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Professor of Classics at Firth College, Sheffield.


: '


HE present edition is about three First, those which reproduce with more or less artisans may be assumed to have possessed

times as bulky as the original fidelity scenes described by Homer ; secondly, at least a superficial knowledge of his poems.

work, and supplies an epitome those which throw light on the manners and " With reference to the second class of illus-

of the Iliad and Odyssey ; notes customs of his time ; and, thirdly, those which trations that is to say, those which are given
on the dates, style, provenance, and present give further details of the myths he narrates to illustrate manners, customs, and antiquities
home of the selected works of art ; and suffi- or alludes to. I cherish the hope that my method of showing,

cient references to standard authorities to make " As to the first class, it may be taken as a not single objects or figures, but whole scenes,

the book useful, not only to the advanced recognised principle that the artists of antiquity, will justify itself. It is, I believe, the general

student, but also to the ordinary reader. with few exceptions (e.g., II., figs. 3, 4, 60 ;
experience of practical teachers, that individual

The commentary, too, has been enlarged by Od., figs. 43, 48), did not aim at '
illustrating details impress the pupil's mind much more
many additional remarks on customs and art Homer. That is to say, they did not set to readily when they are presented to him as

history. The titles of the illustrations no longer work to reproduce the scenes described, ac- part of a larger whole.
contain references to the German works from curately following the words of the poet. On " Some critics may perhaps question the
which they are derived, but notes on the the contrary, they freely abbreviated some parts, advisability of introducing the third class of
character of the originals, the places where they expanded others, and combined the whole pictures, to illustrate more fully legends which
were found, and in some cases the museums artistic compositions, which were, so to say, Homer only mentions incidentally. I am, how-
where they are preserved. new and original creations. All the same, every ever, convinced that the opportunity of following
The principles on which the selection of unprejudiced observer will recognise at a glance mythological questions further will be seized
illustrations was made by Dr. Engelmann are the value of such works of art as a commentary with pleasure by many teachers, and that their
clearly set forth in his preface. He says :
and an introduction to Homer. Indeed the know- pupils will show themselves grateful for all

" The illustrations which have been chosen ledge of the father of poetry was so universally new information in this direction. In making
may be conveniently divided into three groups diffused in antiquity, that even insignificant my choice of this class, I have striven as far
but, being nearer to it than we
6, 80; The Palace at Tiryns, Od they illustrate,
to get those pictures which //., figs.
as is in my power number. are, enable us to bridge over the
vast gulf that
6), but such are very few in
near as possible to Homer's time. figs. 5,
come as separates us from the ancient world.
monu- Besides, many of these pre-historic 'works of
However, even in the cases where later correspond to
striking want of artistic skill Finally, the third class would
young art '
show such a
ments have of necessity been introduced,
seems to me, as a teacher, better to the pictures of the legends of the saints and
One may admit in the that it
folk will profit by it.
which produce a less stories from the Apocrypha which" are suggested
degree that the antiquities of Assyria make use of illustrations
they are of by incidental allusions in the Bible. Like the
described grotesque impression, even though
and Egypt often represent the things
later date {e.g., The Mule-Cart, II., fig. 107; pictures of Greek myths, they add a mass of
Homer with more fidelity (because they
113)-" details unknown to the canonical version, and
are more akin in point of time) than those of The Lying in State, fig.

supplant it in the popular imagination.

classical times, and yet one may look with

effort to make The Pictorial Atlas is, in fact, a Greek illus- This comparison of Sacred Art and Homeric
satisfaction on every successful
Homer was the Bible of also shows more clearly the value of a book
our boys understand Homer in the -fashion trated Bible, for

which Athenian boys understood him in classical times. like the present. The one introduces us to the

All the three classes described above may history of devotional and artistic Christianity,
the age of Pericles.
be seen quite clearly in the familiar Pictorial the other to the most characteristic develop-
" This is, in fact, exactly what is done in the

Bibles of modern times. ments of the Greek genius in Art and Myth.
case of the Homeric text, for it is the version

which was stereotyped by the Alexandrine critics, The first class consists of the illustrations of It gives, in fact, a clue not only to much that

and not modern attempts at the reconstruction works of Sacred Art which depict Bible scenes. is difficult to grasp in ancient literature and

of the original, that we place in the hands They are drawn from Italian paintings, German art, but even throws a light on many modern
of schoolboys. Indeed, in our eyes, Homer is, woodcuts, and it may be even Byzantine questions concerning these subjects. The public

though by far the earliest, but one of the many mosaics or pictures from the Catacombs. Like for which it is intended is the whole body of
poets of Greece; and it is in the hope that our the Greek illustrations of Homer, the earlier educated men who take an interest in the
pupils will afterwards become acquainted with such works of art are, the greater is the inde- past. To the student it gives sufficient refer-

the whole Greek world of life and thought that pendence of the Scripture text that they show. ences to enable him to pursue the subject
we introduce them to his poems. The second class consists of the scenes of further, while the English reader who knows
" Of course no illustrations which give a ancient Egyptian, Assyrian, or modern Oriental no Greek will find in the Epitome and Com-
really contemporary picture of the heroic age life which commentators find so useful. They mentary enough to make the pictures intelligible
can be omitted (cf. The Warriors from Mycena;, do not belong to the same period as the text and interesting.



The figures refer to the illustrations ; those of the Odyssey are distinguished by being in italics. The following abbreviations are used

G.P. = Painting on glass. Mr. = Engraving < i back of mirror. Ret.

Rel. = Sculptured relief in clay or marble.
i: Slle. = Statuette. V. Rel. = Vase with moulded relief.

L. Rel.= Relief on Roman lamp. Mos. = Mosaic. St. = Statue. V.P. = Vase-painting. W.P. = Wall-painting.

Achteans routed by Trojans, V. Rel. 60. Ajax the Locrian, Coin, 66. Ball- Circe
Achilles Alcmson, V.P. 74. Girl playing, V.P. 27. And Odysseus, W.P. 43 e ; Rel. 48.
Quarrel with Agamemnon, Mos. 9. Alcmene, V.P. 32. The game Trigon, W.P. 31. Bewitching a man, V.P. 44.
Playing the lyre, W.P. 49. Amazon stringing bow, V.P. 24, 25. Battle- Threatened by Odysseus, V.P. 44;
Embassy to, V.P. 50. Ambuscade, V.P. 7/. Over a fallen hero, V.P. 64. Mir. 46.
Going out to battle, V.P. 62. Amphiaraus, departure of, V.P. 37. At the ships, V.P. 68; Gem, 69. Offering bowl to Odysseus, V.P. 43.
Slays Lycaon, V.P. 92. Aphrodite rescues /Eneas, V.P. 29. Bed, V.P. 10. Circus, scene in a, V.P. 74.
Slays Hector, V.P. 93. Apollo Beggar, V.P. 68. Clothes, women folding, V.P. 26.
Drags Hector round Troy, Rel. 94. And Poseidon build Troy, W.P. 44. Bellerophon Curetes fight against Meleager, Rel. 54.
Sacrifices Trojan youths, V.P. 96. Slays the sons of Niobe, V.P. m, 112. And Prcetus, W.P. 33.
Slays Troilus, V.P. 106. Apotheosis of Homer, Rel. 2. And Iobates, V.P. 34.
Receives ransom from Priam, V.P. 108
Death (Thanatos) carries off Sarpedon, V.P. 73.
; Argus, the dog of Odysseus, Gem, 76. Slays the Chimjera, V.P. 36.
Rel. 109. Diomede
Ariadne Bow
body of A., V.P. 14.
Battle over And And Glaucus, Gem, 37.
Theseus, V.P. 84. How strung, V.P. 24, 25 ; Coin, 26
Slays Meninon, V.P. 21. Slays Dolon, V.P. 57.
And Artemis, Mir. 33. V. Rel. 91.
Contest for arms of, V.P. 37. Arms Slays Rhesus, V.P. 58.
Boys shooting, V.P. 103.
Adonis killed by a boar, Rel. 81. Of Achilles, Dionysus
forging the, W.P. 78. Briseis taken from Achilles, V.P. 10, 11.
Adrastus receiving Tydeus, V.P. 27. Contest for the, V.P. 57.
Flies from Lycurgus, W.P. 31.
Aedon slays Itylus, V.P. 82. Artemis Enters Olympus, V.P. 1.
Archaic work in, 79.
/Egis worn by Athena, V.P. 16. Slays daughters of Niobe, V.P. m, 112. Inlaid dagger-blade of, 80.
And Ariadne, Mir. 33.
/Egisthus The Huntress, V.P. Dirce and Antiope, V.P. 51.
Slain by Orestes, V.P. 2, " Discobolus," or Quoit-thrower, St. 101.
3 Rel. 4. ; And Ariadne, Mir. 33. Calchas and the prodigy at Aulis, Rel. 14.
Slays Agamemnon, Rel. 23. Astragalus Dolon surprised and slain, V.P. 57.
Calydonian boar-hunt, V.P. 52.
/Eneas Vase in shape of, 95. Door and key, V.P. 88.
Calypso visited by Hermes, W.P. 24.
Rescued by Aphrodite, V.P. Athena Doors, V.P. 89.
29. Candlestick, W.P. 77.
Fighting against a Greek, V.P. 63. Wearing the cegis, V.P. Draught-players, Stte. 8.
16. Carpenter with bow-drill, G.P. 39.
Fighting over body of Patroclus, V.P. 76. The birth of, V.P. 30.
Draughts, heroes playing, V.P. 7.
Cart drawn by mules, V.P. 108.
Agamemnon Moulding the " Wooden Horse," V.P. 32. Carving meat, V.P. 51.
Drill-bow, G.P. 39.
And his heralds, Rel. 8. And Ariadne, Mir. 54. Castor, V.P. 53.
Quarrels with Achilles, Mos. Aulis
9. Centaurs and Lapiths, V.P. 93. Eos
Murdered, Rel. 23. The prodigy seen at, Rel. 14. Cerberus dragged from Hades, V.P. 48. Goddess of the dawn, V.P. 67.
Ajax Axe Chariot race, V.P. 98. Carrying off a boy, Rel. 73.
Fights ^Eneas, V.P. 65. An archaic, 92. Chimfera Erichthonius, birth of, Rel. 1 7.
Defends the ships, V.P. 68 ; Gem, 69.
Form of, Rel. 35. Eris, V.P. 59.
Fights over body of Patroclus, V.P. 76.
Slain by Bellerophon, V.P. 36. Euphorbus, combat over dead body of, V.P. 75.
Commits suicide, V.P. 38. Backgammon, heroes playing, V.P. 7. Chryses propitiates Apollo, V.P. 12. Euryclea recognises Odysseus, V.P. 79 ; Rel. 80.

Selene, the moon-goddess, V.P. 67.

V.P. 73.
Key- washed, V.P. 79; Rel. 80. Ships fighting, V.P. 12.
Eurydice, the treachery of,
Priestess holding a, V.P. 39.
Has his feet
Slays the suitors, Rel. 94; V.P. 95; Sirens, V. Rel. 63; V.P. 64; Rel. 63.
Girl using a, V.P. 88.
V.P. 87. Rel. 96, 97, 98. Sisyphus, Rel. 62.
Fountain, woman at a,
And Penelope, W.P. 99. Spinning, a woman, V.P. 20.
Lsestrygonians, the adventures among the,
Paris, Rel. 28. Suitors slain by Odysseus, Rel. 94 V.P. 93
Ganymede, the rape of, V.P. 90, 91.
W.P. 43. CEnone and ; ;

sa,b,c; Orestes slays yEgisthus, Rel. 4. Rel. 96, 97, 98.

Gjolbascbi, reliefs from, 93, 94- Lapiths righting against Centaurs, V.P. 93.
Glaucus and Diomede, Gem, 37.
Gods, assembly of the, V.P. /.
Leda, V.P. 53.
Palace at Tiryns, 5, 6. Tabula Iliaca
Lycaon slain by Achilles, V.P. 92.
Gymnasium, scene in a, V.P. 99. PaUestra, scenes in a, V.P. 30. The Capitol ine, 3.
Paris Fragment of a, 4.
Pursues Dionysus, W.P. 31.
Fights against Menelaus, V.P. 23. Fragment (Circe), 48.
Hades- Punishment of, V.P. 32.
Odysseus descends W.P. 61.
And OEnone, Rel. 28. Tantalus, Rel. 62.
The Judgment of, V.P. 105. Teiresias and Odysseus, V.P. 49; Mir. 30.
Scenes in, V.P. 59; W.P. 60; W.P. 61 Marpessa, Apollo, and Idas, Mir. 53.
Patroclus Telamon and Hesione, Mos. 89.
Rel. 62. Megara, V.P. 32.
T iryns, Going out to battle, V.P. 72. Telemachus
Hall in the palace at 6.
Melampus, V.P. 72.
Harpy, V.P. 83; Rel 84. Battle over body of, V.P. 76. And Penelope, V.P. //.
Hector- Trojans sacrificed at tomb of, V.P. 96. . Visits Nestor, V.P. 13.
Fights against the Curetes, Rel. 54.
Taking farewell, V.P, 38; V.P. 45 ;
Penelope Thamyris and the Muses, V.P. iS.
Statue of, 55.
V.P. 16, At the loom, V.P. //. Theseus and Ariadne, V.P. 84.
Slain by Apollo, Rel. 56.
And Andromache, V.P. 41. Mourning, Rel. 71?. Thetis-
Memnon slain by Achilles, V.P. 21.
against Ajax, V.P. 42. And Odysseus, W.P. 99. Brings armour to Achilles, V.P. 86 ; W.P. 87.
1. to ships, V.P. 68; Gem, 70. Philoctetes bitten by the snake, V.P. 19. In Hephaestus' forge, W.P. 78.
Fights against Paris, V.P. 23.
[ainst Menelaus, V.P. 75. Ploughers, V.P. 82. Throwing club, the KaXaCpoi//, W.P. 102.
Fights against Hector, V.P. 75.
Slain I))' Achilles, V.P. 93. Pollux, V.P. 53. Tiryns
Carries body of Patroclus, St. 77.
I 'ragged round Troy, Rel. 94. Polyphemus Palace at, 3.
Captures Proteus, V.P. 22.
Dragged round tomb of Patroclus, V.P. 104. Takes the wine, L. Rel. 3$. Hall of palace at, 6.
Mill, section of, 86.
Hi body ransomed, V.P. 108; Rel. 109. Blinded, V.P. 36; W.P. 38. Treaty between Greeks and Trojans, Rel. 22.
Millstone, 85.
1ti ubs and Hector, V.P. 38.
And the ram, V.P. 40. Trigon, a ball game, W.P. 31.
Mountebanks, V.P. 74.
Helen, the rape of, V.P. 21. Mocked by Odysseus, Rel. 42. Troilus pursued by Achilles, V.P. ro6.
Mourning the dead, V.P. 113.
Helios, the sun-god, V.P. 67. Poseidon and Apollo, W.P. 44. Trojan youths sacrificed by Achilles, V.P. 96.
Muses with Thamyris, V.P. 18.
Heracles Potter with his wheel, V.P. 85.
Musician, a wandering, V.P. 9.
Tydeus as suppliant, V.P. 27.
Stringing bis bow, Coin, 26. Priam
Drags Cerberus from Hades, V.P. 48. With Hector and Hecuba, V.P. 3S.
Nausicaa and Odysseus, V.P. 29. Vintage scenes, inlaid bronze, 83.
lesions, Mos. 89

Ransoming Hector's body, V.P. 108

M.i.i, v.r. j.\
Neoptolemus fetched from Seyms, V.P. 33.
Rel. 109. Warrior
And Niobe
Iplnlus, V.P. 90.
Children of, slain, V.P. m ; V.P. 112.
Slain by Neoptolemus, V.P. 57.
Priestess with temple key, V.P. 39.
Archaic statuette, 7.
Departing, V.P. 71 c.
Bust of statue of, 1 14.
1 10.

Nymphs with Hermes, Rel. 70.

Protesilaus, ship of, set fire to, Gem, 70. Warriors
\ its
lalypso, W.P. 24.

Proteus captured by Menelaus, V.P. 22.

With Teiresias, Mir. 30. On the march, V.P. 6.
Odysseus Pygmies fight with storks, V.P. 20.
And the Nymphs, Arming, V.P. 71 a, I.
Rel. 70 Pyre, quenching the funeral, V.P. 92.
Surprises Dolon, V.P. 57. Separated by friends, V.P. 43.
Hesione freed by Heracles, Mos. 89.
Homer Takes horses of Rhesus, V.P. 58. Washing hands, ewer and basin for, 100.
Quoit-thrower, the "Discobolus," St. 101.
Busl of, St. 1.
On the raft, L. Rel. 25. Wedding
And Nausicaa, V.P. 29. Raft of Odysseus wrecked, L. Rel. 23. Procession, V.P. 81.
of, Rel. 2.
" Horse," " Gives wine to the Cyclops, 34
The Wooden," V.P. 32 ; W.P. 33.
Stte. Rhesus, the horses of, V.P. 58. Of Peleus, V.P. 88.
Hypnos L. Rel. 33.
Weighing souls (^uxoo-rao-i'a), V.P. 47.
God Blinds the Cyclops, V.P. 36; W.P.
of sleep, V.P. 67. 38. Sacrifice Work-basket, V.P. 19.
Carries ofT Sarpedon, V.P. Under the ram, V.P. 40; V.P. 41. V.P.
73. 15. Wrestling, V.P. 100.
Mocking the Cyclops, Rel. 42. To Athena, V.P. 40.
Consults Teiresias, V.P. 49; Mir. 30. Of
nes from the, Rel. 61. a pig, V.P. 69. Zeus
In Hades, W.P. 61.
Iphirusand Heracles, V.P. Sarpedon's body carried away, V.P. 73. Olympias, head of, on coins, 13.
90 .
And dog Argus, Gem, 76. Scylla, V. Rel. 63 Rel. 66.
; Birth of Athena from head of, V.P. 30.

Hermann, Das Grdberfcld von Marion. Paul He

Ann. d. Inst. Annali dell' Instituto Archeologico. Rome. 'EfanepU ipxaidhoyucfi cxoiSofifvij imo rijr iv 'A&)air dpvn'<Ay""^
Graberfeld von Marion auf Cypern, being the 28"" Pro-
eraiplas- Athens, 1883 (in progress). 4to.
8vo. 1829-85.
di Ercolano. Naples, 1757-92. gramm zum Winckelmannsfeste. Berlin, 1888. 4to.
Ant. d. Ercolano.Le antichita
Friederichs, Bausteine.Czx\ Friederichs, Bausteine zur Ges- Heydemann (H.J, Griechische Vasenbilder. Berlin, 1870. Fol.
7 vols. ^to.
chichte der griechisch-romischen Plastik. Diisseldorf, 1868.
Antiquites d'Herculanum, grav. par Th. Piroli et publ. par Inghirami, Galleria Omerica
Inglurniiii, Gall. Omer. Francesco
F. et P. Piranesi. Paris, 1804-6. 6 vols. 41.0.
A 11 1 ike Denkmaler. Antike Denkmaler, herausgegeben vom Friederichs- TVollers,
Gipsabgiisse. Die Gipsabgiisse antiker
raccolta di Monumenti Antichi esibita per servire al studio
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Antique. Paris, 1889. (Eng. trans, edited by Miss Harrison.
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8vo.) gegeben von A. Kiessling und U. von Willamowitz- murali Campane scoverte negli anni 1867-79. Supplement
Mitchell, Hist. Am. Scuipture.-Uta.
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Mm. ' Tftst.Monumentj Inediti dell' Institute di
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Lcbens. Berlin, 1843. 4to. Sagenkreis in der altesten griechischen Kunst. Leipzig, 1886. Bologna, 1876. Fol.
Plate I.




5a. Siege of a City. Relief from a tomb at Gjolbascbi, Lycia. Vienn

Plate II.

i vi
-''' ' '
in '

Tabula Iliaca. Found at B. n, Rom,. (The drawing has been restored

in par;s by Feodor).
Plate III.

12, Chryses propitiates Apollo. South Italian Vase-painting. Ruvo.

9. Quarrel of Achilles and Agamemnon. Mosaic from Pompeii. Naples.
Plate V.

20. Battle of the Pygmies with the storks. B. F. paintin

the Francois Vase at Florence.
I'latc- VI.

\ :


44. Poseidon building the walls of a town

Pompeian Wall-painting.

mg of Arms

43- Combatants separated. B. F. Vase-painting in Munich.
Plate IX.

52. The Calydonian Boar-hunt. B. F. painting on the "Francois" Vase at Florenc

Plate XI.

Sarcophagus at Corneto.
53. Marpessa, Apollo and Idas. Engraving on Etruscan
Plate XII.

7o. Hector setting fire to the Ships.

Engraved gem.

64. Heroes lighting

Plate Xm.

Departure of Pairoclus. fmm 75. Menelaus and Hector righting over Euphorbus.
72. R. F. Vase-painting by Epigenes. Vulci in Cabinet
Vase-painting from Camirus, Rhodes, in British Museu:
de M^dailles, Paris.
Plate XV

78. Hephaestus forging the arms of Achilles. Pompeian Wall-painting

St. Wedding Processiou. li. F. Vase-painting.
Plate XVI.
Iliad. Plate XVII.

Rape of Ganymede by the Eagle. Vase-painting of late styl 96. The Sacrifice of the Trojan youths. South Italian Vase-painting from Canusium, in Naples-Museum.

Plate XVIII.
Plate XIX.

R F. Vase-painting Hermes resting. Bronze statue from Ilercula

105. The Judgment of Paris.
ill Naples Museum.

113. Mourning a dead man. B. F. Vase-painting from Cape Coli


Plate XX

in. 1 he slaying of the children of Ntobe. K. F. Vase-painting from Orvieto, in the Louvre.

HE first book opens with the celebrated One of the Achaians is seen sinking under the fell too is in the act of drawing his sword in defence, but

invocation to the muse to sing the disease, while below his couch lies a dead body, which is calmed by Nestor. This is not quite in accord with

lay of the wrath of Achilles, the a dog is devouring (43-52). Homer, for there is no mention of Agamemnon's having
source of infinite woes to the Greeks. 4. Ka\x<xs. Calchas, the seer of the army, has his drawn his sword, and Nestor only intervenes when
The story then begins, and cannot eyes opened, and perceives that the wrath of the god Achilles has already put his sword back into the

be better told than by describing the scenes on the is the cause of the plague that devastates the army. sheath (line 247 foil.).

Tabula Iliaca (figs. 3 and 4). He is depicted starting back in terror. 6. 'OSuo-creus ti\v iKaTOjx^iqv t<3 8e.o> aycui; 'A7rdX-
Kyafiipvmv, Xpvcrr]';, "hiroiva (fig. 4, only one 5. \yafxifi.vii>v, NcVtoj/o, 'A^tXXeu?, Adrjva. On \tavi, Xpucnji's. Here we have once more the Temple
figure being shown on fig. 3). This depicts Chryses the tenth day of the plague Achilles calls a council of Apollo, and at the altar before it Chryses receiving
kneeling before Agamemnon (figure lost), and begging of war to determine what is to be done. At this back his daughter Chryseis (440), who has been
him to accept the treasure he has brought in a waggon, council Calchas declares that the only remedy is to brought by Odysseus, along with swine, sheep, goats,
and to restore to him his daughter Chryseis (lines restore Chryseis and offer a hecatomb to the god and oxen, as a sacrifice to the god. Homer makes
10-21). She had been captured at the sack of a (93-100), to the great vexation of Agamemnon, who no mention of such a variety of victims, and this

(own, and was assigned to Agamemnon as his share ultimately consents, but announces that he intends to is probably due to the imagination of the Roman
of the spoil. Agamemnon is enamoured of her, and console himself by taking Briseis, a fair captive, from sculptor, who had the " suovetaurilia " in his mind.
refuses to restore her to her father. Achilles. Then follows the scene on the Tabula. 7. 6eTis. The next scene is Olympus, and is

2. "\cpou, 'ActoXXoh'os, S/ni'floos, Xpucr)s (figs. 3 The warriors of the council stand behind the double separated from those which take place on earth by
and 4). Chryses, thus rejected, is depicted standing seat on which Agamemnon, their commander-in-chief, a kind of rainbow. Zeus is seated on his throne,
at the altar before the temple of Apollo, praying the is seated at the side of Nestor, the oldest and wisest his head leaning on his hand in anxious thought,
god to send vengeance on the Achaians (lines 34-42). of the Greeks. To the right, Achilles has drawn his while Thetis, kneeling before him, pleads the cause
3. Aoijuos. The god has heard the prayer of his sword, and, as he rushes to slay Agamemnon, has been of her son, asking vengeance for his wrongs.
priest, and stands, with quiver hanging from his back, checked by the goddess Athena, who has seized him by
showering the arrows of a plague on the Achaeans. the hair of his head (193-8, cf. fig. 9). Agamemnon
I]., i. Homer. holding a sceptre in one hand and a roll in the other. His Polyhymnia leaning on a pillar, fixing a rapt, ecstatic gaze
attitude recalls that of Zeus, and the expression of his head, on the god, Urania pointing to her globe, and Terpsichore
Portrait must in the palace of Sanssouci, at Potsdam.
with its long leonine locks and beard, is of the ideal type that seated with her lyre.
The nose and parte of Ihe linir mid heard have been restored.
suggests divinity. Behind his throne stand two figures, the In the second tier, to the left, Calliope is seated, holding up
The engraving is taken from a photograph,
1 Universe (OIKOYMENH), a goddess wearing the calathus, which her tablets, as though about to declaim or recite ; and near her
1 nhmaler, p. 698.
Friedi ' Ssse, No. 1628. shows her connection with the earth, and Time (XPON02). Clio with a roll. Erato with a small lyre and Euterpe with a
The Universe is crowning Homer with a laurel wreath, while double flute come next, gazing upwards towards the summit of
Time holds aloft the roll of his works, to bear witness that the mountain, where Zeus is seen seated in majesty, holding his
Any portrait of Homer must, from the nature of the case,
they are immortal. By the poet's throne kneel his two sceptre, with his eagle at his feet. The remaining two Muses
be purely a work of the imagination, for the Greeks did not
children, the Iliad (IAIA2) holding a sword, and the Odyssey appear on a sloping path which leads down to the third tier
produce portraits, in the ordinary sense of the word, until some :

(OAY22EIA) raising the aplaustre, or end of a ship's poop, in Melpomene moving with a rhythmic dance, and Thalia standing
five hundred years after his poems were written.
her right hand : these attributes personifying the war which is in majestic repose just below the throne of Zeus. The lyre
The Imst here given is one of the well-known series (another
the subject of the one, and the seafaring life that is such a which lies below Thalia's feet belongs to Melpomene. The
is in the British Museum), and shows us the conception which
large part of the other poem. interpretation of these four upper tiers seems to be that Apollo
thi .mists of the third century B.C. formed of the poet's face
andexpr lion Hi is an old man, and the marks of a troubled
On the footstool (in the original, though not in the figure and the Muses have assembled on Parnassus, with the
here given) a frog and a mouse can be dimly traced, an allusion approval of Zeus, to celebrate the apotheosis of the divine
life in .1; be seen in the furrows on his brow and his sunken
to the poem of The Battle of Frogs and Mice, which was poet. One figure, however, has been omitted in this description,
;i poel he wears a chaplet round his head, which
irered with a thick and rugged mass of hair, suggesting
attributed to Homer by the ancients. as not belonging to any of the groups depicted. This is a man,
the heroic force ami simplicity of his character.
In front of the throne is an altar, prepared for sacrifice with who stands to the right of the second on a dais
The mouth tier, in front of
too, with its slightly open lips showing above the shaggy beard,
festoons and brightly burning fire ; and behind the altar an ox, a large tripod. He is in ordinary Greek dress, wears a garland,
is verj < pn live, tl is the eyi 1, however, which give the
as victim,which is remarkable for its hump, a feature imported and carries a roll. All this shows that he is a triumphant poet,
greater part of its character to the face. In
by the sculptor from Caria, a country near his native Ionia, who has won the tripod in a public contest, and now stands on
this bust (unlike
Others of the same type) they are slightly upturned, where we are told such cattle existed. the dais where he recited, holding the successful
and it poem in his
a glance to see that the poet is blind.
There are two ministers at the altar, a boyish figure with jug hand. The natural conclusion that the relief
is is intended
U have, in fine, in this bust an embodiment of the and bowl prepared to offer a libation, and a graceful to commemorate his victory.
feeling priestess
"I themen of the hellenistic age, who strove to form a definite who scatters incense in the flame. The boy is called Legend The inscription of the artist is engraved on a tessera below
ideaol the personality of "the blind old man," compiled
(MY0O2) and the priestess History (I2TOPIA), and their the throne of Zeus " Archelaus, the son of Apollonius,
a man
of his and disputed the vexed question of his birthplace. worship of Homer springs from the duty they
owe him as the made (me)" (APXEAA02 AIIOAAONIOY EIIOIH2E
of Priene,
source of all their inspiration and knowledge. Further on IIPII1XEY2). The characters are of the Roman period, and
a crowd of Arts, Faculties, and Virtues,
all paying homage to this, taken with the style of the work and the extravagant
FlO. 2. The Apotheosis of Homer. the poet. Poetry (IIOIH2I2) leads the way, holding aloft the of personification in it, points to its date being
about 100 B.C.
tor, las of inspiration by
MARBLl 1,1 a\ Am hi m
which the fire of worship must be
1 1 1
1 ,,, iv,, , AB0UT I00!a )
hound al the site ,f Bovillte,
kindled. Next follow Tragedy (TPAmAIA) and Comedy
on the Appian Road.
Formerly in the Palazzo Colonna;
(KOMOAIA), in their peculiar dress, raising their hands Fig. 3. A " Tabula Iliaca."
now in the British in
Museum. adoration to the giver of so many of their
and several farts of the fibres have themes. Then Marble tablet (fragmentary), with figures in very low
there is a group of female figures, first
been restored. of which is a little girl 11 AND INSCRIPTIONS,
I 11 1
10 IN. HIGH BY 1 J WIDE. 1
Nl "' entitled Nature (<J>Y2I2), caressing one of the women who
History of Ancient Sculpture, follow Found, in the 17 Ik century,
p. 668. near the ancient site of Bovil/ce,
and are entitled Virtue (APETH), Memory
Overbeck, Gesehiehtt der gr. I'lastik, ii., p. 405.
(MNHMH) Faith and now in the Capitoline Museum, Rome.
(II12TI2), and Wisdom (20*IA).
1 ,1 Dl Ml 1. IVOl mi.. Nllj [6ag The drawing given
Above, outside the temple.where the
is by Feodor, who has restored the original
Korteoarn, De Tabula Archelai. sacrifice is being offered, considerably by making the figures clearer.
rises Mount Parnassus, the home of the Muses. It is divided Jaiin, Bilderchronihen, PI. i.
into three tiers, the lowest showing a
This workan allegorical representation is cave (the Corycean
of the greatness Baumeister, Denktnaler, p. ;i6, tig.
Grotto), in which Apollo 775.
of Homer, and in the lowest is seen standing in the dress of a
tier of figures shows
his aP oU.eosis Schreiber, Kultitrhist. Bildcratl., PI.
harper (citlmnedus), carrying his lyre. 93.

temple, indicated by a row of
is Near him is the mystic
pillars, from which
centre of the earth (omphalus), and
a Ions[curtain hangs,
forming the background.
on it
rest his bow and quiver
This is the most complete of a series of ancient
The poet Beside the omphalus a priestess, tablets which
(OMHPOS) IS seated on a throne, with
holding a dish of offerings,
contain scenes taken from the Iliad and
a footstool below other epic poems in
iswaiting on the Outside the cave are three
Muses, low relief. Fragments of others are given in fig. 4, and Odyssey,
fig. 48. They were intended for use in schools, as is shown by (AOYPH02 Hin02), from which the Greeks are issuing and Fig. 4. Fragment of a " Tabula Iliaca."

the inscription engraved in large characters on the band which slaying the Trojans. On the steps of the temple itself, Ajax is
Tram a sketch of a lost ancient original, found among the

runs across the top of the basis in the low^er part of the tablet. seen dragging Cassandra by the hair, while she vainly implores papers of Emiliano Sartis, and (at the time the drawing was
This consists of two hexameter lines, which run the help of the goddess. Outside the courtyard are the Greeks made) in the possession of Professor Pellicioni, Bologna.
who have been let in at the gates, while down below is the
Jahn, Bilderchroniken, PI. 2 (b).
I'Q <<\e tcu. 0eo8] vprjw patie rd^iv 'Oprjpov
dippa Saeis jrdiTijs ptrpov txys ootyias. Palace of Priam. Priam himself, seated on an altar in the

" Learn, dear boy, Theodorus's digest of Homer. centre of the court (cf. Od., fig. 56), is being slain by Neopto- This fragment belongs to a Tabula Iliaca of the same
That from its lesson thou mayst possess the measure of all wisdom." lemus, while Hecuba, who sits beside him, is dragged away kind as the Capitoline (fig. 3), to which it enables us to supply
The first three words and part of the name of Theodorus by a rough Greek. On the ground lie the dead bodies of more than half of the lost left side, since it gives scenes from

have been lost, but there can be no doubt that he is the person Astyanax and one of Priam's daughters. Outside the palace Books A to I of the Iliad. The arrangement differs some-
referred to by Strabo, where his summary and are two temples, and in front of the one to the right, which what from that of the Capitoline, for though the city of Troy
xiii., 3 (C. 625),
selections are mentioned in connection with those of a certain is dedicated to Aphrodite (IEPON AWOAITH2), Menelaus appears in the centre, there are no pillars to frame it, the prose
Apollodorus. 'A7nA\o6'wpos 6 prfrtap o Tus rex"' a ? <ruyypdij/as ku.1 rushes to slay Helen (who, however, was saved by the abstract being given at the side of the scenes of each book.
t?;i' 'A7roAAoSwpeior' mpea-tv 7rapayayti>y, 7yrts 7TOT i(TTl '
7roAAa yap intervention of the goddess). Before the other temple, which Above the town Thetis (0ETI2) appears, bearing the shield
eVe*cpaTei, fia'^ora ok rj Ka$' 7//ias c^oi'ra Trp> Kpurtv, Ziv f/Tt *ai if is not named, a warrior is slaying a maiden near an altar. of Achilles (bk. xviii.), which differs from Homer in having a
'ATroAAoSojpaos aip((Ti<; Kal ?) 0coOwpeio5. Further down, just inside the walls to the left, /Eneas border with the signs of the Zodiac engraved on it.

