35 views

Uploaded by Shazmania

- Electric Power System Design
- Congestion Management Using Facts Devices In
- Edsa Paladin
- 01008370
- Synchronous Generators and Leading Power Factors
- static var compensator
- Power - System - Einstein Notes
- eshed
- 00 - Lab Equipment
- HGM7200_HGM7100A_V1.6_en
- PowerFactorCorrectionLV-ICAR
- Sinusoidal Steady State Circuit Analysis Topic 3
- Power Factor Correction of 6.6kv Distribution Line in Lc11 Rmhs Department, Jsw Steel
- passive trap filter for harmonic reduction
- Flexible AC Transmission Systems FACTS 8
- 11546-Eng-01-A-How Do You Measure Energy Consumption
- 4971b_en.pdf
- exp1 elec
- 07501293
- IJETAE_0912_67

You are on page 1of 37

Your Electric Bill

Presented by

Scott Peele PE

Understanding Power Factor

Definitions

kVA, kVAR, kW, Apparent Power vs. True Power

Calculations Measurements

Power Factor Correction

Capacitors

System Impacts

I2 R losses, Chapter 9 NEC

Equipment sizing

Power Factor Charges

Problems with adding Caps

Harmonic resonance

Volt rise

Power Factor vs Load Factor

What is Power Factor

phase angle between current and

voltage.

power to apparent power.

Understanding Alternating Current

AC

200

150

120 Volts RMS

Voltage Level

Magnitude

100

169 volts

50

-50

One Cycle

-100

.01666 seconds

-150

-200

60 Hertz/second

0

Duration

Time

Phase Angle

200

150

120 Volts RMS

Voltage Level

Magnitude

100 o

90 o

50 180

0

-50

One Cycle

-100

-150 o

360

-200 o

0 270

Duration

Degrees

Three Basic Circuits or Loads

Resistive

Inductive

Capacitive

Or any combination

Resistive Inductive

Inductive Capacitive

Resistive Capacitive

Resistive Inductive Capacitive

Types of Loads

Resistance heat

Inductive Motors Contactor Coils

Relays (coils)

Capacitive Capacitors Start Capacitors

Run Capacitors Power Factor

Correction Capacitors

Resistive Loads

In Phase

200

150

100

Magnitude

50

Level

-50

-100

-150

-200

0

Duration

Time

Inductive Loads

Lagging

200

150

100

Magnitude

Level

50

-50

-100

-150

-200

0

Duration

Time

Capacitive Loads

Leading

200

150

100

Magnitude

Level

50

-50

-100

-150

-200

0

Duration

Time

What is Power

Volts X Amps X Power Factor = Watts

Watts only equals Volts X Amps when the

Power Factor is 1 or unity.

Most of the time the Power Factor is less

than 1.

Power = Watts : True Power

Volts X Amps = VA : Apparent Power

Understanding Right Triangles

A= Side Opposite

Power Triangle

True power

Power Factor =

Apparent power

= Adjacent side

Cos

A= Side Opposite

Hypotenuse

Power Factor = Cos B= Side Adjacent

True power

Power Factor =

Apparent power

Power

Side Opposite

A= Reactive

B= Side

TrueAdjacent

Power Right Angle 900

Understanding Power Triangle

A= Reactive Power

B= True Power

Watts, KW, Power

Graphical representation of resistance,

reactance, and impedance

Inductive

Motors

Reactance

Inductive

X

R

Resistance

Graphical representation of resistance,

reactance, and impedance

Resistance

R

Reactance

Capacitive

X

Capacitors

Imaginary

Inductive

kVAR

Motors

Reactance

Imaginary

Real - WATTS kW (KWH over Time)

POWER FACTOR

Capacitive

Capacitors

10 HP 460 Volt 4 Pole Motor

Transformer

Conductor

Load Factor VA Amps Watts VAR Reactive Resistive

125% 0.82 13203 16.6 10883 7476 9.4 13.7

115% 0.81 12240 15.4 9972 7099 8.9 12.5

100% 0.79 10830 13.6 8592 6593 8.3 10.8

75% 0.73 8771 11.1 6397 6002 7.5 8.0

50% 0.61 7105 8.9 4323 5639 7.1 5.4

25% 0.40 5886 7.4 2331 5405 6.8 2.9

min load 0.17 5399 6.8 911 5322 6.7 1.1

Motor

10 HP Energy Flow

Transformer

Conductor

A= Reactive Power

VAR = 6593

Power Factor = .79

B= True Power

Measured Amps = 13.6 Watts =8592

Reactive Amps = 8.3

Resistive Amps = 10.8

Motor

10 HP Adding Capacitance

Transformer

Conductor

Measured Amps = 10.8

VAR = 1

VA =8595

Watts =8592

Measured Amps = 8.3

A= Reactive Power

VAR = 6593

Measured Amps = 13.6

B= True Power Motor

Watts =8592

10 HP Energy Savings

Transformer

Conductor

Using a # 12 gauge wire from Table 9 in the NEC

the resistance is 2 ohms per 1000 feet. 200 @

2 Ohms/1000 is .5 ohms. Using this the total saving

will be approx. 11.8 watts. NOTE: This is only if the

I2 X R = Watts capacitor is at the motor.

