions can be quickly arrived at using vector notation. Let the hyperplane have

equation n (r r0 ) = 0 , where the n is a normal vector and r0 = (x10 , x20 , . . . , xN 0 ) is a position vector to a point

in the hyperplane. We desire the perpendicular distance to the point r1 = (x11 , x21 , . . . , xN 1 ) . The hyperplane

N

may also be represented by the scalar equation i=1 ai xi = a0 , for constants {ai } . Likewise, a corresponding

n may be represented as (a1 , a2 , . . . , aN ) . We desire the scalar projection of the vector r1 r0 in the direction of

n . Noting that n r0 = r0 n = a0 (as r0 satises the equation of the hyperplane) we have

|(r1 r0 ) n|

D=

|n|

|r1 n r0 n|

=

|n|

|r1 n + a0 |

=

|n|

|a1 x11 + a2 x21 + + aN xN 1 + a0 |

=

a21 + a22 + + a2N

The line of intersection between two planes 1 : n1 r = h1 and 2 : n2 r = h2 where ni are normalized is given

by

r = (c1 n1 + c2 n2 ) + (n1 n2 )

where

h1 h2 (n1 n2 )

c1 =

1 (n1 n2 )2

h2 h1 (n1 n2 )

c2 = .

1 (n1 n2 )2

This is found by noticing that the line must be perpendicular to both plane normals, and so parallel to their cross

product n1 n2 (this cross product is zero if and only if the planes are parallel, and are therefore non-intersecting or

entirely coincident).

The remainder of the expression is arrived at by nding an arbitrary point on the line. To do so, consider that any

point in space may be written as r = c1 n1 + c2 n2 + (n1 n2 ) , since {n1 , n2 , (n1 n2 )} is a basis. We wish to

nd a point which is on both planes (i.e. on their intersection), so insert this equation into each of the equations of

the planes to get two simultaneous equations which can be solved for c1 and c2 .

If we further assume that n1 and n2 are orthonormal then the closest point on the line of intersection to the origin is

r0 = h1 n1 + h2 n2 . If that is not the case, then a more complex procedure must be used.[8]

See also: Dihedral angle

the dihedral angle between them is dened to be the angle between their normal directions:

n1 n2 a1 a2 + b1 b2 + c1 c2

cos = = 2 .

|n1 ||n2 | a1 + b21 + c21 a22 + b22 + c22

32.3. PLANES IN VARIOUS AREAS OF MATHEMATICS 161

In addition to its familiar geometric structure, with isomorphisms that are isometries with respect to the usual inner

product, the plane may be viewed at various other levels of abstraction. Each level of abstraction corresponds to a

specic category.

At one extreme, all geometrical and metric concepts may be dropped to leave the topological plane, which may be

thought of as an idealized homotopically trivial innite rubber sheet, which retains a notion of proximity, but has no

distances. The topological plane has a concept of a linear path, but no concept of a straight line. The topological

plane, or its equivalent the open disc, is the basic topological neighborhood used to construct surfaces (or 2-manifolds)

classied in low-dimensional topology. Isomorphisms of the topological plane are all continuous bijections. The

topological plane is the natural context for the branch of graph theory that deals with planar graphs, and results such

as the four color theorem.

The plane may also be viewed as an ane space, whose isomorphisms are combinations of translations and non-

singular linear maps. From this viewpoint there are no distances, but collinearity and ratios of distances on any line

are preserved.

Dierential geometry views a plane as a 2-dimensional real manifold, a topological plane which is provided with a

dierential structure. Again in this case, there is no notion of distance, but there is now a concept of smoothness

of maps, for example a dierentiable or smooth path (depending on the type of dierential structure applied). The

isomorphisms in this case are bijections with the chosen degree of dierentiability.

In the opposite direction of abstraction, we may apply a compatible eld structure to the geometric plane, giving rise

to the complex plane and the major area of complex analysis. The complex eld has only two isomorphisms that

leave the real line xed, the identity and conjugation.

In the same way as in the real case, the plane may also be viewed as the simplest, one-dimensional (over the complex

numbers) complex manifold, sometimes called the complex line. However, this viewpoint contrasts sharply with the

case of the plane as a 2-dimensional real manifold. The isomorphisms are all conformal bijections of the complex

plane, but the only possibilities are maps that correspond to the composition of a multiplication by a complex number

and a translation.

In addition, the Euclidean geometry (which has zero curvature everywhere) is not the only geometry that the plane

may have. The plane may be given a spherical geometry by using the stereographic projection. This can be thought

of as placing a sphere on the plane (just like a ball on the oor), removing the top point, and projecting the sphere

onto the plane from this point). This is one of the projections that may be used in making a at map of part of the

Earths surface. The resulting geometry has constant positive curvature.

Alternatively, the plane can also be given a metric which gives it constant negative curvature giving the hyperbolic

plane. The latter possibility nds an application in the theory of special relativity in the simplied case where there are

two spatial dimensions and one time dimension. (The hyperbolic plane is a timelike hypersurface in three-dimensional

Minkowski space.)

The one-point compactication of the plane is homeomorphic to a sphere (see stereographic projection); the open

disk is homeomorphic to a sphere with the north pole missing; adding that point completes the (compact) sphere.

The result of this compactication is a manifold referred to as the Riemann sphere or the complex projective line.

The projection from the Euclidean plane to a sphere without a point is a dieomorphism and even a conformal map.

The plane itself is homeomorphic (and dieomorphic) to an open disk. For the hyperbolic plane such dieomorphism

is conformal, but for the Euclidean plane it is not.

Face (geometry)

Flat (geometry)

Half-plane

162 CHAPTER 32. PLANE (GEOMETRY)

Hyperplane

Lineplane intersection

Plane coordinates

Plane of incidence

Plane of rotation

Projective plane

32.6 Notes

[1] Eves 1963, pg. 19

[2] Joyce, D. E. (1996), Euclids Elements, Book I, Denition 7, Clark University, retrieved 8 August 2009

[5] Weisstein, Eric W. (2009), Plane, MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource, retrieved 2009-08-08

[7] To normalize arbitrary coecients, divide each of a, b, c and d by a2 + b2 + c2 (which can not be 0). The new

coecients are now normalized and the following formula is valid for the new coecients.

32.7 References

Anton, Howard (1994), Elementary Linear Algebra (7th ed.), John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 0-471-58742-7

Eves, Howard (1963), A Survey of Geometry, I, Boston: Allyn and Bacon, Inc.

Hazewinkel, Michiel, ed. (2001) [1994], Plane, Encyclopedia of Mathematics, Springer Science+Business

Media B.V. / Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN 978-1-55608-010-4

Easing the Diculty of Arithmetic and Planar Geometry is an Arabic manuscript, from the 15th century,

that serves as a tutorial about plane geometry and arithmetic

.

Chapter 33

Point (geometry)

In modern mathematics, a point refers usually to an element of some set called a space.

More specically, in Euclidean geometry, a point is a primitive notion upon which the geometry is built. Being

a primitive notion means that a point cannot be dened in terms of previously dened objects. That is, a point is

dened only by some properties, called axioms, that it must satisfy. In particular, the geometric points do not have

any length, area, volume, or any other dimensional attribute. A common interpretation is that the concept of a point

is meant to capture the notion of a unique location in Euclidean space.

Points, considered within the framework of Euclidean geometry, are one of the most fundamental objects. Euclid

originally dened the point as that which has no part. In two-dimensional Euclidean space, a point is represented

by an ordered pair (x, y) of numbers, where the rst number conventionally represents the horizontal and is often

denoted by x, and the second number conventionally represents the vertical and is often denoted by y. This idea is

easily generalized to three-dimensional Euclidean space, where a point is represented by an ordered triplet (x, y, z)

with the additional third number representing depth and often denoted by z. Further generalizations are represented

by an ordered tuplet of n terms, (a1 , a2 , , an) where n is the dimension of the space in which the point is located.

Many constructs within Euclidean geometry consist of an innite collection of points that conform to certain ax-

ioms. This is usually represented by a set of points; As an example, a line is an innite set of points of the form

L={(a1 ,a2 ,...an )|a1 c1 +a2 c2 +...an cn =d} , where c1 through cn and d are constants and n is the dimension of the space.

Similar constructions exist that dene the plane, line segment and other related concepts. A line segment consisting

of only a single point is called a degenerate line segment.

In addition to dening points and constructs related to points, Euclid also postulated a key idea about points, that

any two points can be connected by a straight line. This is easily conrmed under modern extensions of Euclidean

geometry, and had lasting consequences at its introduction, allowing the construction of almost all the geometric

concepts known at the time. However, Euclids postulation of points was neither complete nor denitive, and he

occasionally assumed facts about points that did not follow directly from his axioms, such as the ordering of points

on the line or the existence of specic points. In spite of this, modern expansions of the system serve to remove these

assumptions.

There are several inequivalent denitions of dimension in mathematics. In all of the common denitions, a point is

0-dimensional.

163

164 CHAPTER 33. POINT (GEOMETRY)

-2 -1 1 2

-1

-2

A nite set of points (blue) in two-dimensional Euclidean space.

Main article: Dimension (vector space)

The dimension of a vector space is the maximum size of a linearly independent subset. In a vector space consisting

of a single point (which must be the zero vector 0), there is no linearly independent subset. The zero vector is not

itself linearly independent, because there is a non trivial linear combination making it zero: 1 0 = 0 .

Main article: Lebesgue covering dimension

The topological dimension of a topological space X is dened to be the minimum value of n, such that every nite

open cover A of X admits a nite open cover B of X which renes A in which no point is included in more than n+1

elements. If no such minimal n exists, the space is said to be of innite covering dimension.

A point is zero-dimensional with respect to the covering dimension because every open cover of the space has a

renement consisting of a single open set.

33.3. GEOMETRY WITHOUT POINTS 165

Let X be a metric space. If S X and d [0, ), the d-dimensional Hausdor content of S is the inmum of the

set of numbers 0 such that there is some (indexed) collection of balls {B(xi , ri ) : i I} covering S with ri > 0

for each i I that satises iI rid < .

The Hausdor dimension of X is dened by

d

(X) = 0}.

A point has Hausdor dimension 0 because it can be covered by a single ball of arbitrarily small radius.

Although the notion of a point is generally considered fundamental in mainstream geometry and topology, there are

some systems that forgo it, e.g. noncommutative geometry and pointless topology. A pointless or pointfree space

is dened not as a set, but via some structure (algebraic or logical respectively) which looks like a well-known function

space on the set: an algebra of continuous functions or an algebra of sets respectively. More precisely, such structures

generalize well-known spaces of functions in a way that the operation take a value at this point may not be dened.

A further tradition starts from some books of A. N. Whitehead in which the notion of region is assumed as a primitive

together with the one of inclusion or connection.

Main article: Dirac delta function

Often in physics and mathematics, it is useful to think of a point as having non-zero mass or charge (this is especially

common in classical electromagnetism, where electrons are idealized as points with non-zero charge). The Dirac

delta function, or function, is (informally) a generalized function on the real number line that is zero everywhere

except at zero, with an integral of one over the entire real line.[1][2][3] The delta function is sometimes thought of as

an innitely high, innitely thin spike at the origin, with total area one under the spike, and physically represents an

idealized point mass or point charge.[4] It was introduced by theoretical physicist Paul Dirac. In the context of signal

processing it is often referred to as the unit impulse symbol (or function).[5] Its discrete analog is the Kronecker

delta function which is usually dened on a nite domain and takes values 0 and 1.

Accumulation point

Ane space

Boundary point

Critical point

Cusp

Foundations of geometry

Position (geometry)

Pointwise

166 CHAPTER 33. POINT (GEOMETRY)

33.6 References

[1] Dirac 1958, 15 The function, p. 58

Clarke, Bowman, 1985, "Individuals and Points," Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 26: 6175.

De Laguna, T., 1922, Point, line and surface as sets of solids, The Journal of Philosophy 19: 44961.

Gerla, G., 1995, "Pointless Geometries" in Buekenhout, F., Kantor, W. eds., Handbook of incidence geometry:

buildings and foundations. North-Holland: 101531.

Whitehead, A. N., 1919. An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Natural Knowledge. Cambridge Univ. Press.

2nd ed., 1925.

Whitehead, A. N., 1920. The Concept of Nature. Cambridge Univ. Press. 2004 paperback, Prometheus

Books. Being the 1919 Tarner Lectures delivered at Trinity College.

Denition of Point with interactive applet

Points denition pages, with interactive animations that are also useful in a classroom setting. Math Open

Reference

Point. PlanetMath.

Weisstein, Eric W. Point. MathWorld.

Chapter 34

A power law is a mathematical relationship between two quantities in which one is directly proportional to some

power of the other. The power law for cache misses was rst established by C. K. Chow in his 1974 paper,[1]

supported by experimental data on hit ratios for stack processing by Richard L. Mattson in 1971.[2] The power law

of cache misses can be used to narrow down the cache sizes to practical ranges, given a tolerable miss rate, as one of

the early steps while designing the cache hierarchy for a uniprocessor system.[3]

The power law for cache misses can be stated as

M = M0 C

where M is the miss rate for a cache of size C and M 0 is the miss rate of a baseline cache. The exponent is

workload-specic and typically ranges from 0.3 to 0.7.[4]

34.1 Caveats

The power law can only give an estimate of the miss rate only up to a certain value of cache size. A large enough cache

eliminates capacity misses and increasing the cache size further will not reduce the miss rate any further, contrary to

the power laws prediction.[3]

The validity of the power law of cache misses also depends on the size of working memory set in a given process and

also on the temporal re-reference pattern of cache blocks in a process. If a process has a small working memory set

relative to the cache size, capacity misses are unlikely and the power law does not hold.

Although conict misses reduce as associativity increases, Hartstein et al.[4] showed that the power law holds irre-

spective of set associativity.

Hartstein et al. plotted the number of cache block re-accesses versus their re-reference times for a large number of

workloads and found that most also follow an exponential relationship.[4]

R(t) = R0 t

where R(t) is the rate of re-referencing. It was found that the exponent ranged between 1.7 and 1.3. Theoretically,

it was proved that the power laws of cache re-reference and cache miss rate are related by the equation = 1 .

This means that for workloads that do not follow the re-reference power law, the power law of cache misses does not

hold true.

In a multilevel cache hierarchy, the miss pattern of the higher level cache becomes the re-reference pattern of the

immediate lower level cache. Hartstein et al.[4] found that whereas the cache misses for lower levels do not follow

167

168 CHAPTER 34. POWER LAW OF CACHE MISSES

a strict power law, as long as the lower level cache is considerably larger than the higher level cache, the miss rate

function can be approximated to the power law.