This Tabula bears the title " Trojan " (TPf2IK02, sc. (AINHA2) is escaping with his household gods ; while to the From an inscription at the top we learn that, besides the
TLvai), and it contains the events told in the Iliad of Homer right, /Ethra (AI A) is led away, supported by her two grand- Iliad, the Sack of Troy (cf. fig. 3) and the Odyssey were
(IAIAS KATAOMHPON), the /Bthiopis of Arctinus the sons, Demophon (AH ) and Acamas, who have recognised contained on the plate.
Milesian (AI0IO1I12 KATA APKTINON TON MIAH2ION) and rescued her from the slaughter. The scenes from the Iliad are described below under the
the Little Iliad, said to be by Lesches of Pyrrha (IAIAS In the centre is the Screan gate, from which .Eneas respective books.
2MIKPA AErOMENH KATA AE2XHN TIYPPAION) ; and (AINHA2) issues, led by Hermes (EPMH2), carrying his father

the Sack of Troy by Stesischorus (IAIOY IIEP2IS KATA Anchises ArXI2H2) and the household gods, and leading
2TH2IXOPON). It is arranged architecturally. Two pillars Ascanius

(A2KANI02) by the hand, while Creusa follows

Fig. 5 a, b, c. The Greeks Fighting before Troy.

(the one to the left has been broken off) stand on a basis, weeping. Reliefs in coarse limestone from the inner walls of
forming a frame for the central picture of the " Sack of Troy." Outside the city walls are two tombs : to the right that of a tomb (Heroon) at Gjolbaschi, Lycia.
On the top, in a sort of frieze, are scenes from the first book Achilles (AXIAAE02 2HMA), at which Neoptolemus is sac- Discovered in 1841 by Schonborn, and in 1SS1 brought to

of the Iliad, and down both sides scenes from the other books, rificing Polyxena (NEOIITOAEM02, LTOAYHENH) in the Vienna, where they are now preserved.
those from B to M being lost (cf. fig. 4) along with the pillar presence of Odysseus (OAY22EY2) and Calchas (KAAXA2). Other reliefs from the same tomb are given " Od.," fig. 94.

to the left, but those to the right still remaining. All the To the left is the tomb of Hector (EKTOP02 TA*02), and The greater part of the surface is much damaged, but there has

scenes have inscriptions, which are supplemented by a prose grouped round it sit the captive Trojans, Andromache, Cas- been no attempt made at restoration.
summary of the Iliad engraved on the pillars. These scenes sandra, and Helenus (ANAPOMAXH with Astyanax, KA2- Schreiber, Kulturhistorischer Bilderatlas, PI. 37, 1.

are described below, under the books to which they belong. 2ANAPA, EAEN02), who appear twice, once with Thalybius, Bennuorf, Das Heroon von Gjolbaschi.

On the basis supporting the pillars are the scenes from the Agamemnon's herald (cf. fig. 8) watching over them, and Friederichs-Wolters, Gipsabgiisse, Nos. 996, 997.
sEthiopis: Achilles slaying Penthesilea, Thersites, and Memnon who comes Murray, A. History of Greek Sculpture, ii., p. 21S.
secondly, talking to Odysseus, to break to Hecuba S.,

(cf. Od., fig. 21); the death of Antilochus (cf. Od., tig. 15); the (EKABH) the fate of Polyxena (I70AYHENH). Mitchell, History of Ancient Sculpture, p. 415.

battle over the body of Achilles (cf. Od., fig. 14) ; the burial of Below the tombs the Achrean ships lie drawn up to the
Achilles; the contest for his aims (Od., fig. 57); the madness of left (NAY2TA0MON AXAIfiN), while at the promontory of The sculptures on the Gjolbaschi Heroon nearly all represent

Ajax (Od., fig. 58) ; Neoptolemus slaying Eurypylos; the theft Sigeum, which is marked by a pillar (2EirAI0N), the departure scenes taken from Greek Mythology, such as the hunting of
of the Palladium ; the wooden horse dragged into Troy [Od., of .'Eneas (AnOIIAOY2 AINHOY) for the West with his the Calydonian Boar (cf. fig. 52), Bellerophon slaying the
fig. 33) through the treachery of Sinon, and despite the property is shown (AINHAS AILAIPflN EI2 THNE2IIEPIAN). Chimtera, Castor and Pollux carrying off the daughters of

prophecies of Cassandra (cf. Od., fig. 33). He is seen helping his father to embark with the household Leucippus, the battles of the Greeks and Amazons and of the
The main part of the central picture is a bird's-eye view of gods (APXI2H2 KAI TA IEPA), leading Ascanius by the Lapiths and Centaurs (cf. Od., fig. 93), and above all the slay-
the city of Troy, surrounded by lofty walls with towers and hand, and followed by the pilot Palinurus, ing of the suitors by Odysseus (Od., fig. 94). This makes it
who carries a large
battlements. Inside we see, first, the Temple of Athena, steering paddle (cf. fig. 5 b ; Od., fig. 64). almost certain that the battle scenes on the reliefs here given
lying in the midst of the houses of the town, surrounded by a are intended to represent incidents in the Trojan War. The
colonnade. In the temple court stands the wooden horse artist, however, does not follow Homer closely either here or
clearer idea of the Homeric
fie 6 enables us to form a
Below, outstde the
woman bearing a bundle on her head. intermediate stage between the
the slaying of the suitors, and all that can be done is to
armour, which represents an
walls a woman on horseback, which
she rides sideways, escapes to hurl
point out the general correspondence
of some of the scenes
to the battle which
two. He is striding forwards with his hand upraised
accompanied by a man a peaceful contrast ;
(of the so-called " Boeotian
" shape) held
with the epic story. his spear,and shield
we see the poops of a number of rages around.
well forward to protect his body.
His armour consists of a
Beginning with 5 b,
fixed high " type, a cuirass under which he
drawn up on the beach with their steering paddles helmet of the " Corinthian
above the ground. These are the ships of the Greeks, but
Fig.6. Warriors on the March. shirt, and a pair of greaves.
wears a short
A line of small holes
person visible on board is greaves shows that
the crews have landed, and the only Fragments of a large vase of the " Mycen/Ean style.
round the edge of both the helmet and
steersman, who sits quietly on the nearest poop.
On some way somewhat strange
Found in a Cyclopean building at Mycena by Dr. Schliemann, or other. It is
a single they were lined in
shore the fighting has already begun, and the artist lias
which this equipment differs from that
and now at Athens. that the only point in
arranged the combatants in two tiers. In the upper a trumpeter the cuirass, which has a projecting rim
Schliemann, Mykena, fig. 213. of the later warriors is

is calling on his comrades to

the fray, whilst below a bald old This seems to be identical with
Schuchhardt, Schliemann's Ausgrabungen, fig. 284, p. 317 running all round it below.
man trying to hold back a youthful warrior, who is rushing Homeric
(translated into English by Miss Sellers). the %a of the warrior.
to join two comrades in the battle, only part of which is here
Baumeister, Denkmaler, fig. 2193.
represented. The central point of this battle is the town which

we see besieged 5 a. The picture is divided into two 80 are the only pictures in the FlGi s. Agamemnon, Talthybius, and Epeius.
in fig.
This vase-painting and fig.

tiers, the city walls forming the dividing line, a device which present work that can claim to be older than the Homeric Marble relief in the archaic style of the seventh
enables us to see both the attacking force and the defenders. Poems. It dates from before 1000 B.C., and, with the painting century b.c.

The crowned with battlements, and strengthened

walls are high, among the Discovered on Samothrace in 1790. Formerly in the Choiseul
on a vase found at the same time, is quite unique
by four towers, and the attack is concentrated on two gates thousands of Mycenrean potsherds and vases. There can be Gouffier Collection, and now in the Louvre.

(pointed arches), which the heavy armed soldiers are trying Overbeck, Geschichte dergr. Plastik, i., fig. 3, p. 100.
no doubt that it gives in its way a true picture of the warrior of
to force, while their lighter armed comrades, stationed on most general details Friederichs-Wolters, Gipsabgiisse, No. 34.
the heroic period, but unfortunately only the
mounds outside the walls, are engaging the defenders. Inside Murray, A. History of Greek Sculpture, p. 130.
can be made out. The warriors are all armed with helmet, S.,

the city the defenders, to the left, are showering stones and The helmet has a Roscher, Mythologie, (fig.); p. 127S.
cuirass, greaves, sandals, shield, and spear. p. 97
other missiles on the enemy, while to the right a captain leads (though this may Daremberg et Saglio, Diet, des An/it/,, p. 129, fig. 171.
long crest, and, it would seem, horns in front
detachment of men down the fortress ramp to make a sally
[Drawings made when the relief was first discovered show that
a originally
only be part of the crest). The shields are circular, with an arc
and relieve the gate. It is interesting to note that three of the right side ended in a horned monster covered with scales.
A rough .

cut out of the lower side. The cuirasses have a fringe, and the
ii 1 , are armed with sickle-shaped swords, the peculiar A spiral is all that remains now.]
greaves are bound to the legs by straps above the knee.
weapon of the Lycians.
more difficult point to determine is the nature of the object Agamem-
The shows the king of the The Louvre relief is only a fragment showing us
central slab city seated on his
attached to the spears. Some authorities regard it as a
The other
throne, and leaning on his sceptre. A page holds an umbrella non (ArAMEMNON) seated among his council.
banneret others as a wallet in which provisions were carried his chair of
(painted and now lost) over the throne, and at his footstool
figures have been lost, and he alone remains on
in the fashion adopted by the Romans. who a
lies a tame panther, beside which sits a youth to guard it.
state, attended by Talthybius (0AAOYI3IO2), bears
It is worth noticing that all the figures wear pointed beards,
A herald's staff, and by Epeius (EltE ), the inventor and
little to the right the queen appears, also on a throne, and
but have their upper lip shaven. Lastly, there is a female
with an umbrella held over her by a maid. To the left of the builder of the " wooden horse " (cf. Od., figs. 32-3).
figure to the left, behind all the warriors, clad in a long
throne stands a warrior fully armed, who raises his hand in The archaic character of the relief, seen in the awkward
garment. As the manner of women is, she bewails their
prayer, while a priest beside him slays a ram as sacrifice, it may drapery and the long, strangely dressed hair of the figures,
departure, beating her head with her hand.
be, to the god whose temple appears on the next slab, a scene makes it interesting as one of the very earliest sculptures

which recalls Iliad, bk. vi., 256, where Hector gets Hecuba to which represent definite Homeric characters.
sacrifice to Athena. If this, then, be Hector and the king Fig. 7. An Archaic Warrior.
Priam, the queen
is most probably not Hecuba, but Helen,
Bronze statuette in the archaic Greek style 01
Fig. 9. The Quarrel between Agamemnon and
in the Ttiyoo-Koma of bk. iii. joins the king in surveying
about 600 B.C. Achilles (line 190).
the Greek host from the walls of Troy. Lastly, the slab on
Found at Dodona ; in the Berlin Antiquarium. Gr/eco-Roman mosaic (considerably damaged).
fig. 5 c shows another episode of the siege, the inhabitants
Archaol. Zeitung, 1S82, PI. 1. From Pompeii; in the Naples Museum.
escaping from the city in despair (cf. bk. xxiv., 3S3). The
Baumeister, fig. 2191. The figure is taken from a rough drawing.
fighting is not yet over, for the battlements are lined with
warriors, but we sec a man with an ass laden with provisions This archaic statuette shows the equipment of the Greek older
Agamemnon, who in the original has a beard and is
descending the incline of the fortress ramp, followed by a warrior of the seventh century B.C., and by comparison with than in the figure, is seated on a throne to the left of the
picture. He wears a royal diadem and holds a sceptre. His back, stands an old man, in whom we must recognise Phcenix, the sun. Talthybius carries a herald's staff, and Diomede two
attitude is rather puzzling, and at first sight suggests that he the friend of Achilles (cf. fig. 50). spears. Briseis is clad in a long shift, a mantle, and a veil,

is drawing a sword to ward off the attack of Achilles. The Further off the myrmidons of Achilles appear in full armour which she raises coyly to her face, and Agamemnon wears a

original, however, shows no distinct traces of a sword, and the as their master's body-guard, while in the background to the cloak (chlamys) over his cuirass. Yet another noticeable point
object lie holds seems rather to be a roll. Besides, he wears the right the tent, or rather hut, of Achilles, from which Patroclus is the way in which Diomede's hair is dressed. It is worn
hitnation, a garment of peace, wrapped round his loins, and in has fetched Briseis, appears in view. long, and coiled up in a sort of chignon at the back of
any case could not manage to draw a sword without the aid of his head.
his left hand. The gesture and the movement of the head are,
however, those of an angry man. Achilles on the other side Fig. 11. Briseis Taken away (line 320).

is drawing his sword and rushing forward, but is checked by Red-figured painting on a drinking-cup (cotyle) bv the Fig. 12. Chryses Propitiates Apollo (line 430).

Athena, who holds him by the hair, as in the Tabula (fig. 3). Athenian potter Hieron, of the early fifth century b.c. Red-figured painting on a South Italian vase.
The fragment of another Naples mosaic from Pompeii (his signature appears under the handle). In the /alia Collection at Suva.
(No. 9104) gives a replica of the figures of Achilles and Formerly in Ike Campana Collection ; now in Ike Louvre, The figure is taken from an original drawing.
Athena excellently executed and well preserved. Paris. Archiiol. Zeitung, 1S72, p. 43.
The reverse is given fig. 50, Baumeister, Denkmaler, p. 720.
A/on. d. Inst., vi., 19. Luckenbach, Das Vcrhdltniss d. gr. I'. Filler Ep.
Fio. to. Briseis Taken from Achilles (line 320).
Ann. d. Inst., 1858, pp. 352-73. Kyklos, p. 522.
POMPEIAN WALL-PAINTING, 3 FT. II IN. WIDE BY 4 FT. I IN. Klein, Meistersignaturen, p. 170, No. 17.

HIGH. Baumeister, Denkmaler, p. 721, fig. 776. In the centre of the picture is the Temple of Apollo, within

From the " Casa del pacta " ; in Ike Naples Museum Wiener Vorlegeblatter, Series C, 6. which is a statue of the god, with the laurel and doe that are his

(No. 9105). attributes. In front of the temple Chryses stands at the altar,

1. to Barbonico, ii., PI. 58. This picture has a landscape background suggested in making with the help of a youthful servant of the altar pre-

Baumeister, Denkmaler, p. 721, fig. 722. primitive style. To the right lies the open country, sym- parations for the sacrifice of a bull, which two stout men hold

Heldig, Wandgematdc, No. 1309. bolised by a single tree, while to the left stands the tent of in readiness. Chryseis, attended by a maid, stands near the
Daremberg 1 1 Saglio, Diet, dts Antiq., p. 28. Agamemnon, which is suggested to us by the royal throne altar, and raising her right hand devoutly joins with her father

(for the camp-stool shape, cf. fig. 8). Agamemnon himself in supplication to the god. Behind her is a priestess, who
The upper corner to the left lias been completely lost, and (Ar ME5MO ), in full armour, is leading, or rather drag- carries a tray of offerings on her head, and bears a jug of
the whole of the lower part of the picture is so damaged that ging, Briseis into the tent, followed by his herald Talthybius wine for the libation to the god.
scarcely anything definite (excepl the legs "f Patroclus and the (0AA0YBIO2) and his warrior friend Diomede (AIOMEAE2). As is frequently the case with vases of this style, none of the
skirt of Briseis) can be made out. The drawing from which It is plain that Hieron is not, like the Pompeian artist, careful other figures in the picture have any direct connection with the
the figure is taken is very inaccurate. Among other mistakes, to follow Homer accurately ; for though Agamemnon threatened subject, which is all the stranger since we find that Odysseus
(1) the figure to the extreme left should wear a wide-awake to take Briseis away himself (1. 324, cf. 356), he did not do so. is altogether absent, not even appearing among these uncon-
hat (pelasus), like the herald next him, and not a helmet Again, Diomede is not mentioned in the Homeric story at all, cerned spectators. Only four of them can be identified
(2) there should be no looped drapery round the top of the and has simply been inserted by the artist as being one of the Hermes talking to Minerva (?) on the left, and Aphrodite,
building in the background; and (3) there should not be a ball foremost Greeks. Such differences, however, only bring out attended by Eros, on the right.
on the top of Achilles' sceptre or spear. the originality of the painter, who wished to compose a picture
The youthful hero Patroclus (to the right) is leading the representing Agamemnon leading Briseis in triumph into his
weeping and unwilling (1. 34S) Briseis forward towards tent, rather than to illustrate the story as told by Homer. In
Achilles, who is seated on a throne, and with a gesture of many other vase-paintings of the fifth century we shall have
Fig. 13. The Zeus Olympias of Phidias (line 528).

command bids Patroclus (1. 337) hand the maiden over to occasion to notice a similar freedom. Two coins of Elis of the time of Hadrian (117
Agamemnon's two heralds, Talthybius and Eurybates, who It is worth while noting the costumes, especially those 138 A.D.).
stand to the right of the throne. In the picture only one of of Talthybius and Diomede. Both wear short shirts (xnw), (a) Head on a coin at Florence.
the two wears the wide-awake hat {pelasus) and carries the staff girt tightly at the waist, and over this a small cloak (c/ilamys), (b) Seated statue on a coin in Paris.
(caduceus, or Kippvxctov) of his office, but this is the restorer's clasped at the throat with a brooch. As being wayfarers, they The figures do not give a very accurate idea of the coins.
fault, for in the original picture the second was dressed in the have high leggings or socks, apparently of some soft material, Overbeck, Geschichte d. gr. Plastik, i., fig. 48, p. 467,
same way. Both stand troubled ana -mbarrassed at their worn under their sandals and tightly strapped to their legs. note 18.
painful errand (1. 331). Behind the throne, leaning on its They also wear wide-brimmed felt hats to protect them from Gardner, Types of Greek Coins, PI. xv., 19.
influence that we must trace the use of long, thick, leonine
was these lines of Hadrian give in the style of their period reproductions of the
There was a tradition in antiquity that it

or head. The figures explain for them- locks in the later statues of the great male divinities, Poseidon,
when creating his masterpiece, great statue its
Homer which inspired Phidias
Zeus himself.
selves the way in which Phidias embodied the Homeric Plato, and Asclepius, as well as
the statue of Zeus at Olympia.
during the reign of description of the ambrosial locks, and show that it is to his
Many varieties of coins struck in Elis


EUS, mindful of his promise to Thetis, One of the arguments by which Odysseus persuaded the stands the priest, wearing a garland and raising his left hand
Achaean host to continue the war was an appeal to the omen in adoration, while in his right he holds the cup (phiak) from
ii ml a dream to Agamemnon to
they had witnessed at Aulis. During a sacrifice there a snake which he has poured the libation. On each side of the altar
him to war, and so by mis-
had been seen to crawl from beneath the altar, climb a plane stand two naked youths, who hold pieces of flesh wrapped
fortune to punish him for the wrong tree, and devour a sparrow and her eight nestlings. Calchas, in fat over the flames (cf. 1. 426), not to consume, but merely
done Achilles. the seer, had interpreted this to mean that after nine years' to cook it for eating (1. 429 ; cf. Od., fig. 17). To the left, a

Agamemnon's first step is to test the loyalty of his war they would take Troy in the tenth year. musician plays a double flute, an essential part of the ceremony
followers by announcing to the assembly of the people The Lansdowne relief shows a man (the head has been in post-Homeric times (cf. fig. 40 ; Od., 69), while, to the right,
restored as Homer's) seated in deep meditation, his head three worshippers look on and wait for the feast that is to
that he has thoughts of raising the siege and returning
resting on his left hand, and his right hand resting on a stick. follow.
home. So glad were the people at this that the To the side is a tree, and at its summit a nest, towards
assemblj was broken up, and instant preparations for which a serpent is climbing, while the mother strives to cover
departure would have been made, had not Odysseus, her young with her wings, and
Fig. 16. Athena with the .ffigis (line 446).
two other birds sit perched
warned by Athena, helplessly, as though unable to escape the danger. Part of a black-figured painting on an Attic wine-
rallied the host by taunts and
It is possible that this may be Calchas meditating on the
jar (amphora) of the sixth century b.c.
threats, and brought them back to the place of
omen, but scarcely probable, for the griffin beneath his seat From Villa ; in the Museum at Rouen.
assembly. Then, after chastising the contemptible
is not likely to be given him as an attribute. The sculpture Lenormant et de Wilte, Elite des Man., i.,
rsites (cf. fig. 4, bk. ii., 8e/)o-irs), who urged them seems much more like an ordinary grave-relief, which would PI. 8.

to depart, he succeeded, with the aid of Nestor, in account for the presence of the serpent. Baumeister, Denkmaler, p. 22, fig. 173.
In any case, the
persuading the host to continue the war. Thereupon motive of a bird climbing a tree to attack a nest is so common Daremberg et Saglio, Did. des Antuj., p. 102, fig. 142.

nemnon, seizing the opportunity, called on on Roman marble candelabra and altars that it scarcely calls
for a mythological explanation, unless there is some definite The figure here given represents Athena conquering
to prepare for battle. They assented eagerly, and, the
scene in which it takes its place, and this is not so here. giant Enceladus.
after sacrificing She is fully dressed as a woman, and armed
(fig. 15) and feasting, came forth in
with a helmet, the a;gis, and a spear. The form of xgis
full array. Then follows a long catalogue of the Fir.. 15. A Sacrifice (line 411). given is the typical and traditional one in Greek art. It
ships, the peoples, and the leaders of Agamemnon's consists of a skin completely covered with scales
Red-figured painting on an Attic vase of the fifth and fringed
army. The book closes with the counter-preparations with serpents (ftWot,
century b.c. 1. 448), and was worn as armour across
of the Trojans. Schreiber, Kulturhistorhcher Bilderatlas, the breast (cf. figs. 42, 86,
PI. 13, 8. 93; Od., fig. 1). It could, however,

Heydemann, HalUischts Winckelmannsf. Program, be used as a shield to cover the left arm when advancing
to strike an enemy. There is no reason to doubt that the
I'ir.. 14.The Prodigy at Aulis (line 308). Homeric aegis was of this kind, for the fact that the scales
This depicts a sacrifice several centuries later than Homer's
were of metal would explain why it is said to be of bronze.
time, but there are many features in it common with the older In any case, it is the defensive armour of a
Ththtado/th god, and made by
atortA ritual (for other pictures, 12, 40 ; Od., 16, 17, 60).
cf. figs.
In Hephajstus
Jahn, Bildcrchroniken, PI. ;, ,. ; so that, even .hough it were all of metal, it might
the centre is the altar, and on it a fire
of split wood (1. 425),
Michaklis, .;,/,, Marbbs be as flexible as the leather human From
, Gnal Brjjah: p 43? in which the chine of the ox is burning. In front
in breastplates.
of the altar the anthropological point of view it would seem, like most of
the attributes of the gods, to be a survival from primitive times, Fig. 18. Thamyris and the Muses (line 595). Formerly in the Campana Collection : nou at the Louvre,

before the use of the large shield had become common. Red-figured painting on an Attic oil-jar (lecy/hus)
A/on. d. Inst., vi., PI. S.
Ann. d. Inst., 1857, p. 21 1-9.
Fir,. 17. The Birth of Erichthonius (line 547).
In the Jaffa collection at Ruvo.
Baumeister, Denkmakr, p. 1325,
Romische Mittheilitngen, hi., PI. 9.
fig. 1479.
Terra-cotta relief in the Attic stvle of the fifth
Baumeister, Denkmakr, p. 1727, fig. 1809.
century b.c., Thamyris 11. Sappho, Leipzig, 1865.
Found in a grave at Athens ; nmv in the Berlin Antiquarium.
Archiiol. Zeititng, 1872, PI. 63, p. 51. Philoctetes, a celebrated archer, had been bitten by a snake

Harrison, Mythology and Hon. of Alliens, p. xxvii., fig. 2. Homer, when telling of the places whence the forces of while the Greeks were at Lemnos on their outward voyage to

Baumeister, Denkmakr, p. 491, fig. 536. Nestor came, mentions the story of Thamyris, who dared Troy. So noisome was the gangrene that set in from the

Friederichs-Wolters, Gipsa/igiissc, No. 120. to contend with the Muses in song, but was vanquished by bite, that the Greeks left him behind on the island, where for

them, maimed, and deprived of his power as singer and ten long years he wandered alone, filling the desert with his
The story of Erichthonius (who was identified with musician. cries of pain. In the tenth year an oracle declared that Troy
Ercchtheus) is a peculiarly Attic one, and this passage is The vase-painter has depicted a rather different scene. could not be taken without the aid of his bow, and then at

generally regarded as the interpolation of an Athenian editor. Thamyris (AMYPI ), in the rich garments of a Thracian last Odysseus and Neoptolemus (cf. Od., fig. 55) went and
He was born of the earth, with Hephaestus as father, but harper, his brows crowned with laurel, sits on the side of a brought him away from the island. (This episode is the
insome mystic way Athena was regarded as his mother, and pleasant flowery hill. He has just ceased playing on his subject of Sophocles' Philoctetes.)
when he came from the earth received him to be nurtured as lyre, and one of three Muses, who have lyres, has just struck The vase-painting shows us the statue of the goddess Chryse
her foster-son. up in reply to him. The contest, however, seems to be a
(XPY2 ), to whom the Greeks (all wearing festal garlands)

The Berlin relief shows us the head and shoulders of the friendly one, for another of the Muses stands beside him with have been offering a sacrifice on the rude altar which Jason
great earth-goddess rising above the surface of the ground, a garland, while Aphrodite and two love-gods gaze on, im- had built in earlier days. The sacrifice, however, has been
holding up the baby Erichthonius in her arms. He stretches parting a sentimental interest to the scene. Apollo, with his interrupted by a snake, which, crawling from beneath the
out his hands towards Athena, who steps forward to receive laurel bough (cf. fig. 12), is also present, and in one of the altar, has bitten Philoctetes ($IAOKTETE2), who lies on the
him. She wears her helmet, but has doffed her regis and figures to the right of Thamyris we may perhaps recognise ground writhing in agony. One of the servants of the altar
laid her spear aside, becoming for the nonce a peaceful and the love-lorn poetess Sappho (2A<I> ) listening to a little love- goes to his aid, while another with a sacrificial spit wrapped
gentle goddess. god, who points towards the beautiful harper. Altogether the round with flesh and fat (cf. fig. 15) starts aside in terror.

On the other side of the relief is Cecrops, half man, half scene is idyllic and imaginative, and, even if suggested by The Greek leaders who are present look on in dismay,
serpent, holding a laurel branch in his left hand, and placing Homer, fails to illustrate his version of the story. Agamemnon (with the sceptre) gazing on the serpent, and
the forefinger of his right hand to his lips, as though enjoining Diomede (AIOME ) and another raising their hands in
holy silence in the presence of the goddess. Cecrops was the gestures of surprise. Even the idol is horrified, and as well
Fig. 19. Philoctetes Bitten by the Snake (line 721).
mythical King of Attica, and it was to his three daughters, as she can raises her hands.
Aglaurus, Herse, and Pandrosos, that Athena intrusted the Red-figured painting on an Attic vase (stamnus) of
infant Erichthonius to be nurtured. THE EARLY FIFTH CENTURY B.C.


FTER the muster of their forces, the of storks as they fly to wage war on their enemies his chariot. Hector, however, by taunts persuaded
two armies came out to meet one the Pygmies (fig. 20). him to offer to fight Menelaus single-handed, and to
another in battle array, the Trojans Foremost among the Trojans was Paris, who called decide the issue of the war by his victory or death.
advancing with loud cries, which forth the bravest of the Greeks to fight him, only to Menelaus agrees to the proposal, on the condition
Homer compares to the chattering fly ignominiously when he saw Menelaus descend from that a formal treaty be made between the Greeks
Europe at the approach wearing sandals, but armed with a shield and two spears.
when these birds leave
and Trojans, and ratified by Priam himself. An believing that,
As he goes on his way he looks round at Paris (here called
of cold weather, they go to prey on the Pygmies.
armistice was thereupon proclaimed, and whilst the
Roman by his other name, AAEX2ANAP0S, written backwards),
a favourite one in Greek and
The myth was
prepared, Priam mounts the who, armed with a helmet and brace of spears, leads the
sacrifices were being but nowhere has been represented with more detail or with
half-unwilling Helen from her home, his hand upon her
walls of Troy, accompanied by Helen, who points more humour than on the " Francois " vase. We see Pygmies,
wrist (xp' rai xapTrui). She (HEAENE) is dressed like a bride,
out to him the Greek leaders by name. This episode mounted on goats and armed with slings, charging to rescue
with a veil drawn over her shoulder, and a little love-god
shown on the Tabula, fig. 4,
the body of a fallen comrade or seize that of a dead stork
(the TUXoarKO-rrla) is
hovers before her, while Aphrodite (A$ OAITH) herself puts
while, in other parts of the battlefield, clubs and hooked sticks
where Helen and Priam (nPIAMOS) are seen looking
the last touches to her head-dress. The goddess is followed
are the weapons used. The best group of all is that in the lower
over the battlements above the Scaean gate (cf. fig. 5).
left hand corner of fig.20, a stork, attacked by two Pygmies, by Persuasion (LTEI ), her constant attendant, in the form of

to the plain, ratified the treaty a woman fully dressed, and holding up a flower in a dainty
Then Priam descended making for the eyes of one of them, who seems quite dumb-
leaving Paris to fashion. The scene is closed by a boy, who seems to be
(fig. 22), and returned to the city, foundered at the attack.
introduced solely to up the vacant space underneath the
Pygmies were also a favourite subject with Roman wall-
fight with Menclaus. In the duel which followed
painters, and many of the frescoes of Pompeii show them
handle. Just in front ofhim is the artist's signature (MAKPON
Paris was the first to hurl his spear, but failed to
battling with hippopotami, crocodiles, and other monsters ErPA4>2EN). The composition does not differ in any respect
hit Menclaus, who replied by a thrust which pierced from the received story, for /Eneas was one of the foremost
of the River Nile. This was due to the fact that ancient
his corselet, and completely disabled, though it did
writers agreed in taking their country, or the shores of companions of Paris on his voyage to Greece (fig. 28), and
not wound him. However, when Menelaus raised Homer's Oceanus, as lying near the sources of the Nile, Aphrodite naturally appears as the cause of the abduction,

his sword and struck at Paris' helmet, the blade was a conveniently vague and distant locality. Oddly enough, accompanied by Persuasion, the agent she used to bring it

recent travellers have vied with one another in proving about.

shivered, and he had nothing wherewith to slay him.
this belief correct, for Schweinfurth discovered the Akka
Yet he seized the crest of the helmet, and was
dragging Paris to the Greek camp, when Aphrodite
niggers, who might well be regarded as the prototypes of the Fig. 22. Treaty between the Greeks and Trojans
Pygmies (Schweinfurth, Reisen in Afrika, ii., p. 131), had not (line 275).
suddenly appeared, broke the helmet strap, and carried Stanley discovered more diminutive folk in the great
Part of a relief on a Roman Sarcophagus.
off Paris in a mist back to Troy, where she placed forest of Central Africa (cf. Stanley's Darkest Africa). As In the Museum, Madrid.
him in his own bed-chamber. This is well shown this is fairly near the sources of the Nile, the existence of [This is only the left half of the fragmentary relief.]
Homer's Pygmies may be taken for granted and only
on the Tabula, fig.
5 (A<I>POAITE MENEAAOS). ; it Archdol. Zeitung, 1869, PI. 13.
remains to be shown that they give battle to the storks, to
Paris is represented in vain striving to free himself,
justify him completely. To the right of the picture Agamemnon stands, holding a
as Menclaus drags him off by the helmet. Aphrodite
bowl (<t>id\i)=patera) for the libation in his left hand, and
is seen rushing up to break the strap, while, at the
Fig. 2r. The Rape of Helen (line 46). raising a sword aloft in his right to call on the gods to witness
same time, she casts her mantle over her protege solemn oath him
Red-figured painting on a vase (scyphus) cv the his (line 268). Just behind is the figure of
(fig- 23). Athenian totter Makron. a Trojan wearing a Phrygian cap, the sole fragment that
The book closes with a love scene between Helen Found at Suessulla. remains of the part of the relief which depicted Priam and

and Paris. In the collection of Baron Spinelli at Acerra. his men.