2.8 2 X .5 = 3.92

3 X 3.92 = 11.76 Motor

10 HP Capacitor Sizing

Transformer

Conductor

Utility Meter

II22 R

R Savings

Losses

directions and one may increase cost.

Motor

Based on one month operation at 8 hours a day

PF Charge Factor

NC Charge $0.40 kW Charge $10.25

Power Factor 0.79

Calc kVA 10.8759 kW 8.6

Calc kVAR 6.6681 kWh 2064

For kVar (kW X.62)

PF Charge $0.54

10 Horse Power Motor

VA Watts VAR

VA Watts VAR

125%

14000

115%

12000

100%

10000

75%

8000

50%

25% Min

6000

4000

2000

0

0.82 0.81 0.79 0.73 0.61 0.40 0.17

Power Factor

Power Factor vs Amps

Volts Amps VA kW Factor VAR Reactive Resistive

208 83 10000 10 1 0 0 83

Power Factor vs Amps

180

160

140

120

100

kW

Amps

80

Power Factor

60

40

20

0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

10 HP Voltage Rise

Transformer

Conductor

Note This does not include the wire inductance

that will cause some additional rise in voltage.

Note: With this voltage rise an increase in kW

and kwh can occur.

Motor

System VAR Requirements

Power (Met by Power Plant Generator)

Plant T/D

Generator Substatio

Transmission Circuit n

MVAR KVAR

MW KW

Distribution Circuit

Substation

Capacitor

Bank

L L L

Industrial Commercial Residential

Load Load Load

System VAR Requirements

Power (Met by Power T/D Substation) T/D

Plant

Substatio

Generator Transmission Circuit n

KVAR

MW

KW

Distribution Circuit

Substation

Capacitor

Bank

L L L

Industrial Commercial Residential

Load Load Load

System VAR Requirements

Power (Met by T/D Sub and Feeder Capacitors)

Plant T/D

Generator Substation

Transmission Circuit

KVAR

MW

KW

Distribution Circuit

Substation

Capacitor

Bank

Feeder

L Capacitor L L

Bank

Industrial Commercial Residential

Load Load Load

Things We have Talked About And

Other Things to Talk About

Phase Angle

Power Factor

I2R Loss

Power Factor Penalty

Voltage Rise

Harmonic resonance

Load Factor --- Power Factor

Harmonic Resonance

X Source

Equivalent Circuit

XT

3 PHASE AC X Source

INPUT

XT

XC

Harmonic

Source

Harmonic Filters

XF

L1

XC

L2

L3

L1 L2 L3

Power Factor Vs Load Factor

Load Factor is kW at 100% operation

Example

Hours in a Month = 30 X 24 = 720 Hours

Load is at 8 kW

8 X 720 = 5760 kWh

Actual kWh by load is 3240

Load Factor then is 3240/5760

Load Factor = .56

BOTTOM LINE ON

Understanding Power Factor and

How it Affects Your Electric Bill

most customer have no Power

Factor Penalty

possible increase cost when using

Power Factor Correction Devices

Questions

- Electric Power System DesignUploaded byomoulaye
- Congestion Management Using Facts Devices InUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Edsa PaladinUploaded byIulian Pârjoleanu
- 01008370Uploaded byapi-3697505
- Synchronous Generators and Leading Power FactorsUploaded bySidhartha Mallick
- static var compensatorUploaded bySuresh Rao
- Power - System - Einstein NotesUploaded bythaen1
- eshedUploaded byyeab
- 00 - Lab EquipmentUploaded bypj91000
- HGM7200_HGM7100A_V1.6_enUploaded bynhocti007
- PowerFactorCorrectionLV-ICARUploaded byminjut
- Sinusoidal Steady State Circuit Analysis Topic 3Uploaded bydsweetalker
- Power Factor Correction of 6.6kv Distribution Line in Lc11 Rmhs Department, Jsw SteelUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- passive trap filter for harmonic reductionUploaded byShiva Kumar
- Flexible AC Transmission Systems FACTS 8Uploaded byleo232
- 11546-Eng-01-A-How Do You Measure Energy ConsumptionUploaded bymarijanmustac
- 4971b_en.pdfUploaded bydinhvu
- exp1 elecUploaded byAbdul Addahary
- 07501293Uploaded bysalman
- IJETAE_0912_67Uploaded byPervez Ahmad
- EEE 103 - Load Flow AnalysisUploaded byVanessa Tan
- ram....elec 1Uploaded byramgopal_ch
- Parallel OperationUploaded bySreedhar Sreenivasan
- 10-IJTPE-Issue8-Vol3-No3-Sep2011-pp71-75Uploaded byManula Pathirana
- A Novel Technique for sing Harmonics and Reactive Power With LoadUploaded byManikanta Swamy
- Capacitor Switching Transients ProblemsUploaded byaris09yekof
- 209SE Exam Question_April 2016 After Moderation Rev a - Answer(2)Uploaded bytbm
- Intelligent Power Supply Design and its descriptionUploaded bymilind kaila
- Comparitive Analysis of Improvement in Power System Performance by Application of Shunt FACTS Device STATCOM & SVCUploaded byIJSTE
- THS7xx.pdfUploaded byFabio Silva