Cache hierarchy

34.4 References

[1] Chow, C. K. (May 1974). On Optimization of Storage Hierarchies. IBM Journal of Research and Development. 18 (3):

194203. doi:10.1147/rd.183.0194.

[2] Mattson, R. (December 1971). Evaluation of multilevel memories. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. 7 (4): 814819.

doi:10.1109/TMAG.1971.1067237.

[3] Solihin, Yan. Fundamentals of Parallel Multicore Architecture. Chapman & Hall. ISBN 978-1482211184.

[4] Hartstein, A.; Srinivasan, V.; Puzak, T. R.; Emma, P. G. (2006-01-01). Cache Miss Behavior: Is It 2?". Proceedings

of the 3rd Conference on Computing Frontiers. CF '06. New York, NY, USA: ACM: 313320. ISBN 1595933026.

doi:10.1145/1128022.1128064.

Chapter 35

Propositional function

A propositional function in logic, is a sentence expressed in a way that would assume the value of true or false, except

that within the sentence is a variable (x) that is not dened or specied, which leaves the statement undetermined.

Of course, the sentence can consist of several such variables (e.g. n variables, in which case the function takes n

arguments). As a mathematical function, A(x) or A(x1 , x2 , , xn), the propositional function is abstracted from

predicates or propositional forms. As an example, lets imagine the predicate, x is hot. The substitution of any

entity for x will produce a specic proposition that can be described as either true or false, even though "x is hot on

its own has no value as either a true or false statement. However, when you assign x a value, such as lava, the function

then has the value true; while if you assign x a value like ice, the function then has the value false.

Propositional functions are useful in set theory for the formation of sets. For example, in 1903 Bertrand Russell wrote

in The Principles of Mathematics (page 106):

Later Russell examined the problem of whether propositional functions were predicative or not, and he proposed two

theories to try to get at this question: the zig-zag theory and the ramied theory of types.[1]

A Propositional Function, or a predicate, in a variable x is a sentence p(x) involving x that becomes a proposition

when we give x a denite value from the set of values it can take.

Predicate (mathematical logic)

Boolean-valued function

Formula (logic)

Sentence (logic)

Open sentence

35.2 References

[1] Tiles, Mary (2004). The philosophy of set theory an historical introduction to Cantors paradise (Dover ed.). Mineola, N.Y.:

Dover Publications. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-486-43520-6. Retrieved 1 February 2013.

169

Chapter 36

Quasi-commutative property

property. This property is used in specic applications with various denitions.

Two matrices p and q are said to have the commutative property whenever

pq = qp

The quasi-commutative property in matrices is dened[1] as follows. Given two non-commutable matrices x and y

xy yx = z

xz = zx

yz = zy

An example is found in the matrix mechanics introduced by Heisenberg as a version of quantum mechanics. In this

mechanics, p and q are innite matrices corresponding respectively to the momentum and position variables of a

particle.[1] These matrices are written out at Matrix mechanics#Harmonic oscillator, and z = i times the innite unit

matrix, where is the reduced Planck constant.

A function f, dened as follows:

f :X Y X

f (f (x, y1 ), y2 ) = f (f (x, y2 ), y1 )

170

36.3. SEE ALSO 171

Commutative property

Accumulator (cryptography)

36.4 References

[1] Neal H. McCoy. On quasi-commutative matrices. Transactions of the American Mathematical Society, 36(2), 327340.

[2] Benaloh, J., & De Mare, M. (1994, January). One-way accumulators: A decentralized alternative to digital signatures. In

Advances in CryptologyEUROCRYPT93 (pp. 274285). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Chapter 37

Radial line

This article is about the mathematical concept. For the medical meaning, see arterial line. For the public transport

meaning, see radial route.

A radial line is a line passing through the center of a circle, cylinder or sphere. The correct direction of the radial

line is from the radius point to a point on the arc or circle. This applies to its use in surveying.

37.1 References

mathworld.wolfram.com site

[1]

172

Chapter 38

Reduct

This article is about a relation on algebraic structures. For reducts in abstract rewriting, see Conuence (abstract

rewriting).

In universal algebra and in model theory, a reduct of an algebraic structure is obtained by omitting some of the

operations and relations of that structure. The converse of reduct is expansion.

38.1 Denition

Let A be an algebraic structure (in the sense of universal algebra) or equivalently a structure in the sense of model

theory, organized as a set X together with an indexed family of operations and relations on that set, with index set

I. Then the reduct of A dened by a subset J of I is the structure consisting of the set X and J-indexed family of

operations and relations whose j-th operation or relation for jJ is the j-th operation or relation of A. That is, this

reduct is the structure A with the omission of those operations and relations i for which i is not in J.

A structure A is an expansion of B just when B is a reduct of A. That is, reduct and expansion are mutual converses.

38.2 Examples

The monoid (Z, +, 0) of integers under addition is a reduct of the group (Z, +, , 0) of integers under addition and

negation, obtained by omitting negation. By contrast, the monoid (N,+,0) of natural numbers under addition is not

the reduct of any group.

Conversely the group (Z, +, , 0) is the expansion of the monoid (Z, +, 0), expanding it with the operation of negation.

38.3 References

Burris, Stanley N.; H. P. Sankappanavar (1981). A Course in Universal Algebra. Springer. ISBN 3-540-90578-

2.

Hodges, Wilfrid (1993). Model theory. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-30442-3.

173

Chapter 39

Relation algebra

Not to be confused with relational algebra, a framework for nitary relations and relational databases.

In mathematics and abstract algebra, a relation algebra is a residuated Boolean algebra expanded with an involution

called converse, a unary operation. The motivating example of a relation algebra is the algebra 2X of all binary

relations on a set X, that is, subsets of the cartesian square X2 , with RS interpreted as the usual composition of

binary relations R and S, and with the converse of R interpreted as the inverse relation.

Relation algebra emerged in the 19th-century work of Augustus De Morgan and Charles Peirce, which culminated

in the algebraic logic of Ernst Schrder. The equational form of relation algebra treated here was developed by

Alfred Tarski and his students, starting in the 1940s. Tarski and Givant (1987) applied relation algebra to a variable-

free treatment of axiomatic set theory, with the implication that mathematics founded on set theory could itself be

conducted without variables.

39.1 Denition

A relation algebra (L, , , , 0, 1, , I, ) is an algebraic structure equipped with the Boolean operations of conjunc-

tion xy, disjunction xy, and negation x , the Boolean constants 0 and 1, the relational operations of composition

xy and converse x, and the relational constant I, such that these operations and constants satisfy certain equations

constituting an axiomatization of relation algebras. Roughly, a relation algebra is to a system of binary relations on a

set containing the empty (0), complete (1), and identity (I) relations and closed under these ve operations as a group

is to a system of permutations of a set containing the identity permutation and closed under composition and inverse.

However, the rst order theory of relation algebras is not complete for such systems of binary relations.

Following Jnsson and Tsinakis (1993) it is convenient to dene additional operations xy = xy, and, dually, xy

= xy . Jnsson and Tsinakis showed that Ix = xI, and that both were equal to x. Hence a relation algebra can

equally well be dened as an algebraic structure (L, , , , 0, 1, , I, , ). The advantage of this signature over

the usual one is that a relation algebra can then be dened in full simply as a residuated Boolean algebra for which

Ix is an involution, that is, I(Ix) = x . The latter condition can be thought of as the relational counterpart of the

equation 1/(1/x) = x for ordinary arithmetic reciprocal, and some authors use reciprocal as a synonym for converse.

Since residuated Boolean algebras are axiomatized with nitely many identities, so are relation algebras. Hence the

latter form a variety, the variety RA of relation algebras. Expanding the above denition as equations yields the

following nite axiomatization.

39.1.1 Axioms

The axioms B1-B10 below are adapted from Givant (2006: 283), and were rst set out by Tarski in 1948.[1]

L is a Boolean algebra under binary disjunction, , and unary complementation () :

B1: A B = B A

B2: A (B C) = (A B) C

174

39.2. EXPRESSING PROPERTIES OF BINARY RELATIONS IN RA 175

B3: (A B) (A B ) = A

This axiomatization of Boolean algebra is due to Huntington (1933). Note that the meet of the implied Boolean

algebra is not the operator (even though it distributes over like a meet does), nor is the 1 of the Boolean algebra

the I constant.

L is a monoid under binary composition () and nullary identity I:

B5: AI = A

B6: A = A

B7: (AB) = BA

Axiom B6 denes conversion as an involution, whereas B7 expresses the antidistributive property of conversion

relative to composition.[2]

Converse and composition distribute over disjunction:

B8: (AB) = AB

B9: (AB)C = (AC)(BC)

B10 is Tarskis equational form of the fact, discovered by Augustus De Morgan, that AB C AC B CB

A .

B10: (A(AB) )B = B

These axioms are ZFC theorems; for the purely Boolean B1-B3, this fact is trivial. After each of the following axioms

is shown the number of the corresponding theorem in Chapter 3 of Suppes (1960), an exposition of ZFC: B4 27, B5

45, B6 14, B7 26, B8 16, B9 23.

The following table shows how many of the usual properties of binary relations can be expressed as succinct RA

equalities or inequalities. Below, an inequality of the form AB is shorthand for the Boolean equation AB = B.

The most complete set of results of this nature is Chapter C of Carnap (1958), where the notation is rather distant

from that of this entry. Chapter 3.2 of Suppes (1960) contains fewer results, presented as ZFC theorems and using a

notation that more resembles that of this entry. Neither Carnap nor Suppes formulated their results using the RA of

this entry, or in an equational manner.

The metamathematics of RA are discussed at length in Tarski and Givant (1987), and more briey in Givant (2006).

RA consists entirely of equations manipulated using nothing more than uniform replacement and the substitution of

equals for equals. Both rules are wholly familiar from school mathematics and from abstract algebra generally. Hence

RA proofs are carried out in a manner familiar to all mathematicians, unlike the case in mathematical logic generally.

RA can express any (and up to logical equivalence, exactly the) rst-order logic (FOL) formulas containing no more

than three variables. (A given variable can be quantied multiple times and hence quantiers can be nested arbitrarily

deeply by reusing variables.) Surprisingly, this fragment of FOL suces to express Peano arithmetic and almost

all axiomatic set theories ever proposed. Hence RA is, in eect, a way of algebraizing nearly all mathematics,

176 CHAPTER 39. RELATION ALGEBRA

while dispensing with FOL and its connectives, quantiers, turnstiles, and modus ponens. Because RA can express

Peano arithmetic and set theory, Gdels incompleteness theorems apply to it; RA is incomplete, incompletable, and

undecidable. (N.B. The Boolean algebra fragment of RA is complete and decidable.)

The representable relation algebras, forming the class RRA, are those relation algebras isomorphic to some re-

lation algebra consisting of binary relations on some set, and closed under the intended interpretation of the RA

operations. It is easily shown, e.g. using the method of pseudoelementary classes, that RRA is a quasivariety, that

is, axiomatizable by a universal Horn theory. In 1950, Roger Lyndon proved the existence of equations holding in

RRA that did not hold in RA. Hence the variety generated by RRA is a proper subvariety of the variety RA. In

1955, Alfred Tarski showed that RRA is itself a variety. In 1964, Donald Monk showed that RRA has no nite

axiomatization, unlike RA, which is nitely axiomatized by denition.

An RA is a Q-Relation Algebra (QRA) if, in addition to B1-B10, there exist some A and B such that (Tarski and

Givant 1987: 8.4):

Q0: AA I

Q1: BB I

Q2: AB = 1

Essentially these axioms imply that the universe has a (non-surjective) pairing relation whose projections are A and

B. It is a theorem that every QRA is a RRA (Proof by Maddux, see Tarski & Givant 1987: 8.4(iii) ).

Every QRA is representable (Tarski and Givant 1987). That not every relation algebra is representable is a fun-

damental way RA diers from QRA and Boolean algebras, which, by Stones representation theorem for Boolean

algebras, are always representable as sets of subsets of some set, closed under union, intersection, and complement.

39.4 Examples

1. Any Boolean algebra can be turned into a RA by interpreting conjunction as composition (the monoid multipli-

cation ), i.e. xy is dened as xy. This interpretation requires that converse interpret identity ( = y), and that both

residuals y\x and x/y interpret the conditional yx (i.e., yx).

2. The motivating example of a relation algebra depends on the denition of a binary relation R on a set X as any

subset R X, where X is the Cartesian square of X. The power set 2X consisting of all binary relations on X is

a Boolean algebra. While 2X can be made a relation algebra by taking RS = RS, as per example (1) above, the

standard interpretation of is instead x(RS)z = y:xRy.ySz. That is, the ordered pair (x,z) belongs to the relation RS

just when there exists y X such that (x,y) R and (y,z) S. This interpretation uniquely determines R\S as consisting

of all pairs (y,z) such that for all x X, if xRy then xSz. Dually, S/R consists of all pairs (x,y) such that for all z X,

if yRz then xSz. The translation = (y\I) then establishes the converse R of R as consisting of all pairs (y,x) such

that (x,y) R.

3. An important generalization of the previous example is the power set 2E where E X is any equivalence relation on

the set X. This is a generalization because X is itself an equivalence relation, namely the complete relation consisting

of all pairs. While 2E is not a subalgebra of 2X when E X (since in that case it does not contain the relation X,

the top element 1 being E instead of X), it is nevertheless turned into a relation algebra using the same denitions

of the operations. Its importance resides in the denition of a representable relation algebra as any relation algebra

isomorphic to a subalgebra of the relation algebra 2E for some equivalence relation E on some set. The previous

section says more about the relevant metamathematics.

4. Let G be group. Then the power set 2G is a relation algebra with the obvious boolean algebra operations, com-

position given by the product of group subsets, the converse by the inverse subset ( A1 = {a1 | a A} ), and

the identity by the singleton subset {e} . There is a relation algebra homomorphism embedding 2G in 2GG which

sends each subset A G to the relation RA = {(g, h) G G | h Ag} . The image of this homomorphism is

the set of all right-invariant relations on G .

5. If group sum or product interprets composition, group inverse interprets converse, group identity interprets I, and

if R is a one-to-one correspondence, so that RR = RR = I,[3] then L is a group as well as a monoid. B4-B7 become

39.5. HISTORICAL REMARKS 177

well-known theorems of group theory, so that RA becomes a proper extension of group theory as well as of Boolean

algebra.