Arc/idol. Zeiliing, 1882, p. 3. Next to Agamemnon, on the left, Odysseus (cf. Od., fig. 34)
Fig, 20. Battle of the Pygmies with the Storks Gazette Annie/., 1880, Pis. 7 and 8, p. 57.
is easily recognised by his traditional costume. He too holds
(line 5 1.

Baumeister, Denkmakr, fig. 709. a bowl for the libation in his right hand, while his left hand
1 FIGURED 1 UNTING ROM 111 CEL] 3R Ml h " FRAN- Klein, Meistersignaturen, At the

clasps his spear.


p. 172 (No. 24). feet of Odysseus is the victim for

COIS" vass {amphora), mi work of the potters Klitias
Robert, Bild und Lied, p. 54. the sacrifice, and further on stand the leaders of the Greeks,
WD E nos.
all in full armour. The contrast between these figures and
at C/iiusi, and in the Museum at I Hector taunts Paris, when he flies at the sight of Menelaus, Agamemnon should be noted. He older, and bearded, is
figs. 52,84, and U from the same vase. with the effeminate beauty which enabled him to carry off clad in a more magnificent

cuirass than they, and wears over

the wife of his warlike host from Sparta. The vase-painting
According to Homer
it a mantle, which gives him the air of a Roman Imperator.
the Pygmies dwell by the streams of shows Paris leading Helen from her home. First comes The mantle, however, probably a sign that he
Oceanus, the great river which in his geography encircles the
is is engaged
world. He connects them with the migration of the

-Eneas (AINEA ) in travelling dress, with shirt girded tight
in sacrifice, a fact which also accounts for his being bare-
storks, about his loins, a small cloak and a wide-awake hat, and headed.
Fig. 23. Single Combat between Menelaus and Paris 2ANAP02, cf. fig. 21), with a drawn sword, at full speed. on the Tabula Lliaca, fig. 4, and is an excellent instance of
(line 340). Paris flies before him, glancing round in terror as he goes. the independence of literary tradition shown by the great

Red-figured painting on a drinking-cup {eylix) by the He too is armed with helmet, cuirass (over it a cloak), and masters of the early fifth century b.c. In fact, the only point

Athenian potter Duris, of the early fifth century e.c.

shield, and, so far from being disarmed, has still got his in which the picture agrees with Homer is the flight of Paris.

The reverse is given fig. 42.

spear. This the artist has made even more disgraceful than the poet,

In the Louvre, Paris.

In front of Paris stands the goddess Artemis (APTEMI2), for Paris still retains his spear, which means that he has not

Froehner, Choix des Vases Grecs, PI.

with bow and quiver, raising her hand in a gesture of dismay tried to fight at all. Then he is saved by Aphrodite seizing

Wiener }'<>rlcgcb!attcr, Series vi., PI. 7.

(cf., however, Od., fig. 55). On the opposite side another the hand of Menelaus, instead of loosing the strap of Paris'
goddess appears, who has seized Menelaus' hand to check helmet and snatching him off in a mist. Lastly, the goddess
Brunn, Troisehe Miscellen, hi., p. 201.
Robert, Bild und Lied, the blow he is prepared to strike. There is nothing to dis- Artemis appears on the scene, without any warrant in literature
p. 98.

Klein, Meis/ersigtiaturen, p. 160 (No. 21).

tinguish her, except perhaps a flower which she holds at all. The artist, however, wanted a female figure to balance
daintily in her left hand, but there can be no doubt that Aphrodite, and so has introduced the goddess of archery, the
In the centre Menelaus (MENELE02), armed with helmet, this is Aphrodite. only warlike art in which Paris excelled (cf. fig. 46 ; Od.,
cuirass (over it a cloak), and shield, is chasing Paris (AAEX- The painting is a striking contrast to the scene depicted fig- 14).


FTER the ignominious defeat of their The Tabula, fig. 4, summarises the contents of the bow as a weapon of war, and partly, no doubt, to the fact that

champion, the Trojans were on the the archers most familiar to the Athenians were the Scythian
book as the wounding of Menelaus ( AON), the
bowmen who acted as police in their city.
point of giving up Helen in accord- breaking of the treaty (crvyKv SIN OPKfiN), and the
ance with the treaty, when the marshalling of the host by Agamemnon (EninnA Fig. 25. Amazon stringing a Bow (line 105).
goddess Hera intervened. She be- ArAMEMNON). The scenes it gives show (1) Pan- Red-figured painting on the inside of a drinking-cup
sought Zeus not to allow the war to come to an end darus (nANAAPOS) shooting his bow, while Athena, (eylix).

until the hated city of Troy had been destroyed. He in the form of a woman (a man in Homer), stands at Museo Gregoriano, ii., PI. 74.

accordingly sent Athena down to the Trojan camp, his elbow to direct his aim (2) Menelaus (MENEAAOS) This bow, like that in seems to be of horn. Owing
; fig. 24,
where she suggested to Pandarus the archer (figs. striding forwards to strike him, or it may be only to to their comparatively short length, such bows are extremely
24-6) that he should treacherously shoot at Menelaus, attack the Trojans ; and lastly (3) Machaon (MAXAfiN) difficult to string, as the suitors of Penelope found to their cost.

and thus break the truce. The arrow struck Menelaus kneeling on the ground The stringing was usually effected by a dexterous movement of
to extract the arrow from
both legs, through which the bow was passed, as in figs. 24, 26,
in the thigh, having been diverted by Athena from Menelaus' thigh.
and Od., 91, the left hand bending the notched end to receive
the joint of the cuirass at which Pandarus aimed.
the loop of the string.
Machaon, the surgeon, drew out the arrow, and dressed Fig. 24. Amazon stringing a Bow
the wound with soothing drugs. Meanwhile, the Red-figured vase-painting.
(line 105).
Fig. 26. Heracles stringing his Bow (line 105).
Design on a Theban coin.
Trojans were marching out to battle, while Agamemnon Daremberg et Saglio, Diet, des Ant., fig. 472.
The reverse bears the Baotian shield, which was the national
went through his host, marshalling his men. The badge of the Thebaus.
In Greek art, archers are, except in the case of gods like
battle then began once more, and raged fiercely, for Schreiber, Kullurhist. Bilderatl., PI. 38, 6.
Apollo and heroes like Heracles (fig. 26), represented as either
gods were fighting on both sides : Apollo and Ares
Scythians (Od., fig. 91) or Amazons. This due
is partly to the Heracles is almost always represented with a short, curved
with the Trojans, and Athena with the Greeks. contempt which Greek warriors of every period had for the bow of horn, while Apollo and Artemis generally appear, in
Greek Epigraphy, 208 (194). as suppliants near one of the pillars that support the roof.
vase-painting of the best period, with bows of wood (cf. figs. 23, Roberts, Introd. to p.

Daremberg et Saglio, Diet, des Ant., p. 82, fig. 122. Adrastus himself (AAPE2T02) reclines on a couch feasting,
111, 112; Od., figs. 18, 28, 55). The Theban coin shows him
Roscher, Lexicon der Mythologie, art. " Adrastos." with a three-legged table in front of him. He has just caught
with his club laid aside, stringing the bow in the same way as
sight of the suppliants, and his gestures show that he is
the Amazon in fig. 24. For another picture of Heracles as an
Tydeus and Eteocles came on the same night as refugees to welcoming them. Near the two suppliants stand the two
archer, see fig. 46.
the house of Adrastus, King of Argos, and as suppliants were daughters of Adrastus, while at the foot of the couch is the old

received into his house by him. woman who acts as their duenna, appropriately depicted as
Tydeus had slain a man, and fled to escape the vengeance somewhat fat. The strange owl which stands at the head of
had been driven the couch merely a device of the painter for up
Fn;. 27. Tydeus as Suppliant in the House of of the dead man's kinsfolk, while Eteocles into is filling

Adrastus (line 376).

exile by his father CEdipus. He recognised in their coming the empty space there.

the fulfilment of an oracle, which had bidden him wed his The promise of Adrastus to the two heroes led afterwards to
1 1 1

say that the badges


two daughters to a boar and a lion. the Expedition of the Seven against Thebes (Sefitem contra

on their shields were a lion (cf. figs. 21, 36, 76, 108) and a boar Thefias), in which all concerned, down to Adrastus himself,
/'mm Niila ; in (he Copenhagen Museum. others that they fought with one another like a
(cf. fig. 62), perished. For another episode in this expedition, see Od.,
The shape and the figures on the reverse of this vase are given lion and boar, and others again that they were clad in the fig- 73-
in fig- 59- skins of these animals. However may be, he promised to
this The Adrastus, King of Argos, here mentioned must not be
ArchaoL Ztitung, 1866, PI. 206, give them his daughters to take home as their wives. The confounded with the Greek (//., ii., 828 ; cf. xi., 328) who was
h . Dcnkmaler, 19. vase-painting shows us the hall of Adrastus' palace, in which
1; .1 fig. slain by Diomede, or the two Trojans of that name (//., vi., 37 ;

Klein, Euphronios, p. 65 (6). Eteocles (called 0MAX02 [?]) and Tydeus (TVAEY2) crouch xvi., 694).


HE prowess of Diomede (Aio/xtjSovs the undaunted Diomede (336), and fled with tears and is mounting a chariot. The figure of Aphrodite has
A > Jjf* apurrtia cf. Tabula, fig. 4, 'Ei, sobs from the battle. Apollo thereupon came to the
disappeared, but the mantle which she is throwing over
% BS*1 a/no-Teuei AiOjuijSijs) in the rescue, transported .Eneas to the citadel of Troy, and her son can still be traced in the drawing. Further
battle which ensued takes up the cured him of his wound. Then he called on Mars on Diomede, on foot, is advancing to meet Ares, who
whole of this book. He entered the to return to battle, and soon turned the fortune of is entering the battle in a chariot.
field under the protection of Athena, who had per- the day, driving back the Greeks so vigorously that
suaded Ares to retire, and wrought havoc among the Hera and Athena came to their aid. At length
Trojans. He was wounded in the shoulder by an Fig. 28. Paris and CEnone (line 62).
Diomede, with the aid of Athena, wounded even Ares
arrow of Pandarus (95), but this only roused
him to himself, and drove him back howling to Olympus. Marble relief of the Hellenistic period.
greater valour Intended for mural decoration.
; and he finally slew Pandarus, who had Content with this achievement, the goddesses also left
In the Villa Ludovisi, Rome.
mounted the chariot of .Eneas
(290), and, hurling a the battle, and returned to the Palace of Zeus. Arclidol. Zeit., 1880, PI, 13, j.
huge stone, all but killed .Eneas himself as he came In Book E (v.) the Tabula, fig. 4, gives only two Schreieer, Hellenistische Relief-Bilder, No. 23.
to rescue his friend's body (305).
Aphrodite, however, scenes, the rescue of .Eneas, and the wounding of Ares. Baumeister, Denkmaler, fig. 1360.
suddenly appeared, and, drawing
her mantle over the In the former Diomede (AIOMHAH2) is seen, urged
fallen hero, strove to convey him from the field on by Athena, striding over the dead body of Pandarus
Homer here tells of the death, at the hands of Diomede, of
(fig- 29), but was wounded herself Phereclus, who had built the fleet that bore Paris to Greece
in the hand by (nANAAPOS) in pursuit of .Eneas (AINHA2), who on the ill-fated voyage when he carried off Helen.
The story of this voyage, which was the beginning of all helplessly groping for the ground (309), show that he is fainting. Athena (A0ENAIA) appears as a tiny figure leaping from
the evils of the Trojan War, captivated the imagination of the Aphrodite (A*POAITH2), her eyes starting with terror, and her her father's brain ; she is fully dressed, and armed with the
Greeks, especially those of the Hellenistic age, when it was mantle flapping in her haste, has descended from Olympus iegis, helmet, shield, and spear (cf. fig. r6). Hephaestus
given a new and sentimental interest by being coupled with and raised the fallen hero to carry him away. Diomede (HE*AI2T02, backwards) is represented, not standing beside
the desertion of the Nymph CEnone. The relief shows us (AIOMHAH2), however, nothing dismayed, is striding forwards Zeus, but at the extreme end of the scene (on the left side),

Paris, with Phrygian cap and shepherd's staff (cf. fig. 103), with drawn sword (330) to attack the goddess. Behind him, flying with gestures of amazement and terror from the possible
seated on a rock beneath a tree, watching his ship, which lies her back turned to the spectator, stands Athena (A0HN ), result of his blow. Just in front of the throne, where we
at anchor under a precipitous rock just opposite. The poop of leaning quietly on her spear, and with a side-glance watching should expect Hephaestus, stands Eileithya (HIAEI0VA), the
the ship is gaily decked with a shield and the more frolicsome the combat that she has caused. goddess of childbirth, welcoming the new-born deity. Behind
Bacchic emblems of the thyrsus and tambourine, the oars are The dramatic feeling of the painting is excellent ; the help- her we see Heracles in his lion-skin, and armed with a club.
out, and the steering paddle in its place, all ready for instant lessness of -'Eneas, the terror of Aphrodite, the onrush of His connection with Athena was a very close one, for it was
departure. Near Paris stands CEnone, leaning mournfully on a Diomede (note his helmet), and the malicious unconcern of she who aided him in all his labours (cf. fig. 48), and it was
rock (the restorer has not noticed this, and left her without a Athena, form a masterpiece in silhouette design. doubtless to suggest this that the artist has placed him among
support), pointing mournfully to the ship, with forebodings of the gods of Olympus, disregarding the fact that he only reached
the evils which will come through Paris' departure. She was it long after by the help of Athena herself. Beside Heracles
a nymph, the daughter of the river-god Cebren, and, according stands Ares, the god of war, in full armour. On the other side,
to an old legend, had become the wife of Paris when he behind the throne, Apollo (AIIOAON, backwards) appears in
was still a simple shepherd (cf. fig. 105), and had not been Fig. 30. The Birth of Athena (line 875).
the dress of a harper, singing, to the music of the lyre, a
recognised as King Priam's son. CEnone's sorrows have in- welcome to the new-born deity. Next to him are Hera
Black-figured painting on an Attic vase of the sixth
spired many among them Ovid, who makes her one of
century (HEPA), crowned with a diadem, and Poseidon, armed with
his love-lorn heroines, and in our own times Lord Tennyson, his trident. Above Hera's head flies a bird, which the artist
In the British Museum.
who has called a poem by her name. In the relief the has added to fill the blank space in the design.
buildings of Troy appear in the far distance on a conventional Mon. d. Inst., hi., PI. 44. The vase is an excellent specimen of black-figured painting
ridge at the top of the picture. A relief in the Palazzo Harrison, Miss J. E., Mythology and Monuments of Athens, idea of
Spada, at its best, but unfortunately the engraving gives little

Rome, is an exact replica of this, the Ludovisi one, except in P- 43 2 > fig. 38.
its appearance.
the architecture of this distant view of Troy. All the outlines are given by lines scratched on the black
Ares' return to Olympus, howling with pain at the wound of the silhouette, but some as, for instance, the faces of the
inflicted by Diomede, is described by Homer with a quiet women (cf. fig. 45) and the shirts of the are filled in men
humour. Not the least witty part is the taunt he casts at with white paint. Other parts, marked with dark lines on the
Fig. 29. Aphrodite strives to rescue .ffineas Zeus, that the daughter he brought into the world is the only engraving, are covered with a reddish purple paint.
(line 312).
deity that does not pay heed to his commands. From an antiquarian point of view, the archaic costumes are
Red-figured painting on fragments of an Attic vase
of the fifth century b.c.
The story of the birth of Athena is first told in literature very interesting, the way in which the long hair of the men
in the Homeric Hymn to the goddess, a poem considerably is dressed, the curious apron that Hephaestus wears, and the
From Camirus. older than the noteworthy. The
vase-painting here given. Athena was con- patterns on the dresses, being especially
Journal of Philology, vii. (r876), B., p. 2 r5. ceived in the brain of Zeus, and when the time for her birth throne of Zeus is also interesting, being decorated below, as
Luckeneach, loc. (it., p. 5 1
7. came, and his head was in travail pain, he besought Hephaestus many famous thrones were, with a group of statuary, and above
to strike it with his axe. No sooner had Hephaestus dealt with a horse's head.
the blow, in the presence of all the assembled gods, than The birth of Athena has a special interest for English
The vase-painter has followed Homer Athena leaped
fairly closely. forth into the world fully armed. students, as being the subject of the sculptures on the East
.Eneas (AINEA5) has sunk to the ground half-kneeling, The Museum. For
painting shows Zeus seated on his throne, in rich Pediment of the Parthenon, now in the British
wounded in the groin (line 305) by a spear, not a stone, as and
garments, holding the thunderbolt in his right and the sceptre the latest account of these, Miss Harrison's Mythology
in Homer (302); and his half-closed eye (310), and hand in his left hand. Hephaestus has just struck the blow, and
left Monuments should be consulted.

FTER the departure of the gods, the of her and his little son Astyanax (390-496; figs. 3S, The painting illustrates the first part of this story. To the
right is the Palace of Lycurgus, from which Dionysus with his
battle continued to rage, and the 41, 46). This episode is the most touching and the
thyrsus is flying towards the sea, where Thetis, the sea-
Trojans gradually retired on Troy most famous in Homer, and in strong contrast to
goddess, rising from the waves, holds out her arms to welcome
before the onset of the Greek heroes. the scene which follows. Hector, turning away from him. Behind Dionysus one of his frenzied Mrenads (called
Hclenus the seer then advised Andromache, meets Paris coming to the battle in the nurses by Homer) is seen in an excited attitude. Lycurgus
Hector to return to the city, and send Hecuba and light-hearted pride of his youth and beauty, and with himself does not appear at all, and this has led some archrco-
the aged women of Troy solemn procession to the a heavy heart rebukes Iogist, quite wrongly, to interpret the scene as Diana and
in him for his levity.
Temple of Athena Gortinia hastening to rescue Britomartis.
in the citadel, there to present her The Tabula, fig. 4, summarises the contents of
with the fairest garment that was book
in Priam's palace the as " The conversation with Andromache,
(the pephs), and to vow a sacrifice and entreat her and he drags Paris into battle (?)
" (Zrjra- S'6/iiXia Fig. 32. The Punishment of Lycurgus.
to be gracious to the Trojans.
7rpos AvSpo/j.dxrji' kcu Udpiv e's
X"-P iv & KL ['])
Red-figured painting on a South Italian vase.
In Hector's absence the famous episode of the The scenes From Ruvo.
it gives, however, are more compre-
change of arms between Glaucus and Diomede took Mon. d. Inst., v., 23.
hensive: (1) Diomede (AIOMHAH2) stands in an
place (figs. 4 and 3;). Ann. d. Inst., 1850, p. 330-47.
They had met one another easy attitude, leaning on his spear, talking to Glaucus
in the fray, but suddenly recognised
that they were (rAAT ) ; (2) Paris issues from the Seaman gate The legend of Lycurgus in classical times differed con-
ancestral guest-friends (line
215, ^Cwo% TrarpoJtos), and of Troy Hector departs siderably from the Homeric account given above. was
; (3) for the battle, while It
so instead of fighting embraced one another, and as Andromache (ANAPOMAXH) with madness, not blinding, that he was punished, and the
holds up Astyanax for
a pledge of good-will exchanged form his madness took was to slay his own son and wife with
their armour, Glaucus his embrace ; (4) Hecuba, followed by two women, holds
giving his gold armour, worth
the price of a hundred
an axe, thinking that he was cutting down the vine which
up the peplos before the idol of Athena (TpcoaSe[s]-
oxen, for the brazen armour Dionysus had introduced. Euripides, in his play the Baccha,
of Diomede, worth but Trj A07/Va 1T7r[\0J']).
nine (235). puts this tragedy into dramatic form, ending with the crowning
horror of the death of Lycurgus at the hands of his mother
Meanwhile Hecuba, at Hector's request, had taken Agave, who, in Bacchic frenzy, knows not what she does.
the fairest embroidered robe Fig. 31. Dionysus flying before Lycurgus (line 135).
from the palace treasury, The vase-painting shows us Lycurgus, in the dress of a
and gone to the Temple of Wall-painting discovered in 1869 at Pompeii, in a
Athena, where the priestess Thracian, slaying his wife with an axe, while Dionysus, in the
39) laid it on the knees of the goddess form of a beautiful young man, stands by and seems to mildly
Archiiol. Zeitung, 1S69, PI. 21,
entreating her, but all in vain, to be favourable to the
i. reprove him. On the side are a man and woman (wearing a
Scogliano, A., Le Pitture Murali Campane,
Trojans. p. 40, No. 165. Thracian costume), carrying dead body of the son
off the
Baumeister, DenkmSUr, p. S36.
Lycurgus has slain. Behind Dionysus stands the padagogus,
Then Hector visited >arlmberg et Saglio, Did. des Antiq., 608.
Paris, roused him from his
or old man who had acted as attendant and tutor to the dead
dalliance in Helen's bower, and Bull. d. Inst., 1868, p. 198
made him arm and ; 1869, p. 13. boy, gazing on the scene with horror. Above Lycurgus, de-
come out to the battle. scending from heaven in a radiant circle of light, is
the goddess
Diomede asks Glaucus who he is, with the polite remark
After this he went to of madness (Movio, cf. Od., fig.
his own house to seek his wife that it is useless trying to fight with gods, as
52), hurling her javelin at
A"' nacl,c but liJ not find her, for she to his cost when he smote the
Lycurgus found Lycurgus. She has taken the form of a fury, is dressed in a
' <
had gone nurses of Dionysus with an
to the city walls, short skirt, with bands across her breast,
like a huntress, and
to watch the fortunes of the ox-goad, and drove the god himself
to plunge into the sea and
fight has a cluster of snakes coiling round her
from a lofty tower. take refuge in the bosom of Thetis. left arm (cf. Od.,
He met her at the Sc^an gate In punishment for this fi To the right below her is an altar prepared for
g- 59)-
and there before the Zeus sent blindness on Lycurgus, and
gate took a most pathetic brought him to a bad sacrifice, with a fire brightly burning
farewell end. and a water-jug for puri-
fication not far off. Above this the god Apollo is seated with
his lyre, while on either side of him, in a manner familiar in of Prcetus, handed him the fatal tablets. After reading them, as in the last figure, and its goat's head is turned upwards

vases of this class, are grouped other deities as spectators of Iobates commanded him to slay the monster called the towards the hero, doubtless to spew fire at him. At the sides
the scene below : Hermes to the right, and Ares (?) and Chiraaera, intending thus to bring death upon him. are the gods who protected the hero : Poseidon, with his cloak

Aphrodite (?) to the left. The painting shows us Bellerophon, who has just dismounted (chlamys) and trident, standing on the right, and Athena, armed
from Pegasus, standing before Iobates in his travelling dress with regis (cf. fig. 16), helmet, shield (with a lion as badge),

33. Bellerophon given the Letter (line r68). (cloak, wide-awake hat, high boots, and spear), and gazing with and spear, sitting on the left.
anxious expectation whilst the king reads the letter. Iobates,
Wall-painting discovered at Pompeii in 1868.
clad in a rich Phrygian dress (cf. fig. 96) and seated on his
Still in situ, Reg. ix., Is. 2, No. 16.

Ginriiale d. Scavi Pomp., N.S., i., p. 155 ; PI. 7, 2.

throne with a sceptre, is reading from the letter with a gesture Fig. 37. Glaucus and Diomede exchange Armour
Inst, 1869, 20; 1873, 152. of intense surprise. Behind the throne stands the king's (line 235).
Bull. </. p. 238; 1871, p. p.
daughter (Philonce or Cassandra), with one hand raised in An intaglio gem at Florence.
FlORELLI, Siavi d. Pomp., p. 138, n. 346.
horror. Placing a finger to her lips, she shows her sympathy Over beck, Gall. her. Bild-.o., PI. 16, 6.
Id. Descr. romf., p. 383.
Scogliano, Le Pitture Murali Campane, p. 92, No. 521. with the hero and promises to aid him in his danger. Gori, AIus. Florent. Genuine, ii., 29, 1.

Inghirami, Gall. Omer., i., 85.

Glaucus, in telling Diomede his genealogy, gives at length Roscher, Lexicon der Mythologie, p. 1678 (fig.).

the story of the adventures of his grandfather Bellerophon. Fig. 35. The Chimera (line 180).

Bellerophon, a beautiful youth, had kindled the desires of Painting on a terra-cotta plate in the archaic
The gem depicts two warriors embracing on the field of
Antca (later called Sthenebcca), wife of Prcetus, King of Rhodian style.
battle. One has laid aside his shield and spear, which may
Argos, and when he would not consent to her advances, was Found at Camirus, Rhodes, and in the Louvre, Paris.
be intended to suggest that he is about to strip off his armour
denounced by her to her husband, just as Joseph was by Salzmann, Nccropole de Camiros, PI. 40.
for the exchange, since there can be little doubt that the two
Potiphar's wife. Proetus, to take vengeance on the hero, gave
warriors arc Glaucus and Diomede.
him a letter to bear to his father-in-law, who dwelt in Lycia. The Chimaera is described by Homer as a monster :
" a lion

The tablet was one folded double, and in it Prcetus had in front, a snake behind, and a goat in the middle, breathing
written many baleful characters, fraught with destruction to an awful blast of blazing fire" XeW, omOcv

Sc SpuKW, /xcVfn; Se v/yxcupa, Savor


aTrom'uov&a. Trvpos p.evos

Fig. 38. Hector, Hecuba, and Priam (line 242).

The Pompeian wall-painting shows us Bellcrophon's de- description which the vase-painter has em- Red-figured painting on an Attic vase.
aiSo/xci'oio), a
parture. The scene is the palace of Prcetus, and the hero In the Vatican Collection, Rome.
bodied by taking a lion's body and legs as the basis of the
stands in his clonk (chlamvs), with a spear, ready to mount his monster, grafting a goat's neck and head into his back, and
Gerhard, Auserlesene gr. Vascnlnhier, iii., PI. 188.

winged steed Pegasus, whose head and fore-quarters are seen transforming his tail into a serpent. The fish in the lower
Overbeck, Gall. her. Bildw., PI. 16, 16; p. 398.

through the door. He is in the act of receiving the baleful part of the design, and the rosettes and squares which fill
Luckenbach, loc. cit., p. 552.

tablets from Prcetus (he is bearded in the original), who sits all the vacant spaces, have, of course, no connection with the
in kingly style on a throne, holding his sceptre. The trea- story of the Chimsera. The vase-painter shows us Hector, fully armed for battle

In queen Sthenebcca (Homer's Antea) appears above (with helmet, short shirt, cuirass, cloak, greaves, shield, and
the back of the throne gazing on her victim departing to his spear), pouring out a libation from a cup which his mother,
doom. Fig. 36. Bellerophon slays the Chimaera (line 183). Hecuba (EKABH), has filled from a pitcher of wine which
It should be noted that Homer makes no mention of Red-figured painting on an Attic mixing-bowl {crater). she holds in her hand (258). Hecuba is very youthful in
Pegasus, merely saying that Bellerophon trusted in the mar- Found at Ruvo, and in the Jatta Collection there. appearance, but her husband, Priam (IIPIAM02), who stands
vellous works of the gods (Otm> Tepdurm jriSijo-as; cf. bk. iv., Ann. d. Inst., Tav. d'agg., D, p. 23. behind Hector, is well stricken in years. He has a diadem
line 398). In the later form of the legend and in art the hero on his brow, is clad in a long embroidered shirt, over which
and his winged steed arc quite inseparable. Bellerophon is seen high up in the air mounted on Pegasus he wears a mantle, and leans on his staff as though lost in

(a mark branded on his hind-quarters), who soars aloft boding thoughts. Near Hector's head is an inscription,
Fir.. 34 Iobates reads the Letter (line 176). above the Chimrera. The combat has not yet begun, for " Hector is beautiful " (KAA02 EKTOP).
Red-figured vase-painting of a late Attic style. the hero holds his spear in his left hand, and, shading his It is plain that this scene does not illustrate this passage

Wiener Vorkgtblatier, Series S, PI. 9, 1. eyes with his right, is gazing anxiously at the monster below. in Homer, for Priam was not present at the meeting of
(It must be remembered that the painting is on the curved Hecuba and her son, and Hector refused to offer a libation
Bellerophon reached Lycia, and after nine days' entertain- surface of the vase, otherwise Bellerophon would seem to to Zeus (267). Still there can be little doubt that the passage in

ment by Iobates (Homer does not give his name), father-in-law be looking at Athena.) The Chimajra is of the same shape the sixth book suggested the subject to the artist, who worked
branches. Finally, the procession closes with a rural cart,
out in his own way by taking the stock scene of a warrior's de- Fig. 40. Sacrifice to Athena (line 301).
which four worshippers are seated, drawn by mules.
parture, and putting names to the two figures. The names Black-figured vase-painting of an archaic style.
are, in fact, all that shows this part of the picture to be a
In the British Museum. Fig. 41. Hector and Andromache (line 394).
special episode, for the artist has not even taken the trouble
Journal of Hellenic Studies, i., PI. 7. Red-figured painting on an Attic wine-jar (amphora).
to make Hecuba look old or to dress her as a queen (for
Iwan Muller, Handbuch der Sacralallertiimer, PI. 1, 4.
From Vulci ; in the British Museum.
the type, figs. 71 c and 72). Priam was then added as
Harrison, Mythology and Monuments, fig. 30. Journal of Hellenic Studies, ix., PI. 7.
a convenient figure to fill up the space at the side, just as
Overbeck, Gall. her. Bildw., p. 404.
in another vase-painting, almost identical with this, we find

Hector given a henchman as his companion. Hecuba and the Trojan women did not offer a sacrifice to
The vase-painter has separated husband and wife, and put
Athena when they brought her the offering of the embroidered
one on each side of the vase. Hector stands in heroic nudity,
peplos, but they made a vow that in more prosperous days
Flo. 39. Priestess with the Key of a Temple they would sacrifice ten oxen at her shrine. A sacrifice of armed only with helmet, shield (serpent as badge), and spear,

(line 298). and clad only with a small cloak (ch/amys). Andromache
this kind is shown by the vase-painting.
wears a long shift, girded at the waist and covered with a
I M'll I ROM A RED-FIGURED VASE-PAINTING OF A LATE To the right is the temple of the goddess, indicated by a
mantle. Her hair is wrapped tightly up in a kind of cap.
STYLE. single pillar. In front of this is a statue of Athena Promachus,
She turns her face to the left, as though speaking to some one
From South Italy ; at the Hermitage, St. Petersburg. and beside it the sacred serpent which dwelt in her most
Men. d, lust., vi. and The roughly built on that side, while the little boy she carries holds out his
vii., PI. 71, 2. ancient temple on the Acropolis. altar is
Ann. (1. Inst., 1862, pp. 266-74. of stone, of an unusual shape, with a sort of step on the top
hands towards some one to the right.