- SUN2000-45KTL-US-HV-D0Uploaded byShazmania
- US Dollar Decline in 2016_ IDB ReportUploaded byShazmania
- World Aids DayUploaded byShazmania
- Pursuing a Holistic Education AgendaUploaded byShazmania
- APNU+AFC never learned the difference between politics and policyUploaded byShazmania
- SUN2000-100KTL-USH0Uploaded byShazmania
- Dangerous Deception and Rabid Misrepresentations DebunkedUploaded byShazmania
- Teen Assaults Head Teacher, Leaves Her With Split Lip, Swollen FaceUploaded byShazmania
- Guyana far from ready – Energy Dept gets US$2 million to prep for US$4 billion projectUploaded byShazmania
- Caricom Must Be Active on HaitiUploaded byShazmania
- The Volda Lawrence Saga in ContextUploaded byShazmania
- Travis Chase Incident… Injured Man Discharged From Hospital; Claims Journalist Kicked, Then Shot HimUploaded byShazmania
- Time for the Senior PNC Leaders to ActUploaded byShazmania
- SUN2000-3-11KTL-USL0Uploaded byShazmania
- The Coalition Still to Seek Justice for the MurderedUploaded byShazmania
- Elderly Female Passenger Who Suffered Head Injury SuccumbsUploaded byShazmania
- President Trump is Right About Mainstream American MediaUploaded byShazmania
- The AFC and the LGE Results_ Human Are Fated to Destroy ThemselvesUploaded byShazmania
- APNU Holds on to City With 28.3% Voter TurnoutUploaded byShazmania
- Buggery and Thuggery_ Philistinism in Guyana ContinuesUploaded byShazmania
- Purple is the New Blue - New Product to Improve Cardiac Health and CirculationUploaded byShazmania
- Whom to Vote for in the LGEUploaded byShazmania
- SUN2000-25-30KTL-USUploaded byShazmania
- ‘Saddam’ Facing Second Trial for ‘Scare Dem’ MurderUploaded byShazmania
- Only 28% Voters Turnout in G_townUploaded byShazmania
- Firemen Cause the Country Tremendous EmbarrassmentUploaded byShazmania
- Ne Walks Free Two to Lead DefenceUploaded byShazmania
- Minister Hughes to Withdraw From Cabinet Discussions on Oil and GasUploaded byShazmania
- Govt. Postpones House Sitting at Last Minute Without Informing OppositionUploaded byShazmania
- Party Control of Local GovernmentUploaded byShazmania

- ejercicios termodinamicaUploaded bylia
- homework 4.pdfUploaded byimamura
- Mechanical Behaviour of Landfill BarrierUploaded byFarid Maruf
- QuestionaireUploaded bySajid Hanif
- P0253Uploaded byTushar Bhingradiya
- EulerUploaded bybarnamala
- MpcUploaded byDanielChavez
- Regenerative Turbine Pump,Uploaded byManea Grosu
- MIT Open Course Ware | Mathematics | 18.02 Multi Variable Calculus Fall 2007 | ReadingsUploaded byMike Rosen
- Team 5Uploaded bylux0008
- Organic Rankine CycleUploaded byoverlord5555
- Do Roman Catholics KnOw about the Walls of Jericho?Uploaded byWho moved my Cheese
- Hidrostatica actualizadoUploaded byarfiuba
- Mass Transfer TheoriesUploaded byDia Fatima Maguikay
- Chapter 8 Phase DiagramsUploaded byWynlor Abarca
- Induction Motors - Part I Analysis.pdfUploaded bybillionsweepsanon2349
- Lecture+8+Electro-Kinetics.pptUploaded byKhaled Abeed
- The Mole and AvogadroUploaded bykarim
- Chapter 3 RC Flat SlabUploaded bySharan Bvp
- 5 Tutorial - FrictionUploaded byAmyRapa
- F3 BP 2017 Ibatullayev Aibek Bachelor Thesis Aibek.ibatullayevUploaded byMir Aamir
- IES OBJ Electrical Engineering 1999 Paper IUploaded byjiten
- documents.mx_absorption-exercises-treybal (1).pdfUploaded byJvson Vens Sance
- 00Complete civil TechUploaded bypuppyviki
- Nonlinear Model of Permanent-Magnet Synchronous MotorsUploaded byhieuhuech1
- Comfort conditioning in Accordance with Physiology of Human BodyUploaded byAnonymous vQrJlEN
- Dynamic characteristics of Measurement systemUploaded byMedo Hamed
- Chapter 6Uploaded byBeverly Paman
- 2nd Week EIM DailyUploaded byDelvin Jan del Rosario
- Implementation of Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) for Three Phase Voltage Source Inverter Using Matlab Simulink - 24 PagesUploaded byMohamed Nabil