DeMorgan founded RA in 1860, but C. S. Peirce took it much further and became fascinated with its philosophical

power. The work of DeMorgan and Peirce came to be known mainly in the extended and denitive form Ernst

Schrder gave it in Vol. 3 of his Vorlesungen (18901905). Principia Mathematica drew strongly on Schrders RA,

but acknowledged him only as the inventor of the notation. In 1912, Alwin Korselt proved that a particular formula

in which the quantiers were nested four deep had no RA equivalent.[4] This fact led to a loss of interest in RA until

Tarski (1941) began writing about it. His students have continued to develop RA down to the present day. Tarski

returned to RA in the 1970s with the help of Steven Givant; this collaboration resulted in the monograph by Tarski

and Givant (1987), the denitive reference for this subject. For more on the history of RA, see Maddux (1991, 2006).

39.6 Software

RelMICS / Relational Methods in Computer Science maintained by Wolfram Kahl

39.8 Footnotes

[1] Alfred Tarski (1948) Abstract: Representation Problems for Relation Algebras, Bulletin of the AMS 54: 80.

[2] Chris Brink; Wolfram Kahl; Gunther Schmidt (1997). Relational Methods in Computer Science. Springer. pp. 4 and 8.

ISBN 978-3-211-82971-4.

[4] Korselt did not publish his nding. It was rst published in Leopold Loewenheim (1915) "ber Mglichkeiten im Rela-

tivkalkl, Mathematische Annalen 76: 447470. Translated as On possibilities in the calculus of relatives in Jean van

Heijenoort, 1967. A Source Book in Mathematical Logic, 18791931. Harvard Univ. Press: 228251.

39.9 References

Rudolf Carnap (1958) Introduction to Symbolic Logic and its Applications. Dover Publications.

Givant, Steven (2006). The calculus of relations as a foundation for mathematics. Journal of Automated

Reasoning. 37: 277322. doi:10.1007/s10817-006-9062-x.

Leon Henkin, Alfred Tarski, and Monk, J. D., 1971. Cylindric Algebras, Part 1, and 1985, Part 2. North

Holland.

Hirsch R., and Hodkinson, I., 2002, Relation Algebra by Games, vol. 147 in Studies in Logic and the Foundations

of Mathematics. Elsevier Science.

Jnsson, Bjarni; Tsinakis, Constantine (1993). Relation algebras as residuated Boolean algebras. Algebra

Universalis. 30: 46978. doi:10.1007/BF01195378.

Maddux, Roger (1991). The Origin of Relation Algebras in the Development and Axiomatization of the

Calculus of Relations (PDF). Studia Logica. 50 (34): 421455. doi:10.1007/BF00370681.

178 CHAPTER 39. RELATION ALGEBRA

--------, 2006. Relation Algebras, vol. 150 in Studies in Logic and the Foundations of Mathematics. Elsevier

Science.

Patrick Suppes, 1960. Axiomatic Set Theory. Van Nostrand. Dover reprint, 1972. Chapter 3.

Tarski, Alfred (1941). On the calculus of relations. Journal of Symbolic Logic. 6: 7389. JSTOR 2268577.

doi:10.2307/2268577.

------, and Givant, Steven, 1987. A Formalization of Set Theory without Variables. Providence RI: American

Mathematical Society.

Yohji AKAMA, Yasuo Kawahara, and Hitoshi Furusawa, "Constructing Allegory from Relation Algebra and

Representation Theorems."

Richard Bird, Oege de Moor, Paul Hoogendijk, "Generic Programming with Relations and Functors."

R.P. de Freitas and Viana, "A Completeness Result for Relation Algebra with Binders."

Peter Jipsen:

Relation algebras. In Mathematical structures. If there are problems with LaTeX, see an old HTML

version here.

"Foundations of Relations and Kleene Algebra."

"Computer Aided Investigations of Relation Algebras."

"A Gentzen System And Decidability For Residuated Lattices.

Vaughan Pratt:

"The Second Calculus of Binary Relations."

Priss, Uta:

"Relation Algebra and FCA" Links to publications and software

Kahl, Wolfram, and Schmidt, Gunther, "Exploring (Finite) Relation Algebras Using Tools Written in Haskell."

See homepage of the whole project.

Chapter 40

Relation construction

In logic and mathematics, relation construction and relational constructibility have to do with the ways that one

relation is determined by an indexed family or a sequence of other relations, called the relation dataset. The relation

in the focus of consideration is called the faciendum. The relation dataset typically consists of a specied relation

over sets of relations, called the constructor, the factor, or the method of construction, plus a specied set of other

relations, called the faciens, the ingredients, or the makings.

Relation composition and relation reduction are special cases of relation constructions.

Projection

Relation

Relation composition

Relation reduction

179

Chapter 41

Representation (mathematics)

In mathematics, representation is a very general relationship that expresses similarities between objects. Roughly

speaking, a collection Y of mathematical objects may be said to represent another collection X of objects, provided

that the properties and relationships existing among the representing objects yi conform in some consistent way to

those existing among the corresponding represented objects xi. Somewhat more formally, for a set of properties

and relations, a -representation of some structure X is a structure Y that is the image of X under a s homomorphism

that preserves . The label representation is sometimes also applied to the homomorphism itself.

Perhaps the most well-developed example of this general notion is the subeld of abstract algebra called representation

theory, which studies the representing of elements of algebraic structures by linear transformations of vector spaces.

Although the term representation theory is well established in the algebraic sense discussed above, there are many

other uses of the term representation throughout mathematics.

An active area of graph theory is the exploration of isomorphisms between graphs and other structures. A key

class of such problems stems from the fact that, like adjacency in undirected graphs, intersection of sets (or, more

precisely, non-disjointness) is a symmetric relation. This gives rise to the study of intersection graphs for innumerable

families of sets.[1] One foundational result here, due to Paul Erds and colleagues, is that every n-vertex graph may

be represented in terms of intersection among subsets of a set of size no more than n2 /4.[2]

Representing a graph by such algebraic structures as its adjacency matrix and Laplacian matrix gives rise to the eld

of spectral graph theory.[3]

Dual to the observation above that every graph is an intersection graph is the fact that every partially ordered set is

isomorphic to a collection of sets ordered by the containment (or inclusion) relation . Among the posets that arise

as the containment orders for natural classes of objects are the Boolean lattices and the orders of dimension n.[4]

Many partial orders arise from (and thus can be represented by) collections of geometric objects. Among them are

the n-ball orders. The 1-ball orders are the interval-containment orders, and the 2-ball orders are the so-called circle

orders, the posets representable in terms of containment among disks in the plane. A particularly nice result in this

eld is the characterization of the planar graphs as those graphs whose vertex-edge incidence relations are circle

orders.[5]

180

41.3. SEE ALSO 181

There are also geometric representations that are not based on containment. Indeed, one of the best studied classes

among these are the interval orders,[6] which represent the partial order in terms of what might be called disjoint

precedence of intervals on the real line: each element x of the poset is represented by an interval [x1 , x2 ] such that for

any y and z in the poset, y is below z if and only if y2 < z1 .

41.2.3 Polysemy

Under certain circumstances, a single function f:X Y is at once an isomorphism from several mathematical struc-

tures on X. Since each of those structures may be thought of, intuitively, as a meaning of the image Yone of the

things that Y is trying to tell usthis phenomenon is called polysemy, a term borrowed from linguistics. Examples

include:

intersection polysemypairs of graphs G1 and G2 on a common vertex set V that can be simultaneously

represented by a single collection of sets Sv such that any distinct vertices u and w in V...

are adjacent in G2 if and only if the complements do ( SuC SwC ).[7]

competition polysemymotivated by the study of ecological food webs, in which pairs of species may have

prey in common or have predators in common. A pair of graphs G1 and G2 on one vertex set is competition

polysemic if and only if there exists a single directed graph D on the same vertex set such that any distinct

vertices u and v...

are adjacent in G1 if and only if there is a vertex w such that both uw and vw are arcs in D,

and

are adjacent in G2 if and only if there is a vertex w such that both wu and wv are arcs in D.[8]

interval polysemypairs of posets P 1 and P 2 on a common ground set that can be simultaneously represented

by a single collection of real intervals that is an interval-order representation of P 1 and an interval-containment

representation of P 2 .[9]

Representation theorems

Model theory

41.4 References

[1] McKee, Terry A.; McMorris, F. R. (1999), Topics in Intersection Graph Theory, SIAM Monographs on Discrete

Mathematics and Applications, Philadelphia: Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, ISBN 0-89871-430-

3, MR 1672910

[2] Erds, Paul; Goodman, A. W.; Psa, Louis (1966), The representation of a graph by set intersections, Canadian Journal

of Mathematics, 18 (1): 106112, MR 0186575, doi:10.4153/cjm-1966-014-3

[3] Biggs, Norman (1994), Algebraic Graph Theory, Cambridge Mathematical Library, Cambridge University Press,

ISBN 978-0-521-45897-9, MR 1271140

[4] Trotter, William T. (1992), Combinatorics and Partially Ordered Sets: Dimension Theory, Johns Hopkins Series in the

Mathematical Sciences, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN 978-0-8018-4425-6, MR 1169299

[5] Scheinerman, Edward (1991), A note on planar graphs and circle orders, SIAM Journal on Discrete Mathematics,

4 (3): 448451, MR 1105950, doi:10.1137/0404040

[6] Fishburn, Peter C. (1985), Interval Orders and Interval Graphs: A Study of Partially Ordered Sets, Wiley-Interscience

Series in Discrete Mathematics, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-0-471-81284-5, MR 0776781

182 CHAPTER 41. REPRESENTATION (MATHEMATICS)

[7] Tanenbaum, Paul J. (1999), Simultaneous intersection representation of pairs of graphs, Journal of Graph Theory,

32 (2): 171190, MR 1709659, doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0118(199910)32:2<171::AID-JGT7>3.0.CO;2-N

[8] Fischermann, Miranca; Knoben, Werner; Kremer, Dirk; Rautenbachh, Dieter (2004), Competition polysemy,

Discrete Mathematics, 282 (13): 251255, MR 2059526, doi:10.1016/j.disc.2003.11.014

[9] Tanenbaum, Paul J. (1996), Simultaneous representation of interval and interval-containment orders, Order, 13

(4): 339350, MR 1452517, doi:10.1007/BF00405593

Chapter 42

Sequential composition

In computer science, the process calculi (or process algebras) are a diverse family of related approaches for for-

mally modelling concurrent systems. Process calculi provide a tool for the high-level description of interactions,

communications, and synchronizations between a collection of independent agents or processes. They also provide

algebraic laws that allow process descriptions to be manipulated and analyzed, and permit formal reasoning about

equivalences between processes (e.g., using bisimulation). Leading examples of process calculi include CSP, CCS,

ACP, and LOTOS.[1] More recent additions to the family include the -calculus, the ambient calculus, PEPA, the

fusion calculus and the join-calculus.

While the variety of existing process calculi is very large (including variants that incorporate stochastic behaviour,

timing information, and specializations for studying molecular interactions), there are several features that all process

calculi have in common:[2]

modication of shared variables.

Describing processes and systems using a small collection of primitives, and operators for combining those

primitives.

Dening algebraic laws for the process operators, which allow process expressions to be manipulated using

equational reasoning.

To dene a process calculus, one starts with a set of names (or channels) whose purpose is to provide means of

communication. In many implementations, channels have rich internal structure to improve eciency, but this is

abstracted away in most theoretic models. In addition to names, one needs a means to form new processes from old.

The basic operators, always present in some form or other, allow:[3]

sequentialization of interactions

183

184 CHAPTER 42. SEQUENTIAL COMPOSITION

Parallel composition of two processes P and Q , usually written P |Q , is the key primitive distinguishing the process

calculi from sequential models of computation. Parallel composition allows computation in P and Q to proceed

simultaneously and independently. But it also allows interaction, that is synchronisation and ow of information from

P to Q (or vice versa) on a channel shared by both. Crucially, an agent or process can be connected to more than one

channel at a time.

Channels may be synchronous or asynchronous. In the case of a synchronous channel, the agent sending a message

waits until another agent has received the message. Asynchronous channels do not require any such synchronization.

In some process calculi (notably the -calculus) channels themselves can be sent in messages through (other) channels,

allowing the topology of process interconnections to change. Some process calculi also allow channels to be created

during the execution of a computation.

42.2.2 Communication

Interaction can be (but isn't always) a directed ow of information. That is, input and output can be distinguished as

dual interaction primitives. Process calculi that make such distinctions typically dene an input operator (e.g. x(v)

) and an output operator (e.g. xy ), both of which name an interaction point (here x ) that is used to synchronise

with a dual interaction primitive.

Information should be exchanged, it will ow from the outputting to the inputting process. The output primitive will

specify the data to be sent. In xy , this data is y . Similarly, if an input expects to receive data, one or more bound

variables will act as place-holders to be substituted by data, when it arrives. In x(v) , v plays that role. The choice of

the kind of data that can be exchanged in an interaction is one of the key features that distinguishes dierent process

calculi.

Sometimes interactions must be temporally ordered. For example, it might be desirable to specify algorithms such as:

rst receive some data on x and then send that data on y . Sequential composition can be used for such purposes. It is

well known from other models of computation. In process calculi, the sequentialisation operator is usually integrated

with input or output, or both. For example, the process x(v) P will wait for an input on x . Only when this input

has occurred will the process P be activated, with the received data through x substituted for identier v .

The key operational reduction rule, containing the computational essence of process calculi, can be given solely in

terms of parallel composition, sequentialization, input, and output. The details of this reduction vary among the

calculi, but the essence remains roughly the same. The reduction rule is:

xy P | x(v) Q P | Q[y/v ]

1. The process xy P sends a message, here y , along the channel x . Dually, the process x(v) Q receives that

message on channel x .

2. Once the message has been sent, xy P becomes the process P , while x(v) Q becomes the process Q[y/v ]

, which is Q with the place-holder v substituted by y , the data received on x .

The class of processes that P is allowed to range over as the continuation of the output operation substantially inu-

ences the properties of the calculus.

42.3. DISCRETE AND CONTINUOUS PROCESS ALGEBRA 185

42.2.5 Hiding

Processes do not limit the number of connections that can be made at a given interaction point. But interaction points

allow interference (i.e. interaction). For the synthesis of compact, minimal and compositional systems, the ability to

restrict interference is crucial. Hiding operations allow control of the connections made between interaction points

when composing agents in parallel. Hiding can be denoted in a variety of ways. For example, in the -calculus the

hiding of a name x in P can be expressed as ( x)P , while in CSP it might be written as P \ {x} .