(cf. Od., fig. 16), on which a raven is perched. The fire on The chief problem in reconstructing the picture is to

Unlike our keys, which revolve in wards, most ancient keys, the altar is burning brightly, and a priestess approaches, bearing discover which side of Andromache Hector is supposed to be

espei i.illy those of large size, were simply levers, the end of on her head in a basket the sacred barleymeal. Behind her on. Her gesture makes it practically certain that she is

which certain holes in the bolt of the door. To open comes solemn procession, headed by a servant of the altar,
speaking to him, so that the attitude of the child, who, we
fitted a
the <l""i the key was pushed through the key-hole, and its end who with another is leading the ox that is to be the victim. may take it, is stretching out its arms to the nurse, whom
the painter has omitted (cf. Tabula Iliaca, fig. 4), is accounted
inserted into the holes in the bolt, which was then gradually Next comes a man playing on the double flute (cf. fig. 15, and
shoved back men bearing garlands, pitchers, and for by its fright at Hector's waving crest (466).
(cf. Od., fig. 88). Od., fig. 69), followed by


KCTOR had returned to the battle a truce. This done, the Greeks proceed to fortify their and the two heroes talking in friendship with one
with such renewed strength that the naval camp by the sea with a rampart and moat, to another and exchanging weapons 6VXa
Greeks determined to choose a the great indignation of Poseidon, who, as builder of SojpovvTai). Who the other figures in this tier are
champion to fight him single-handed. Troy them
(fig. 44), looked on as impious rivals. is not clear.
The lot fell on Ajax, but though he The Tabula, fig. 4, summarises the book as
fought on more than even terms with Hector (fig. 41), follows: "Ajax fights in single combat with Hector,
the battle was undecided when night came on and and night stops them " t
Ht<x' AiWEicropt jxovvojxd^n
Fig. 42. Ajax and Hector engaged in Single Combat
brought (line 244).
it to an end. The two heroes, however, parted Kal fCf dvTovs SiaAvu); and illustrates it with scenes
with an exchange of gifts in token of Red-figured painting on a drinking-cup (cylix) dy the
their admiration that are difficult to interpret, though two are quite
of each other's prowess. Athenian potter Uuris, of the fifth century b.c
clear: Ajax (AIA2) fighting with Hector (EKTOP),
On the next day both sides bury In the Louvre.
their dead under who has fallen on one knee (cf. line 271, and fig. 42), The reverse offig. 23.
Frohner, Choix de Vases Grecs, PI. 4. Fig. 43. Two Warriors separated by their Friends Fig. 44. Poseidon and Apollo presiding over the
LUCKENBACH, lOC Ct't., p. 5 I 7.
(line 276). building of a Town (line 452).

Wiener Vorlegehlatter, Series vi., PI. 7. Black-figured painting on an Attic wine-jar (amphora)
Wall-painting in the "Casa del Sirico" at Pompeii.
Homer tells us that the two heroes first hurled their lances
Formerly in the Candelori Collection, and now at Munich. Giornak d. Scavi., 1862, PI. 5.
at one another twice, Ajax wounding Hector in the neck, Robert, Bild und Lied, p. 46.
Archiiol. Zeitung, 1854, PI. 67.
and then threw each a stone at the other. In this second
Robert, Bild und Lied, p. 217.
encounter Hector was struck in the knee, and fell to the

ground ; but supporting himself with his shield, aided by

Apollo (271), he soon regained his feet. The heroes were on This vase-painting has been taken by some authorities In this passage Poseidon claims for himself and Apollo the
the point of beginning with the battle anew, hand to hand (Klein among them) to illustrate the separation of Hector and renown of having built the walls of Troy. In bk. xxi., 446,
with swords, when the heralds intervened and stopped them Ajax by the heralds at the approach of nightfall. At first when recalling the year which he and Apollo spent in the

for the night. there is nothing in the picture itself to disprove this, except service of Laomedon, King of Troy, he says that it was he
The vase-painting shows the second and third stages of the the cloth which hangs from the wall in the background, and who built the walls, while Apollo tended the oxen in the glades
fight, and gives Ajax the victory. In the centre Hector shows that the scene is not in the open battle-field. The of Mount Ida.
(HEKAOP) is seen falling with eyes half-closed, but striving to painting, indeed, is one of a series of representations of the The Pompeian painter has given a somewhat idyllic

break his fall by his shield. Behind him Apollo (AIIOAAON) quarrel between Ajax and Odysseus over the arms of Achilles rendering of this incident. Poseidon, with his trident, sits

with his quiver and bow is hastening to help him to his feet. (cf. Od., fig. 57), and corresponds so exactly with the type of on a block of hewn stone beneath a half-finished column,
Hector is armed only with helmet, shield, and sword (of the the rest that no doubt about its subject is possible. while facing him stands Apollo with quiver and bow,
kind called the kopis), the artist's intention being to suggest The two heroes are represented armed with helmet, loin- holding a laurel branch (cf. fig. 12) and leaning on his lyre.

that he has hurled his spear, but failed to wound Ajax, and so cloth (an archaic substitute for the later shirt), cuirass, and Apollo's back is turned to us, but he speaks to Poseidon,
has had recourse to his last weapon, the sword. Ajax (AIA2), greaves (the holes through which the lining is sewn on should and it would seem as though they were talking of the
on the other hand, is fully armed in short shirt, cuirass, helmet, be noted). They have just drawn their swords, and struggle to building of a huge stone wall which is going on in the
greaves, shield, and sword, has already wounded Hector, rush at one another, but are held back each by two friends, background.
and is advancing to slay him with the spear which he still an old man and a young. The old men are dressed in long This part of the picture is dim, but the workmen can
retains. Behind him appears Athena (A0EAIA), dressed in shirts and mantles, the dress of peace, a trait which alone be seen laying and dressing the stones, and hoisting with
shift and mantle, and armed with regis, helmet, and spear. would make the identification of the painting with a battle the aid of a crane the blocks which have been dragged to
She rushes forward, and with excited gesture encourages her scene very doubtful. The young men appear in true heroic the spot by oxen (these oxen are regarded by Professor
favourite to slay his enemy. Homer does not mention Athena, nudity, but the wreaths which they wear seem to show that Engelmann as an allusion to Apollo's having served
but the vase-painter required a figure to balance that of they are engaged at either a feast or sacrifice, probably both. Laomedon as cow-herd). In the middle distance an altar

Apollo (cf. Artemis in fig. 23), and so has added her to give The warriors also have wreaths, presumably of victory, on with offerings laid upon it suggests the worship of the gods
symmetry to the design. their helmets. by the new city.


N the next day Zeus called an assembly As the day went on, and the battle raged fiercely field, and he solely because one of his horses had been
of the gods, and forbade any of them towards midday, Zeus took a balance, and weighed the wounded by an arrow of Paris' (lines So-91). Diomede,
to take part in the fighting on either fates of the contending forces against one another however, took him into his chariot and rescued him.
side. He then rode in his chariot to (fig. 47), the Greeks finally sinking in the scales. There- The Greeks then rallied, and Hera and Athena de-
Mount Ida, to watch the Greeks and upon he thundered and sent confusion on the doomed scended to aid, only to be recalled by Zeus, who sent

Trojans, who were aiming for the fray (figs. 45, 46). host, so that Nestor alone of the leaders was left in the down Iris to reprove them. The battle closed at
men similar scene in the Iliad (bk. xxii., 210), where the fate of
when the Trojans left as victors on the field the flesh of the ladies is painted white, though that of the
Hector is decided in this way. This may be gathered, not
is left black.
bivouacked there for the night. The Tabula, fig. 4,
only from art, but from literature, for yEschylus himself wrote
has lost its summary of this book, but gives as one
Fig. 46. Hector's Departure (line 55). a drama on the subject.
of the scenes Nestor (N ESTOP) falling from his
Black-figured painting on an archaic vase with The Louvre vase shows Hermes (dressed in shirt and cloak,

chariot, hotly pursued by Hector fEKTOPj, a not very Chalcidian inscriptions. and holding his caduceus) weighing the two heroes, who
accurate rendering of Homer (lines 80-91). The Gerhard, Auserlesene Vasenbilder, iv., PI. 322. appear as two tiny figures in the pans of the balance, in the

Baumeister, Denkmiiler, 724, 778. presence of Zeus, who stands by, fully clothed, holding a
other scene shows I'aris (flAl'IS) fighting, not as an p. fig.

Klein, Euphronios, thunderbolt in one hand and a long knotted staff in the other.
p. 65 (5).
archer, but as a foot-soldier, with a Greek, whose name
On the other side a woman, who must be mother of one of the
has been lost.
warriors, appears entreating Zeus by lively gestures to favour
Overbeck, Gall. her. Bildw., 403, 23.
[Like fig. 45, this is a genre picture, without any allusion to a special her son. On most of the other vases both mothers (Eos and

FlO. .15. Hector's Departure (line 55).

Thetis ; cf. Od., fig. 21) are represented.

b 1
l;urkd painting on an archaic vase with To the right we have Cebriones (KEBPIQNE2) as a youth-

Corinthian inscriptions. ful groom, seated on horseback with a switch, holding Hector's
Formerly in the Camfana Collection at Rome. (EKTOP), armed for battle, takes leave
horse, while his master Fig. 48. Cerberus dragged from Hades (line 366).

The reverse has a picture 0/ youths racing on horseback. of Andromache (ANAPOMAXE), who appears as a matron Black-figured painting on an Attic water-pot (hydria)
Mon. d. Inst., 1855, PI. 20. with her mantle drawn over her head. Further on, Paris, in of the sixth century B.C.
Ann. d. Inst., 1855, p. 67. the dress of an archer, and wearing (like Perseus) winged Gerhard, Auserlesene gr. Vasenbilder, ii., PI. 131.

l:>.i \m 1 1 1
r, Iknkmaler, p. 724. boots, takes farewell of Helen, whose attention, however, has Baumeister, Denkmiiler, p. 663, fig. 730.

Robert, l'< ill und Lied, p. 23 (note 21), 250. been diverted by a man who advances behind her, gazing Roscher, Lexicon der Mythologie, p. 2205.
LUCKF.NMACII, IflC. Cl't., p. 543. steadily backwards at some youths on horseback (not shown
Brunn, Troische Miscelkn, p. 75. here) who follow Cebriones.
Athena, talking with Hera of the favour Zeus has shown the
Conzh, Vorlegtblatter, Scries iii., 1. It should be remembered that to represent warriors as riding,
Trojans, says that her father is ungrateful to forget how she
not using a chariot, is, as far as Homer is concerned, an aided Heracles in the labours which Eurystheus had imposed
The oldei Greek vase-painters are extremely fond of de- anachronism, for in his time horses were never ridden in
upon him, and has consented to listen to Thetis, and avenge
plcting the departure of heroes for war (cf. battle.
figs. 62, 71 c; Achilles.
Od., fig. such scenes are represented without
73), but as a rule
The labour of Heracles which she quotes as her greatest
any Bpecial reference to any particular departure of the hero in Fig. 47. Weighing of the Souls of Combatants
exploit is his descent to Hades, whence he dragged Cerberus
question. This
the case with the Corinthian vase given
is (Vtuxoo-Tao-ia), (line 70).
up to the light of the world above.
here to illustrate Hector leaving Troy for the last
time. Red-figured painting on the fragments of an Attic In the vase-painting we see to the left the entrance gate to
To leftthe of
the picture Priam (HPIAMOS, backwards)
and vase of the fifth century b.c. Hades, indicated by a single pillar. Out of this Heracles, clad
Hecuba (BKABA) appear taking leave of Hector (EKTOP). Formerly in the collection of the Due de Luynes, now in the in a lion-skin (with a shirt under it), and armed with a bow,
Hectoi is fully armed with helmet, loin-cloth,
cuirass, shield, Louvre.
quiver, and dragging Cerberus by a rope from his post
club, is
and spear, and is being embraced by his mother.
Behind him Much restored.
in the portico (two only of Cerberus' three heads are shown),
Stand two ladies, Aino, or Ainos (AINO[5]
), and Kianis Mon. d. Inst., ii., PI. 10 b.
(KIANIS), who are gazing on Hector's chariot,
to the great dismay of Persephone, who gesticulates her protest.
in which his Ann. d. Inst., pp. 264, 294. The road outside the gate is overgrown with trees, which the
charioteer, Cebriones (KEBPIONES), stands waiting. The Robert, Bild und Lied, p. 143. artist represents by a
chariot is drawn by four horses, one single shrub. Hermes, however (with
of whom is called Overbeck, Gall. her. Bildw., PI. 22,
Raven " (KOPAB). 9; p. 527, 65. wide-awake hat, or petasus, winged boots, and chlamys), is
" On the other side of the horses we see Luckenbach, loc. cit., p. 617 (h). waiting to guide the hero through the dark
a warrior called Hippomachus (UinnOMAXOS) maze to the spot
talking to
twoladii s, Behind the chariot is another warrior, where Athena stands, fully armed, waiting for him with a
followed by This vase is one of a large series, which represent Zeus
ahorseman (AAI*ONOS), leading another chariot drawn by four horses.
horse.called Xanthus deciding the issue of the battle between
(HANSOS), and accompanied by a warrior Memnon and Achilles The costume of Hermes is worth noticing, especially the
walking at the over the dead body of Antilochus (cf. Od., figs. 15, 21).
"" side, Finally, Polyxcna
This archaic pig-tail in which he wears his hair, and the boots with

Cassandra weighing of the souls, or *vYoo-Tao-uz, was an episode in
E E3 \X Al'A) close the scene
to the right.
the wing-like flaps in front, so different from the later forms
of his
sEthiopis of Arctinus of Miletus (cf. Tabula Iliaca,
It is worth noting that in this, as in fig.
3), shoes (cf. fig. no). For another painting of Heracles dragging
most black-figure paintings, and had a much greater hold on the popular mind than the
Cerberus from Hades, see Od., fig. 59.


HE reverses which his army had suffered which he plays with a plectrum. Patroclus leans on the back Fig. 51. Carving Meat (line 209).

of the throne and listens. His sole costume is the chlamys

at the hands of the Trojans led Black-figured painting from an archaic vase.
(which, at this period of art, was the characteristic dress of
Agamemnon to summon the chieftains
From Care ; in the Campana Collection at the Louvre.
heroes), and he carries a sword under his left arm. To the
Other scenes from the same vase are given, Od.,figs. 58 and 90.
and to propose a hurried retreat right of the picture two girls are seen seated on a large block
Mon. d. Inst, vi., PI. 33.
home. Diomede and Nestor, however, of stone, against which the sword and shield of Achilles lean.
Daremberg et Saglio, Diet, des Ant., p. T270, fig. 1690.
prevailed upon him to give up such a disgraceful plan One of these is reading, and perhaps also singing, from a sheet

of paper, while the other beats time with her finger. In the
and to continue the war. Still, all felt that nothing
background is a draped curtain, showing that the tent of was the custom
and the banquet
It in Homeric times for the host to slay the
could be done without Achilles ; so, at
Achilles is the scene of the picture. animals, carve the meat himself, and apportion the parts that
which followed, they persuaded Agamemnon to send
were for the gods or the several guests (cf. //., xxiv., 621-6;
to the hero offering to restore Briseis, with seven other Od., iii., 448 ; xiv., 425), his squire helping by holding the joints,
maids, and many other presents, if he would give up Fig. 50. The Embassy to Achilles (line 225). as Automedon did for Achilles. In the banquets of the suitors
his wrath and fight for the Greeks. Phcenix, Ajax, Red-figured painting on a cup (cotyle) by the celebrated in the Palace of Odysseus, two servants (SaiTpoi) did the

and Odysseus, with two heralds, were accordingly sent Athenian potter Hieron, of the fifth century b.c. carving (cf.331; xv., 140), but this was doubtless
Od., xvii.,

In tin Louvre. on account of the absence of the master of the house.

to the tent of Achilles, where they found him, and
The reverse is given in fig. n. The vase-painting shows us one of the side scenes at a feast
Patroclus by his side, singing heroic ballads to the
Mon. d. Inst., vi., PI. ig. (cf. Od., fig. 90). A bearded man with a large knife stands before
music of the lyre (fig. 49). He received them most Baumeister, Denkmiiler, fig. 776. a table, on which lie portions of meat already carved, and
courteously, and prepared a feast for their enter- Klein, Meistersignaturen, p. 170 (17). stretches out his left hand to take a leg brought him by a
tainment. During the feast Odysseus, who was the Robert, Bild und Lied, p. 95. youth. Behind the carver stands a large mixing-bowl (crater),

spokesman, broached the business for which they had Wiener VorlegebUitter, Series C, PI. 6. on the side of which a wine-jug is balanced. When the
carving is completed, the portions will be carried off and
come, but Achilles refused to hear of terms, and an-
roasted, and then distributed by the host to his guests, with
nounced his intention of sailing home on the morrow. Achilles ( AAEY2) sits in his tent (indicated by the sword due regard to their precedence.
Even his old friend Phoenix, whom he had pressed and cap hanging on the wall), closely wrapt in his cloak,
to remain with him, was unable to move him, and naive way of expressing his sulky resentment against Agamem-
Odysseus and Ajax had at last to depart with the
non which is found in the vase-paintings of this type. Before Fig. 52. The Calydonian Boar-hunt (line 533).

him stands Odysseus (OAVTEV) in the costume of a traveller

Black-figured painting on the celebrated Francois
message that Achilles would not stir till Hector had
(short shirt girded high, small cloak, or chlamys, wide-awake vase at Florence.
slain the Greeks, and came to attack the Myrmidons hat, which has been improperly restored, two spears, and a Klein, Meistersignaturen, p. 32.
in their tent. sword), leaning on his spears, and pleading the cause of the
Greeks with an eloquent gesture.
Fig. 49. Achilles playing the Lyre (line 186). Behind him stands Ajax (AIA2), while on the other side The Calydonian boar was a huge monster sent by Artemis
Wall-painting, high, by 2 ft. 3J in. wide.
2 ft. i in. Phoenix (<pOIN is seen behind Achilles.
) Both the latter to ravage the country of CEneus, King of Calydon, because
In the " Casa de Capitelli Colorati," Pompeii. are in the ordinary Greek dress of shirt and mantle, and lean on one occasion he had failed or forgotten when sacrificing
Museo Borbonico, xiii., PI. 37. on long knotted staves. The extreme youth of Achilles, who to honour her alone of the gods. The boar devastated the
Helbig, Wandcgcmalde, No. 1315. is beardless, whereas the others have long thick beards, is crops, and even uprooted trees, and was in the end only slain
strongly brought out. when Meleager gathered warriors and dogs from many cities

Achilles, a strong and beautiful youth, is seated on a throne The rich inlaying of the chair on which Achilles sits and its and hunted it down.
in the centre of the picture, singing to the sound of a lyre, embroidered cushion are worth notice. Later Greek tradition gave names to the heroes whom
Meleager summoned to the hunt, almost making an epic of it, According to Homer, Meleager had wedded Cleopatra, the Found in 1838 at Santa Marinella ; now in the Berlin

with a muster-roll only second to Homer's. daughter of Idas and Marpessa. Idas was the strongest of Antiquarium.
The myth consequently became a favourite one in art, and men, and when Apollo had carried off his betrothed bride he Mon. d. Inst.,m., PI. 58.
is often found on vase-paintings; the most famous (next to dared to draw his bow against the god. Ann. d. Inst., 1843, P- 2 37-
the present one) being that of Archikles and Glaukytes at The myth was one of those represented on the famous Baumeister, Denkmiiler, p. 915, fig. 909.
Munich. In later times it was the subject of the sculptures "Chest of Cypselus " at Corinth (seventh century B.C.). On it Verzeichniss der Ant. Skitlpturen (Berlin), No. 215.
with which Scopas adorned one of the pediments of the Idas was depicted leading Marpessa, who followed him willingly,
Temple of Athena Alea at Tegea. It also appears on the from the Temple of Apollo.
reliefs from Gjolbaschi (cf. fig. 5) in Roman times, and is to The Etruscan mirror shows Marpessa (Marmis) standing
Meleager was in Greek, and later in Roman art, the type of
be seen on several sarcophagus reliefs. between Idas (Ite) and Apollo (Apulu), both of whom are
the ideal hunter, and many Roman replicas (Pliny, N. H., 34,
In the painting from the Francois vase, the boar appears in armed with bows. There is nothing to suggest their enmity
91) of what must have been a celebrated Greek statue of him
the centre. He bristles with the arrows which the hunters except their gestures, which are those of lively debate, nor is
are to be found in museums. The best known of these that
have planted in him, and is worried by a dog (MAP<J>aa2) that there any hint of how it ended. A scholiast on the passage

in the Vatican, but in point of beauty it is not nearly so fine as

has jumped on his back, and snaps at his ears. Yet the battle of Homer tells us that Zeus sent Hermes down to end the
not on one side, for the boar tramples beneath his feet
that in the Berlin Museum given here. Unlike the Vatican
is all battle by giving Marpessa her choice of the combatants. She
statue, which has a fluttering cloak wrapped round one arm, the
the dead hunter Ancreus (here called ANTAI02), at whose chose Idas.
feet lies a dog ((JI'MKNOS) ripped open by his tusk. Front
figure is completely nude. The hero is a well-built, manly
youth (cf. a description of a painting,
and rear the hunters are hurrying up with spears and javelins, Fig. 54. The Battle with the Curetes (line 597).
in Philostratus, ch. 15,
bows and arrows. Conspicuous among these are Peleus which exactly fits him), and stands just on the point of starting
Relief on the lid of a Roman sarcophagus.
(I1ELEV2), and Meleager (MELEArPOS), who receive the hunt with the boar-spear leaning on his left shoulder.
for the
Walled into an open loggia at the Vatican, Rome.
boar on the point of their spears (cf. fig. Behind them The form of the spear, with the large projections below the
55). Ann. d. Inst, 1863, PI. A. B. 5, p. 104.
is the huntress Atalanta (ATALATE) with her woman's pep/us blade, is worth noting, as being that invariably used in classical
Baumeister, Denkmiiler, p. 919.
girded high, and at her side Melanion with his dog Methepon. times for boar-hunting, and surviving in Germany at the present
Near them kneels an archer, Euthymachos, and behind him day.
The war between the Curetes and the /Etolians of Calydon
Thorax and Antandros and the hound Labros, followed

was the result of the slaying of the boar (fig. 52), for the Curetes
by Aristandros and Arpylea.
claimed it as theirs. So long as Meleager fought all went well
On the olher side the hound Corax (with Corinthian koppa)
with the -Etolians ; but when in pique with his mother he left Fig. 56. Meleager slain by Apollo.
In eized the boar from behind, while the hunters Polydeukes the field, the Curetes were irresistible, and sacked the city,
and Kastor (Castor), Akastos and Asmetus, Simon
(Pollux) Relief on a Roman sarcophagus.
until Meleager yielded to the prayers of his wife and drove
and Antimachos, Kunortes and Pausileon, follow with spears In the Naples Museum.
them back.
and javelins. Kimerios and Toxamis shoot their bows, and Arehiiol. Zeitung, 187 1, PI. 54, 2
The sarcophagus relief shows on the left the Curetes setting

the hounds Elertes and Ebolos rush on the quarry. Baumeister, Denhndler, p. 919.
fire to the and on the right Meleager sallying forth from
The version here, though at least as old
as the seventh
the city gate and slaying them. In the centre, between the
1 entury B.C., is manifestly much more developed than that of
two groups, is a female figure in the garb of a huntress, which
Homer, who gives no hint that Peleus, Castor, or Pollux took
Homer does not tell how Meleager met his end, but
Dr. Engelmann takes to be the goddess Artemis, the cause of merely
part in the hunt, and never mentions Atalanta says that the Erinnys heard the
at all, though in prayer of his mother Althcea
all the trouble. It seems, however, more probable that
the later versions she is the most important person concerned. it is that he might die (line
Atalanta, the beautiful huntress, who, according
571). Hesiod, however (accord-
Manj cf the names on the vase-painting are, however, the to the later ing to Pausanias, x.,
31, 3), in the Eoae, makes Apollo
version of the story, had been awarded the boar's
artist's invention, ami have no mythological warrant. head and slay him in the battle with the Curetes.
skin by Meleager, to the great annoyance of In later times,
The skins worn by the heroes arc interesting as a survival the Curetes, who however, this version was forgotten,
of made this the pretext for war. and thelife of Meleager
the primitive hunter's dress, which made depend on the mysterious torch the
is more familiar to us when fates had given
worn by Heracles (cf. fig. 48). his mother. This is the form of the legend
familiar to us,
and ,t ,s said to have been
Fig. 55. Meleager (line 543). first mentioned by
FlO. 53 -Marpessa, Apollo, and Idas (line 560). I he Naples sarcophagus
follows the older version,
Marble statue a little over life-size. Roman and depicts
An Etruscan mirror. copy Apollo (wearing a short cloak or
of a Greek original, in the style of chlamys, and having his
the Empire. hair
Gerhard, Sir. Spiegel, PI. So. tied in an archaic knot)
Head, right arm, part of leg, plinth, and drawing his bow at Meleager,
Roschi dog re- who
r, /, won der MyihologU ("Idas"), vol.
drops his sword, and, stricken
to death, falls backwards
ii., p. stored by Wolff.

HIS book is known as the AoXwi/eia, skin mantle and a cap of marten-skin, on a tamarisk other vase-paintings, notably one by Euphronios. The tree in

the background of the picture is the tamarisk (pvpUr)) on

the capture and slaying of Dolon tree (fig. 57). Then both heroes went on to the tent of
which Odysseus hung Dolon's spoils (line 466).
being the central incident. Rhesus, slew the king and twelve of his followers as they
The narrative begins with the coun- slept (fig. 58), took the king's horses, and, mounting
of war which Agamemnon, unable
Fig. 58. The Horses of Rhesus (line 482).
cil them, rode back to the Trojan camp in safety.
Red-figured painting on a South Italian vase.
to sleep for anxiety, had with the help of Menelaus
Wiener Vorlegebldtter, Series C, PI. 32.
called together in the middle of the night. The
proposition of Nestor, that a spy should be sent to the
Fio. 57. Dolon (line 370).
Two scenes are given in the picture. In the upper part
Red-figured painting on an Attic vase of the begin- wooded their feet buried
Trojan camp, was eagerly taken up by Diomede, who lie the Thracians fast asleep on a hill,
clad in their national costume
chose as a companion Odysseus. The two heroes then
in the grass. They are all (cf.

Formerly in the Campana Collection ; now in the Hermitage,

Od., fig. 59) of embroidered trousers and vest with tight
armed themselves, Diomede taking a sword and shield, St. Petersburg.
sleeves, over which a blouse or shirt is worn. The king,
Odysseus a sword, bow, and quiver, and both putting on The picture is repeated on the other side of the vase. distinguished from
Rhesus (over whose head a star appears), is

skin caps. Thus equipped they set out in the darkness, Ann. d. Inst., 1875, Tav. d'agg., Q. 1, p. 299. adorned.
the others by the cockscomb with which his tiara is

Klein, Euphronios, p. 143.

encouraged by the cries of a night-heron, which Athena On the right Diomede in high boots and felt cap (pilidion),

had sent as an omen. Before long they fell in with

Roscher, Lexicon, p. 1195 (Dolon). and with only a small cloak girt to his waist mounts the hill
Baumeister, Denkmaler, p. 459. a Thracian, whom he
with a drawn sword, while on the left
Dolon, a Trojan of mean appearance, whom Hector
has beheaded, lies dead, and one of his comrades flies in terror.
had sent to spy out the Achaean camp. He fled at
In the centre Dolon is depicted clad in short shirt and (2) In the lower part of the picture Odysseus (in chlamys and
their approach, but was overtaken, surrendered without wolf-skin, and armed with a bow and quiver (line 334). He pilidion) is leading two prancing steeds away from the camp
a struggle, and told them the whereabouts of the is running in full flight, closely pursued by two warriors, who, through marshy ground. He has his sword drawn, and is

different detachments of the Trojans giving especial coming up on both sides of him, make escape impossible. hurriedly following Diomede, who looks round to beckon him

prominence the Both heroes are dressed in a wide-awake hat (petasus) and to the left towards the ships.
to fact that Rhesus, King of the
short cloak (chlamys), and armed each with a spear. This The decorative character of the design is noteworthy;
Thracians, an ally newly arrived, lay encamped far from
equipment is Homer, who makes them wear
at variance with Diomede and the flying Thracian balance one another, and
the rest. After extracting this information, Diomede skin caps, and arms Odysseus with sword and bow, and Diomede the two horses are grouped symmetrically on each side of
slew the treacherous spy, and hung his spoils, a wolf- with sword, shield, and spear. It is, however, found on several Odysseus.

N the day following, Eris, the goddess retiring when grievously wounded (fig. 60). At his Ajax to rescue him (fig. 61). Menelaus took him in

of strife (fig. 59), by the command of departure Hector rallied the Trojans to such good his chariot, for he was wounded, and Ajax held the
Zeus, stirred up a mighty battle, in purpose that they routed the Greeks and wounded Trojans in play (fig. 60). After this Paris wounded
which Agamemnon performed great Diomede, who strove to turn the tide of battle. After Machaon and Euripylus. The former, as he fled

feats of arms, driving the Trojans, this Odysseus alone remained to face the foe, but even in the chariot of Nestor, attracted the attention of
with Hector himself, back to the city walls, and only he was surrounded and driven to call on Menelaus and Achilles, who sent Patroclus to inquire how the battle
(AXIA ), in full
armour (bearded, as
Book XI. On the left Achilles
61. Scenes from Iliad,
and wearing a cuirass over an embroidered
returned Yio. loin-
was going. Patroclus, on hearing from Nestor, in all early art,

go into battle wear- cloth, helmet, and greaves, and

armed with shield and spear),
to beseech Achilles to allow him to Relief on an Etruscan sarcophagus.
is clasping the hand of
Nestor (NE2TOP), who appears as an
strike terror into the (the ancient Tarquinii) i875-
ing Achilles' armour, and thus Found at Corneto ,

old man with thin grey hair (on

which is a wreath), a close-cut
Trojans. Jahrbuch des Inst., (1886), p. 205. Behind
a long mantle and carrying a
i. staff.
beard, wearing
Mon. d. Inst., xi., PI. 5- waiting. Phoenix (*OINIH,
Achilles a four-horsed chariot is

Ann. d. Inst., 1883, PI. v., p. 243.