The operations presented so far describe only nite interaction and are consequently insucient for full computability,

which includes non-terminating behaviour. Recursion and replication are operations that allow nite descriptions

of innite behaviour. Recursion is well known from the sequential world. Replication !P can be understood as

abbreviating the parallel composition of a countably innite number of P processes:

!P = P |!P

Process calculi generally also include a null process (variously denoted as nil , 0 , STOP , , or some other appropriate

symbol) which has no interaction points. It is utterly inactive and its sole purpose is to act as the inductive anchor on

top of which more interesting processes can be generated.

Process algebra has been studied for discrete time and continuous time (real time or dense time).[4]

42.4 History

In the rst half of the 20th century, various formalisms were proposed to capture the informal concept of a com-

putable function, with -recursive functions, Turing machines and the lambda calculus possibly being the best-known

examples today. The surprising fact that they are essentially equivalent, in the sense that they are all encodable into

each other, supports the Church-Turing thesis. Another shared feature is more rarely commented on: they all are

most readily understood as models of sequential computation. The subsequent consolidation of computer science re-

quired a more subtle formulation of the notion of computation, in particular explicit representations of concurrency

and communication. Models of concurrency such as the process calculi, Petri nets in 1962, and the actor model in

1973 emerged from this line of inquiry.

Research on process calculi began in earnest with Robin Milner's seminal work on the Calculus of Communicating

Systems (CCS) during the period from 1973 to 1980. C.A.R. Hoare's Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP)

rst appeared in 1978, and was subsequently developed into a full-edged process calculus during the early 1980s.

There was much cross-fertilization of ideas between CCS and CSP as they developed. In 1982 Jan Bergstra and

Jan Willem Klop began work on what came to be known as the Algebra of Communicating Processes (ACP), and

introduced the term process algebra to describe their work.[1] CCS, CSP, and ACP constitute the three major branches

of the process calculi family: the majority of the other process calculi can trace their roots to one of these three calculi.

Various process calculi have been studied and not all of them t the paradigm sketched here. The most prominent

example may be the ambient calculus. This is to be expected as process calculi are an active eld of study. Currently

research on process calculi focuses on the following problems.

186 CHAPTER 42. SEQUENTIAL COMPOSITION

Finding well-behaved subcalculi of a given process calculus. This is valuable because (1) most calculi are fairly

wild in the sense that they are rather general and not much can be said about arbitrary processes; and (2)

computational applications rarely exhaust the whole of a calculus. Rather they use only processes that are very

constrained in form. Constraining the shape of processes is mostly studied by way of type systems.

Logics for processes that allow one to reason about (essentially) arbitrary properties of processes, following the

ideas of Hoare logic.

Behavioural theory: what does it mean for two processes to be the same? How can we decide whether two

processes are dierent or not? Can we nd representatives for equivalence classes of processes? Generally,

processes are considered to be the same if no context, that is other processes running in parallel, can detect a

dierence. Unfortunately, making this intuition precise is subtle and mostly yields unwieldy characterisations of

equality (which in most cases must also be undecidable, as a consequence of the halting problem). Bisimulations

are a technical tool that aids reasoning about process equivalences.

Expressivity of calculi. Programming experience shows that certain problems are easier to solve in some

languages than in others. This phenomenon calls for a more precise characterisation of the expressivity of

calculi modeling computation than that aorded by the Church-Turing thesis. One way of doing this is to

consider encodings between two formalisms and see what properties encodings can potentially preserve. The

more properties can be preserved, the more expressive the target of the encoding is said to be. For process

calculi, the celebrated results are that the synchronous -calculus is more expressive than its asynchronous

variant, has the same expressive power as the higher-order -calculus, but is less than the ambient calculus.

Using process calculus to model biological systems (stochastic -calculus, BioAmbients, Beta Binders, BioPEPA,

Brane calculus). It is thought by some that the compositionality oered by process-theoretic tools can help bi-

ologists to organise their knowledge more formally.

The ideas behind process algebra have given rise to several tools including:

CADP

Concurrency Workbench

mCRL2 toolset

The history monoid is the free object that is generically able to represent the histories of individual communicating

processes. A process calculus is then a formal language imposed on a history monoid in a consistent fashion.[5] That

is, a history monoid can only record a sequence of events, with synchronization, but does not specify the allowed

state transitions. Thus, a process calculus is to a history monoid what a formal language is to a free monoid (a formal

language is a subset of the set of all possible nite-length strings of an alphabet generated by the Kleene star).

The use of channels for communication is one of the features distinguishing the process calculi from other models of

concurrency, such as Petri nets and the Actor model (see Actor model and process calculi). One of the fundamental

motivations for including channels in the process calculi was to enable certain algebraic techniques, thereby making

it easier to reason about processes algebraically.

Stochastic probe

42.9. REFERENCES 187

42.9 References

[1] Baeten, J.C.M. (2004). A brief history of process algebra (PDF). Rapport CSR 04-02. Vakgroep Informatica, Technische

Universiteit Eindhoven.

[2] Pierce, Benjamin. Foundational Calculi for Programming Languages. The Computer Science and Engineering Handbook.

CRC Press. pp. 21902207. ISBN 0-8493-2909-4.

[3] Baeten, J.C.M.; Bravetti, M. (August 2005). A Generic Process Algebra. Algebraic Process Calculi: The First Twenty

Five Years and Beyond (BRICS Notes Series NS-05-3). Bertinoro, Forl`, Italy: BRICS, Department of Computer Science,

University of Aarhus. Retrieved 2007-12-29.

[4] Baeten, J. C. M.; Middelburg, C. A. Process algebra with timing: Real time and discrete time. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.42.729

.

[5] Mazurkiewicz, Antoni (1995). Introduction to Trace Theory. In Diekert, V.; Rozenberg, G. The Book of Traces

(PostScript). Singapore: World Scientic. pp. 341. ISBN 981-02-2058-8.

Matthew Hennessy: Algebraic Theory of Processes, The MIT Press, ISBN 0-262-08171-7.

C. A. R. Hoare: Communicating Sequential Processes, Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-153289-8.

This book has been updated by Jim Davies at the Oxford University Computing Laboratory and the new

edition is available for download as a PDF le at the Using CSP website.

Robin Milner: Communicating and Mobile Systems: the Pi-Calculus, Springer Verlag, ISBN 0-521-65869-1.

Chapter 43

Sheaf of planes

Sheaf of Planes

In mathematics, a sheaf of planes is the set of all planes that have the same common line.[1][2] It may also be known

as a pencil or fan of planes.

When extending the concept of line to the line at innity, a set of parallel planes can be seen as a sheaf of planes

intersecting in a line at innity. To distinguish it from the more common denition the adjective parallel can be added

to it, resulting in the expression: parallel sheaf of planes.[3]

188

43.1. SEE ALSO 189

Book embedding, a notion of graph embedding onto sheafs of half-planes

43.2 Notes

[1] Denition on Mathworld Wolfram

[2] Sommerville, D. M. Y. (1909). Classication of Geometries with Projective Metric. Proceedings of the Edinburgh

Mathematical Society. 28: 25. doi:10.1017/S0013091500034763.

Chapter 44

Surjective function

In mathematics, a function f from a set X to a set Y is surjective (or onto), or a surjection, if for every element y in

the codomain Y of f there is at least one element x in the domain X of f such that f(x) = y. It is not required that x

is unique; the function f may map one or more elements of X to the same element of Y.

The term surjective and the related terms injective and bijective were introduced by Nicolas Bourbaki,[1] a group

of mainly French 20th-century mathematicians who under this pseudonym wrote a series of books presenting an

exposition of modern advanced mathematics, beginning in 1935. The French prex sur means over or above and

relates to the fact that the image of the domain of a surjective function completely covers the functions codomain.

Any function induces a surjection by restricting its codomain to its range. Every surjective function has a right inverse,

and every function with a right inverse is necessarily a surjection. The composite of surjective functions is always

surjective. Any function can be decomposed into a surjection and an injection.

44.1 Denition

For more details on notation, see Function (mathematics) Notation.

A surjective function is a function whose image is equal to its codomain. Equivalently, a function f with domain

X and codomain Y is surjective if for every y in Y there exists at least one x in X with f (x) = y . Surjections are

sometimes denoted by a two-headed rightwards arrow (U+21A0 RIGHTWARDS TWO HEADED ARROW),[2]

as in f : X Y.

Symbolically,

y Y, x X, f (x) = y

44.2 Examples

For any set X, the identity function idX on X is surjective.

The function f : Z {0,1} dened by f(n) = n mod 2 (that is, even integers are mapped to 0 and odd integers to 1)

is surjective.

The function f : R R dened by f(x) = 2x + 1 is surjective (and even bijective), because for every real number y

we have an x such that f(x) = y: an appropriate x is (y 1)/2.

The function f : R R dened by f(x) = x3 3x is surjective, because the pre-image of any real number y is the

solution set of the cubic polynomial equation x3 3x y = 0 and every cubic polynomial with real coecients has at

190

44.2. EXAMPLES 191

X Y

1 D

2 B

3 C

A surjective function from domain X to codomain Y. The function is surjective because every point in the codomain is the value of

f(x) for at least one point x in the domain.

least one real root. However, this function is not injective (and hence not bijective) since e.g. the pre-image of y = 2

is {x = 1, x = 2}. (In fact, the pre-image of this function for every y, 2 y 2 has more than one element.)

The function g : R R dened by g(x) = x2 is not surjective, because there is no real number x such that x2 = 1.

However, the function g : R R0 + dened by g(x) = x2 (with restricted codomain) is surjective because for every y

in the nonnegative real codomain Y there is at least one x in the real domain X such that x2 = y.

The natural logarithm function ln : (0,+) R is a surjective and even bijective mapping from the set of positive

real numbers to the set of all real numbers. Its inverse, the exponential function, is not surjective as its range is the set

of positive real numbers and its domain is usually dened to be the set of all real numbers. The matrix exponential

is not surjective when seen as a map from the space of all nn matrices to itself. It is, however, usually dened as a

map from the space of all nn matrices to the general linear group of degree n, i.e. the group of all nn invertible

matrices. Under this denition the matrix exponential is surjective for complex matrices, although still not surjective

for real matrices.

The projection from a cartesian product A B to one of its factors is surjective unless the other factor is empty.

In a 3D video game vectors are projected onto a 2D at screen by means of a surjective function.

192 CHAPTER 44. SURJECTIVE FUNCTION

x f(x)

X Y

f:XY

A non-surjective function from domain X to codomain Y. The smaller oval inside Y is the image (also called range) of f. This

function is not surjective, because the image does not ll the whole codomain. In other words, Y is colored in a two-step process:

First, for every x in X, the point f(x) is colored yellow; Second, all the rest of the points in Y, that are not yellow, are colored blue.

The function f is surjective only if there are no blue points.

44.3 Properties

If (as is often done) a function is identied with its graph, then surjectivity is not a property of the function itself, but

rather a relationship between the function and its codomain. Unlike injectivity, surjectivity cannot be read o of the

graph of the function alone.

The function g : Y X is said to be a right inverse of the function f : X Y if f(g(y)) = y for every y in Y (g can be

undone by f). In other words, g is a right inverse of f if the composition f o g of g and f in that order is the identity

function on the domain Y of g. The function g need not be a complete inverse of f because the composition in the

other order, g o f, may not be the identity function on the domain X of f. In other words, f can undo or "reverse" g,

but cannot necessarily be reversed by it.

Every function with a right inverse is necessarily a surjection. The proposition that every surjective function has a

right inverse is equivalent to the axiom of choice.

If f : X Y is surjective and B is a subset of Y, then f(f 1 (B)) = B. Thus, B can be recovered from its preimage

f 1 (B).

For example, in the rst illustration, above, there is some function g such that g(C) = 4. There is also some function

f such that f(4) = C. It doesn't matter that g(C) can also equal 3; it only matters that f reverses g.

44.3. PROPERTIES 193

y y

y Y

im f

y Y

im f

x x

x X

x X1 x X2

f :X Y

f : X1 Y1 f : X2 Y2

y f x

y f x

Interpretation for surjective functions in the Cartesian plane, dened by the mapping f : X Y, where y = f(x), X = domain of

function, Y = range of function. Every element in the range is mapped onto from an element in the domain, by the rule f. There

may be a number of domain elements which map to the same range element. That is, every y in Y is mapped from an element x in

X, more than one x can map to the same y. Left: Only one domain is shown which makes f surjective. Right: two possible domains

X1 and X2 are shown.

y y3 Y y

y Y

y Y

y2 Y

im f

im f

y0 Y y1 Y

x x

x X

x0 X x X

x1 X x3 X

x2 X

f :X Y

y f x x X1 x X2

f : X1 Y1 f : X2 Y2

y f x

Non-surjective functions in the Cartesian plane. Although some parts of the function are surjective, where elements y in Y do have

a value x in X such that y = f(x), some parts are not. Left: There is y0 in Y, but there is no x0 in X such that y0 = f(x0 ). Right:

There are y1 , y2 and y3 in Y, but there are no x1 , x2 , and x3 in X such that y1 = f(x1 ), y2 = f(x2 ), and y3 = f(x3 ).

X Y Z

1 D P

2 B Q

3 C R

4 A

Surjective composition: the rst function need not be surjective.

194 CHAPTER 44. SURJECTIVE FUNCTION

X Y

1 D

2 B

3 C

4 A

Another surjective function. (This one happens to be a bijection)

X Y

1 D

2 B

3 C

A

A non-surjective function. (This one happens to be an injection)

A function f : X Y is surjective if and only if it is right-cancellative:[3] given any functions g,h : Y Z, whenever g

o f = h o f, then g = h. This property is formulated in terms of functions and their composition and can be generalized

to the more general notion of the morphisms of a category and their composition. Right-cancellative morphisms are

called epimorphisms. Specically, surjective functions are precisely the epimorphisms in the category of sets. The

prex epi is derived from the Greek preposition meaning over, above, on.

Any morphism with a right inverse is an epimorphism, but the converse is not true in general. A right inverse g of a

morphism f is called a section of f. A morphism with a right inverse is called a split epimorphism.

Any function with domain X and codomain Y can be seen as a left-total and right-unique binary relation between X

and Y by identifying it with its function graph. A surjective function with domain X and codomain Y is then a binary

relation between X and Y that is right-unique and both left-total and right-total.

The cardinality of the domain of a surjective function is greater than or equal to the cardinality of its codomain: If f

: X Y is a surjective function, then X has at least as many elements as Y, in the sense of cardinal numbers. (The

proof appeals to the axiom of choice to show that a function g : Y X satisfying f(g(y)) = y for all y in Y exists. g

is easily seen to be injective, thus the formal denition of |Y| |X| is satised.)