Fro. 59. Eris (line 73).
backwards) stands in it holding the reins, and Nestor's son,

Black-figured painting on the archaic Chalcidian Antilochus (cf. Od., fig. fuV
15), ed is *
m untin S .

painted. At the of the chariot is the winged

vase on which flg. 2^ is (ANTIAOXOS). side

ArchSol Zeitung, 1886, PI. 206, 2. Three pairs of combatants are represented in the relief, the figure of Iris (IPI2, backwards), who holds in her right hand

Baumeister, Denkmaler, p. 18, fig. 20. Trojans being distinguished by their Phrygian caps from the the herald's staff which is her badge as messenger of the gods.
Greeks, two of whom wear breastplates.
Professor Brunn interprets this scene as Achilles pledging
The Greek, beginning at the left, is Odysseus, easily against
himself to accompany Nestor and join the expedition
In the goddess of strife, appears here (as on several other

recognised by his sailor's conical cap of felt. He is evidently

In this case we must suppose that the artist means
head and four to
archaic paintings) as a monster with a Gorgon's Troy.
on the defensive (460), and the next Greek warrior, who must
imply that Nestor and Achilles will mount a second
She clad in a long garment, has chariot
wings on her shoulders. is

be Ajax, is striving to get to him, and fighting hard to pass a

wings on her feet, and is supposed to be flying, though the and depart with Phoenix and Antilochus. This would solve
technique only allows him to represent her running
naked Trojan youth, who hurls a large stone as his last weapon. no chariot for Achilles, as the one
artist's the difficulty that there is
Next Ajax a man with a Greek wide-awake hat, blowing a
swiftly. The sphinx at each side is purely decorative, and has to is
shown is already occupied. Luckenbach's theory that the
shell to rally his side. This is probably Teucer. Then comes and Antilochus
no connection with the goddess. painting represents the departure of Achilles
a Greek (6) grievously wounded in the left thigh by a spear
on some unrecorded expedition fails to explain this point.
which has pierced and broken off at both sides. He totters,

supporting himself with both hands on his spear, and seems to

FiO, 60. The Flight of the Achaeans.
make no attempt to defend himself from the Trojan who faces
Black-glazed vase with figures in moulded relief, seen putting
him (7). Further to the right Patroclus (8) is
pr0i1a1ilv of the hellenistic period. Fig. 63. j*Eneas in Single Combat with an Achaean.
on his cuirass, while an attendant brings him his sword and
Found at Tanagra ; in the Polytechnikon, Athens.
greaves. Black-figured painting on an archaic Corinthian
'KtftjjiitjUi 'ApxtuoXlKT/, 1887, 7ri'f. 5, 2.
On the whole, the picture agrees better with Homer than
unguent flask (aryballus) of the seventh century B.C.
5o lcB Winctolmannsfest J'rogramm, 1890, p. 21.
most Etruscan reliefs ; the only important discrepancies being
Found at Cervetri(the ancient Care) ; now in the Art Museum,
that Euripylus was wounded with an arrow, not a spear (lines
On the left seen the rampart of the Achaean camp, Vienna.
5835), that Teucer is not mentioned, and that Patroclus is a
lirisilinr, witli palisades (XAPAE AXAIfiN), towards which bearded warrior well advanced in years. There can however Ann. d. Inst., 1886, Tav. d'agg., Q, p. 275.
three chariots are galloping at full speed. In the first chariot be scarcely any doubt that it is Patroclus, for on a relief on Luckenbach, loc. cit., p. 536.
a bearded warrior stands looking backwards, apparently one of the sides of the sarcophagus he again represented as
towards a man on foot, who runs beside the second chariot. bearded.
This is probably Menelaus driving away wounded, but shouting Two warriors, dressed in closely fitting shirts and armed with
to the other heroes to make a stand. In the second chariot helmet and shield, are hurling their spears at one another,
are two figures, both with names inscribed, but of these while their attendants, mounted on horseback, wait on each
Odysseus (OAY5SEY2) alone is legible ; so that this represents Fig. 62. Achilles going out to War (line 781). side. One of the heroes has the name /Eneas inscribed in
his rescue by Menelaus, line 487 (the inscription, however, looks archaic Corinthian letters, but otherwise there is nothing to
mure Red-figured painting on a drinking-cup (cylix) bv the
like Agamemnon). The warrior in the third chariot is show the scene to be Homeric. It is, in fact, merely a decora-
potters Euxitheos and Oltos.
Hector, with his charioteer Cebriones whipping on the horses tive picture of a combat to which a name has been attached,
in hot pursuit (lines 521-43). He raises his spear to
Formerly in the Canino Collection, now in the Berlin and it is worth noting that the custom of going to war on
hurl it at Odysseus and Menelaus. It is not easy to name Antiquarium. post-Homeric.
horseback is

the warrioi who runs beside the second chariot, but Pro- Wiener Vorlegebldtter, Series D, PI. 2. After the manner of archaic art, all the vacant spaces in the
fessor Robert is probably right in identifying him with Ajax. Luckenbach, loc. cit., i., 62. design are filled with birds, palmettes, lotus buds, or stars,
Homer, it is true, tells us he retired slowly, but the Greek potters, Klein, Meistersignaturen, p. 135. which have no connection whatever with the figures they
even in the later periods, are proverbially inaccurate. Overbeck, Gall. her. Bildiu., xviii., 2, p. 428. surround.
Fig. 64. Battle over a Fallen Hero. Welcker, Antike Denkmaler, PI. xv. badge upon his shield), who are aided by an archer. The
Black-figured painting on a Corinthian vase of the Longperier, Mus. Napoleon, iii., PI. 67. scene is one of the ordinary type of battle scenes, but in
seventh century b.c. this case the fact that the figures on the right represent

The part representing the suicide of Ajax is given Od.,fig. 58. Diomede and Odysseus gazing at the transfixed body of
Mon. d. Inst., vi., PI. 33. A warrior of gigantic proportions is defending the body of a Ajax would suggest that this particular combat is over the

Schneider, Der troische Sagenkreis, p. 166. fallen friend against two foemen (one of whom has a cock as dead body of Achilles (cf. Od., fig. 14).


M the fighting which follows the Trojans Fig. 65. Single Combat between yEneas and Ajax. guished himself greatly in the fighting, but nearly always in

Black-figured painting on a Corinthian drinking-cup conjunction with his namesake.

under Hector, favoured by Zeus, suc-
(cylix) of the sixth century b.c. In classical times he was worshipped by the Opuntian Locri
ceeded in breaking down the wall that
private possession at
and so appears on their coins as a nude
as their ancestral hero,
Found in Greece, and formerly in
defended the Greek camp, and were warriorarmed with helmet, shield, and sword rushing forward
on the point of storming the ships Ann. on the foe. Between his legs his name is inscribed, while
d. Inst., 1862, Tav. d'agg., B.
themselves, when Poseidon came to their aid and enabled behind him and above his shield is the legend " Of the
LUCKENBACH, IOC. tit., p. 536.
Opuntians" (OrONTON). It is worth noting that the shield
the two Ajaces and other heroes to repel the enemy.
The each other with up-
is ornamented inside with the figure of a griffin.
The Tabula warriors, like those in fig. 63, face
Iliaca, fig. 3, gives several of the single
Of course the coin does not give a portrait of the Homeric
lifted spear, while their attendants wait on them, holding their
combats which took place in the melee that succeeded hero in any sense of the word, and we must picture him as
(Book XIII.). Meriones is shown seizing Acamas clothed in a cuirass of quilted linen (\wo6ibpr], II., ii., 529),
The hero to the right has the name tineas, and his squire
(Adamas in Homer) by the hair to cut off his head, a with loin-cloth and greaves, if we wish to imagine the epic
that of Hippocles, while the warrior to the left is Ajax (AIFA2),
version quite different from that in the text (line 567). his squire being also called Ajax (being intended, no doubt,
Idomeneus rushes to slay the wounded Othrioneus, for Ajax the Locrian. Cf. fig. 66).
Fig. 67. Hypnos (lulling Ariadne to sleep), (line 290).

whom Asius is trying to drag from the battle (quite

On the extreme right is a naked man, who kneels in terror,
Red-figured painting on an Attic drinking-cup (cylix)
but is probably intended in the exaggeration of archaic art to
unlike line 363 foil.), and .(Eneas is in hot pursuit of OF THE FIFTH CENTURY B.C.
be flying with all speed. He is called Dolon (cf. fig. 57).
Aphareus (line 541). Found near Corneto (Tarquinii).
The names, however, which are in archaic Corinthian
The scenes from Book XIV. (H) continue the story characters,
Mon. d. Inst., xi., PI. 20.
are inserted rather as an ornament to the battle
scene than to show that
Ann. d. Inst., 1880, pp. 150-8.
of the battle. Ajax the Locrian (AIAS AOKPOS) it is an illustration of Homer, and so
Baumeister, Denkmaler, p. 124.
raises his sword to cut down Archelochus it is useless to inquire what is the precise incident represented.
(cf. line 463,
where he comes to rescue Satnius, who seems to be Ariadne lies on a rock under the shadow of a spreading vine
represented on the original marble, though the artist fast asleep, while Hypnos hovers over her head holding out a

has omitted him in the drawing). Further on Ajax,

Fig. 66. Ajax the Locrian (line 442). garland to encircle it. At the foot of the couch Theseus is seen
Obverse of a coin of the Opuntian Locri. bare-footed lifting his sandal (the laces are in his left hand) as
encouraged by Poseidon, and Hector, protected by In the Cabinet des Medailles, Paris. he quietly slips away after the god Hermes, who beckons him
Apollo, are hurrying through the battlefield, but there Roscher, Lexicon der Mythologie, vol. i., p. 138. to depart. Hypnos is winged and youthful, and almost iden-
is no hint that the scene refers to any definite incident Daremberg et Saglio, Diet, des Aniiq., p. 173, fig. 197. tical with Eros, with whom, in fact, some commentators have
in the Iliad. The closing incident of the book, the confused him here. There are, however, somany other
Ajax, the son of Oileus, King of the Locrians, and the leader instances of representations of this type, where Endymion and
lulling of Zeus to sleep on Mount Ida by the god
of the Locrians in the expedition against Troy, is generally others are visited in their sleep, that there can be no doubt
Hypnos (fig. 67), and the consequent repulse of the
called Ajax the Less, on account of the greater fame of Ajax, about the identification here, though elsewhere it is true the
Achaeans, is not given at all by the Tabula. son of Telamon (cf. Od., figs. 57, 58). He, however, distin- god appears considerably older, e.g., in fig. 73.
Fig. 69. The Battle at the Ships (line 442) ;
saw a torch. This last scene does not correspond to
EUS, on awaking from his sleep,
aids Ajax (line 718).
the Achaeans, with the aid of Homer, for Helenus appears in Book XII., but not in
Engraved gem.
Poseidon, driving the Trojans before this, and /Eneas and Paris (341) are mentioned in
In the Collection at Florence.
them, and sent down Iris and Apollo quite a different incident of the fight. Gall. her. Bildxv., xvii., 9, p. 424.
the one to command Poseidon to Baumeister, Denkmaler, p. 729.

depart, the other to heal Hector of

As in the scene on the Tabula see above in the
his wound, which he did with such success that the Fig. 68. The Battle at the Ships (lines 420, 718; cf. (fig. 3,

summary of the book), Ajax stands in the curved poop of the

xvi., 125).
Trojans once more reached the ships, and actually
compared with
ship holding out his mighty shield, a very giant
threatened that he would burn the ship of Protesilaus. Red-figured painting on an Attic vase.
Teucer, who kneels beside him showering arrows on the
The main incidents of this " Battle at the Ships In the Old Pinakothek, Munich. There are several replicas of this gem.

68) are given by the Tabula To Gerhard, Auserlesene Vasenbilder, iii., 197.
(fig. (fig. 3) under O.
Baumeister, Denkmaler, p. 727, fig. 783.
the right is the ship (EIIINAT2IMAXH), from the deck
Fig. 70. Hector setting Fire to the Ship of Pro-
of which Ajax with his shield and Teucer with his bow
tesilaus (line 718).
On the left of the picture is the curved poop of Protesilaus'
are fighting (fig. 69). Hector (EKTOP) is at the poop
ship, beside which Ajax stands at bay, hurling a spear (this has Engraved gem.
of the ship, hurling a torch (fig. 70), while behind
been rubbed off in the vase-painting) at the Trojans who are Overbeck, Gall. her. Bildw., PI. xvii., 8, p. 423.
him is a Trojan who stoops to pick up a stone, and at rushing on. At his feet lies an Achaean (Cytherius ? cf. Inghirami, Gall. Outer., ii., 137.
his feet the lifeless body of Caletor, whom Ajax had struggling to rise, but wounded to the death by Hector, who Roscher, Lexicon der Mytlwlogie, p. 1921.

slain (line 419). On the high ground to the left leads the Trojan attack, accompanied by a warrior carrying a
blazing torch. Behind them is a Trojan warrior (Caletor? cf. Hector here, as in the Tabula (fig. 3), appears at the poop
/Eneas advances to the fray holding out his shield
419), who is wounded, but seems to be cheering on a warrior, of the ship bearing the torch himself, instead of having it
(wrongly restored as a bow), with Helenus in advance
who advances to support Hector, armed with shield and sword. carried by a comrade, as in fig. 68. He has lowered it, evidently
shooting his bow. Below them Clitus is seen sinking The scene is closed by Paris, in the dress of an archer, aiming into the ship, and leans back-
with the intention of hurling it

to the earth (line 445), and Paris runs forward with a bow towards the ship. wards to get the necessary impetus.


HE story now returns to Patroclus, and Patroclus arms himself (fig. 71). He appears The Tabula (fig. 3), under IT, shows first Patroclus
who, after saving Machaon (bk. xi.), on the scene in the guise of his friend just at the arming ; then Achilles seated on a throne dejectedly,
came back to the tent of Achilles, moment when the ship has caught fire and Ajax is leaning his head upon his hand, and Phcenix and
and with tears begged to be allowed sinking from fatigue. He routed the Trojans with Diomede standing before him (in the original the
to lead the Myrmidons against the great slaughter, slaying Sarpedon, whose dead body figures have neither helmets nor short tunics, but these
Trojans. Achilles consents on the condition that was borne away by Sleep and Death (fig. 73), but have been added by the restorer). This scene is not
he is to do nothing more than save the camp, was himself slain by Hector. to be found in the Iliad as we have it : it is probably
a reminiscence of some passage in a later poet, and his cuirass, is throwing his sword over his shoulder (line 135, Nestor and Amphilochus, he reminds us that it was owing to

doubtless represents Achilles waiting anxiously to hear afupl S' ap ufjioio-Lv /?oActo t<os apyvpoyXov), and then the Nestor's eloquence that Patroclus went into battle (xi., 804)
picture closes with two more youths, one of whom is tying to meet his doom, the news of which Antilochus was fated
the fate of Patroclus. The rest of the picture is taken
his pig-tail tighter. to bear to Achilles.
up by the combat between Hector and Patroclus
The picture in the centre shows a fully armed warrior on
(730- the point of departure, receiving a farewell cup of wine from
a lady (the artist's signature is inscribed above, AOPI2
Fig. 73. Sarpedon's Body borne away by Sleep and
Death (line 454).
Fig. 71. Warriors arming (a and b), and a Warrior It is remarkable how closely the order of arming follows Red-figured painting on a drinking-cup (cylix) by the
departing (c), (line 130). Attic potter Pamphaios, of the end of the sixth century
the Homeric description, the only difference being that the
Red-figured paintings on a drinking-cup (cylix) by the epic hero took his shield before putting on his helmet (line

doubtless because the shield was worn in those early

From Vulci ; in the British Museum.
Athenian potter Duris, of the early fifth century b.c. 135),
times by a strap (rtXa/i^) round the body, and not merely Wiener Vorlegebldtter, Series D, PI. 3.
In the Oesterreichisches Museum, Vienna,
attached to the arm Klein, Meistersignaturen, p. 94 (20).
(cf. fig. 80). It is worth noting that all
Schreiber, Kulturhist. Bilderatl., PI. 35, 1-5. Eufhronios, p. 274, fig. on p. 272.
the warriors in the painting have long hair, like the Homeric
Klein, Meistersignaturen, p. 157 (14). Robert, Bild und Lied, p. 110.
Achaeans and the Spartans of later times, but unlike the
Baumeister, Denkmdler, p. 2034, fig. 2207. T/ianatos, p. 9.
Athenians of the fifth century, who wore it short. Another
Wiener Vorlegebla/ter, vii., PI. 1. Luckenbach, loc. cit., p. 619.
interesting detail is the use of pads to protect the instep from
the rubbing of the metal greave, shown on the warrior ; cf.
Overbeck, Gall. her. Bildw., xxii., 14, p. 533, 75.

Although the vase-painting shows us warriors in the armour (<-). These, however, can scarcely be identified with Homer's
of the sixth century B.C. at the earliest, and has no direct eVi<r<ti/)ia (line 132), for they are in no sense clasps.
Two daemons, in the form of youthful warriors with wings,
reference to the Myrmidons in Homer, it gives a good idea of are raising the dead body of a giant from the ground, the one
the manner in which the greaves, helmet, and shield were put clasping him round the breast, the other seizing his legs. The
on at all periods. In (a) the scene is a palace hall, indicated Fig. 72. Patroclus going out to Battle dead man is quite nude, and has been spoiled by his
(line 219).
by the single pillar on the right. An aged king, with sceptre conqueror.
Red-figured painting on a drinking-cup (cantharus) by On the the goddess Iris (without wings,
and flowing garments, is speaking to one of the warriors. left cf. fig. 62), easily
the Attic potter Epigenes, of the fifth century b.c. recognisable by her herald's staff (mppmctoi'), hurriedly delivers
Near the pillar is a lady, holding the shield and sword of a
youthful warrior, who stands before her polishing
Found at Vulci ; in the Cabinet des Midailles, Paris. the commands of Zeus to the two daemons while on the right
his spear. ;

Next comes a youth fastening his shirt (x"'<ui') with a brooch Ann. d. Inst., 1850, Tax. d'agg., J.
the mother of the corpse, with dishevelled hair, is seen beating
on his left shoulder, and at the same time hitching it up so Klein, Meistersignaturen, p. 187. her breast and stretching out her hand in lamentation.
that he may gird it more conveniently. Beside him a I.UCKENBACH, lOC. Ct't., p. 553. The painting represents Death and Sleep {Hypnos, cf. fig. 67)
warrior is binding his long hair into a convenient knot with Wiener Vorlegebldtter, Series B, PI. ix. bearing away a warrior to burial, for the name Hypnos is in-

a riband, and farther on a bearded man (who has already put scribed on one of a series of similar vase-paintings. There has,

on his cuirass, and holds a helmet and spear in his hands) is Thetis (0ETI2) stands on the right holding a cup and wine- however, been much controversy as to whether the dead man
conversing with a comrade, who draws his sword in and out of jug, from which she has just given a parting drink is Sarpedon or Memnon (cf. Od., fig. 21), but the weight of
to Patroclus,
the sheath to test Last comes a warrior holding a helmet, authority seems to be in favour of the former.
who stands by her, fully armed for battle. On the left
who turns to listen to the king. Amphilochus (AM*IAOX02), attired in It should be noted that the hair of the figure at the head of
cloak, wide-awake hat,
The same scene is continued in (/>). On the left are two and high boots (like an Athenian the corpse is black, while that of his comrade is light brown.
cij/3os, or knight), is just
youths conversing, and next to them a warrior with his shirt turning away from Nestor (NE22TOP), his The former is accordingly Death, the latter his brother Sleep.
father, to join
well girded and a helmet on his head, who stoops to fit a Patroclus. Between Thetis and Patroclus the potter's name is
greave to his leg. It was necessary to put on the greaves inscribed (EIIirENE2 ELTOE2E). Fig. 74. Scene in a Circus (line 745).
before the cuirass or breastplate, for the latter was so stiff that This scene occurs nowhere in Homer, and is purely an in- Black-figured painting on an archaic Attic vase.
the warrior could not bend low enough when wearing it vention of the artist, who has worked up the Homeric story From Camirus, Fhodes.
(cf. line 130, mfjtuSas p.ev jrpun-a Trtpi Kvi'ip.ynv W-qKev). The in his own fashion. Thus, by taking the familiar farewell Schreiber, Kulturhist. Bilderatl., PI. 24, 2.
next figure is just clasping the cuirass round his body (line group of a warrior and a lady (cf. //., figs. 38 and 71 c), and
133), and it is worth noting the shoulder flaps, which have not giving the latter the name of Thetis, he suggests the friend- In the battle with the Trojans, Patroclus smote Cebriones,
yet been tied down. Farther on another warrior, armed in ship of Achilles and Patroclus; while, by the addition of Hector's charioteer, with a stone in the brow, so that he fell
"Indeed he tumbles well" (KAA02TOIKYBI2TEITOI=
to the
amusement of his shields, is performing a martial dance, jumping from one
the infinite On the right a youth is seen climbing
helplessly from the chariot, to on account of the lack koXu; rot m/JurrdToi).
as a other. He is represented as very small
who mocked him with compliments on but whether
his skill one Side),
slayer, another figure up a pole (with a slanting support at
of space. Below, between the horses' legs, is

another performance or part of the jockey's display

made small and placed in this strange position for want
this is
The painting in fig. 74, which on a vase given as prize at
impossible to determine.
the sand of the is
Athens, shows how accomplished of space) who is busily engaged in smoothing
the I'anathenaic Games in
The whole performance is evidently professional, and mani
in a modern
Two horses ring with a pick, just as the grooms do with rakes
Greek acrobats were in the sixth century B.C. a circus rather than
a man playing on a double flute festly must be regarded as taking place in
by a single rider, who circus. Behind the horses is
are in full gallop in the ring, guided one of the Public Games. Even in Homer's time pro-
in front of the spectators, who are seated on tiers of benches to at
looks round at an acrobat who, with the aid of a spring- were known (cf. //., xviii., 604-5).
and one of them shouts, fessional tumblers
with two the left. They are applauding loudly,
board, has leaped on the back of his horse, and,


FTER slaying Patroclus, Hector went Fig. 75. Combat over the Body of Euphorbus (line 82). Fig. 76. Combat over the Body of Patroclus (line 123).

Red-figured painting by Oltos and Euxitheos.

in pursuit of Audomedon, Achilles' Painting on an archaic flatter (pina.r) in the Rhodian
The reverse offig. 62.
charioteer. A fierce battle then STYLE OF THE SEVENTH CENTURY B.C.
Wiener Vorlegebldtter, Series D, PI. 2.

ensued over the dead body, in which From Camirus, Rhodes ; in the British Museum. Klein, Meistersignaturen, p. 135 (1).

Mcnclaus slew Euphorbus, but was Baumeister, Denkmdler, p. 730, fig. 784. Luckenbach, loc. cit., p. 540.

unable to resist the onslaught of Hector, who had Salzmann, Nkropole de Camiros, PI. 53. Overbeck, PI. xviii., 3, p. 4 2 7-

given up his pursuit and returned to strip the armour LUCKENBACH, lOC. Ct't., p. 538.
In the centre the dead body of Patroclus (IIATPOKAOS)
Smith, Diet, of Antiq. (ed. 1891), art. " Vas," p. 924.
of Achilles from the corpse of Patroclus (fig. 75). Ajax lies on the ground stripped of Achilles' armour.
Kirchhoff, Studien z. Gesch. d. gr. Alph., p. 48.
then came to the rescue (fig. 76), and Hector had in
Roberts, Introd. to Greek Epigraphy, p. 158.
On the right /Eneas (AINEA ), with a lion as his badge,

and Hippasus (HIIIA202), with the badge of an eagle,

his turn to retreat ; but though he returned to the fray
advance to meet Ajax (AIA2) and Diomede (AIOMEAE2).
and brought the bravest of the Trojans with him, the
All four are fully armed, the Trojans being distinguished from
Acha-ans succeeded in defending the body of Patroclus, Hector (name in early Doric characters) and Menelaus
the Greeks by wearing a loin-cloth in place of a shirt beneath
which Mcnclaus, at last, aided by the two Ajaces, (name do.) are engaged in single combat over the body of
the cuirass. Like fig. 75, the scene is not to be found in
succeeded in bearing to the ships Euphorbus (name do.). All three are armed in archaic style
(fig. jy). Homer, Ajax and /Eneas (line 344) being the only heroes
with loin-cloth and breastplate with projecting rim (//., fig.
The Tabula (fig. 3) shows us, under P, Hector in his
7), among the four who fought over Patroclus. Hippasus would
and have richly decorated shields, Hector's bearing a flying
seem to be a mistake for Hippasides, a comrade of /Eneas,
chariot attacking Ajax, who stands over the fallen
bird as badge. All three helmets are of the shape known as
who was slain in the fight (line 348) ; while Diomede, according
body of Patroclus (line 130) ; then Menelaus lifting the the Attic.
to Homer, had been wounded (xi., 376), and was unable to
corpse, and afterwards, with the help of Meriones, The original vase is all covered with rosettes and other take the field on this day.
placing it in his chariot (cf. line 717), the horses of ornaments, which the copyist has here omitted.

which are held by two men (probably Automedon and The combat thus depicted is not mentioned definitely in the Fig. 77. Menelaus with the Dead Body of Patroclus
Iliad at all, but, after the manner of archaic artists, Menelaus, (line 648).
Both these latter scenes are at variance
who slew Euphorbus (line 60), and Hector, whose approach Marble group of the Hellenistic period.
with Homer, who makes Menelaus raise the body on drove him from the body (line 108), are represented as actually Found in Rome near the Mausoleum of Augustus ; now in a
his shoulders (cf. fig. 77). face to face. court of the Pitti Palace at Florence.
Restored in many places. of that name. The specimen here given is not the original his shoulder, for the muscles of the arms do not show a move-

Lubke, Gesch. d. Plastik, i., PI. 156, p. 225.

" Pasquino," but one better preserved, now in the Pitti Palace. ment strong or sudden enough to suggest this. There has
Friederichs-Wolters, Gipsabgiisse, No. 1397-S. Menelaus is here represented as a bearded warrior of heroic been some little doubt whether the warrior is intended for

Overbeck, Gall. her. Bildw., xxiii., 5, p. 551. build, armed only with helmet and sword. He holds the Menelaus or Ajax. The fact that the head in the original
body of his friend in his arm, and, as he sees the foe " Pasquino" group of a less vigorous character than the Flo-
Baumeister, Denkmaler, fig. 785, p. 731. lifeless is

(on whom his eyes are fixed) approaching, is letting his burden rentine, and shows the mouth as though uttering a cry of terror,

This group exists in several replicas, and is generally known sink gently to the earth, so that he may begin the battle once seems to point to Menelaus rather than the sturdier Ajax,

as the "Pasquino," because the most famous of these replicas again. This seems to be a truer interpretation than the con- though for such a conception no real basis can be found in
was found near the shop of the celebrated lampooning cobbler ventional one that the hero is raising the body to cast it across Homer's narrative.


'CHILLES had all the while been a and a maid weep loudly near him ; next, Thetis (6ETIS) prehistoric sites in Etruria and other parts of Italy, as well as
in Southern Austria, throw light on the description of the
prey to the gloomiest forebodings, with an attendant Nereid all in tears on her way to
Homeric shield.
but, when Antilochus brought the Hephaestus ; and, lastly, the forging of the shield
One of the most characteristic features of such designs is
news of Patroclus' death, his grief (OnAOnOIA, H<I>AlSTOS) in the smithy.
the division of the decorated surface into a number of parallel
knew no bounds, and he groaned so friezes, in which the figures appear either in processions or
loudly that even his mother Thetis, in the depths of
Fig. 78. The Forging of Achilles' Armour (line 615).
groups. The present relief, for instance, has three such friezes,

the Wall-painting in the Casadi Sirico Pompeii, 3 ft. 4 in. the upper having a long procession of men, horses, and chariots
sea, heard it. She came with all her Nereids ;

high by 3 ft. 1 1 in. wide. the middle showing a pair of boxers contending for a helmet
to console him, but found it impossible to shake his
From an original drawing. as prize, and a sacrificial scene ; while the lowest is decorated
resolve to slay Hector, though he knew that it would
Helbig, Wandgemiilde, No. 1316. by a procession of animals.
seal his own fate. His armour was, however, in the The Phoenician bronze cups which have been
Bulletino d. Inst. 1879, p. 54. found at
hands of the Trojans, and she succeeded in getting him Palestrina throw even more light on the description of the
to wait This picture represents Hephaestus in the garb of a smith, shield. An excellent
till the following day, when she would bring reconstruction of its design from the
showing Thetis the arms which he has just finished. The data thus gathered may be found in Mr. Murray's History of
him new arms and weapons fashioned by Hephaestus
breastplate, greaves, sword, and helmet lie scattered about the Greek Sculpture.
himself. After her departure the body of Patroclus
forge, but the god has placed the shield upon an anvil for Thetis
was brought to the tent of Achilles, where it was laid to admire. It is covered with the figures of the heavenly
out in state, and mourned throughout the night by the constellations (cf. line 485, iv Se ra reipea irdyra, rd t ovpavoi
Fig. 80. Bronze Dagger inlaid with Gold and Silver.

hero and the whole army. io-T<L<t>avwai), and a winged figure with a stick points out each Found by Schliemann in the fourth grave on the
Meanwhile Hephsestus,
detail to the goddess, who sits lost in admiration.
Acropolis of Mycenae.
who had offered no resistance to the coaxing of Thetis,
went to Milchhofer, Anfange der Kunst, fig. 64.
his magic smithy and wrought wondrous armour
Fig. 79.
Archaic Bronzework. Schuchhardt, Schliemann s Ausgrabungen, fig. 227 (Eng.
for the hero (fig. 78). The book closes with a descrip- Hammered and chased relief on the bronze casing translation by Miss Sellers, p. 229, fig. 227).
tion of the marvellous designs with which he decorated of a prehistoric bucket. Baumeister, Denkmaler, p. 986, fig. 1190.
the shield (figs. 79-85). Found at Watsch in Carinthia. Mitchell, History of Ancient Sculpture, p. 152,

The Tabula (fig. 3), under S, gives three scenes Revue Archeologique, 1883, PI. 23.
: first,

Achilles (AXIAAETS) seated at the foot of the couch Schliemann discovered in the shaft graves at Mycenae a
The technique of early bronze works of art is so similar,
on which Patroclus number of bronze dagger-blades. When they were cleaned at
lies, while a youth (Automedon) that the vessels of beaten bronze which have been found on
the museum in Athens, it was discovered that they were
inlaid with designs in gold and silver of different colours. The bride and bridegroom advance in a chariot drawn by Fig. 84. Theseus and Ariadne on Naxos (line 590).

Thus on the dagger in fig. 80 a lion-hunt is represented, four horses, at the side of which a woman walks waving two Black-figured painting on the Francois vase.
five hunters are in pursuit of three lions. Two of the lions torches. In front of her marches Dionysus, with an ivy wreath II., figs. 52, SS, 106, are from the same vase.

are in full flight, hut the third is at bay, and has struck down on his head and a huge horn of wine in his arms. Facing M011. d. Inst, iv., Pis. 56, 57.

the foremost hunter. Three of his comrades are hurling spears the horses, and apparently meeting the procession, part of the Harrison, Mythology and Mon., p. exxviii., figs. 31, .;.'.

al the beast, while a fourth shoots a bow at him. All the figure of Hermes (with winged boots) is visible, so that the

men are attired in the loin-cloth which was the primitive bridal pair are probably a god and goddess.
This vase represents Theseus, Ariadne, and the Athenian
garment of the Greeks, and four of them are protected by Except for the torches carried to light the bridegroom, there
shields, fastened like those in Homer by a strap Homer's description of the youths and maidens, celebrating their deliverance from the
huge (rcKaiiioi', is little to illustrate shield.

passing round the body. These shields are of Minotaur and escape from Crete by a dance on
after landing
r:f. fig. 71 )

while the men's flesh Naxos. The left of the picture shows us a youth (<AIAIM02)

also the
like the loin-cloths,

lions. Each figure, however, is


of several
gold, as are
Fig. 82. Ploughers (line 541).
leaping ashore from the ship (here omitted), and with a maiden
and thus the different details of hair, etc., are clearly dis-
Black-figured painting on a drinking-cup (<t//.v) bv (HHIOAAMEIA) hastening to join the long rows of dancers,

tinguished from one another.

: 111 man potter nlkosthenes, of the sixth cen urv i
who have clasped hands, youth and maid alternately, and
Homer's description of the use of coloured metal on the B.C. follow Theseus (0E2EV2). He, lyre in hand, approaches '

beyond a doubt
Pound at Vulei, and in the Berlin Antiquarium. Ariadne (APIA E) and her duenna (P0*02). She
shield shows that the decoration was precisely is

of this character. Thus the vineyard (line 561) was of gold, Gerhard, Trinkschalen 11. Gefasse, PI. i, 1. receiving him graciously, and the vase-painter wishes us to
the grapes of dark metal, and the vine-props of silver, while Klein, Meistersignaturen, p. 69 (71). understand that in another moment the young folk will form a
there was besides a trench of icvaros (blue glass paste) and a BAl Mustek, Dcnkimiler, p. 11, fig. I2. circle and dance to the music of Theseus' lyre, for he on this

fence of Kaacrirtpo^. occasion takes the place of the 0e!os doiSds (line 604). The
More recently further discoveries have shown that the differences from Homer lie chiefly in the clothing of the
Three ploughers are represented, driving each a yoke of oxen
designs on the dagger-blades are by no means the bust that youths, who wear short cloaks and are unarmed, instead of
with a long goad. In the lower part of the picture is a man
the Mycemean age produced. The two cups of beaten gold having glistening shirts of linen and being armed with the
with a basket, who is either sowing or scattering manure.
which were found in the bee-hive grave at Vafio, near sword. It is worth noting that the maids wear the Homeric
Two other men are engaged in breaking the clods with long
Amyclte, have reliefs of a bull-hunt, which in vigour of style jrtVAos fastened at the shoulders with a brooch.
sticks, while a third is seen stroking one of the herd of deer
and excellence of draughtsmanship arc unsurpassed by any
who graze in the background. These, like the tortoise, the
Greel works of art before the great period (cf. "Ee^ep'u
grasshopper, and the lizards, serve to fill up the empty spaces
\V v .mV 7 ik;,. 1889, llirnf 9 ; Jahrbuch des deutschen Arch.
in the design.
Inst, Hand v., p. 104; Schuchhardt, Schlitmanris Excavations, 85. The Potter's Wheel
Fig. (line 600).
trans., Appendix by Miss Sellers).
Black-figured painting on an archaic Corinthian
During the past year (1891) an equally important dis- Fig. 83. Vintage Scenes (line 561).
terra-cotta plaq1 e.
covery was made of a relief in beaten silver, which
was The uronze ends, inlaid with silver, which ornamented Found near Corinth in the f.oirore.
among the objects found by Schliemann in the grave from

(iv.) the head of a roman sofa.

which the dagger-blade came. It formed part of a small Ann. d. Inst., 1882, PI. U, 2 ; p. 182.
Found in Rome, and in the Capitoline Museum there.
W sel, and is ornamented with a battle scene, depicting a city
standing on wooded Kulturhist. Bilderatl., PI. 10, Nos. 5 and 6.
ground. hilly
Outside the walls warriors
The invention of the potter's wheel was known to the
with shield and spear, archers and slingers, are Bullctino d. Comm. Arch. Municipale, 1874, p. 22.
repelling a foe, Greeks long before the age of Homer, for the vases of the
while the battlements above them are crowded
with women " "
Mycenrcan period show full familiarity with its use. It is,
tearing their hair and beating their breasts ('E^tpis 'Apv., In Homer's description the vines are trained on poles, but in fact, only in the very lowest of the prehistoric strata that
1891, II-,, This shows that siege scenes were known
.-, p, ,,).
in the relief here given they are supported by trees, as has been earthenware fashioned by the hand prevails. This, of course,
i" an long before the Iliad was composed (cf line
509). the custom in Italy from time immemorial. To the right and does not imply that such handmade pottery was unknown
left, in the highest parts of the reliefs, we see the gathering of in later times. On the contrary, it was manufactured at all
Fio. St. Wedding Procession (line 492).
the grapes into baskets (line 568), which are carried off to the periods, especially for certain ritual uses.
vat and there trampled under foot. In (a) the vessel into which The oldest potter's wheel was merely a heavy disk like that
'" I

" I

01 nil the expressed juice ran

EARL1 i\i
is clearly shown. In (li) we see an in the vase-painting, which was mounted like a small table on
11 ,1 NTURY B.C.
unruly labourer being chastised, and a statue of Dionysus, a single leg, so that could spin round easily when set in
G) RHard, Am I aseniilder, iv., PI. 112.

before which stands an altar with a brightly burning motion by the

fire. potter's left hand (in later times it was driven
by a treadle). With his right hand he was then able to mould the aid of a bent stick. On the floor of the shop lies a large An excellent account by Mr. Cecil Smith of the ancient
the clay thrown on the wheel into any desired form. The lump of clay, and two vases already baked are hanging from potter's art is to be found in Smith's Dictionary of Antiquities
figure shows him giving the clay a more precise shape with pegs on the wall. under " Fictile."


T the dawn of the next day Thetis Found at Camirus in Rhodes ; now in the British Museum. The figure of the Nereid struggling to restrain her sobs is

came to the tent of Achilles, bringing Mon. d. Inst., xi., PI. 8.

noteworthy as unique in its way.

Ann. Mr. Murray has suggested that it might be laughter that is

the newly made arms (figs. 86, 87). d. Inst., 1S79, p. 237.
overcoming her at the sight of such a big boy fondled by his
Thereupon the hero called an as- Baumeister, Denkmaler, p. 732.
mother, but this seems improbable.
sembly of the Achaeans, announced Robert, Bild und Lied, p. 141.

that he had foregone his wrath, and demanded instant

renewal of the fighting. In reply Agamemnon made In the centre of the upper tier of the picture Achilles sits, Fig. 87. Thetis bringing the Armour to Achilles

his head wrapped in his mantle (cf. fig. 50), bowed down with (line 3).
for his former insults, and restored Briseis to
grief. His mother has thrown her arms round his neck, and Wall-painting in Pompeii, Reg. ix., Is. No. 2.
her lord, with many gifts. Then, returning to the tent,
is tenderly kissing him on the brow. She is followed by a From an original drawing.
after a short space of lamentation for Patroclus, he put Nereid, who bears the newly made helmet and spear, and is
Scogliano, Le pitturc murali Campane, No. 577.
on the new arms, and, mounting his chariot, drove out accompanied by the goddess Athena in full armour. Notizie d, Scavi. d. Ant., 1878, p. 42.
to battle. Behind Achilles is Phceni.x leaning on a staff, and another Bull. d. Inst., 1879, p. 51.
Nereid (who, unable to restrain her sobs, has placed her
The Tabula (fig. 3) shows us, under T, Achilles
hand upon her mouth) holding a shield, with the badge of a
arming and setting out for the battle. In the first
dancing In the background Thetis on her way over the sea bearing the arms of Achilles
(?) girl. is a helmet resting on
the hero (AXIAAETS) is fastening one of his greaves, a block. The lower tier shows three Nereids and a youth be- was a favourite subject with artists of the Hellenistic and
while his mother, attended by a Nereid, stands by side an altar. They each carry some piece of armour, the one Grasco-Roman periods. The goddess and her Nereids were

admiring. His breastplate to the right a sword, shield, and spear the next, the youth, a
represented borne by Tritons and other sea-monsters, and ac-
lies on the ground at his ;

spear the third a cuirass and the fourth a scabbard. The companied by little love-gods hovering above them.
feet, another Nereid holds his shield (ASniS), and ; ;

youth is Automedon, and, like his master, has his head covered In the Pompeian wall-painting Thetis reclines on the back
Phoenix (<i>OINIE) is in readiness with the helmet.
as a sign of grief. of a youthful Triton, who bears her over the sea, in which a
In the second scene Achilles (AXIAAETS) mounting
is The painting only corresponds with Homer in the most dolphin is seen disporting himself. She carries the helmet in
the chariot by the side of Automedon, who holds the general way. There is, for instance, no mention of the Nereids, her right hand, the spear and shield have been intrusted to

reins. Just in front of the horses is a female figure,

of Athena, or of Automedon. These, however, are introduced the Triton, and the greaves are with difficulty supported by

who seems to be stroking them, but her gesture merely

for purely artistic reasons : the Nereids because it would be im- two little Cupids, who fly above the goddess.
possible to represent Thetis herself as carrying all the arms, For other representations of the same subject in Greek art, see
implies that she is speaking. It is most likely that
Athena to suggest the fighting that was to follow, and Auto- Baumeister, Denkmaler, p. 732, and Heydemann, Gratulations-
the artist intended this for Thetis, suggesting perhaps
medon as a foil to the Nereids. schift der Univers. Halle fitr das Archdol. Inst, in Horn, 1879.
by her presence the prophecy of Achilles' fate, which The scenes in the two tiers must not be supposed to be
in Homer is uttered by one of the horses (line 404).
taking place at exactly the same time. In the lower tier the
altar shows that the Nereids are being received in the court-
Fig. 88. The Procession of Gods at the Wedding of
yard of the tent ; while in the upper the presence of Phoenix, Peleus and Thetis (line 390).
Fig. 86. Thetis brings the Armour to Achilles (line 3).
the block on which the helmet rests, and the chair on which Black-figured painting on the Francois vase (cf. fig. 84).
Red-figured painting on an Attic vase of the fifth Achilles sits, all show that it is indoors. This difference Mon. d. Inst., iv., Pis. 56, 57.
century b.c.
accounts for the doubling of the arms, which appear twice. Luckenbach, loc. cit., p. 589.
who in long procession Hestia, Chariclo (Cheiron's
To the right of the lower half, Thetis (0ETI2) follow :

Overeeck, Gall. her. Bildw., PI. ix., ; p. 198, 47- divided in two.
Wiener Vorlegeblatter, ii., i. can be seen through the half-open door of a palace built in the wife),Dionysus, the Seasons, Zeus and Hera in their chariot,
with the Muses, Ares and Aphrodite, Apollo and
Artemis, the
kmaler, p. 1790, fig. form of a temple. She wears the bridal veil, and as the guests

approach shyly raises it to cover her face. Outside, by the Graces, Athena (wrongly restored) and Nike, the Fates, Hermes

altar in the courtyard, Peleus (ITELEV2) stands to receive a and Maia, Nereus and Doris, Oceanus and Tethys (only the
was made head horse visible), and, lastly (in lower tier),
I hi ipear of Achilles from the ash staff, which long procession of his friends. Cheiron (XIPON) is the first of their

Chi iron brought from Mount Pelion, as a present to Peleus on arrival, and clasps the hand of the bridegroom above the altar. Hephaestus riding side-saddle on his ass, with a sea-monster

his wedding with Thetis. The earliest version of this wedding Unlike the Centaurs of later art, his forelegs are human, and (whose tail alone remains) going in front.
feast, to which all the gods came with gifts, is that known in he wears a shirt. Across his shoulder he has the ashen stick The names of the two potters are inscribed: (1) over the
antiquity by the epic poem of the Cypria, still preserved to us from Pelion (II>)AiaSa /xe\!nv), with three hares hanging from altar, " Clytias painted me " (KAPHAS MErPA*SEN) (2) in ;

by the paintings on the shoulder of the Francois vase. The it, which he has brought as his present. front of the first chariot, " Ergotimus mademe " (EPrOTIMOS
picture runs all round, but for convenience has been here By his side is Iris (IPI2), who comes as herald of the gods, ME1IOIE2EN).


N the battle which ensued the gods, rescued Hesione, daughter of Laomedon, who, like Andro- Ann. d. Inst., 1876, Tav. d'agg., C, 2.

by permission of Zeus, came down meda, had been bound to a rock as prey for a monster of the Baumeister, Dcnkmaler, p. 5S1.

from Olympus and fought for their

sea 452
(cf. vii., ; xxi., 442). He came the second time, with

favourites on
an expedition of six ships, to take vengeance on Laomedon Fig. 91. The Rape of Ganymede (line 234).
either side. Thus it
Red-figured vase-painting of the fourth century
for having refused the promised guerdon. Telamon was his (?)
came about that /Eneas, who had chosen companion on this expedition, and it was to him that B.C.
been sent by Apollo to aid Hector, was saved by Hesione was given as Ann.
wife. d. hist., 1876, Tav. d'agg., C, 1.

Poseidon, while Hector himself escaped in a cloud In the mosaic Heracles (who wears his lion-skin over his
over him by Apollo. head and shoulders, and carries his club in one hand and a Homer tells us that the gods carried off Ganymede to be

bow and arrows in the other) turning away, having just slain
cup-bearer to Zeus on account of his beauty, but in the later
The Tabula (fig. 3), under T, shows us Poseidon

the monster, whose head appears from the water below pierced and better-known forms of the legend it was Zeus himself
(IIOSlAfiN) urging ^Eneas to fly, next Achilles
with a dart. On the other side of the picture, Telamon (with
who bore him away from earth. This is the version given
rushing with drawn sword on a Trojan by the vase-painting in fig. which represents Ganymede
archer (perhaps chlamys, spear, and sword) helps Hesione to descend from the 90,
Polydorus, cf. 407), then Hector rocky wall, to which she had been fastened by two manacles. as a graceful youth trundling a hoop and holding a cock (a
(?) retreating, and,
lastly, a single combat and a warrior slaying She is dressed as a bride, for she had been betrothed sym- favourite present to boys), trying to escape from Zeus, who
his enemy
(this bolically to death, and her jewels are in a casket that lies at
follows calling him to stop.
is a purely conjectural restoration).
her feet. The artist has followed a form of the legend which The other vase-painting shows a still later version, in which
differs from that which Hellanicus gave (quoted by the
it is the eagle of Zeus who seizes the beautiful youth and
Fio. 89. Hesione freed by Heracles scholiast on this passage) in explanation of Homer. Ac- bears him to its master. Ganymede is represented with
(line 145).
cording to the older version, Heracles entered the mouth of effeminate long hair, wearing a chain of beads, necklet,
IN THE Grsco-Roman STYLE.
the monster, made his way down to its belly, and hewed at
anklet, and a cloak. His surprise at being pounced on by the
In the 1 Ilia Allani, Rome.
its vitals for three days until was slain.
eagle is suggested by the strigil, oil-flask, and ball which he
From a photograph. it

has dropped on the grass.

Rosi hi r, Ltxiton d. Mythologie, p. 2248.
This representation of the legend probably to be traced
Ba\ mi ister, Dcnkmaler,
p. 663. Fie. 90. The Rape of Ganymede (line 234).
to the famous statue by Leochares, a sculptor of the fourth

Red-figured vase-painting on an Attic vase (eraler) of century u.c. In any case the type is one which recurs very
Herai les came twice to Troy. The time was on his
first THE FIFTH CENTURY B.C. frequently in Hellenistic and Grreco-Roman
expedition against the
art, and is often
Amazons, and it was then that he Formerly in tlu Campana Collection. mentioned in Roman literature.

CHILLES made great havoc among (<J>PTrE2) pursued by Achilles flying in terror into the
6 5 '{'Ctro Xf'/>f Trcrdffffas

a^0orf/>as ' *AxiX\et}s hi ipvfc&itzvos i0os <5i>

the Trojans, driving many into the city gates.

Titye Kara. kXtjiSo Trap aiix^a, rrav oi hi eiffta

river Scamander, where he slew all 55i>>s 4<0i)(lI5-Il8).

Fig. 92. The Death of Lycaon (line 117).
save twelve whom he took alive to be
Red-figukeii painting an an Attic vase of the fifth The artist, too, shows the rush of blood welling from the
victims for the funeral of Patroclus
century b.c. wound (119), and suggests the locality by the figure of a
(cf. fig. 96). He refused to spare the life of Lycaon, From Vulri ; in the Munich Collection. Phrygian, who, clasping his hands in despair, writhes on the
one of Priam's sons (fig. 92), and continued to slaughter Gerhard, Trinksclialen und Ge/asse, C, 4- ground behind Achilles. This may perhaps be one of the
so many Trojans that the river-god Scamander himself Overbeck, Gall. her. Bildw., xvii., 3. Trojan youths whom Achilles took alive as victims for the

took the field, and with the help of the river Simois Archiiol. Zeitung, 1878, p. 31. shade of Patroclus (fig. 96). To the right of the picture,

another warrior fully armed turns round, as he hastens past, to

would have drowned the hero in his waves had not
Professor Robert's interpretation of this painting, as repre- look at the scene.
Poseidon and other gods come to his rescue. Then may be
senting the slaying of Lycaon, is, if not quite certain, at least The difficulties that suggested against this interpreta-
Achilles once more drove the Trojans into Troy. highly probable. tion are that Achilles is bearded, and that the Phrygians are
The Tabula (fig. 3) epitomises <I> in three scenes : A warrior, who is nude (as heroes were generally represented), much more like Amazons than men. Achilles, however, is

first, Achilles slaying Lycaon (line 114) on the banks and only armed with greaves, helmet, shield, and sword, is frequently represented with a beard on early vase-paintings
plunging his sword into the throat of a youth, who kneels in (cf. //., figs. 62, 93, 104; Od., fig. 15), and the style of this
of the Scamander (SKAMANAPOS is inscribed below
supplication, and with uplifted hands vainly struggles against picture is not free enough to exclude the possibility of
merely as an indication of the locality) ; secondly,
his slayer. This exactly corresponds with Homer, for he tells us this older type. As to the Amazons, a glance at fig. 96 is

Poseidon (nOSlAON) pulling Achilles (AXIAAETS) that Lycaon stretched out both hands, and received his coiip de sufficient to show that the effeminate young Trojans are
out of the waters of the river ; and, thirdly, the Trojans grace by a word-thrust in the neck, at the collar-bone :
indistinguishable from them.


I ECTOR alone of the Trojans did not unfair way (fig. 93). The Achaean hero then despoiled proaches round the wall, (2) Achilles pulling the
fly within the walls, and, in spite the dead body, heaped many insults on tied by helmet from Hector's lifeless head, and Achilles
it, it (3)
of the entreaties of his father and the heels to his chariot, and dragged it to the ships. driving his chariot to the ships with Hector's body
mother, awaited the onset of Achilles, Meanwhile the Trojans, men and women, who had trailing behind.
only to be overcome with terror at been watching the battle from the walls, raised a
the sight of his enemy, and him
to flee before at the mighty wail, that reached the ears of Andromache as
last moment. He Fig. 93. The Death of Hector (line 306).
ran, strengthened by Apollo, thrice she sat awaiting the return of Hector. She hurried
round the walls of Troy, Achilles following hard upon Red-figured painting on an Attic drinking-cup (cy/i.x)
to the walls, and the book closes dramatically with her
him, but at length was goaded by the reproaches of the sixth century B.C.
of lamentations.
Athena In the Museo Gregoriano, Vatican, Rome.
to await his In the battle that ensued
foe. The Tabula (fig. 3) shows (1) Hector standing at Gerhard, Auserlesene gr. Vasenbilder, iii., PI. 202, 5.
he was slain, Athena having aided Achilles in a most the gate awaiting Achilles (AXIAAETS), who ap- Museo Gregoriano, ii., PL 74, 1.
There an exact replica in the Musee de Cluny, Paris. In
LUCKENBACH, Inc. tit., p. 515. Both heroes are nude (cf. fig. 92), but Hector alone wears is

greaves. this relief there are two chariots galloping under the walls of
ilk, Denkmakr, p. 735.
The painting follows Homer in representing Hector without Troy. The second drags the body of Hector along, and is that
OVERBECK, (Jail. Iter. Bildw., 451, IOI.
his spear, and as drawing, not brandishing (line 311) his of Achilles, while the first suggests his invitation to the Acha:ans

sword. Achilles slays him with a spear as in Homer, but to go with him in triumph round the walls (line 381).

the place he aims at is the eye, not the neck (line 324). The gate of the city is open, and in it stands Andromache,

Hectoi is vainly endeavouring to draw his sword from the There are four other vase-paintings which represent the scene forgetful of all else, with hair dishevelled and garments rent.

scabhard, and sinks to the earth borne down by the onrush of She has just seen the body, and, horror-stricken at the
in the same manner, with but small variations.
Achilles, who pierces his eye with a spear. sight, is tottering back fainting into the arms of the Trojans
On the left Athena, fully armed with aegis, helmet, shield who stand in the gate.
(the greater part rubbed away), and spear, stands to protect
Fig. 94. Hector dragged round Troy (line 391).
This rendering, though it does not agree with Homer, is

Achilles ; while Apollo (armed with bow and arrow), recognising Relief on glazed Roman terra-cotta tile. dramatic and a natural one for the artist, to whom the repre-
his defeat, is seen on the right deserting Hector, and raising From Syracuse : in Lord Strangford's Collection. sentation of Andromache on the city walls would present
his hand with a gesture of dismay. Archiiol. Zeitung, 1864, PI. 181, 2. considerable difficulty.


N returning to his tent, Achilles in which Achilles (AX1AAETS) is laying an offering (a Artificial "astragali" of metal, bone, ivory, or crystal were

honoured Patroclus by driving the lock of hair or a libation, cf. lines 141, 2 18) " The common in antiquity, and fig. 95 shows a vase of this shape,
; (2)
but of considerable size and only meant for use as a jar. It is
chariots round the bier, and by giving Funeral Games " (EniTA4>i02 Ar o>v), represented by
prettily ornamented with figures of dancing girls. A descrip-
a funeral feast to the Acha.>ans. The two racing chariots.
tion of games played with the astragali is given in Smith's
shade of Patroclus, however, unsatis- Dictionary of Antiquities, under "Tali."
fied with these tributes, appeared to the hero during Fig. 95. An Astragalus or Knucklebone (line 88).

the night in a vision and demanded a proper funeral. Red-figured Attic vase in the shape of a sheep's
Fig. 96. Sacrifice of the Trojan Youths at the Pyre
Next day, accordingly, knucklebone.
a huge pyre was built, the body of Patroclus (line 175).
From sEgina; in the British Museum.
with its armour placed on it, the twelve Trojan youths
Schreibek, Kulturhist. Bilderatl., PI. 20, 7. Red-figured painting on a large South Italian
were sacrificed (fig. 9G), and burnt together. The
all Amphora.
pyre continued burning the night, and was not The Found at Canusiinn, and now in the Naples Museum.
all it doTpayuA.01 of the Greeks and "Tali" of the Romans
till the next morning that the ashes were slaked with were the small bones which form the joint in the ankles of Man. d. Inst., ix., Pis. 32, 33.

wine (fig. ,,;), and the bones of Patroclus picked out sheep and other cloven-footed animals. They were much used Ann. d. Inst., 187 1, pp. 166-95.

and placed both as playthings for children and as substitutes for dice. Baumeister, Denkmaler, p. 737.
in an urn, over which a barrow was piled
It was in a dispute over them, as playthings, that Patroclus LUCKENBACH, loc. tit., p. 527.
up. Then the funeral games in honour of the dead slew the son of Amphidamas, and indeed, to judge from a
began near the barrow, Achilles giving prizes
for horse- celebrated marble group of one boy biting another's arm, such The picture divided into three
is tiers. In the middle tier
racing (fig. 9 S), boxing quarrels were pretty frequent. The game was
(fig. 99), wrestling (fig. 100), played with five the pyre of Patroclus (I1ATPOKAOY TA*05) stands in the
foot-racing, quoit-throwing 101 pieces, and consisted essentially in throwing them all together On two breastplates and a helmet, and below
(figs. and 102), and centre. it lie

archery up in the air and catching as many as possible on the back of at the side are the greaves, sword, and shield. This
(fig. 103). is the
one's hand. This simple operation, however, was made more
The Tabula armour of Hector (xviii., 334 cf. xxii., 368), which Achilles had
3) summarises V with two scenes :
complicated and difficult by combining with a number of

it vowed to offer to his friend, with an additional coat of mail

) "The burning of Patroclus" (KATSIS I1ATPOKAO),
bodily movements.
that is perhaps Patroclus' own. On a step in front of the pyre

whose on the flames. After the fire was quenched the ashes and fell into disuse after Orsippus (Pausanias, i., 44), who was
Achilles has seized a Trojan youth (in Phrygian dress),
bones were collected and placed in an urn for burial. Olympic victor in 01. 15 (720 B.C.), had run without it (cf. C.
hands are bound behind his back, in the act of
I. G. 1050).
ing him. On the left of the pyre three other Trojan captives
The vase-painting here given represents a lesson in the gym-
sit awaiting their doom. On the right a fully armed warrior,
98. A Chariot Race (line 287).
generals of the host, probably nasium for youths, and not a public contest. The 7raiSoTpi'/?j;9,
who must be one of the
Black-figured painting on an archaic Corinthian vase. who distinguished from his pupils by wearing a
Agamemnon, is pouring a libation out of a bowl (phiale = Latin or trainer, is

From Can- : in the Berlin Antiquarium. mantle, instructing two youths, chastising them with a long
patera). At his feet is a pitcher. According to Homer, it was is

The reverse is given Oct., fig. 73.

split cane for each foul blow. On his right is a youth with
Achilles who offered the libation (line 218), but the painter
Mon. d. Inst., x., PI. 4 and 5. jumping weights, looking on at the match with great excitement.
doubtless did not wish to repeat his figure in the manner of
Ann. d. Inst., 1874, pp. 82-110. On the left stands another youth with a tape, apparently measur-
early art, and so substituted another leader.
LUCKENBACH, loC. elf., p. 496. ing the length of his jump. For a similar scene see Od., fig. 30,
Behind this figure are two women, one with her head covered
Baumeister, Denkmaler, p. 1202.
and boxing generally Smith's Diet, of Antiquities,
with her mantle, presumably the mistress of the girl who for art.

" Pugilatus."
follows, holding her fan and bearing a basket of offerings for

the dead and the customary riband for adorning a tomb. The The Homeric heroes raced in the same chariots as they

lady is probably Thetis. used in war, each drawn by two horses, for it was at a later Fig. 100. Wrestling (line 701).

In the lowest tier there are also two maidens, one of period that the light racing chariots with teams of four were
Red-figured Attic vase-painting of end of sixth
whom, perhaps Briseis, is in an attitude of melancholy, while introduced. The artists generally represent the chariots as
century B.C.
the other is pouring water from a pitcher ihydria) into a basin. four-horsed, even in scenes from Homer or early legend.
Gerhard, Trinkschalen u. Gefasse, PI. 20.
It is not clear whether this is lustral water, or intended to be The Berlin vase-painting depicts the race at the funeral of
Blumner, Leben u. Si/ten der Griechen, ii., fig. 39.
drink for the horses of Achilles' chariot, which stands near, Pelias ; it shows a confused crowd of horses racing at full speed
driven by Automedon, who turns round to speak to a youthful towards the goal, where the tripods that are to be the prizes
warrior (Antilochus?) seated near. The lifeless body of Hector, stand. Like the boxers, the wrestlers in Homeric times wore a loin-

covered with bleeding wounds and bruises, hangs from the Each of the competitors has his name inscribed above in cloth, which was afterwards discarded. The vase-painter accord-

back of the chariot. Corinthian characters :Euphemus ('Ei^a/jos) leading, then ingly depicts two pairs in a gymnasium as quite nude. Those
On the left of this scene another Trojan captive stands in Castor (Kaoros), Admetus fAS/iaro), Alastor ('AXaorop), in the centre are trying to get the grip, while of the pair on
mournful dejection beneath a tree on which a shield is hanging. Amphiaraus ('Afitjiidpcos), and Hippasus ("Iimo-os). In front, the right, one has succeeded in raising his opponent from the
In the upper tier the tent of Achilles rises in the centre, beyond the tripods, sit the three aged judges : Acastus ground, but is unable to throw him. The cloak of one of the

and beneath its roof two old men are seen conversing, probably ("Akotos), Argeus ("Apyw), and Pheres (<Pepes). It should be wrestlers hangs from a peg on the wall, while on the ground
Nestor and Phcenix. On the left are two Myrmidons in con- noted that the space above the judges is taken up by one below there is a two-handled jar of oil. On the left stands
versation, and a maiden who leans against one of the tent of the handles, which springs from the circle which appears the ?ratSoT/)ij8i;s holding a staff. He is a strangely effeminate

poles. On the right Athena and Pan listen to Hermes, whose in the drawing above the smallest tripod. young man, with an embroidered mantle, who smells a flower
raised hand shows that he is speaking. For a detailed description of the race at the funeral games like a lady, and might at first sight be mistaken for one.
In the background are an ox-skull and a festoon of beaded of Patroclus, see Smith's Dictionary of Antiquities, art.
ribbon. These are sacrificial offerings, and may possibly suggest " Hippodromus."
Fig. 101. The " Discobolus," or Quoit-thrower (line
that the scene is borrowed from the stage.
Fig. 99. Scene in a Gymnasium, Boxers (line 653).
Marble statue; a Roman copy of a celebrated
Red-figured painting on an Attic drinking-cup (cylix). Myron of Eleuther*, of the fifth cen-
Fig. 97. Quenching the Funeral Pyre (line 250).
original by
From Vulci.
tury B.C.
Red-figured painting on a South Italian vase. Schreiber, Kulturhist. Bilderati., PI. 23, 4.
In the Palazzo Massimi, Rome.
Build, anli. Napoletano, iii., PI. 14. Roulez, Mimoires de rAcad. de Bruxelles, 1843.
Seemann, Kunsthist. Bilderbogen, Ergang., PI. 9, 3.
Baumeister, Denkmaler, p. 307, fig. 323. Gerhard, Auserlesenc Vasen/iilder, 271.
Friederichs-Wolters, Gipsabgiisse, No. 451 (remarks on).
Smith, Dictionary of Antiquities, art. " Funus," p. 887.
Baumeister, Denkmaler, p. 612, fig. 671. Overbeck, Geschichte d. gr. Plastik, p. 213, fig. 51.

Baumeister, Denkmaler, p. 1002, fig. 121 1.

Several vase-paintings show the quenching of a funeral pyre In boxing after the Greek fashion, the hands were protected
just as Homer describes
97 it. In fig. this is done by two by leather straps (line 6S4), which also made the blows much This statue is the best of a series of replicas of Myron's
maidens, who are pouring water from their pitchers (hydritc) more The alone gives the true pose of the
severe. loin-cloth which the Homeric boxers wore celebrated statue, because it
shown in fig. 102. The shepherd who holds it is Argus on
head. With the aid of a passage in Lucian which describes Now destroyed by exposure.
Mon. watch over Io (the sprouting horns on her head suggest her
the quoit-thrower's action, the complicated balance of the statue d. Inst., ii., PI. 59, 6.

The athlete held the quoit, which was Ann. d. Inst., x., 253-60, 328-30.
subsequent transformation into a cow). To the right Hermes,
becomes intelligible.

modern times, a ring, in his left Helbig, Wandgemalde, No. 136. who has been sent by Zeus, leans easily on his herald's staff
a metal plate, and not, as in
when he passed (Ktipmaov=cadiiceus), and presents Argus with a Pan's pipe, his
hand until the moment of throwing, it to his Baumeister, Dcnkmiiler, p. 752, fig. 802.
object being to lull him to sleep and then to slay him.
right hand ; and sharply swaying the whole of his body back- Museo Borbonico, viii., 25.

wards with it, his head following, gained all the impetus
iary for one great swing forwards with the quoit, jumping
in the air as it left his hand. To get the right arm back as far Homer says that Polypoites threw the lump of iron at the Fig. 103. Shooting Arrows at a Mark (line 850).

as possible was necessary to support the whole body on the funeral games as far beyond the marks of the other competitors
Red-figured painting on a vase of a late style.
right leg during the swing backward, and leave the left free as a herdsman can throw his cudgel. Throwing sticks are
/// the Naples Museum.
to come forward when jumping. The former attitude is not among the most primitive weapons all the world over, being
Schreiber, Kulturhist. Bilderatl., PL So, 7.
unlike that which some players assume at golf. The quoits known to even the degraded savages of Australia. They
Daremberg et Saglio, Diet, des Ant, p. 390, fig. 480.
thrown were usually some five or six pounds in weight, and the were used in Egypt for fowling, and in Greece were carried by
Museo Borbonico, ii., 41.
aim of the player was not to hit a given mark, but to throw the Theocritus' shepherds, who killed hares with their Xayuifiokov
v.. i lii as far as possible, the game resembling the weight-putting just as commonly as Homer's herdsmen brought unruly cattle

and hammer-throwing of modern athletics in this respect. to submission with the KaXav/iuij/. The Italian shepherds also The boys in this painting are shooting at a cock tied to a pillar,
used a throwing stick of the shape called the pedum, so that it Homeric heroes shot at a dove bound to a mast.
just as the

became the standing attribute of pastoral deities and of the Each of them wears his quiver on his left side. Two are in
Fig. 102. The KaXavpo^r, or Shepherd's Throwing Club
the act of aiming, and we may take it that they have just
Fauns. That it was on occasion as formidable a weapon as a
(line 845). has depicted as
modern blackthorn is plain from legends like that of the death discharged the two arrows which the artist still

U ,1 ] PAINTING IN THE CaSA d'Io ED Argo AT HERCULA- of Electryon by mischance at the hands of Amphitryon. in the air. The third boy is stringing his bow in the usual

NBUM, The throwing club is always bent, and its usual shape is well way (cf. //., figs. 24 and 52 ; Od., figs. 91 and 95).