Specically, if both X and Y are nite with the same number of elements, then f : X Y is surjective if and only if

f is injective.

Given two sets X and Y, the notation X * Y is used to say that either X is empty or that there is a surjection from Y

onto X. Using the axiom of choice one can show that X * Y and Y * X together imply that |Y| = |X|, a variant of

the SchrderBernstein theorem.

The composite of surjective functions is always surjective: If f and g are both surjective, and the codomain of g

is equal to the domain of f, then f o g is surjective. Conversely, if f o g is surjective, then f is surjective (but g,

the function applied rst, need not be). These properties generalize from surjections in the category of sets to any

epimorphisms in any category.

44.4. SEE ALSO 195

Any function can be decomposed into a surjection and an injection: For any function h : X Z there exist a surjection

f : X Y and an injection g : Y Z such that h = g o f. To see this, dene Y to be the sets h 1 (z) where z is in

Z. These sets are disjoint and partition X. Then f carries each x to the element of Y which contains it, and g carries

each element of Y to the point in Z to which h sends its points. Then f is surjective since it is a projection map, and

g is injective by denition.

Any function induces a surjection by restricting its codomain to its range. Any surjective function induces a bijection

dened on a quotient of its domain by collapsing all arguments mapping to a given xed image. More precisely, every

surjection f : A B can be factored as a projection followed by a bijection as follows. Let A/~ be the equivalence

classes of A under the following equivalence relation: x ~ y if and only if f(x) = f(y). Equivalently, A/~ is the set of

all preimages under f. Let P(~) : A A/~ be the projection map which sends each x in A to its equivalence class

[x]~, and let fP : A/~ B be the well-dened function given by fP([x]~) = f(x). Then f = fP o P(~).

Bijection, injection and surjection

Cover (algebra)

Covering map

Enumeration

Fiber bundle

Index set

44.5 Notes

[1] Miller, Je, Injection, Surjection and Bijection, Earliest Uses of Some of the Words of Mathematics, Tripod.

[3] Goldblatt, Robert (2006) [1984]. Topoi, the Categorial Analysis of Logic (Revised ed.). Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-

486-45026-1. Retrieved 2009-11-25.

44.6 References

Bourbaki, Nicolas (2004) [1968]. Theory of Sets. Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-22525-6.

Chapter 45

Taylor diagram

Taylor diagrams are mathematical diagrams designed to graphically indicate which of several approximate rep-

resentations (or models) of a system, process, or phenomenon is most realistic. This diagram, invented by Karl E.

Taylor in 1994 (published in 2001[1] ) facilitates the comparative assessment of dierent models. It is used to quantify

the degree of correspondence between the modeled and observed behavior in terms of three statistics: the Pearson

correlation coecient, the root-mean-square error (RMSE) error, and the standard deviation.

Although Taylor diagrams have primarily been used to evaluate models designed to study climate and other aspects

of Earths environment,[2] they can be used for purposes unrelated to environmental science (e.g., to quantify and

visually display how well fusion energy models represent reality[3] ).

Taylor diagrams can be constructed with a number of dierent open source and commercial software packages,

including R,[4] MATLAB,[5][6] IDL,[7] UV-CDAT,[8] and NCL.[9]

The sample Taylor diagram shown in Figure 1[10] provides a summary of the relative skill with which several global

climate models simulate the spatial pattern of annual mean precipitation. Eight models, each represented by a dierent

letter on the diagram, are compared, and the distance between each model and the point labeled observed is a

measure of how realistically each model reproduces observations. For each model, three statistics are plotted: the

Pearson correlation coecient (gauging similarity in pattern between the simulated and observed elds) is related to

the azimuthal angle (blue contours); the centered RMS error in the simulated eld is proportional to the distance from

the point on the x-axis identied as observed (green contours); and the standard deviation of the simulated pattern is

proportional to the radial distance from the origin (black contours). It is evident from this diagram, for example, that

for Model F the correlation coecient is about 0.65, the RMS error is about 2.6 mm/day and the standard deviation

is about 3.3 mm/day. Model Fs standard deviation is clearly greater than the standard deviation of the observed eld

(indicated by the dashed contour at radial distance 2.9 mm/day).

The relative merits of various models can be inferred from gure 1. Simulated patterns that agree well with ob-

servations will lie nearest the point marked observed on the x-axis. These models have relatively high correlation

and low RMS errors. Models lying on the dashed arc have the correct standard deviation (which indicates that the

pattern variations are of the right amplitude). In gure 1 it can be seen that models A and C generally agree best

with observations, each with about the same RMS error. Model A, however, has a slightly higher correlation with

observations and has the same standard deviation as the observed, whereas model C has too little spatial variability

(with a standard deviation of 2.3 mm/day compared to the observed value of 2.9 mm/day). Of the poorer performing

models, model E has a low pattern correlation, while model D has variations that are much larger than observed, in

both cases resulting in a relatively large (~3 mm/day) centered RMS error in the precipitation elds. Note also that

although models D and B have about the same correlation with observations, model B simulates the amplitude of the

variations (i.e., the standard deviation) much better than model D, resulting in a smaller RMS error.

196

45.2. THEORETICAL BASIS 197

0.0

0.1

0.2

4

0.3

0.4

4

0.5

C

or

6

re

0.

D

l

3

at

7

Standard Deviation (mm/day)

0.

io

n

E H F

8

0.

B

2 G 2

A

0.9

C

0.95

1

0.99

0 1.0

0 1 2 observed 4

Standard Deviation (mm/day)

Fig. 1: Sample Taylor diagram displaying a statistical comparison with observations of eight model estimates of the global pattern

of annual mean precipitation.

Taylor diagrams display statistics useful for assessing the similarity of a variable simulated by a model (more generally,

the test eld) to its observed counterpart (more generally, the reference eld). Mathematically, the three statistics

displayed on a Taylor diagram are related by the following formula (which can be derived directly from the denition

of the statistics appearing in it):

198 CHAPTER 45. TAYLOR DIAGRAM

E 2 = r2 + t2 2r t ,

where is the correlation coecient between the test and reference elds, E is the centered RMS dierence between

the elds (with any dierence in the means rst removed), and r and t are the variances of the reference and test

elds, respectively. The law of cosines (c2 = a2 + b2 2ab cos , where a, b, and c are the length of the sides of the

triangle, and is the angle between sides a and b) provides the key to forming the geometrical relationship between

the four quantities that underlie the Taylor diagram (shown in gure 2).

Fig. 2: Geometrical relationship between statistics plotted on Taylor diagrams according to the law of cosines.

The standard deviation of the observed eld (r ) is side a. The standard deviation of the simulated eld (t ) is side

b, the centered RMS dierence between the two elds (E) is side c, and the cosine of the angle between sides a and

b is the correlation coecient ().

Note that the means of the elds are subtracted out before computing their second-order statistics, so the diagram

does not provide information about overall biases, but solely characterizes the centered pattern error.

Among the several minor variations on the diagram that have been suggested are (see, Taylor, 2001[1] ):

extension to a second quadrant (to the left of the quadrant shown in Fig. 1) to accommodate negative corre-

lations;

normalization of dimensional quantities (dividing both the RMS dierence and the standard deviation of the

test eld by the standard deviation of the observations) so that the observed point is plotted at unit distance

from the origin along the x-axis, and statistics for dierent elds (with dierent units) can be shown in a single

plot;

omission of the isolines on the diagram to make it easier to see the plotted points;

45.4. REFERENCES 199

use of an arrow to connect two related points on the diagram. For example, an arrow can be drawn from the

point representing an older version of a model to a newer version, which makes it easier to indicate more clearly

whether or not the model is moving toward truth, as dened by observations.

45.4 References

[1] Taylor, K.E. (2001). Summarizing multiple aspects of model performance in a single diagram. J. Geophys. Res. 106:

71837192. doi:10.1029/2000JD900719.

[2] In the period 2012-2015, Google Scholar lists more than 1000 citations of Taylor (2001), the rst scholarly article describing

the Taylor diagram.

[3] Terry, P.W.; et al. (2008). Validation in fusion research: Towards guidelines and best practices. Phys. Plasmas. 15.

doi:10.1063/1.2928909.

Chapter 46

In mathematics, a ternary equivalence relation is a kind of ternary relation analogous to a binary equivalence

relation. A ternary equivalence relation is symmetric, reexive, and transitive. The classic example is the relation

of collinearity among three points in Euclidean space. In an abstract set, a ternary equivalence relation determines a

collection of equivalence classes or pencils that form a linear space in the sense of incidence geometry. In the same

way, a binary equivalence relation on a set determines a partition.

46.1 Denition

A ternary equivalence relation on a set X is a relation E X3 , written [a, b, c], that satises the following axioms:

1. Symmetry: If [a, b, c] then [b, c, a] and [c, b, a]. (Therefore also [a, c, b], [b, a, c], and [c, a, b].)

2. Reexivity: [a, b, b]. Equivalently, if a, b, and c are not all distinct, then [a, b, c].

3. Transitivity: If a b and [a, b, c] and [a, b, d] then [b, c, d]. (Therefore also [a, c, d].)

46.2 References

Arajoa, Joo; Koniecznyc, Janusz (2007), A method of nding automorphism groups of endomorphism

monoids of relational systems, Discrete Mathematics, 307: 16091620, doi:10.1016/j.disc.2006.09.029

Bachmann, Friedrich, Aufbau der Geometrie aus dem Spiegelungsbegri

Karzel, Helmut (2007), Loops related to geometric structures, Quasigroups and Related Systems, 15: 4776

Karzel, Helmut; Pianta, Silvia (2008), Binary operations derived from symmetric permutation sets and appli-

cations to absolute geometry, Discrete Mathematics, 308: 415421, doi:10.1016/j.disc.2006.11.058

Karzel, Helmut; Marchi, Mario; Pianta, Silvia (December 2010), The defect in an invariant reection struc-

ture, Journal of Geometry, 99 (1-2): 6787, doi:10.1007/s00022-010-0058-7

Lingenberg, Rolf (1979), Metric planes and metric vector spaces, Wiley

Rainich, G.Y. (1952), Ternary relations in geometry and algebra, Michigan Mathematical Journal, 1 (2):

97111, doi:10.1307/mmj/1028988890

Szmielew, Wanda (1981), On n-ary equivalence relations and their application to geometry, Warsaw: Instytut

Matematyczny Polskiej Akademi Nauk

200

Chapter 47

Ternary relation

In mathematics, a ternary relation or triadic relation is a nitary relation in which the number of places in the

relation is three. Ternary relations may also be referred to as 3-adic, 3-ary, 3-dimensional, or 3-place.

Just as a binary relation is formally dened as a set of pairs, i.e. a subset of the Cartesian product A B of some sets

A and B, so a ternary relation is a set of triples, forming a subset of the Cartesian product A B C of three sets A,

B and C.

An example of a ternary relation in elementary geometry is the collinearity of points.

47.1 Examples

A function : A B C in two variables, taking values in two sets A and B, respectively, is formally a function that

associates to every pair (a,b) in A B an element (a, b) in C. Therefore, its graph consists of pairs of the form ((a,

b), (a, b)). Such pairs in which the rst element is itself a pair are often identied with triples. This makes the graph

of a ternary relation between A, B and C, consisting of all triples (a, b, (a, b)), for all a in A and b in B.

Given any set A whose elements are arranged on a circle, one can dene a ternary relation R on A, i.e. a subset of A3

= A A A, by stipulating that R(a, b, c) holds if and only if the elements a, b and c are pairwise dierent and when

going from a to c in a clockwise direction one passes through b. For example, if A = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,

12 } represents the hours on a clock face, then R(8, 12, 4) holds and R(12, 8, 4) does not hold.

201

202 CHAPTER 47. TERNARY RELATION

ab (mod m)

which holds for three integers a, b, and m if and only if m divides a b, formally may be considered as a ternary

relation. However, usually, this instead is considered as a family of binary relations between the a and the b, indexed

by the modulus m. For each xed m, indeed this binary relation has some natural properties, like being an equivalence

relation; while the combined ternary relation in general is not studied as one relation.

Main article: Simply typed lambda calculus Typing rules

A typing relation e : indicates that e is a term of type in context , and is thus a ternary relation between

contexts, terms and types.

Myers, Dale (1997), An interpretive isomorphism between binary and ternary relations, in Mycielski, Jan;

Rozenberg, Grzegorz; Salomaa, Arto, Structures in Logic and Computer Science, Lecture Notes in Computer

Science, 1261, Springer, pp. 84105, ISBN 3-540-63246-8, doi:10.1007/3-540-63246-8_6

Novk, Vtzslav (1996), Ternary structures and partial semigroups, Czechoslovak Mathematical Journal, 46

(1): 111120, hdl:10338.dmlcz/127275

Novk, Vtzslav; Novotn, Miroslav (1989), Transitive ternary relations and quasiorderings, Archivum

Mathematicum, 25 (12): 512, hdl:10338.dmlcz/107333

Novk, Vtzslav; Novotn, Miroslav (1992), Binary and ternary relations, Mathematica Bohemica, 117 (3):

283292, hdl:10338.dmlcz/126278

Novotn, Miroslav (1991), Ternary structures and groupoids, Czechoslovak Mathematical Journal, 41 (1):

9098, hdl:10338.dmlcz/102437

lapal, Josef (1993), Relations and topologies, Czechoslovak Mathematical Journal, 43 (1): 141150, hdl:10338.dmlcz/128381

Chapter 48

Unit angle

Counterclockwise rotations about the center point where a complete rotation is equal to 1 turn

A turn is a unit of plane angle measurement equal to 2 radians, 360 degrees or 400 gradians. A turn is also referred

203

204 CHAPTER 48. UNIT ANGLE

A turn can be subdivided in many dierent ways: into half turns, quarter turns, centiturns, milliturns, binary angles,

points etc.

A turn can be divided in 100 centiturns or 1000 milliturns, with each milliturn corresponding to an angle of 0.36,

which can also be written as 21 36. A protractor divided in centiturns is normally called a percentage protractor.

Binary fractions of a turn are also used. Sailors have traditionally divided a turn into 32 compass points. The binary

degree, also known as the binary radian (or brad), is 1 256 turn.[1] The binary degree is used in computing so that

an angle can be represented to the maximum possible precision in a single byte. Other measures of angle used in

computing may be based on dividing one whole turn into 2n equal parts for other values of n.[2]

The notion of turn is commonly used for planar rotations. Two special rotations have acquired appellations of their

own: a rotation through 180 is commonly referred to as a half-turn ( radians),[3] a rotation through 90 is referred

to as a quarter-turn.

48.2 History

The word turn originates via Latin and French from the Greek word (trnos a lathe).

In 1697, David Gregory used / (pi over rho) to denote the perimeter of a circle (i.e., the circumference) divided by

its radius.[4][5] However, earlier in 1647, William Oughtred had used / (delta over pi) for the ratio of the diameter

to perimeter. The rst use of the symbol on its own with its present meaning (of perimeter divided by diameter)

was in 1706 by the Welsh mathematician William Jones.[6] Euler adopted the symbol with that meaning in 1737,

leading to its widespread use.

Percentage protractors have existed since 1922,[7] but the terms centiturns and milliturns were introduced much later

by Sir Fred Hoyle.[8]

The German standard DIN 1315 (1974-03) proposed the unit symbol pla (from Latin: plenus angulus full angle)

for turns.[9][10] Since 2011, the HP 39gII and HP Prime support the unit symbol tr for turns. In 2016, support for

turns was also added to newRPL for the HP 50g.[11] In June 2017, for release 3.6, the Python programming language

adopted the name tau to represent the number of radians in a turn.[12]

48.4. TAU PROPOSAL 205

An arc of a circle with the same length as the radius of that circle corresponds to an angle of 1 radian. A full circle corresponds to

a full turn, or approximately 6.28 radians, which are expressed here using the Greek letter tau ().

In 1958, Albert Eagle proposed the Greek letter tau as a symbol for 1/2, selecting the new symbol because

resembles two symbols conjoined ().[14]

In 2001, Robert Palais proposed using the number of radians in a turn as the fundamental circle constant instead of

, which amounts to the number of radians in half a turn, in order to make mathematics simpler and more intuitive.

His proposal used a pi with three legs symbol to denote the constant ( = 2).[15]

In 2010, Michael Hartl proposed to use tau to represent Palais circle constant (not Eagles): = 2. He oered two

reasons. First, is the number of radians in one turn, which allows fractions of a turn to be expressed more directly:

for instance, a 3/4 turn would be represented as 3/4 rad instead of 3/2 rad. Second, visually resembles , whose

association with the circle constant is unavoidable.[16] Hartls Tau Manifesto gives many examples of formulas that

are intuitively clearer where tau is used instead of pi, particularly in cases where a factor of 2 is thus not canceled

with another, unrelated factor.[17][18][19]

206 CHAPTER 48. UNIT ANGLE

As an angular unit, the turn or revolution is particularly useful for large angles, such as in connection with

electromagnetic coils and rotating objects. See also winding number.

The angular speed of rotating machinery, such as automobile engines, is commonly measured in revolutions

per minute or RPM.

Turn is used in complex dynamics for measure of external and internal angles. The sum of external angles of

a polygon equals one turn. Angle doubling map is used.

Pie charts illustrate proportions of a whole as fractions of a turn. Each one percent is shown as an angle of one

centiturn.

In kinematics, a turn is a rotation less than a full revolution. A turn may be represented in a mathematical model

that uses expressions of complex numbers or quaternions. In the complex plane every non-zero number has a polar

coordinate expression z = r cis(a) = r cos(a) + ri sin(a) where r > 0 and a is in [0, 2). A turn of the complex plane

arises from multiplying z = x + iy by an element u = ebi that lies on the unit circle:

z uz.

Frank Morley consistently referred to elements of the unit circle as turns in the book Inversive Geometry, (1933)

which he coauthored with his son Frank Vigor Morley.[20]

The Latin term for turn is versor, which is a quaternion that can be visualized as an arc of a great circle. The product

of two versors can be compared to a spherical triangle where two sides add to the third. For the kinematics of rotation

in three dimensions, see quaternions and spatial rotation.

Angle of rotation

Repeating circle

Spat (unit)

Unit interval

Spread

[1] ooPIC Programmers Guide. www.oopic.com.

[4] Beckmann, Petr (1989). A History of Pi. Barnes & Noble Publishing.

[5] Schwartzman, Steven (1994). The Words of Mathematics: An Etymological Dictionary of Mathematical Terms Used in

English. The Mathematical Association of America. p. 165.

48.9. EXTERNAL LINKS 207

[7] Croxton, Frederick E. (1922). A Percentage Protractor. Journal of the American Statistical Association. 18: 108109.

doi:10.1080/01621459.1922.10502455.

[9] German, Sigmar; Drath, Peter (2013-03-13) [1979]. Handbuch SI-Einheiten: Denition, Realisierung, Bewahrung und

Weitergabe der SI-Einheiten, Grundlagen der Przisionsmetechnik (in German) (1 ed.). Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Ver-

lagsgesellschaft mbH, reprint: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3322836061. 978-3-528-08441-7, 9783322836069. Retrieved

2015-08-14.

[10] Kurzweil, Peter (2013-03-09) [1999]. Das Vieweg Einheiten-Lexikon: Formeln und Begrie aus Physik, Chemie und Technik

(in German) (1 ed.). Vieweg, reprint: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3322929205. doi:10.1007/978-3-322-92920-4. 978-3-322-

92921-1. Retrieved 2015-08-14.

[11] http://www.hpmuseum.org/forum/thread-4783-post-55836.html#pid55836

[12] https://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0628/

[14] Eagle, Albert (1958). The Elliptic Functions as They Should Be: An Account, with Applications, of the Functions in a New

Canonical Form. Cambridge, England: Galloway and Porter.

[15] Palais, Robert (2001). Pi is Wrong (PDF). The Mathematical Intelligencer. New York, USA: Springer-Verlag. 23 (3):

78. doi:10.1007/bf03026846.

[17] Aron, Jacob (2011-01-08). Interview: Michael Hartl: Its time to kill o pi. New Scientist. 209 (2794): 23. Bibcode:2011NewSc.209...23A.

doi:10.1016/S0262-4079(11)60036-5.

[19] Why Tau Trumps Pi. Scientic American. 2014-06-25. Retrieved 2015-03-20.

[20] Morley, Frank; Morley, Frank Vigor (2014) [1933]. Inversive Geometry. Boston, USA; New York, USA: Ginn and

Company, reprint: Courier Corporation, Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-49339-8. 0-486-49339-3. Retrieved 2015-

10-17.

Palais, Robert (2001). Pi is Wrong (PDF). The Mathematical Intelligencer. New York, USA: Springer-

Verlag. 23 (3): 78. doi:10.1007/bf03026846.

Chapter 49

Unimodality

Unimodal redirects here. For the company that promotes personal rapid transit, see SkyTran.

In mathematics, unimodality means possessing a unique mode. More generally, unimodality means there is only a

single highest value, somehow dened, of some mathematical object.[1]

= 0, = 0.2

0.9 = 0, = 1.0

= 0, = 5.0

0.8 = -2, = 0.5

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

In statistics, a unimodal probability distribution or unimodal distribution is a probability distribution which has

208

49.1. UNIMODAL PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTION 209

a single mode. As the term mode has multiple meanings, so does the term unimodal.

Strictly speaking, a mode of a discrete probability distribution is a value at which the probability mass function (pmf)

takes its maximum value. In other words, it is a most likely value. A mode of a continuous probability distribution

is a value at which the probability density function (pdf) attains its maximum value. Note that in both cases there

can be more than one mode, since the maximum value of either the pmf or the pdf can be attained at more than one

value.

If there is a single mode, the distribution function is called unimodal. If it has more modes it is bimodal (2),

trimodal (3), etc., or in general, multimodal.[2] Figure 1 illustrates normal distributions, which are unimodal.

Other examples of unimodal distributions include Cauchy distribution, Students t-distribution, chi-squared distribu-

tion and exponential distribution. Among discrete distributions, the binomial distribution and Poisson distribution

210 CHAPTER 49. UNIMODALITY

can be seen as unimodal, though for some parameters they can have two adjacent values with the same probability.

Figure 2 illustrates a bimodal distribution.

Figure 3 illustrates a distribution with a single global maximum which by strict denition is unimodal. However,

confusingly, and mostly with continuous distributions, when a pdf function has multiple local maxima it is common

to refer to all of the local maxima as modes of the distribution. Therefore, if a pdf has more than one local maximum

it is referred to as multimodal. Under this common denition, Figure 3 illustrates a bimodal distribution.

In continuous distributions, unimodality can be dened through the behavior of the cumulative distribution function

(cdf).[3] If the cdf is convex for x < m and concave for x > m, then the distribution is unimodal, m being the mode.

Note that under this denition the uniform distribution is unimodal,[4] as well as any other distribution in which the

maximum distribution is achieved for a range of values, e.g. trapezoidal distribution. Note also that usually this

denition allows for a discontinuity at the mode; usually in a continuous distribution the probability of any single

value is zero, while this denition allows for a non-zero probability, or an atom of probability, at the mode.

Criteria for unimodality can also be dened through the characteristic function of the distribution[3] or through its

LaplaceStieltjes transform.[5]

Another way to dene a unimodal discrete distribution is by the occurrence of sign changes in the sequence of dif-

ferences of the probabilities.[6] A discrete distribution with a probability mass function, {pn ; n = . . . , 1, 0, 1, . . . }

, is called unimodal if the sequence . . . , p2 p1 , p1 p0 , p0 p1 , p1 p2 , . . . has exactly one sign change

(when zeroes don't count).

One reason for the importance of distribution unimodality is that it allows for several important results. Several

inequalities are given below which are only valid for unimodal distributions. Thus, it is important to assess whether

or not a given data set comes from a unimodal distribution. Several tests for unimodality are given in the article on

multimodal distribution.

49.1.3 Inequalities

Gausss inequality

A rst important result is Gausss inequality.[7] Gausss inequality gives an upper bound on the probability that a value

lies more than any given distance from its mode. This inequality depends on unimodality.

VysochanskiPetunin inequality

A second is the VysochanskiPetunin inequality,[8] a renement of the Chebyshev inequality. The Chebyshev in-

equality guarantees that in any probability distribution, nearly all the values are close to the mean value. The

VysochanskiPetunin inequality renes this to even nearer values, provided that the distribution function is contin-

uous and unimodal. Further results were shown by Sellke & Sellke.[9]

49.2. UNIMODAL FUNCTION 211

and

3

| | ,

4

where the median is , the mean is and is the root mean square deviation from the mode.

It can be shown for a unimodal distribution that the median and the mean lie within (3/5)1/2 0.7746 standard

deviations of each other.[11] In symbols,

| | 3

5

where |.| is the absolute value.

A similar relation holds between the median and the mode : they lie within 31/2 1.732 standard deviations of each

other:

| |

3.

It can also be shown that the mean and the mode lie within 31/2 of each other.

| |

3.

Rohatgi and Szekely have shown that the skewness and kurtosis of a unimodal distribution are related by the inequality:[12]

6

2

5

where is the kurtosis and is the skewness.

Klaassen, Mokveld, and van Es derived a slightly dierent inequality (shown below) from the one derived by Rohatgi

and Szekely (shown above), which tends to be more inclusive (i.e., yield more positives) in tests of unimodality:[13]

186

2

125

As the term modal applies to data sets and probability distribution, and not in general to functions, the denitions

above do not apply. The denition of unimodal was extended to functions of real numbers as well.

A common denition is as follows: a function f(x) is a unimodal function if for some value m, it is monotonically

increasing for x m and monotonically decreasing for x m. In that case, the maximum value of f(x) is f(m) and

there are no other local maxima.

Proving unimodality is often hard. One way consists in using the denition of that property, but it turns out to be

suitable for simple functions only. A general method based on derivatives exists,[14] but it does not succeed for every

function despite its simplicity.

212 CHAPTER 49. UNIMODALITY

Examples of unimodal functions include quadratic polynomial functions with a negative quadratic coecient, tent

map functions, and more.

The above is sometimes related to as strong unimodality, from the fact that the monotonicity implied is strong

monotonicity. A function f(x) is a weakly unimodal function if there exists a value m for which it is weakly mono-

tonically increasing for x m and weakly monotonically decreasing for x m. In that case, the maximum value

f(m) can be reached for a continuous range of values of x. An example of a weakly unimodal function which is not

strongly unimodal is every other row in a Pascal triangle.

Depending on context, unimodal function may also refer to a function that has only one local minimum, rather than

maximum.[15] For example, local unimodal sampling, a method for doing numerical optimization, is often demon-

strated with such a function. It can be said that a unimodal function under this extension is a function with a single

local extremum.

One important property of unimodal functions is that the extremum can be found using search algorithms such as

golden section search, ternary search or successive parabolic interpolation.

A function f(x) is S-unimodal (often referred to as S-unimodal map) if its Schwarzian derivative is negative for

all x = c , where c is the critical point.[16]

In computational geometry if a function is unimodal it permits the design of ecient algorithms for nding the

extrema of the function.[17]

A more general denition, applicable to a function f(X) of a vector variable X is that f is unimodal if there is a one-to-

one dierentiable mapping X = G(Z) such that f(G(Z)) is convex. Usually one would want G(Z) to be continuously

dierentiable with nonsingular Jacobian matrix.

Quasiconvex functions and quasiconcave functions extend the concept of unimodality to functions whose arguments

belong to higher-dimensional Euclidean spaces.

Bimodal distribution

49.5 References

[1] Weisstein, Eric W. Unimodal. MathWorld.

[3] A.Ya. Khinchin (1938). On unimodal distributions. Trams. Res. Inst. Math. Mech. (in Russian). University of Tomsk.

2 (2): 17.

[4] Ushakov, N.G. (2001) [1994], Unimodal distribution, in Hazewinkel, Michiel, Encyclopedia of Mathematics, Springer

Science+Business Media B.V. / Kluwer Academic Publishers, ISBN 978-1-55608-010-4

[5] Vladimirovich Gnedenko and Victor Yu Korolev (1996). Random summation: limit theorems and applications. CRC-Press.

ISBN 0-8493-2875-6. p. 31

[6] Medgyessy, P. (March 1972). On the unimodality of discrete distributions. Periodica Mathematica Hungarica. 2 (14):

245257. doi:10.1007/bf02018665.

[7] Gauss, C. F. (1823). Theoria Combinationis Observationum Erroribus Minimis Obnoxiae, Pars Prior. Commentationes

Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Gottingensis Recentiores. 5.

[8] D. F. Vysochanskij, Y. I. Petunin (1980). Justication of the 3 rule for unimodal distributions. Theory of Probability

and Mathematical Statistics. 21: 2536.

[9] Sellke, T.M.; Sellke, S.H. (1997). Chebyshev inequalities for unimodal distributions. American Statistician. American

Statistical Association. 51 (1): 3440. JSTOR 2684690. doi:10.2307/2684690.