CHILLES, whose thirst for vengeance solitary meal (fig. 108). The hero was so touched his tent, indicated by pillars and hangings, with
was unsated by the funeral sacrifice, by the age and grief of Priam that he consented to Priam at his feet and Phoenix beside him. Hermes
dragged Hector's corpse round the receive the ransom next morning gave Priam and supporting
(fig. 109), and is also present inspiring his
barrow of Patroclus for several days him the corpse, washed, decently anointed, In Homer he
and wrapped entreaties. does not enter the tent,
(fig. 104). At length, on the twelfth in costly robes taken from the ransom. He also but the artist has chosen this way of suggesting
day, Apollo, who had preserved the body from corrup- granted an eleven days' his share in the business. The body of Hector
truce for the burial, and (2)
tion, appealed to the gods to suffer such insolence no then Priam, who had been entertained right royally, is reverently raised by three Myrmidons to be
longer. Thetis was accordingly summoned by Zeus, set out, and with the guidance of Hermes passed placed on the waggon, from which their comrades
that she might persuade Achilles to give up Hector once more unnoticed through the Achaean lines. The are removing the treasures that form the ransom
to the Trojans for burial. At the same time Iris was Trojans flocked to meet him at the gates, with lamen- (EKTfiP KAI ATTPA EKTOPOS).
sent to inspire Priam to go himself and ransom his tation for the dead. Then the body was laid out
son's body. Guided by Hermes (fig. 1 1 o), the old in state in the palace courtyard (fig. 1 3), and, after
Fig. 104. Hector dragged round the Tomb of Patro-
king, bringing much treasure on a mule-cart clus (line 14).
(fig. 107), the customary mourning, burnt upon a gigantic pyre
passed the slumbering sentinels and reached Black-figured painting on an Attic vase (amphora) of
the tent of and honoured by a funeral banquet.
Achilles, and found him at table, THE SIXTH CENTURY B.C.
having just finished a The Tabula (fig. shows
3) (1) Achilles seated in Formerly in the Canino Collection.

Gerhard, Aiiser/esette gr. Vasenbilder, iii., PI. 199. of Peleus (cf. fig. 88) formed no part of this early version, implies that he was a warrior, whereas in most later Greek
Overbeck, Gall. her. Bildw., xix., 8., p. 457. and indeed was not incorporated until the Alexandrine age. literature, and in art, he was represented as Priam's youngest

Musce Etrusque, No. 527. The vase-painting belongs to the early part of the fourth son, slain by Achilles in early youth. His death is a favourite
Baumeister, Detikmaler, p. 735. century B.C., and gives the older version. It shows us Paris scene on vase-paintings of the archaic and early Attic styles, and
Schneider, Der troische Sagenkreis, pp. 28 (h and note), in rich Phrygian attire seated on the side of Mount Ida, with is nowhere so well depicted as on the Francois vase. Troilus

3'. 3 2 - two spears, tending his herds, which are here symbolised by the had gone out from Troy to water his horses, accompanied by
Luckenbach, loc. at., p. 500 (h). head and shoulders of an ox that lies in the grass beside him. his sister Polyxena, who carried a pitcher. Achilles, however,

Roscher, Lexicon der Mythologie, p. 1923. The god Hermes stands on the hillside in his travelling dress lay in ambush at the fountain, surprised the youthful hero, pur-

of short cloak, high boots, and wide-awake hat, and gives Paris sued and slew him. Fig. 106 shows us Troilus (TP0IAO2)
On the right the tomb of Patroclus appears as a conical Zeus' commission to decide between the goddesses. The three on horseback, with a horse galloping beside, in full flight, and
tumulus or barrow, with the mysterious serpent of the dead are grouped round the pair, awaiting the judgment. Athena Achilles (only his leg visible) just on the point of overtaking him.
crawling on its side, and the shade of Patroclus (ITTPOKAOS) stands in full armour (cf. fig. 16) just below them, while a little Polyxena ( EN) has thrown her pitcher (HYAPIA) on
hovering above it in the form of a tiny warrior (cf. //., fig. 47 higher up Aphrodite in queenly attire is seated, speaking (note the ground, and runs in terror towards the city. Just in front
Od., fig. 60.) her gesture) to a little love-god who flies towards her with a of her is Antenor (ANTENOP), who gesticulates, wildly calling

Achilles (AXIAEY2) stands before the tomb, stooping down garland. Hera stands to the right, distinguished, like Aphrodite, for aid, and near him, seated on a stone (0AKO2) outside the
to taunt the dead body of Hector (HEKTOP), which lies at his by her diadem and sceptre. These five figures form the main city gate, is Priam (IIPIAM02) himself, striving feebly to raise

feet half hanging from the chariot. Automedon (bearded, like picture of the vase, all the others being painted either under himself with his sceptre. The city gate is half open, and
Achilles) stands in the chariot, holding the reins of the four the handles or on the reverse side. As is usually the case in Hector (HEKTOP) and Polites (IIOAITES) in full armour are
horses. He wears the long shirt which was the characteristic vase-paintings, it is very difficult to name these spectators. If sallying forth to the rescue.
garb of charioteers, and has a shield slung across his back. it is necessary to do so, we may see in the lady to the right, On the other side of the picture the goddess Athena (AENA)
Beside the horses is a winged diemon, above whom the name who lifts her veil in a dainty fashion, QEnone, the nymph whose stands encouraging Achilles, while Hermes (HEPME ) beside
Konisos (KONI202) is inscribed ; while to the right, in front, love Paris discarded (cf. fig. 28), and in the man behind her her (in shirt, skin jacket, and wide-awake hat, carrying the

Odysseus (OA TEV), followed by a dog, is going out to battle Zeus. The figures on the left are still more puzzling, for we herald's staff) points towards the chase, as though declaring
fully armed. He turns his head, however, to look at Achilles. have under the handle what is almost a repetition of Paris, and the will of Zeus concerning it. Behind Hermes in .the original
The scene occurs on a series of vase-paintings, which behind him another lady. Dr. Engelmann indeed regards (not given here) stand Thetis and her sister Rhodia, and farther
fall into two classes, one representing the chariot of Achilles the former figure as Paris, and makes the goddess who faces on, closing the picture, was the fountain at which Achilles had
galloping at full speed, the other showing it at rest, as here. him, and whom he seems to beckon towards him, Aphrodite. surprised Troilus. The fountain is covered with a portico like
Neither type quite coincides with Homer. In fig. 104, for This splits the picture into two scenes, an unparalleled thing that of a temple, which reminds one of the legend that it

instance, there can be little doubt that the winged figure is in vases of this class, and is open to the further objection was at the shrine of Apollo Thymbraeus that Troilus was
intended for Iris (the name inscribed probably belongs to one that it involves the assumption that Hera is either omitted or slain an act of sacrilege which brought on Achilles the lasting

of the horses), introduced to suggest the message sent by Zeus represented as quite a secondary personage. enmity of the god.
to Thetis (line 78). Odysseus, on the other hand, appears as The grouping of the figures on the hillside, the quail, the
the representative of the Achaean host, being perhaps chosen shrubs, and the bull, are characteristic features worth noting. Fig. 107. A Cart drawn by Mules (line 266).

because of the part he played later on in saving Achilles' own Part of a black-figured painting on an archaic vase.
body from the Trojans (cf. Od., fig. 14). In the British Museum.

106. The Death of Troilus Another part of the painting is shown in fig. 40, where
ig. (line 257).
references will be found.
Fig. 105. The Judgment of Paris (line 29). Black-figured painting on the Francois vase.
Figs. 52, 84, and 88 are from the same vase. In Homeric Greece the horse was only used for drawing the
Red-figured vase-painting in the style of the best
Mon. d. Inst, iv., Pis. 54, 55. war-chariots, and carts and waggons were drawn by mules. The
Attic period.
Overeeck, Gall. her. Bildw., xv., 1. cart shown in fig. 107 has only two wheels, whereas that of
RSmische Mitteilungen, ii. (1887), Pis. n-12, 1.
Klein, Euphronios, pp. 225, 228 (1). Idasus in which Priam went to Achilles had four (line 324).
Luckenbach, loc. cit
This passage is the only one in Homer referring to the
famous Judgment of Paris. The myth was known to the
Roscher, Lexicon der Mythologie, p. 38.
Fig. 108. Priam ransoming the Body of Hector
ancients by the Cypria, an epic poem attributed at as early (line 47).

a time as that of Herodotus to Homer himself. The story of Priam speaks of Troilus, " who had his joy in horses," as Red-figured painting on a large Attic vase.
Iris flinging the golden apple among the guests at the wedding one of the bravest of his sons. As the scholiast remarks, this Found at Cervetri ; in the Vienna Museum.
Mon. d. Inst., viii., 27. Fig. 109. Priam ransoming Hector's Body (line 471). anothermoment Hermes will raise himself and soar away once
more on one of the many errands of Zeus, to help Priam
Ann. d. Inst., 1866, pp. 241-70. Relief on back of a Roman sarcophagus.
perhaps, or it may be to release Odysseus from Calypso (cf. Od.,
rER, Denkmaier, p. 737, fig 791 Found on the Monte del Grano, Rome; now in the Museo
Der troische Sa^enkreis,
iim ik, p. (d). fig. 24).
Si 11. 33 Capitolino there.
Robert, Bild und Lied, p. 18. This sarcophagus contained the celebrated Portland vase.
L-UCKENBACH, Inc. at., p. 508.
in. The slaying of the Children of Niobe (line
Conze, Wiener Vorkgebliitter, Series B, PI. 8, 5. Fig.
Ro ii 111 1
. !< <eicon der Mythologie, p. 1926.
Robert, Die Antiken Sarkophag-reliefs, p. 35, PI. XV., 25 c.
1 ./1 , Wiener VorkgeMStter, i., PI. 3, 1.
Overbeck, Gall. her. Bildw., PI. xx., ii., p. 477. Red-figured painting on an Attic mixing-bowl (crater)
Roscher, Lexicon der Mythologie, p. 1926. of the fifth centurv B.C.
The scene is laid in the tent of Achilles, on the walls of
Found at Orvieto in 1880/ nozv in the Louvre, Paris.
which his helmet, shield, sword, and cloak are hanging. The
Achilles is seated on the right, turning his head away in
Mon. d. Inst., xi., PI. 40.
hero himself reclines (this is an anachronism) on a richly
shame and amaze Ann. d. Inst., 1882, p. 273.
inlaid couch, covered with a mattress and rug, and provided (line 478) as old Priam kneels at his feet to

hand Bulletino, 1881, p. 276.

with two pillows. In front of the couch is a three-legged kiss the that slew his son (479). Even the god Hermes
(his caduceus has been standing beside Achilles, shares this Journal of Hellenic Studies, x. (1889), p. 117.
table, on which arc placed long strips of roasted meat. At lost),

the head of the couch stands a youth with a dipper or ladle feeling of embarrassment, and raises his hand to cover his
Near Priam Automedon stands Achilles persuades Priam to take food by saying that even
(cyathus) in one hand, and a wine-strainer (I'/D/uk) in the other. face. fully armed in Achilles'
This the chariot, ready to dismount, while a servant Niobe did not forget to eat, though her twelve children, six
is boyish cup-bearer (another anachronism) whose unharnesses the
duty it was to ladle the wine from the mixing-bow! into the horses. On the left two Trojans and a Greek are taking
sons and six daughters, had died in her palace, the youths
drinking-cups. the treasure (coat of mail, precious vessels, etc.) that forms slain by Apollo, the maidens by Artemis, in their rage with

At the foot of the couch I'riam is seen approaching, followed the ransom from the mule-cart (amjit;) of Idreus. Niobe, because she compared herself with their mother Leto,
by two in. n bearing metal vessels, and two youths who carry
and said that the goddess had only brought forth two children,
bales of goodly raiment on their shoulders. The Trojan king whereas she had borne twelve.
isan old man (wearing long garments, a diadem, and shoes), The story of Niobe was the subject of one of Pheidias'
and supports himself on a crutch-headed staff as he advances to
Fig. no. Hermes resting (line 334). reliefs on the throne of Zeus at Olympia. Afterwards it

make his appeal. Achilles has caught sight of him, and, pausing Bronze statue of Gr*co-Roman workmanship. became a favourite subject in art, and is best known in modern
in his meal, has turned his head away, raising at the same time Found in 1758 at Herculaneum ; now in the Naples Museum. times by the series of statues at the Uffizi in Florence (cf.

his dagger to his lips. He is thinking of vengeance, a feeling The upper part of t/ie foreliead is restored, giving the temples fig. 114).
suggested in a ghastly manner by the corpse of Hector, which and ears a somewhat peculiar appearance. The scene of the vase-painting is a wooded (the solitary
lies with hands bound and bleeding Lubke, Geschichte pine symbolises a forest) mountain-side.
sides beneath the couch d. bildenden Kiinste, fig. 170. tree Artemis and
mii ln. Ii A. hilles rei lines. This Apollo stand on a ridge, and pour a shower of arrows on the
is at variance with Homer, Friederichs, Bausteine, No. 844.
but is easily explained by the artistic contrast afforded by the Baumeister, Denkmaier, fig. 738, p. 678.
unfortunate children of Niobe. Two lie below them already
juxtaposition of victim and conqueror.
is also Artistic necessity Roscher, Lexicon der Mythologie, p. 2419.
dead, a third flies to the left, endeavouring to pluck an arrow
the explanation of the introduction of the
four servants carrying [There is an excellent reproduction in bronze of this statue in the collection
from his side as he goes, while a fourth is falling pierced in the
treasure, for in the Iliad I'riam goes to the tent alone. of casts at the South Kensington Museum.] back by an arrow from the bow of Artemis. The artist, of
The picture on the reverse of the vase shows the chieftains course, does not wish us to believe that the children of Niobe
with whom Achilles took counsel (cf. line 651, iiA were only four
oc'tc ,uoi
The god is represented quite nude in the bloom of in number, but was content to take just as
/3ou\ /JoiAnW. irapiju^o.) in another part of the tent, which youth,
seated on a rock, resting from his
many as suited his design (cf. the number of the Trojan
is indicated by a pillar, and by the helmet, spear, flight. Even though he
shields, and victims in fig. 96). In any case there was great discrepancy
rests on earth, his pose is buoyant, his feet scarce touch the
swords suspended from the wall in the
background. Three in the numbers given by different writers, Hesiod speaking of
ground, and the artist has admirably succeeded in conveying
|'I the heroes
are seated and would seem to
be at home in the the impression that they are more twice ten, and other poets of twice seven.
tent, while two of the remaining three used in flying than in
are visitors, who still standing. That
wear no mere modern conjecture is shown
this is
their wide-awake hats (petasi).
by the rosette with which the straps of the
They all carry sticks, though only one
of them seems old
wings are clasped Fig. 112. The slaying of the Children of Niobe (line
to the sole of the foot, a place where no sandals intended
enough to require them for support, for 602).
but this is merely an walking could possibly be clasped.
anachronism on the part of the The god, in fact, supports
painter, who makes them Red-figured painting on an Attic drinking-cup (cylix).
follow the Athenian
himself, and that but lightly, with his right arm,
fashion of his own while his left Berichte
times. lies carelessly thrown across his knee. One feels
d. Sachsischen Ges. d. Wiss., 1875, pl
3a - and *
that in Baumeister, Denkmiiler, p. 1029.

Here the picture is divided into two scenes. That on the Found near Cape Kolias in Attica ; now in Athens. on the father's side (0E0I2 l=r,jOW] IIP02 IIATP), the cousin
lower shows Apollo (ALTOAAON) aiming at a youth, who has Benndorf, Gr. u. Sicilische Vasen, PI. 1. on the mother's side, and another little sister, all follow her
dropped his lyre and is flying in terror, glancing back at Schreiber, Kulturhist. Bilderatl. PI. 95, 6. example. At the foot of the bed, near his father, is the
his pursuer. Between the god and his victim is a maiden Baumeister, Denkmliler, p. 238, fig. 217. youngest brother, a very little boy, who also joins in the
flying like her sister, who is on the other side of the palm, and general lamentation.
hastens away with gestures of horror.
In the upper picture Artemis (APT ) is aiming at a It was the custom among the Greeks, after washing and
maiden, while two youths run to the right and the left. anointing a dead man, to lay him out on a bed inside the
The artist has skilfully arranged the figures, so that there house clothed in his best garments. Such a lying in state was Fig. 114. Head of Niobe (line 602).

are two women and two men in each scene. Two, however, called the 7rpo0ns, and it was the custom of all the near rela-
Bust of the marble statue of Nioee belonging to the
in each are mere additions to complete the design ; the tives to assemble and mourn aloud, giving way, at any rate in
celebrated group of Niobe and her children.
original groups being Apollo slaying a youth on one side, the older times, to the most extravagant outward manifestations
Found in 1583 near the Lateran, Rome, and now in the Uffizi
and Artemis a maiden on the other. of grief.
Palace, Florence.
The artist doubtless intends us to assume that the gods are In fig. 113 we have a scene of this kind. On the left, near
The nose, parts of both lips, and part of the chin are restored.
invisible, and that the amazed terror of the children of Niobe one of the pillars of the hall, stand three men (one is a brother,
Friederichs-Wolters, Gipsabgiisse, No. 1251.
is due in part to their not knowing whence the arrows come. AAEA4>02), who form a choir, and raise their hands and utter
a rhythmic wail (OIMIOI), following the lead of the father

Fig. 113. Family mourning a Man lying in State

(IIATEP) of the dead man. The women are gathered " Niobe all tears " was the favourite illustration of grief in

round the bed, the mother (METEP) at the head (712; cf. the ancient world, and this statue, which is a copy of an Attic
(line 664).
724, Kaprj /iera xpo"tv r^ovcra). She tears her hair, and the original of the fourth century B.C., is justly considered one of
Black-figured painting on an archaic Attic terra-
youngest sister (AAEA<pE), who stands below her, the grand- the noblest embodiments of heroic mourning that has come
cotta plaque (pinax) of the early sixth century.
mother (0ETE=T^f?>;), who bends over the pillow, the cousin down to us from antiquity.
The Odyssey. Plate I.
The Odyssey.
Plate II

8. a. Draught-play. 1 s. b. The Draught-board.

4. The Murder of Aegisthus. Relief from Ariccia.
Terracotta, group from Athens.
Plate HI.
The Odyssey.

Dg Nestor. Red-figured Vise-painting.

on Athenian lecythtu.
The Odyssey.
Plate IV
The Odyssey. Plate V.

29. Odysseus and Nausicaa. R. F. Vase-painting. Fr. Vulci, in Munich Collection.

27. Girl playing Ball. R. F. Vase-painting.

32. Athene modelling a horse. R. F. Vase-painting in Berlin Mu

33- The wooden Horse brought in Troy. Wall-painting from Pompeii.

The Odyssey.

;,6. The Minding of Polyphemus. Archaic Vase-painting from Caere. Mus. Etr. Capit. Rome.
37. The Blinding of Polyphemus. B. F. Vase-painting in Naples Mu
The Odyssey. Plate VII.

40. Odysseus under the ram. B. F. Vase-

painting in Museum, Athens.

42. Departure of Odysseus. Relief on Etruscan urn in Museum. Leydei

house on the Esquilina Hill, R,

The Odyssey.

Elpenor. Engraving on Btnucu
mirror, from ( ...
,, pjj_
Plate IX.
The- Odyssey.

49. The shad

r_ F Vasc .
Antiope and Dirce. R. F. Vase-painting from l'ala2zuolo in Berlin ADtiqua
The Odyssey.

Plate X

53, Leda and the Dioscuri. B. 1'. Vase-painting from Caere, in Mus. Gregoriano, Rome. 56. The Taking of Troy and Death of friam. R. F. Vase-painting, in Bologna
The Odvssev.

60. a. b. c. Hades. Etruscan Wall-paintings fr. Cornets.

Plate XII. The Odyssey.
Plait- XIII.
The Odyssey.

76. The Dog Argus. Gen

in Berl. Antiquarium.
Penelope mourning. Terra-cotta relief. 67- Sun, Moon and Dawn. R. F. Vase-painting in Berlin Antiquarium. 75. Eos carrying off a boy. Terra-cotta relief from Caere in Berlin.
The Odyssey.
Plate XIV

I he < )dyssey.

The slaying of the suitor, Relief from Sarcophagus

o, ,>. md .,,;.. Re ef SUver
m the Herrmtage St. Petersburg.
Vase from the Crimea in the Hermitage. St. Petersburg 93. Centaurs and Lapitlis,
The Odyss ey.
Plate XVr.

94. a. b. c. The slaying of the Suitors. Reliefs from a tomb at Gjolbaschi, now at Vit

slaying of the Suitors. R. F. Vase-painting in Berlin Antiqi

99. Odysseus and Penelope. Pompeian. Wall-painting.

HE ODYSSEY is the story of the wan- Zeus, as befits the father of the gods, opens the was moodily watching the suitors, caught sight of the
derings of Odysseus, king of Ithaca, council with words of rebuke to men for their folly in stranger, led her into the great hall (fig. 6), and there
on his way home after the taking of laying the blame of the misfortunes they bring on entertained her with much hospitality. Presently the
Troy, and of the vengeance which he themselves at the door of the gods. He is thinking of suitors came in too, and sat down in rows on the chairs
wreaked on the suitors who had /Egisthus, who, despite the warning of the gods through and high seats, to partake of a supper of bread and
beset his wife Penelope when he was away. Hermes their messenger, took to himself Clytemnestra, wine. When this was over they called on Phemius, the
His wanderings lasted ten long years, but the story the wife of Agamemnon, and slew her lord, and in the lyre-player, for music (fig. 9). Meanwhile Athena has
only begins in the tenth year, just six weeks before fulness of time was himself slain by Orestes, Agamem- been advising Telemachus to call an assembly of the
he at last returned and slew the suitors. non's son (figs. 2-4). Achaean heroes, and to bid the suitors go home and
The adventures, however, which he went through Athena seizes the opportunity to remind Zeus of leave Penelope free to choose a husband. He was
during the former years are told by himself to King Odysseus, a god-fearing man, who has been kept from also to set sail for the mainland, and there to visit

Alcinous in bks. ix.-xii., which are a treasure-house home ten long years, and is now detained in the island Nestor at Pylus and Menelaus at Sparta to ask news
of hairbreadth escapes from cannibal ogres, of weird of Ogygia by the nymph Calypso. Zeus replies that of his father. The goddess then took farewell of
tales of the world below, of seas unknown to man, and it is Poseidon who is to blame, and adds that the time Telemachus, and departed, flying upward. Phemius the
of enchanted islands. has come for him, in deference to the other gods who minstrel was now singing the lay of the pitiful return
The plot of the poem turns on the wrath of pity Odysseus, to lay aside his wrath and let him return of the Acha:ans from Troy, and as he sang, Penelope
Poseidon, who was angered with Odysseus for having home. Athena accordingly asks that Hermes be hearing the music came down the stairs from the
blinded his son Polyphemus (bk. ix.). Odysseus, sent to Calypso to bid her set Odysseus free. Mean- women's chambers (fig. 5), and stood to listen by the
however, has a powerful protector in the goddess while she arms herself and descends from Olympus to doorpost of the hall (fig. 5). She fell a-weeping, thinking
Athena, who not only sends his son Telemachus in Ithaca, where she alights in the courtyard of Odysseus' of the long-delayed return of Odysseus, and besought the
search of news of him (bks. i.-iv., xv., xvi.), but palace (figs. 5 and 6), and takes the form of Mentes, the bard to choose some other lay. Telemachus, however,
helps him at each juncture. ruler of the Taphians. A strange sight meets her persuaded her to go back, spoke boldly to the suitors,
The first book opens with a council of the gods eyes ; before the doors of the great hall (fig. 6) are rebuking them, and then went to his chamber in the
(fig. in the palace of Zeus at Olympus, at which the suitors, playing draughts 7 and and feasting where he slept wrapt in a fleece of wool
i ), (figs. 8), court, (fig. i o),
Poseidon is not present. on abundance of wine and flesh. Telemachus, who meditating on the morrow's journey.
She Egisthus, his father's murderer, is told more fully in the later
with a carved back ending in a swan's head and
Fir:, i. Assembly of the Gods and the Entrance
in her books of the Odyssey.
of Dionysus into Olympus (line 26). holds a branch with leaves and fruit (or flowers?)
hand. Behind her is Aphrodite, The Homeric version is essentially different from that
right and a flower in her left
[CURED PAINTING ON THE OUTSIDE OF A VASE (cySx) best known to us by the plays of /Eschylus, Sophocles, and
headdress, and holding a dove
I 1

wearing her hair in a curious

BY Ol.TOS AND EUXITHEOS, ATHENIAN POTTERS OF THE Euripides, and does not agree altogether with the scene on
in her left hand and a (lower in her right. Side by side sits Ares
BEGINNING OF THE FIFTH CENTURY B.C. the early fifth-century vase-paintings, which seem to give an
with helmet and spear, gazing backwards like Aphrodite

The procession is depicted on intermediate form of the story, later than Homer and older
Found at (
'orneto, and in the Museum there. the approaching procession.
Dionysus in the than the Attic dramatists. Homer's story runs as follows
In the centre

the other side of the vase. is

Mon. d. Inst., x., tav. 23 and 24.
chariot. He holds the reins Orestes was the youngest child of Agamemnon, and quite an
act of mounting a four-horsed
Ann. d. Inst., 1875, PP- 221-53- Troy Thus
large vine-branch his right hand, and in his left infant when his father left for (cf. //., ix., 142). at
Klein, Meistersignaturen, 136.
and a in
the drinking-cup (cantharus). At the the time of the return and murder of his father (cf. Od., iii.,
carries his attribute,
Baumeister, Denkmaler, i., xrii., fig. 2400.
a satyr with snub-nose, playing the lyre 195-312, and fig. 23) he was only ten years old. Homer does
side of the horses
The figures are arranged thus: and in front a

maenad advances with a thyrsus in her right


not tell how the child was saved from death at the hands of
Hebe, Hi rme Athena, Zeus, Ganymede, Hestia, Aphrodite, Ares. hind leg a struggling /Egisthus, but merely says that in the eighth year of the
1 j
hand, while in the left she carries by its
{b) M.-enad, Satyr With lyre, Dionysus in chariot, M ' rial, Satyr with
Behind the usurper's reign he returned from Athens and slew his father's
doe. On her arm is a coiling, hissing snake.
chariot another maenad follows, with panther skin wrapped murderer (Od., iii., 306). The same passage speaks of the

round her neck and shoulders, holding a thyrsus in her left burial of his mother, but there is nothing to show whether
In the archaic art of the seventh and sixth centuries B.C. hand and carrying a lion on her right. She is followed by a she fell by her own hand or not, and there is no reason to

iIh gods appear in many works of art assembled in large satyr playing on a double-flute. suppose that Homer knew the later version which turns on
groups to take pari in some ceremony. At first they were One of the most noteworthy things about the scene is the the murder of Clytemnestra by Orestes, and the curse of

represented forming a solemn procession and marching in absence of such a large number of the greater gods, Hera, blood-guiltiness that it brought upon him.
due order, as in the scene of the "Marriage of Peleus" on Apollo, Artemis, Poseidon, and Hephaestus, and the presence The vase-painting from Bologna shows /Egisthus seated on
the celebrated Francois vase (//., fig. 88), but in later art they of Hestia and Hebe in their place. This, however, is explained a throne, suggesting, in this simple way, the usurpation and
appear seated. The vase-painting of Oltos (whose signature by the occasion being the welcome of Dionysus to Olympus, murder for which he is paying the penalty. He is struggling
is inscribed beneath the throne of Hestia) is one of the for Hera could scarcely be present to receive the son of a violently with hands and feet against Orestes, who has seized
earliest instances of this new type. It shows, however, the hated rival. Hestia, the goddess of the hearth, accordingly him by the hair with his left hand, while with his right he
gods n in the traditional forms of archaic an.
takes her place. The other gods seem to be selected as plunges a dagger into his throat, above the collar bone
and gives a very good idea of the manner in which the belonging, so to say, to the inner family circle of Zeus, being ( KXrfiBa). To the left a woman, whom we find called
older Greek artists depicted them.
all his children. Clytemnestra on the Vienna vase (fig. 3), rushes forward
The scene is not the council spoken of in the Odyssey, Another point which calls for notice is the fact that four of swinging an axe to strike Orestes. On the other side of
but represents certain of the gods assembled to welcome a the gods, Hebe, Hermes, Hestia, and Aphrodite, hold a flower the throne is another woman, named Chrysothemis on the
III god, I Honysus, to Olympus.
in a dainty way,.as though smelling it. This is not an attribute, Vienna vase (fig. 3), and Electra on a Berlin vase, who in
In the centre Zeus is seated holding the thunderbolt in his
but merely a favourite device of the archaic Greek artists, who great agitation shouts to warn Orestes. He turns his head to
l> 11 hand, while with his right he holds out a cup, into which
employed it to give a certain daintiness to their female figures. see the danger which threatens him, but is at the same moment
lus 1 up bearei 1 lanymede is about to pour wine.
It is rare to see a male god, like Hermes, holding one. saved by a youth behind Clytemnestra, who has seized her
Behind him sits Athena, in her traditional attire of regis,
helm, and spear arm and laid hold of the axe and stayed the blow. This
(cf. //., fig. 16); she looks round towards
Hermes, who is dressed in a cloak (chlamys) and winged boots,
Fig. 2. The Murder of jEgisthus (line 30).
youth corresponds to the figure called Talthybius on the

and has wide awake hal (fetasus) hanging at the back of Vienna vase (fig. 3), but seems too young to be Agamemnon's
his Red-figured painting on an Attic vase (celebe) of
neck. In his left hand he holds a flower, and THE FIFTH CENTURY B.C.
herald, the man who in one version of the story had saved
in his right
doubtli ss held a herald's which has been rubbed away and brought up Orestes. Some archaeologists accordingly
in Found in the Cerlosa at Bologna, and in the Museum there.
process of time. Side by side with him, though the recognise in him Pylades, the faithful companion and friend
artist has Zannoni, Scavi detla Certosa, tav.
placed Ik. slightlj 79, 3. of Orestes.
behind, sits Hebe, holding a (lower in her Robert, Bild und Lied, p. 150 (E on
left hand and , , hei right s ,, c haJ
The dramatic trait of the mother in the act of slaying her


her head round to see the procession The figures are arranged thus own son, whom she has not recognised, in defence of the
which is approaching
from the other side. Pylades (.?), Clytemnestra, Orestes, /Egisthus, Electra. paramour who had murdered his father, is peculiar to the
To the right of Zeus is the goddess Hestia on a throne vase-paintings. It is hinted at by /Eschylus (Chatham, 882),
The story of Orestes and the vengeance which he took
on but otherwise is unknown to literature.
: : ;

Fig. 3. The Murder of /Egisthus (line 30). his short sword to give a coup de grace, but, finding himself by a second " propylseum.'' This was the courtyard (av\r
checked, turns round to Clytemnestra, who has placed her right cf. 77., vi., 316) of the palace proper, whereas the outer court-
Red-figured paintings on an Attic vase (felice) of the
hand on his shoulder. Behind /Egisthus is Electra, who yard was for the whole citadel. In this second court stands
stands on tiptoe, with uplifted arms in terrified excitement the stone altar of Zeus Herkeios (lpios, cf. Od., xxii., 335, 442,
Found at Orvieto, now in Vienna.
while to the left a lady is seen raising her hand to her breast and 459), and round it ran colonnades (alOovo-ai) forming
1/ -
./. Inst, viii., tav. 15.
in alarm. By her side is another woman with upraised arms a cloister. The pavement of this court (avXij) is of concrete,
imsti.r, Denkmdler, fig. 131 1, p. n 14. in terror. She is probably one of the servants of the palace. carefully laid down and decorated with patterns.

ROBERT, Bild und Lied, p. 149 (a.) and 154 (fig.)