49.5. REFERENCES 213

[10] Gauss C.F. Theoria Combinationis Observationum Erroribus Minimis Obnoxiae. Pars Prior. Pars Posterior. Supplemen-

tum. Theory of the Combination of Observations Least Subject to Errors. Part One. Part Two. Supplement. 1995.

Translated by G.W. Stewart. Classics in Applied Mathematics Series, Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics,

Philadelphia

[11] Basu, Sanjib, and Anirban DasGupta. The mean, median, and mode of unimodal distributions: a characterization. Theory

of Probability & Its Applications 41.2 (1997): 210-223.

[12] Rohatgi VK, Szekely GJ (1989) Sharp inequalities between skewness and kurtosis. Statistics & Probability Letters 8:297-

299

[13] Klaassen CAJ, Mokveld PJ, van Es B (2000) Squared skewness minus kurtosis bounded by 186/125 for unimodal distri-

butions. Stat & Prob Lett 50 (2) 131135

[14] On the unimodality of METRIC Approximation subject to normally distributed demands. (PDF). Method in appendix

D, Example in theorem 2 page 5. Retrieved 2013-08-28.

[16] See e.g. John Guckenheimer and Stewart Johnson (July 1990). Distortion of S-Unimodal Maps. The Annals of Mathe-

matics, Second Series. 132 (1). pp. 71130. doi:10.2307/1971501.

[17] Godfried T. Toussaint (June 1984). Complexity, convexity, and unimodality. International Journal of Computer and

Information Sciences. 13 (3). pp. 197217. doi:10.1007/bf00979872.

Chapter 50

Unit angle

Counterclockwise rotations about the center point where a complete rotation is equal to 1 turn

A turn is a unit of plane angle measurement equal to 2 radians, 360 degrees or 400 gradians. A turn is also referred

214

50.1. SUBDIVISION OF TURNS 215

A turn can be subdivided in many dierent ways: into half turns, quarter turns, centiturns, milliturns, binary angles,

points etc.

A turn can be divided in 100 centiturns or 1000 milliturns, with each milliturn corresponding to an angle of 0.36,

which can also be written as 21 36. A protractor divided in centiturns is normally called a percentage protractor.

Binary fractions of a turn are also used. Sailors have traditionally divided a turn into 32 compass points. The binary

degree, also known as the binary radian (or brad), is 1 256 turn.[1] The binary degree is used in computing so that

an angle can be represented to the maximum possible precision in a single byte. Other measures of angle used in

computing may be based on dividing one whole turn into 2n equal parts for other values of n.[2]

The notion of turn is commonly used for planar rotations. Two special rotations have acquired appellations of their

own: a rotation through 180 is commonly referred to as a half-turn ( radians),[3] a rotation through 90 is referred

to as a quarter-turn.

50.2 History

The word turn originates via Latin and French from the Greek word (trnos a lathe).

In 1697, David Gregory used / (pi over rho) to denote the perimeter of a circle (i.e., the circumference) divided by

its radius.[4][5] However, earlier in 1647, William Oughtred had used / (delta over pi) for the ratio of the diameter

to perimeter. The rst use of the symbol on its own with its present meaning (of perimeter divided by diameter)

was in 1706 by the Welsh mathematician William Jones.[6] Euler adopted the symbol with that meaning in 1737,

leading to its widespread use.

Percentage protractors have existed since 1922,[7] but the terms centiturns and milliturns were introduced much later

by Sir Fred Hoyle.[8]

The German standard DIN 1315 (1974-03) proposed the unit symbol pla (from Latin: plenus angulus full angle)

for turns.[9][10] Since 2011, the HP 39gII and HP Prime support the unit symbol tr for turns. In 2016, support for

turns was also added to newRPL for the HP 50g.[11] In June 2017, for release 3.6, the Python programming language

adopted the name tau to represent the number of radians in a turn.[12]

216 CHAPTER 50. UNIT ANGLE

An arc of a circle with the same length as the radius of that circle corresponds to an angle of 1 radian. A full circle corresponds to

a full turn, or approximately 6.28 radians, which are expressed here using the Greek letter tau ().

In 1958, Albert Eagle proposed the Greek letter tau as a symbol for 1/2, selecting the new symbol because

resembles two symbols conjoined ().[14]

In 2001, Robert Palais proposed using the number of radians in a turn as the fundamental circle constant instead of

, which amounts to the number of radians in half a turn, in order to make mathematics simpler and more intuitive.

His proposal used a pi with three legs symbol to denote the constant ( = 2).[15]

In 2010, Michael Hartl proposed to use tau to represent Palais circle constant (not Eagles): = 2. He oered two

reasons. First, is the number of radians in one turn, which allows fractions of a turn to be expressed more directly:

for instance, a 3/4 turn would be represented as 3/4 rad instead of 3/2 rad. Second, visually resembles , whose

association with the circle constant is unavoidable.[16] Hartls Tau Manifesto gives many examples of formulas that

are intuitively clearer where tau is used instead of pi, particularly in cases where a factor of 2 is thus not canceled

with another, unrelated factor.[17][18][19]

50.5. EXAMPLES OF USE 217

As an angular unit, the turn or revolution is particularly useful for large angles, such as in connection with

electromagnetic coils and rotating objects. See also winding number.

The angular speed of rotating machinery, such as automobile engines, is commonly measured in revolutions

per minute or RPM.

Turn is used in complex dynamics for measure of external and internal angles. The sum of external angles of

a polygon equals one turn. Angle doubling map is used.

Pie charts illustrate proportions of a whole as fractions of a turn. Each one percent is shown as an angle of one

centiturn.

In kinematics, a turn is a rotation less than a full revolution. A turn may be represented in a mathematical model

that uses expressions of complex numbers or quaternions. In the complex plane every non-zero number has a polar

coordinate expression z = r cis(a) = r cos(a) + ri sin(a) where r > 0 and a is in [0, 2). A turn of the complex plane

arises from multiplying z = x + iy by an element u = ebi that lies on the unit circle:

z uz.

Frank Morley consistently referred to elements of the unit circle as turns in the book Inversive Geometry, (1933)

which he coauthored with his son Frank Vigor Morley.[20]

The Latin term for turn is versor, which is a quaternion that can be visualized as an arc of a great circle. The product

of two versors can be compared to a spherical triangle where two sides add to the third. For the kinematics of rotation

in three dimensions, see quaternions and spatial rotation.

Angle of rotation

Repeating circle

Spat (unit)

Unit interval

Spread

[1] ooPIC Programmers Guide. www.oopic.com.

[4] Beckmann, Petr (1989). A History of Pi. Barnes & Noble Publishing.

[5] Schwartzman, Steven (1994). The Words of Mathematics: An Etymological Dictionary of Mathematical Terms Used in

English. The Mathematical Association of America. p. 165.

218 CHAPTER 50. UNIT ANGLE

[7] Croxton, Frederick E. (1922). A Percentage Protractor. Journal of the American Statistical Association. 18: 108109.

doi:10.1080/01621459.1922.10502455.

[9] German, Sigmar; Drath, Peter (2013-03-13) [1979]. Handbuch SI-Einheiten: Denition, Realisierung, Bewahrung und

Weitergabe der SI-Einheiten, Grundlagen der Przisionsmetechnik (in German) (1 ed.). Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn Ver-

lagsgesellschaft mbH, reprint: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3322836061. 978-3-528-08441-7, 9783322836069. Retrieved

2015-08-14.

[10] Kurzweil, Peter (2013-03-09) [1999]. Das Vieweg Einheiten-Lexikon: Formeln und Begrie aus Physik, Chemie und Technik

(in German) (1 ed.). Vieweg, reprint: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 3322929205. doi:10.1007/978-3-322-92920-4. 978-3-322-

92921-1. Retrieved 2015-08-14.

[11] http://www.hpmuseum.org/forum/thread-4783-post-55836.html#pid55836

[12] https://www.python.org/dev/peps/pep-0628/

[14] Eagle, Albert (1958). The Elliptic Functions as They Should Be: An Account, with Applications, of the Functions in a New

Canonical Form. Cambridge, England: Galloway and Porter.

[15] Palais, Robert (2001). Pi is Wrong (PDF). The Mathematical Intelligencer. New York, USA: Springer-Verlag. 23 (3):

78. doi:10.1007/bf03026846.

[17] Aron, Jacob (2011-01-08). Interview: Michael Hartl: Its time to kill o pi. New Scientist. 209 (2794): 23. Bibcode:2011NewSc.209...23A.

doi:10.1016/S0262-4079(11)60036-5.

[19] Why Tau Trumps Pi. Scientic American. 2014-06-25. Retrieved 2015-03-20.

[20] Morley, Frank; Morley, Frank Vigor (2014) [1933]. Inversive Geometry. Boston, USA; New York, USA: Ginn and

Company, reprint: Courier Corporation, Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-49339-8. 0-486-49339-3. Retrieved 2015-

10-17.

Palais, Robert (2001). Pi is Wrong (PDF). The Mathematical Intelligencer. New York, USA: Springer-

Verlag. 23 (3): 78. doi:10.1007/bf03026846.

50.10. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES 219

50.10.1 Text

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Derek R Bullamore, General Ization, Dthomsen8, AnomieBOT, MrX, ClueBot NG, Saung Tadashi, Classicwiki, GeoreyT2000, Pota-

tornado, CristianaMiranda, Fewermonster181, Brennanclark, Pidgeysquirtle, Lii strong, Shami Malik and Anonymous: 1

Allegory (category theory) Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allegory_(category_theory)?oldid=794705221 Contributors: The Anome,

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Alternating multilinear map Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alternating_multilinear_map?oldid=791823927 Contributors: Michael

Hardy, Rich Farmbrough, Tompw, Vipul, BD2412, Malcolma, Elonka, CBM, Mclay1, David Eppstein, Haseldon, Alsosaid1987, Loki-

Clock, JP.Martin-Flatin, AnomieBOT, Erik9bot, Paine Ellsworth, Quondum, Bomazi, BG19bot, Solomon7968, Jamesholbert, Quiddital

and Anonymous: 1

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Tmslnz

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ders, XJaM, Toby Bartels, Michael Hardy, Wshun, TakuyaMurata, GTBacchus, Karada, , Glenn, Poor Yorick, Rob Hooft,

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wing, Bkell, Salty-horse, Tea2min, Giftlite, Jorge Stol, Alberto da Calvairate~enwiki, MarkSweep, Tsemii, Vivacissamamente, Guan-

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breDeGuerra, JackSchmidt, I Spel Good~enwiki, Peiresc~enwiki, Classicalecon, Adrianwn, Biagioli, Watchduck, Hans Adler, Huma-

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Akuindo, Wcherowi, Widr, Strike Eagle, PhnomPencil, Knwlgc, Dhoke sanket, Victor Yus, Dexbot, Cerabot~enwiki, JPaestpreornJe-

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campbell, InverseHypercube, XudongGuan~enwiki, Da nuke, Lambiam, Mike Fikes, CBM, Gregbard, Jac16888, Barticus88, Konradek,

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ClueBot NG, Wcherowi, TricksterWolf, Jochen Burghardt, CSB radio, AwesomeEvilGenius, Sphinx-muse, Jascharnhorst, Nbro, Deacon

Vorbis, Pharask and Anonymous: 65

Boolean-valued Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boolean-valued?oldid=715093460 Contributors: Bearcat, R.e.b., Kovo138, Ar-

jayay, Tijfo098 and TeriEmbrey

Canonical cover Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Canonical_cover?oldid=678077825 Contributors: Bearcat, ToastieIL, Malcolma,

NickPenguin, Dekart, AnomieBOT, Brightgalrs, Thehelpfulbot, Tijfo098, Jack Greenmaven, Jeroenslobbe, Kvstss and Anonymous: 4

Cointerpretability Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cointerpretability?oldid=758760624 Contributors: Charles Matthews, Dys-

prosia, Kntg, PWilkinson, Aleph0~enwiki, Oleg Alexandrov, Mathbot, Gregbard, David Eppstein, Hans Adler, Gamewizard71 and

Anonymous: 1

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Charles Matthews, Tea2min, Giftlite, EmilJ, Oliphaunt, MFH, SixWingedSeraph, MarSch, Nbarth, Lambiam, Happy-melon, CBM, Sam

Staton, David Eppstein, Chiswick Chap, Synthebot, Classicalecon, Hans Adler, Addbot, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Pcap, FrescoBot, Gamewiz-

ard71, Quondum, Wcherowi, Nbrader, Agile Antechinus, DeathOfBalance, JMP EAX, Bender the Bot, Magic links bot and Anonymous:

8

Contour set Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contour_set?oldid=786602004 Contributors: Giftlite, John Quiggin, Ms2ger, CBM,

WillowW, Arch dude, David Eppstein, SlamDiego, RockMFR, Addbot, Xp54321, Econotechie, AndersBot, Flewis, Kornsystem69,

WaysToEscape, Neil P. Quinn, Marcocapelle, MahdiBot, Yamaha5, Bender the Bot and Anonymous: 1

Degeneracy (mathematics) Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Degeneracy_(mathematics)?oldid=793218305 Contributors: The Anome,

Tarquin, Comte0, Patrick, Michael Hardy, Stevenj, Charles Matthews, Altenmann, Stewartadcock, Taliswolf, Pengo, Jyril, BenFrantz-

Dale, Tomruen, TedPavlic, 3mta3, PWilkinson, Tetromino, Jheald, Jopxton, Linas, BD2412, Mathbot, RussBot, Gesslein, Zvika, Smack-

Bot, Diegotorquemada, Octahedron80, Tamfang, Lambiam, EdC~enwiki, Gregbard, Equendil, CMG, Cydebot, Sherbrooke, Futurebird,

Mhaitham.shammaa, Steelpillow, David Eppstein, Su-no-G, Hans Dunkelberg, Trumpet marietta 45750, Joshua Issac, Pdcook, Anony-

mous Dissident, Personline, SieBot, Ken123BOT, Justin W Smith, Addbot, , Ht686rg90, AnomieBOT, DemocraticLuntz, Xqbot,

Isheden, Erik9bot, Pepper, Duoduoduo, Dewritech, GoingBatty, Quondum, D.Lazard, SporkBot, Wcherowi, Yellow octopus, Rezabot,

MerlIwBot, BG19bot, SteenthIWbot, Limit-theorem, Hppavilion1, Eightnoteight, Loraof, WikiMasterGhibif and Anonymous: 18

Demonic composition Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demonic_composition?oldid=633771432 Contributors: Michael Hardy,

David Eppstein, LokiClock, Classicalecon, AnomieBOT and Anonymous: 2

220 CHAPTER 50. UNIT ANGLE

dark, Tarquin, Jan Hidders, Roadrunner, Mjb, Tomo, Patrick, Xavic69, Michael Hardy, Wshun, Isomorphic, Dominus, Ixfd64, Takuya-

Murata, Charles Matthews, Timwi, Dcoetzee, Jitse Niesen, Robbot, Chocolateboy, MathMartin, Tea2min, Giftlite, Fropu, Dratman,

Jorge Stol, Jlr~enwiki, Andycjp, Quarl, Guanabot, Yuval madar, Slipstream, Paul August, Elwikipedista~enwiki, Shanes, EmilJ, Ran-

dall Holmes, Ardric47, Obradovic Goran, Eje211, Alansohn, Dallashan~enwiki, Keenan Pepper, PAR, Adrian.benko, Oleg Alexan-

drov, Joriki, Linas, Apokrif, MFH, Dpv, Pigcatian, Penumbra2000, Fresheneesz, Chobot, YurikBot, Hairy Dude, Koeyahoo, Trova-

tore, Bota47, Arthur Rubin, Netrapt, SmackBot, Royalguard11, SEIBasaurus, Cybercobra, Jon Awbrey, Turms, Lambiam, Dbtfz, Mr

Stephen, Mets501, Dreftymac, Happy-melon, Petr Matas, CRGreathouse, CBM, Yrodro, WillowW, Xantharius, Thijs!bot, Egrin,

Rlupsa, Marek69, Fayenatic london, JAnDbot, MER-C, TAnthony, Magioladitis, Vanish2, Avicennasis, David Eppstein, Robin S, Akurn,

Adavidb, LajujKej, Owlgorithm, Djjrjr, Policron, DavidCBryant, Quux0r, VolkovBot, Boute, Vipinhari, Anonymous Dissident, PaulTa-

nenbaum, Jackfork, Wykypydya, Dmcq, AlleborgoBot, AHMartin, Ocsenave, Sftd, Paradoctor, Henry Delforn (old), MiNombreDeGuerra,

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BYS2, Plmday, Addbot, LinkFA-Bot, Tide rolls, Jarble, Legobot, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Ht686rg90, Lesliepogi, Pcap, Labus, Nallim-

bot, Reindra, FredrikMeyer, AnomieBOT, Floquenbeam, Royote, Hahahaha4, Materialscientist, Belkovich, Citation bot, Racconish,

Jellystones, Xqbot, Isheden, Geero, GhalyBot, Ernsts, Howard McCay, Constructive editor, Mark Renier, Mfwitten, RandomDSdevel,

NearSetAccount, SpaceFlight89, Yunshui, Miracle Pen, Brambleclawx, RjwilmsiBot, Nomen4Omen, Chharvey, SporkBot, OnePt618,

Sameer143, Socialservice, ResearchRave, ClueBot NG, Wcherowi, Frietjes, Helpful Pixie Bot, Koertefa, BG19bot, ChrisGualtieri,

YFdyh-bot, Dexbot, Makecat-bot, ScitDei, Lerutit, Jochen Burghardt, Jodosma, Karim132, Cosmia Nebula, Monkbot, Pratincola, ,

Neycalazans, Some1Redirects4You, The Quixotic Potato, Luis150902, Magic links bot and Anonymous: 113

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ster, Bkell, Tea2min, Centrx, Giftlite, Beolach, Lupin, Unconcerned, Falcon Kirtaran, Alvestrand, Utcursch, CryptoDerk, Antandrus,

Joseph Myers, Lesgles, Jokestress, Mike Storm, Tomruen, Bodnotbod, Marcos, Mare-Silverus, Brianjd, D6, Discospinster, Guanabot,

Gadykozma, Pjacobi, Mani1, Paul August, Corvun, Bender235, Andrejj, Ground, RJHall, Mr. Billion, Lycurgus, Rgdboer, Zenohockey,

Bobo192, W8TVI, Rbj, Dungodung, Shlomital, Hesperian, Friviere, Quaoar, Msh210, Mo0, Arthena, Seans Potato Business, InShaneee,

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ScottDavis, Arcann, Peter Hitchmough, OdedSchramm, Waldir, Christopher Thomas, Mandarax, Graham87, Marskell, BD2412, Dpv,

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Nbarth, Christobal54, William Allen Simpson, George Ho, Foxjwill, Swilk, Tamfang, Moonsword, HoodedMan, Gurps npc, Yidish-

eryid, Kittybrewster, Addshore, Amazins490, Stevenmitchell, COMPFUNK2, PiMaster3, PiPhD, Dreadstar, Richard001, RandomP,

Danielkwalsh, JakGd1, Snakeyes (usurped), Andeggs, SashatoBot, Lambiam, Richard L. Peterson, MagnaMopus, SteveG23, Foot-

ballrocks41237, Pthag, Thomas Howey, Jim.belk, Loadmaster, Waggers, Mets501, Michael Greiner, Daviddaniel37, Autonova, Fredil

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Thijs!bot, Epbr123, Mbell, Mojo Hand, Headbomb, Marek69, SomeStranger, The Hybrid, Nick Number, Heroeswithmetaphors, Escar-

bot, Stannered, AntiVandalBot, Mrbip, Salgueiro~enwiki, Kent Witham, The man stephen, Steelpillow, The Transhumanist, Matthew

Fennell, Vanished user s4irtj34tivkj12erhskj46thgdg, Beaumont, Cynwolfe, Acroterion, Bongwarrior, VoABot II, Alvatros~enwiki, Ra-

fuki 33, Wikidudeman, JamesBWatson, TheChard, Stijn Vermeeren, Indon, Illspirit, David Eppstein, Fang 23, Spellmaster, JoergenB,

DerHexer, Patstuart, DukeTwicep, Greenguy1090, Torrr, Gasheadsteve, Leyo, J.delanoy, Captain panda, Enchepilon, Elizabethrhodes,

EscapingLife, Inimino, Maurice Carbonaro, DR TORMEY, Good-afternun!, It Is Me Here, Thomlm, TomasBat, Han Solar de Har-

monics, SemblaceII, CardinalDan, Hamzabahaa, VolkovBot, Seldon1, JohnBlackburne, Orthologist, LokiClock, Jacroe, Philip Trueman,

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fork, LariAnn, Gbaor, Andyo2000, Jmath666, Wenli, HX Aeternus, Wolfrock, Lamro, Enviroboy, Mike4ty4, Symane, Rybu, BriEnBest,

YonaBot, Racer x124, Pelyukhno.erik, Oysterguitarist, Harry-, SuperLightningKick, Techman224, OKBot, Anchor Link Bot, JL-Bot,

Mx. Granger, Martarius, ClueBot, WurmWoode, The Thing That Should Not Be, Gamehero, Roal AT, DragonBot, Kitsunegami, Ex-

cirial, Jusdafax, D1a4l2s3y5, Grb 1991, Cute lolicon, Puceron, Jennonpress, SchreiberBike, ChrisHodgesUK, Qwfp, Alousybum, Tim-

othyRias, Rror, Egyptianboy15223, NellieBly, Me, Myself, and I, Addbot, Fgnievinski, Leszek Jaczuk, NjardarBot, Joonojob, Sil-

lyfolkboy, NerdBoy1392, Ranjitvohra, Renatokeshet, Numbo3-bot, Tide rolls, Lightbot, Yobot, Tester999, Tohd8BohaithuGh1, Frag-

gle81, Sarrus, Zenquin, AnomieBOT, Andrewrp, Jim1138, AdjustShift, Materialscientist, Hunnjazal, 90 Auto, Citation bot, Maxis ftw,

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Charvest, Natural Cut, Sonoluminesence, Currydump, FrescoBot, , PhysicsExplorer, Sae1962, Rtycoon, Drew R. Smith,

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chine, Double sharp, Sheogorath, Lotje, Chrisjameshull, 4, Diannaa, Jesse V., Xnn, Distortiondude, Mean as custard, Alison22, Pokd-

hjdj, J36miles, Envirodan, Ovizelu, RA0808, Scleria, Slightsmile, Wikipelli, Hhhippo, Traxs7, Medeis, StudyLakshan, Sarapaxton,

D.Lazard, SpikeTD, Markshutter, Ewa5050, Jay-Sebastos, L Kensington, Bomazi, BioPupil, RockMagnetist, 28bot, Isocli, Khest-

wol, ClueBot NG, Wcherowi, Thekk2007, Lanthanum-138, O.Koslowski, MerlIwBot, Bibcode Bot, Loves Labour Lost, Snaevar-bot,

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burvkuwbekl, RobertAnderson1432, Hillbillyholiday, Theeverst87, Titz69, Awesome2013, Wuerzele, Wamiq, Penitence, David9550,

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cuit, Inkanyamba, Knight victor, Srednuas Lenoroc, BD2412bot, CAPTAIN RAJU, MBlaze Lightning, Edwardvoly, TopDym, H.dryad,

InternetArchiveBot, Dr Peter Donald Rodgers, G Vikush, Fmadd, 0000, Hyperbolick, LeoDaCalmar, Algmwc5, Blahblahbalh, Superbr

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Maxzimet, Citation bot, Twri, Jamontaldi, Teddyktchan and Anonymous: 5

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50.10. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES 221

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The Anome, Tarquin, Jan Hidders, Patrick, Michael Hardy, Wshun, Kku, Ellywa, Andres, Charles Matthews, Dcoetzee, Hyacinth,

Robbot, Romanm, MathMartin, Tea2min, Alan Liefting, Marc Venot, Giftlite, Almit39, Zfr, Starx, PhotoBox, Erc, ArnoldReinhold,

Paul August, Elwikipedista~enwiki, Randall Holmes, Obradovic Goran, Oleg Alexandrov, Woohookitty, Mangojuice, Michiel Helven-

steijn, Isnow, Qwertyus, Dpr, MarSch, Salix alba, Oblivious, Mathbot, Jrtayloriv, Chobot, YurikBot, Hairy Dude, Dmharvey, RussBot,

Muu-karhu, Zwobot, Bota47, Arthur Rubin, Reyk, Netrapt, Claygate, JoanneB, Pred, GrinBot~enwiki, SmackBot, Mmernex, Uny-

oyega, Nbarth, DHN-bot~enwiki, Tinctorius, Jon Awbrey, Henning Makholm, Lambiam, Dfass, Newone, Aeons, CRGreathouse, Greg-

bard, King Bee, Kilva, Escarbot, Salgueiro~enwiki, Nosbig, JAnDbot, .anacondabot, Tarif Ezaz, VoABot II, Jonny Cache, DerHexer,

R'n'B, Mike.lifeguard, And Dedicated To, Aervanath, VolkovBot, Rponamgi, The Tetrast, Mscman513, GirasoleDE, Newbyguesses,

SieBot, Phe-bot, Paolo.dL, Siorale, Skeptical scientist, Sheez Louise, Mild Bill Hiccup, DragonBot, Cenarium, Palnot, Cat Dancer WS,

Kal-El-Bot, Addbot, MrOllie, ChenzwBot, Ariel Black, SpBot, Yobot, Ptbotgourou, Bgttgb, QueenCake, Dinnertimeok, AnomieBOT,

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TakuyaMurata, Charles Matthews, Timwi, Dcoetzee, Jitse Niesen, Robbot, Chocolateboy, MathMartin, Tea2min, Giftlite, Fropu,

Dratman, Jorge Stol, Jlr~enwiki, Andycjp, Quarl, Guanabot, Yuval madar, Slipstream, Paul August, Elwikipedista~enwiki, Shanes,

EmilJ, Randall Holmes, Ardric47, Obradovic Goran, Eje211, Alansohn, Dallashan~enwiki, Keenan Pepper, PAR, Adrian.benko, Oleg

Alexandrov, Joriki, Linas, Apokrif, MFH, Dpv, Pigcatian, Penumbra2000, Fresheneesz, Chobot, YurikBot, Hairy Dude, Koeyahoo,

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Mr Stephen, Mets501, Dreftymac, Happy-melon, Petr Matas, CRGreathouse, CBM, Yrodro, WillowW, Xantharius, Thijs!bot, Egrif-

n, Rlupsa, Marek69, Fayenatic london, JAnDbot, MER-C, TAnthony, Magioladitis, Vanish2, Avicennasis, David Eppstein, Robin

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Racconish, Jellystones, Xqbot, Isheden, Geero, GhalyBot, Ernsts, Howard McCay, Constructive editor, Mark Renier, Mfwitten, Ran-

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222 CHAPTER 50. UNIT ANGLE

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after_places?oldid=790310452 Contributors: Michael Hardy, Dominus, Bkell, Giftlite, BD2412, Sodin, RDBury, Myasuda, PamD,

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50.10. TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES 223

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nee, MacMed, Littledogboy, Double sharp, Lotje, Thelema418, Calcyman, EmausBot, Kpuersh, Quondum, ChuispastonBot, ClueBot

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224 CHAPTER 50. UNIT ANGLE

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Henrygb, Commander Keane, Rjwilmsi, Wavelength, Bhny, Tropylium, Wen D House, Henning Makholm, JzG, CRGreathouse, Ma-

gioladitis, David Eppstein, DrMicro, Asaduzaman, Melcombe, Muhandes, Juanm55, Addbot, Nate Wessel, Yobot, Flavonoid, Isheden,

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Discospinster, ArnoldReinhold, Smyth, Paul August, Rgdboer, Wtshymanski, Waldir, Reddwarf2956, Rjwilmsi, Gaius Cornelius, Db-

rs, Arthur Rubin, Carabinieri, RDBury, Adam majewski, Melchoir, Joefaust, SMP, Iain.dalton, Metallurgist, Kingdon, Cybercobra,

Mwtoews, Michael J, Stephen B Streater, CBM, Doug Weller, Qwyrxian, JamesBWatson, Mskarpelos, David Eppstein, AaronTovo,

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bob83, Yobot, P1ayer, AnomieBOT, JackieBot, Um, Materialscientist, Eumolpo, Xqbot, Ounsworth, Isheden, Entropeter, Erik9bot,

FrescoBot, PigFlu Oink, Jschnur, Dinamik-bot, Jowa fan, Fly by Night, Slawekb, Quondum, Varulqun, Teapeat, Rememberway, ClueBot

NG, Wcherowi, Matthiaspaul, Quandle, Reify-tech, Bibcode Bot, BG19bot, WikiTryHardDieHard, Joseph Lindenberg, Therealelizacat,

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Mynameisbob1234567890 and Anonymous: 46

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