From this court one entered the great hall of the men
(/icyapoi-, see To the side of this hall were a number
The scene is arranged thus fig. 6). of

Fig. 5. Palace on the Acropolis of Tiryns. rooms, but only in the case of one can the use to which they
(rt) Tallhybius holding Ijack Clytemnestra.
were put to be determined. This is a bath-room, the floor
(4) Chrysothemis, Orestes, /Egisthus. Excavated by Schliemann in 1SS4.
of which is formed of a single slab of stone (10 ft. by 12 ft.),
Schliemann, Tiryns, PI. n.
made with a slope, so that all the water ran out at one point,
Schuchhardt, Schliemann 's Ausgrabungen (Eng. trans,
The same scene divided into two groups is shown by the through a stone pipe into the main drain.
by Miss Sellers), PI. 4.
Vienna vase, where it is treated in a more vigorous and On the other side of the great hall is the dwelling of the
Baumeister, Denkmaler, PI. 75.
quainter way. women, completely shut off from that of the men. It, too,
Smith, Diet, of Antiquities, " Domus," on 655.
/Egisthus is here represented already wounded in the breast,
art. fig. p.
has a court (avXr; ), and a large hall, and round it are
falling from the throne as he receives a second stab from apartments, in which we may recognise the aXa/*os and the
Orestes' sword. He struggles faintly with one arm, his eye Schliemann's excavations at Tiryns have thrown a flood ijcrai'pos of Homer.
is upturned and half-closed, and his leg kicks spasmodically of light on the structure and plan of the palaces of Homeric
in the last throes of death. kings. The palace on the Acropolis of Tiryns is, however,
Orestes, as in fig. 1, looks round, startled by the cries of no longer the only monument of its kind, for similar buildings
Fig. 6. The Great Hall (Miyapov) of the Palace
his sister Chrysothemis, who stands behind him with uplifted have been traced at Mycense, Hissarlik (Schliemann's Ilios),

hands gazing
at Tiryns (line 103).
at her mother. and Arisba in Lesbos. However, it still remains not only the
On the other side of the vase Clytemnestra rushes forward largest, but the best preserved. It is undoubtedly much more Schliemann, Tiryns, p. 237, fig. 113.
in the act of raising the axe, while Talthybius seizes her arm magnificent than the palace of Odysseus, the homely king of Schuchhardt, Schliemann's Ausgrabungen, p. iji, fig. 102.
and holds the axe. He wears the short cloak and the felt a group of small islands, seems to have been, but it gives,
hat of a herald, and, as befits an aged man, is bearded. notwithstanding, a better explanation of Homer than the
other simpler palaces. The Megaron or great hall of the men's apartments was
The Acropolis of Tiryns rises out of the plain of Argos, and the chiefroom in the Homeric palace. It was in it that
Fig. 4. The Murder of /Egisthus (line 30).
is no great height. It was, however, a strong fortress, for it strangers were received (Od., i., 125 ; iv., 15, etc.) and that the
Marble relief in archaic Greek style. was surrounded by walls of immense thickness, built of such heroes met to feast and carouse. The room in the palace

Found at . bin,: towards the end of the eighteenth century, huge blocks of stone that they were supposed by the ancients excavated by Schliemann at Tiryns gives the typical form of

and now in the Despuig Museum at Palma in Majorca.

to have been the work of giants, and were called " Cyclopean." such a hall.

The citadel thus formed is divided into three parts at different It was entered from the court by an open portico of two
.Irchaologische /.eitung, 1849, W- II.
levels : the upper citadel, containing the king's palace ; the columns (the cU'tJouo-a) and an inner vestibule (the 7rpo'Spo/ios),
Baumeister, Denkmaler, p. ma, fig. 1309.
middle and lower citadels, where the attendants and soldiers which was connected with the portico by three doors, and with
Overbeck, Plastik, i., 160, fig. 31.
had their quarters, amid stables and other offices. the hall itself by a single doorway without doors. In the middle
Gall. Iter. Bi/dw., xxviii., 8,4). 696.
Entrance was gained by a road on a gentle slope which of the hall was a hearth (the i<rx<ipa, Od.,x\., 123), which served
The figures are arranged thus ran between the outer or main wall of the citadel and the inner both for sacrifice and cooking; and round the hearth were
Woman wailing, Lady, Clytemnestra, Orestes, /Egisthus, Electra.
wall round the upper citadel and Half-way up There was
palace. this the four pillars which supported the roof. in all

road was a gate, which was closed by doors and bars, and probability a hole in the roof over the hearth, to allow the
The archaic relief from Alicia shows a slightly later scene farther on the entrance to the upper citadel was guarded by smoke to escape and the light to enter. Indeed, except the
in the murder. The throne has been left out, and /Egisthus a double gateway, " Propyteum," with a roomy portico on each wide door of the vestibule there seems to have been no other
has sunk to the earth and half erect, endeavouring to rise,
is side of the doors. Beyond this lay a courtyard, off which were provision for lighting. The floor of the hall was of lime
while he clutches at the entrails, which protrude from the rooms who guarded
for the use of the soldiers the gate ; and concrete, decorated with patterns of squares formed by rows
wound in his breast. Orestes, who is bearded, advances with from this courtyard opened another court, which was entered of incised lines.
Minstrels like Phemius in Ithaca, and Demodocus, the blind
Pig. ; Heroes Playing Backgammon (line 107). Fig. 8. Draught-players (line 107).
viii.), enlivened the feasts of the
bard of the Phreacians (Od.,
Black-figured painting on a vase {amphora) by the A TERRA-COTTA GROUP. heroes with their music and their lays.

Athenian potter Exekias, ok the end of the sixth Athens, in the Plot Collection. Like seers, physicians, and builders, they were Siyuovpyoi, or
PI. 80, 4. craftsmen who were brought from abroad, from strange towns
in the Vatican, Rome. Schreiber, Kulturhistorischer Bilderatlas,
Jn the MusiO Gregoriano, and lands, for the sake of their welcome services (Od., xvii., 383).
Archiiologische Ztitung, 1S63, PI. 173.
Schreiber, Kulturhistorischer Bilderatlas, PI. 36, 8.
Some, however, were attached to great families, like the bard
Baumeister, Denkmaler, p. 354, fig- 374-
Mon. ,/. Inst., ii., tav. 22.
10. who was faithful to the trust Agamemnon placed in him, and
Blumner, Leben und Sitten, ii., 52, fig.
G H USD, Auserltsent Vasenbilder, iii., her absent lord
for a long time kept Clytemnestra true to
BAUMEISTER, Dcnkmaler, p. 684, fig. 744.
(Od., iii., 265).
Ku in, Mcistersignaturen, p. 39 (4).
The vase-painting in fig. 9 depicts the wandering minstrel
A variety of draughts or chequers was very favourite among
Panofka, Bilder ant. Lebens, 10, 10.
of the fifth century, sunk from his high estate, wandering to
( mini Gall. her. Bildw., xiv., 4, p. 310. the Greeks of classical times,and may possibly have existed
the music of his double-flute, accompanied by

his dog, and

as early as the Homeric age. The above terra-cotta group
carrying his lyre slung on his staff behind his
Games of skill and chance played on a board, ruled either (fig. 8, a) enables us to form a fairly close
idea of what it

were very was

The picture should not be taken as giving an accurate idea
in a chequer pattern of squares or in parallel lines, like.
regards his dress,
are seated opposite of the lyre-player's appearance, especially as
popular among the Greeks at all periods. They are mentioned Two players, a young man and a girl,

an old one another, with a draught-board and men upon their for he wore as a professional attire long flowing garments,
in this passage by Homer, and, according to tradition, to

were invented by 1'alamedes to while away the hours which knees. A third figure, which is a caricature of an old man or such as we see on Orpheus in fig. 59.

hung heavily on the hands of the Greeks before Troy. How- woman, is looking on, and taking part in some dispute about
ever, panics of the same kind were played in Egypt long before the state of the game.
1 in' 1'
time, and it is probable that the origin of the game, Fig. 8 b shows the pieces lying on the board much as
10. Bed

Fig. (line 437).

in in Greece, lies much further back. We have nothing, in the modern game ; but unluckily the artist has placed the
however, to tell us what kind of game his heroes played; but men at haphazard, without any relation to the squares, and so Painting on a white Attic oil-flask (lecytkus) of the

Exekias, the painter of fig. 7, represents Ajax and Achilles it is impossible to form any idea of the rules by which it was fifth century B.C.

playing a variety of backgammon. The two heroes are seated played. The article "Duodecim Scripta," in Smith's Dictionary
Noiv at Athens.
mi square stone suis, with a block between them, on which the of Antiquities, ed. 1890, gives an account of the different
board placed. who right (in a helmet, can be recovered from
Schreiber, Kulturhist. Bilderatlas, PI. 86, 1.
is AcliilK s, sits to the varieties of the game, as far as they
Stackelberg, Graber d. Hellenen, PI. 38.
loin-cloth, cuirass, greaves, and a richly embroidered cloak or classical writers.
chlamys), holding two spears in his left hand, cries, " Four,"

the throw he has just made, and is moving his piece. Ajax,
oil-flask, represents
on the other side (in loin-cloth, cuirass, greaves, and cloak or This vase-painting, from an Attic funeral
Fig. 9. A Wandering Musician (line 153). If we can
chlamys), cries " Three," and makes a counter-move. a dead man lying, as it were, in sleep in his bed.
Behind each hero is a shield of Bieotian shape, that of Red-figured painting from an Attic vase of the fifth imagine the ribands which hang from the ceiling
picture of
Achilles decorated with a satyr's head, .1 snake, and a panther, century b.c. by Telemachus's clothes (cf. line 439) we have a
that of Ajax with his helmet resting on it, and ornamented Schreiber, Kulturhistorischer Bilderatlas, PI. 65,4. Telemachus as an Athenian painter might have drawn him.
with a Gorgon's head and two snakes. A small and very PANOFKA, Bilder ant. Lebens, PI. 4, 3. The young man lies wrapped in a blanket (often fleeces),
curious point is noteworthy : both the heroes have their Daremberg et Saglio, Diet, des Antiquitcs, p. 12 14, fig. his head on a pillow, which is stuffed with wool, and has a

thighs tattooed.
56 7- cover over it.


N the next day Telemachus called to- Fig. 11. Penelope at the Loom, with Telemachus winged human figure, a cross, and a star, while the side
(line 93). seams have an elaborate border of meanders and stripes.
gether an assembly of the people, at
Red-figured painting on an Attic vase of the fifth On-the top cross-bar of the loom are a row of pegs, and
which he took his father's seat, the
century b.c. what seem to be spindles. The drawing, however, is not
elders giving place to him. The accurate enough to enable us to determine accurately. how
From Chiusi, now in the Berlin Aniiguarium.
meeting was opened by the old man either these or the lower crossbars were worked. The vase-
The reverse shows the " Recognition of Odysseus," given below, painting belongs to century but we have no
/Egyptus, with a few words of good will towards the fifth B.C.,

fig- 79- reason to suppose that this loom is at all different from that
Telemachus, who thereupon arose, and appealed to the
Man. d. Inst., ix., PI. 4, 21. of Homeric times. Like all classical looms, it is upright, not
people to see that the suitors no longer wasted his
Ann. d. Inst., 1872, pp. 187-216. horizontal as in modern times, and was worked standing by
substance. Antinous, the spokesman of the suitors,
Baumeister, Denkmiiler, p. 20S5, fig. 2332. a weaver who walked backwards and forwards each time the
replied that Penelope is to blame for having deceived Schreieer, Kulturhirt. Bilderatlas, PL 75, 1. shuttle was passed through the woof.
the suitors by her famous web (87 foil). She had Blumner, Leben und Sitten, i., p. 171, fig. 81. Technologie, The scene here represented does not occur in Homer, but

been wooed seven long years before she consented to i-. 53- is manifestly intended to illustrate the second book, the artist
Smith, Diet, of Antiquities, article "Tela." allowing himself the liberty of inventing a scene in which
give up hope of Odysseus, and to marry another ; but
Telemachus before departing gazes in sorrow at his mother
even then she pleaded that she must first finish the robe
without taking a formal farewell.
which she was weaving as a shroud for Laertes, the
To the right of the picture Penelope sits in a pose which
father of Odysseus, against the time of his death. The
almost exactly corresponds with that of a famous series of statues
suitors consented, and for three long years she deceived
them, weaving by day and unravelling by night
and reliefs representing her. (These are given in the Antike
Fig. 12. Ships. A Sea-fight (line 387).
all Denhnaler of the German Arcliiiologisches Institut, Heft 3 (1883),
Painting on an archaic mixing-bowl (crater) by the
that she had woven. In the fourth year, just at the Plates 31 and 32, one of the reliefs being shown below in
potter Aristonophos, of the seventh century B.C.
time the poem opens, one of her serving maids proved fig. 78 ; cf. Friederichs-Wolters, Gipsabgiisse, No. 211, where the
From Care, now in the Museo Etrusco Capltollno, Rome.
traitor, and the suitors found her bibliography of the subject is fully given.) Her attitude is
in the act of un-
sorrowful ; she has drawn her veil over her head, and rests it The reverse shows the " Blinding of Polyphemus " and is
ravelling it, and made her perforce finish the web.
meditatively upon her hand. given below (Jig. 36).
Antinous accordingly declares that the suitors will Before her stands a youth, whose name, Telemachus, is Mon. d. Inst., ix., PI. 4.
not go until Penelope makes her final choice. After inscribed on the original vase-painting. He is clad in a mantle Ann. d. Inst., 1869, pp. 157-72-
further debate, and the appearance of an omen boding (liimation), which leaves his right arm and chest free, and Klein, Mcistersiguatiiren, p. 27.

death to the suitors, the assembly broke

carries two spears in his left hand. The weapons indicate that Baumeister, Denhnaler, p. 1956, fig. 2087.
up, and
he is about to take his departure, and he gazes sadly on his Schreiber, Kunsthist. Bilderatlas, PI. 46, 2.
Telemachus in despair went down to the sea, and mourning mother, for he has been forbidden to tell her of his
prayed to Athena. She appeared to him in the form journey.
of Mentor; promised to provide him with a ship In the background is the loom, a large upright framework, The only information that Homer gives as to the shape
(fig. 1
2), for he had not asked the assembly for one with five bars running across. Round one of these is wound of the ships of his time is found in the epithets which he

and bade him go home and get provisions the web, from which the threads that form the woof hang gives them. Some of these (e.g., opOoxpatpai, Kopwv&es a/*<i-
for the
to the ground, kept in place by little whorls or pear-shaped eAurtrai) seem to imply that both their bows and poops were
voyage. The book closes with his departure for
weights. The piece of cloth last woven, which hangs below built alike, and that at each end they had hooked beaks
the roll, shows a richly-woven pattern of winged horses, a curved like horns. The oldest picture of a Greek ship is
fighting with one another. In
The helmets, shields, and spears,
Medinet Habou, which re- prows and poops as already quite distinct in structure. which has no mast, a most unusual
:> an Egyptian relief at
the vessel to the left,
vase-painting of Aristonophos given here is a
century or two
presents a sea-fight between the Egyptians under Rameses III.
the oarsmen can be seen
beneath the deck, but in
Both feature,
later, but shows practically the same type of ship.
(1200- j 166 B.C., a date which is very nearly that of the early
that to the right, which has a mast, the rowers are not
the vessels are represented as if out of water. They have a
(ireek pottery discovered by Mr. Petrie in the Fayoum), and
peoples Mediterranean, high curved poop to enable them to be dragged up on the
some of the white skinned of the that the stars and rosettes scattered
by large It should be noted
probably the Greeks of Asia Minor (see the illustration in shore and to ride out a rough sea, and are steered do with the scene, and
about the picture have nothing to
Butcbei and Lang's translation of the Odyssey, p. 414, and oars in the stern. The prow of the vessel to the left, and space, an invariable custom
to im- are merely to fill up the empty
Denkmaler, 1657). The earliest possibly of that to the right, is decorated, according
Baumeister's p. 1595, fig.
ram. with the early potters. The zigzag lines, on the other hand,
pictures on Greek pottery are on the Dipylon ware, which memorial custom, with an eye, and ends in a beak or
faint indication of the waves.
below the ships are a
Both vessels have a deck, on which are warriors armed
is at least as old as the ninth century, but these show the


bowed down with age, and his right hand rests on his staff
N the next day Tclcmachus and his the court (cf. fig. 5). At early dawn on the next day
the young
he speaks in welcome (note the two fingers raised) to
crew landed at Pylus, and found the a heifer with gilded horns was slain, and a burnt offer- probably intended to be Polycaste,
man. A maiden, who is

people sacrificing to Poseidon and ing sacrificed to Athena. Telemachus then, after a behind the old
Nestor's youngest daughter (line 464), stands
Nestor, with his sons in their midst. bath (cf. fig. 5), came forth and partook in the feast
man, arrayed in an embroidered gown, shoes, a sword, a girdle,

form Mentor, When was over he and a bracelet, and a necklace. She hand a dish
carries in her
S=2I Athena, in the of following the sacrifice. this
with cakes on either for the entertainment of Telemachus
advanced and was kindly greeted by Nestor, who
in- Nestor's son Peisistratus left in a chariot, which Nestor
or as a sacrificial offering.
vited them to join in the sacrifice and feast (fig. 13). provided, on his way to Menelaus, and journeyed till he
On hearing who Telemachus and of his quest in where he lodged the night with
is, reached Phera:, for
Fig. 14. The Battle over the Bodyof Achilles (line 109).
search of Odysseus, Nestor tells him of the troubles Diodes.
Part of a black-figured painting on an archaic
of the Greeks before Troy ; how Achilles (fig. 1 4) and
vase {amphora) of the Chalcidian style, of the early
Antilochus, his own son, fell in battle, arid how amid Fig. 13. Telemachus visiting Nestor (line 31). PART OF THE SIXTH CENTURY.
all their troubles Odysseus was the wisest of the Red-figured painting on South Italian vase of third From Vulci; formerly in the Pembroke Collection, now in tin-

heroes. Then he spoke of the grievous return from or fourth century B.C. Hope Collection at Deepdene.

Troy, of the death of Agamemnon (cf. fig. 23), and In Berlin Antiquarium. Mon. d. Inst., 1, PI. 51.

the vengeance of Orestes Revue Archiologique, r845, PI. 40. Overbeck, Gatlerie her. Bildzv., PI, 23, 1, and p. 540.
(cf. figs. 2-4), and ended by
Luckenbach, Vasenb. d. Episclien Kyklus, p. 552. Baumeister, Denkmaler, PI. 1, fig. 10.
advising him to journey to Menelaus and enquire
Archiiologische Zeitung, 1S53, p. 106. Schreiber, Kulturhist. Bilderatlas, PI. 34, 5.
if on his travels he had heard anything of Odysseus,
Roscher, Lexicon, d. Mythologie, p. 50 (fig.).
while at the same time he invited him to spend The of the Berlin vase has depicted the arrival
artist of Helbig, Das horn. Epos., fig. 66.
the night in his palace. Thereupon Athena, after Telemachus in the style of the South Italian painting of the Klein, Euphronios, p. 65 (I.).

commending Telemachus to Nestor's care, took the form third or fourth century B.C. Luckenbach, D. V. gr. Vasenbilder z. ep. Kyklus, p. 622.

of a sea-eagle, and departed, filling Nestor with such Telemachus is a youth in a short shirt girded round the Schneider, Der Epische Sagenkreis, p. 151.
waist, armed with two spears and a shield, and carrying his Roberts, Introd. to Greek Epigraphy, p. 207 (189).
awe that he vowed a sacrifice to the goddess (figs.
conical felt cap in his left hand. Nestor is an old man, in a
[6, 17). It was then evening, and they retired to rest, long embroidered shirt and ample mantle wrapped round his The death of Achilles is not described in any part of the
Telemachus sleeping in a room round the colonnade of body and over his head, with soft shoes on his feet. He is Odyssey, but the battle which raged over his dead body is
mentioned twice ; by Odysseus, who, in the stress of the storm Antilochus, son of Nestor, was slain by Memnon, son of cloth and has short hair) driving a heifer, which he holds in
at sea, wished that he had died before Troy among the Achaeans the goddess Eos (bk. v., 187), and his death shown on an
is by a rope tied to her off fore-leg. In front of the altar a
who fought over Achilles (bk. v., 308/0//.), and by the shade of Etruscan urn. The present vase-painting is also supposed by woman in rich attire stretches branches,
which she holds
Agamemnon Hades, who in
in tells the shade of Achilles how some archaeologists to depict it, though the inscriptions make both hands, over it, showing thereby that she is a suppliant
the heroes fought over him the whole day, till Zeus stayed this doubtful.
(they are iKrqpm KXdSoi). Behind the altar is the figure of
them by a tempest (bk. xxiv., 37 foil.) This battle is shown Two warriors, armed with helmet, cuirass, greaves, sword, the goddess Athena in a rich garment, armed with helm and
on the Pembroke vase. Achilles, fallen on the ground, lies with and shield, and wearing a shirt and a short cloak, are rushing shield, and raising her spear as if to thrust (the attitude of
closed eyes, pierced by two arrows, one in the side, the other to attack one another. At their feet lies between them a Athena irpo/jLaxos).
in the heel. Glaucus, one of the Trojan heroes, has thrown a dead man bearded and naked. Above and below the warriors'
noose round his ankle to drag him off, but is himself struck shields are the inscriptions " Achilles " and " Hector," but Fig. 17. Sacrifice (line 455).
down by the spear of Ajax, who rushes forward and is thrusting there is no mention in Homer of any battle between them Fragment of a red-figured Attic vase of the fifth
it into his side, having already driven another spear through over a dead man. Besides, the reverse of the vase represents
century b.c.
Glaucus's neck. Behind Glaucus kneels Paris, aiming his bow Eos bearing away the body of Memnon, which has suggested,
From Tamilian, in British Museum.
at Ajax but in vain, for the arrows and spears of the Trojans to those who find a difficulty in this, that the
combatants here
are unable to pierce his shield, and rebound from Journal of Hellenic Studies, vol.
it. are Achilles Memnon (cf.
and fig. 21), and that the dead
ix., PI. 1.

On the vase there are many other figures besides the four man Antilochus, over whom
Iwan Muller, Haiidlmch. Sacralaltertiimer PI. 1.
is they fought. The dead man i.

here given. Behind Ajax is the goddess Athena encouraging is bearded, and this scarcely accords with the youth of
him, and making him more than a match for the two Trojan In the centre is a column, on which an idol of Athena
Antilochus ; but in vase-paintings of this period all the figures

warriors, Aeneas and another, who advance to the aid of in the archaic style. In front of this an altar of unhewn stone
are bearded and Memnon
(e.g., Achilles in fig. 21). A more
Glaucus. Besides these there are two more Trojans, one has been a neat heap of faggots in a bright blaze.
fatal objection, and one that really makes the reference to
wounded, the other hurling a spear, and Sthenelus binding the fire can be seen parts of the victim burning, while over
Antilochus almost impossible, is the fact that the vase-painters,
up the wounded finger of Diomede. in naming the heroes the fire two youths (one youth invisible) hold rolls of flesh
in a battle scene, did not trouble to
The armour of the heroes well worth notice, especially the and fat (to a-n-Xiyxya) on the end of double
is follow Homer accurately (e.g., cf. Iliad, fig. 75).
spits (cf. line 460).
cuirass of Ajax, with the strange projecting rim seen in archaic Close to the altar is a sacred tree, from which a number of
works of art (cf. //., fig. 7), and the loin-cloth or apron worn little votive tablets of painted terracotta are hanging. Further
Fig. 16. Sacrifice to Athena (line 440).
below it, in the place of the short shirt of later times. to the left, a bearded man wearing a sacrificial chaplet is

Black-figured painting on archaic vase of the standing, while to the right the goddess Athena appears
Fig. 15. The Death of Antilochus century B.C. armed with helmet (note the crest supported by a sphinx, as
(line rn).
Gerhard, in the Parthenos of Phidias), a:gis, and She
Black-figured painting on an archaic Attic Vase. Etr. u. Campan. Vasen, i., PI. 2.
spear. is in the

Millingen, Ancient unedited Man., i., PI. 4. attitude of a spectator, gazing calmly at the sacrifice ; but there
Overbeck, Galkrie can be little doubt that the sacrifice is being offered to her,
her. Bildw., p. 515, 36.
Two men wearing fillets and long hair advance towards an
Luckenbach, D. Verh. gr. Vaseni. :u ./. Kyklus, p.
and the artist intends us to suppose that she is invisible to
539. altar of cut stone, accompanied by a man (who wears a loin- the worshippers.


ELEMACHUS and Peisistratus arrive of Achilles (fig. iS), and that of Megapentes, son of The strangers are hospitably received by Menelaus
in Sparta on the next day, and drive Menelaus by a slave.
who tells them how he gained the great wealth of gold
to the palace of Menelaus. They The feast was given in the great hall of the palace
they see around them in his travels through Phoenicia,
find him giving a feast to celebrate a (the Megaron, and the guests were entertained
cf. fig. 6),
Cyprus, and Egypt. He
double marriage that of Hermione, by two acrobats, who tumbled to the music of
the lyre
then speaks of his sorrow for
the loss of Odysseus, and Telemachus bursts into tears.
vho was being sent off as a bride to Neoptolemus, son (cf. //., fig. 74). Just at this moment Helen enters the great hall, with
that both heroes have felt caps, showing that they are on a
her maids, who carry her golden distaff charged with grief, cannot be comforted until Athena sends her a
journey, and there is a second tripod for offerings near the
purple wool (fig. 20), and her work-basket of silver set vision in her sleep.
sacred palm-tree.
on wheels (fig. 19). On catching sight of Telemachus

she recognises at once his great likeness to Odysseus,

Fir,. 18. The Murder of Neoptolemos by Orestes
Fig. 19. Work-basket (line 125).

and reveals to Menelaus, though he too was wondering (line 5).

Red-figured painting on an Attic vase of the early
fifth century B.C.
at his grief, who he is. Peisistratus then declared Red-figured painting on a South Italian vase (large
Found ill Attica.
himself, and both were welcomed heartily by Menelaus amphora) of the third or fourth century b.c.
Hevdemann, Griech. Vasenlulder, PI. 9, 5.
and Helen. After they had taken food Helen tells the Found at Ruvo in Apulia, now in the Caputi Collection.
Schreiber, Kulturh. Bilderatl., PI. 75, 9.
story of Odysseus entering Troy to spy out the town Annali d. Inst., 1868, Tav. d'agg, I.

of a beggar. Menelaus gives a further Baumeister, Denkmaler, p. 1009, fig. 1215. The work-basket used by Greek ladies when spinning is
in the disguise
Vogel, Sanen Euripid. Tragodien, p. 36. invariably of the shape shown in this painting, one narrow at
instance of the prudence of Odysseus when the
the bottom, wide at the top, and practically identical with our
Achrean chiefs were concealed in the wooden horse
Neoptolemus, "son of Achilles, had been brought up during
" waste-paper " baskets. The lady seems to be engaged in
and would have betrayed themselves but for him wrapping wool out of the basket round her distaff (^XaKanj),
the Trojan war in the island of Scyrus (//., xix., 326), whence
(cf. figs. 32, 33). after his father's death he was fetched by Odysseus (cf. fig. from which she will presently spin it with the aid of a spindle
Then Telemachus and Peisistratus retire to their and Od., xi., 506 foil.) At the taking of Troy he was one of (arpaKros). This is shown in her left hand. It consists of a

the chief figures, and slew Priam on the altar of Zeus (cf. fig. short stem, with a hook at the top to hold the thread fast, and
rooms, in the colonnade round the courtyard (cf. fig. 5),
After the war he returned with the Myrmidons to his ending below in a weight called the whorl, which acts as a fly-
where luxurious beds had been laid for them
father's throne, and wedded Hermione, daughter of Menelaus. wheel and keeps it spinning round.
(cf. fig. 10), while Menelaus and his wife sleep in the somewhat unusual to find the basket used for unspun
It was this marriage that brought about his death at the It is

inmost part of the house, in the women's apartments hands of Orestes, to whom Hermione had been betrothed. The wool, for it usually held only the spun thread ; as in the passage

(cf. fig. 5). story is not given by Homer, but forms part of the plot of in Homer (line 134, nj/iaros duKi^Tolo fitjivajLaiov) ; after it had
the Andromache of Euripides, which agrees in the main with been taken off the spindle.
Next day Telemachus unbosoms himself of his
scenes in the vase-painting. In this version Neoptolemus had For baskets in antiquity see Smith's Diet, of Antiquities
troubles with suitors, and asks news of his father.
gone to Delphi to make atonement to Apollo for having asked (1890), article "Calathus," p. 330; and for the distaff and
Menelaus replies by a long story : how when land-
satisfaction for his father's death. Orestes lay in wait for his spindle the article " Fusus," p. 897.
locked in Egypt he captured Proteus, the old man of the enemy at the shrine, and slew him on the altar.

sea (fig. 22), and learned from him of the murder of The artist has depicted the temple of Apollo at Delphi in Fig. 20. Woman Spinning (line 131).
Agamemnon (fig. 23), and the detention of Odysseus by the background, with the oracular tripod, the Omphalus (Delphi Red-figured painting on an Attic vase.
was believed to be the central point of the earth, and called
Calypso in the island of Ogygia. He ends by inviting its
Panofka, Bilder ant. Lebens, PI. 19, 2.
" navel," or Omphalus, and this is symbolised in Greek art
Telemachus to stay with him eleven or twelve days, but Schreieer, Kulturh. Bilderatl., PI. 75, 5.
by the curious oval object covered with ribands and beads
Telemachus pleads that his companions await him in in the middle of foreground), and the palm-tree in front, all The method of spinning with the spindle described above
I'ylus, and that he must depart. They go in to feast, characteristic marks of the place. (fig. 19) is clearly shown in this painting. The lady held in
and then suddenly the story of Telemachus' adventures Neoptolemus has been wounded in the side, and has taken her left hand the distaff with the wool wrapped round and

breaks off, not to begin again until the thirteenth book. refuge on the altar. He half kneels on it, and as the blood with her right hand gradually drew a small portion out to form

The scene shifts to Ithaca, and the astonishment

gushes from his wound tries to defend himself with a mantle the thread. At the same time she gave it a twist, which the
(chlamys) wrapped round his left arm and a drawn sword in impetus of the spindle below continued, until it was closely
and dismay of the suitors on learning that Telemachus
his right from Orestes, who rushes from behind the Omphalus spun thread. She continued this process until the thread had
had really set out is described. In their fright they to attack him. Meanwhile a companion of Orestes about to
is become so long that the spindle touched the ground, then
determine that he must be slain, and devise a plan of cast a spear at him from behind. In the background sits pulled the new-made thread through the hook, wrapped it

Apollo (arrayed in cloak and carrying a bow, while a shield round the spindle, and repeated the spinning
waylaying him on his homeward voyage in a narrow until the wool in
lies beside him) calmly gazing on the fight. On the other side
strait. Penelope learns of the the distaff was exhausted.
plot, is amazed to find
is the priestess of the temple carrying the key
that Telemachus
(cf. //., fig. 39), The appearance of the spindle without thread wrapped round
is from home, and, distraught with and raising her right hand in alarm. It should also be noted it is shown in fig. in.
Brunn, Rilievi d. urne etr, PI. 74, 2.
Combat between Achilles and Memnon painting gives a spirited picture of the two heroes (the
jr Ifi . 2I .
fact thatthey wear no body armour except a helmet shows Baumeister, Denkmaler, p. 21, fig. 22.
(line 188).
them to be heroes) rushing on one another, Achilles with the
Red-figured painting on the neck of an Attic vase The story of the murder of Agamemnon given here and
spear, Memnon with a sword. Behind each hero is His
(crater) of the fifth century b.c. in Od., i., 35 ; hi., 198, 308, differs from that in Od., xi., 421, in
mother, following his fortunes with intense exciterhent, Thetis
at Cine, now in the British Museum. laying all the blame on >Egisthus and none on Clytemnestra.
Found cheering on the conqueror, and Eos crying alarm to the
The latter version, however, in which Clytemnestra takes part
Gerhard, Auserlesene gr. Vasenb., PI. 204, 1. conquered.
in the murder, became the accepted one at an early date, and
Baumeister, Denimaler, p. 920, fig. 993.
received its final form at the hands of the dramatists, who, like
Luckeneach, Das V. gr. Vasenb. 2. ep. Kyklus, p. 617. Fig. 22. Proteus. /Eschylus, made her the chief actor. With this goes a change
Overbeck, Galkrie her. Bi/Jw., xix., 4, No. 60 (p. 523).
Red-figured vase-painting on South Italian vase.
in the circumstances of the story. In Homer Agamemnon is
Roscher, Lexicon der Mythologie, p. 1271 (fig.).
In the Naples Museum. murdered at table (ms /3oCs rai i^irg), while in the classical
Museo Borbonico, xiii., PI. 58.
version Clytemnestra throws a robe over him in his bath, and,
as he struggles in its folds, slays him with an axe.
In the jEthiopis (cf. //., fig. 3, where the battle of Achilles
The old man of the sea is here represented as a man down This scene does not occur on any extant Greek works of art,
and Memnon is shown on the bottom row but one of the
to the waist, but with fishes' tails, ending in crabs' claws, and but is shown on Etruscan urns, as in fig. 23.
Tabula Iliaca), we are told that after the death of Hector,
sea-dogs instead of legs. This is the manner in which the In it we see, in the centre, Agamemnon, his head, shoulders,
queen of the Amazons, came with her troops to
the help of Priam, but before long was conquered and slain
Greek artist suggests the manifold shapes into which he could and arms covered with a cloth, struggling helplessly as he