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# The Simplified Structural System

CE 506
Finite Element Method STRUCTURE
EXCITATION RESPONSES
Modeling and Analysis Concepts Loads Displacements
Vibrations Strains
Stress
Professor Settlements pv
Stress Resultants
Thermal Changes
Department of Civil Engineering
NEDUET, Karachi

Analysis of Structures The Need for Modeling The Need for Structural Model

STRUCTURE
xx yy zz
A - Real Structure cannot be Analyzed:
+ + + pvx = 0 It can only be Load Tested to determine
x y z response EXCITATION RESPONSES
pv
Reall Structure
R S is
i governedd by
b Partial
P i l Strains
B - We can only analyze a Vibrations
Differential Equations of various Settlements pv
Stress
Model of the Structure Stress Resultants
order Thermal Changes
Direct solution is only possible for:
Simple geometry C - We therefore need tools to Model the Structural
Simple Boundary Structure and to Analyze the Model Model

Finite Element Method: The Analysis Tool Continuum Vs Structure Continuum to Discrete Model

## A continuum extends in all direction, has infinite

Finite Element Analysis (FEA) particles, with continuous variation of material
A discretized solution to a properties, deformation characteristics and stress
continuum problem using FEM state

Finite
Fi it Element
El t Method
M th d (FEM)
A Structure is of finite size and is made up of an pv
A numerical procedure for solving
(partial) differential equations associated
assemblage of substructures, components and
with field problems, with an accuracy members
3D-CONTINUM CONTINUOUS MODEL DISCRETE MODEL
acceptable to engineers MODEL OF STRUCTURE OF STRUCTURE
Dicretization process is used to convert Structure to (Governed by partial
(Governed by either (Governed by algebraic
partial or total differential equations)
Finite Element Models for determining response differential equations)
equations)

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From Classical to FEM Solution Simplified Structural System The Structural System

## Classical Assumptions FEM

Equilibrium Fv
Actual Structure Structural Model

xx yy zz RESPONSE
+ +
x y z vx
+ p =0
Stress-Strain
Stress Strain Law
K =R
Kr D K
EXCITATION
S
pv
Compatibility
Partial Differential
Algebraic F Static Elastic Linear
Equations
Equations _ _

t dV = pvt u dV + pst u ds
_
Dynamic Inelastic Nonlinear
v K = Stiffness
r = Response
(Principle of Virtual Work) R = Loads F=KD

The Equilibrium Equations Basic Steps in FEA Global Modeling of Structural Geometry
1. Linear-Static Elastic OR Inelastic
Ku = F Evaluate Real Structure

## Create Structural Model

2. Linear-Dynamic Elastic (a) Real Structure

## 3. Nonlinear - Static Elastic OR Inelastic Solve FE Model

Engineer
Ku + F NL = F
(b) Solid Model (c) 3D Plate-Frame (d) 3D Frame

## Interpret FEA Results Engineer + Software

Software
4. Nonlinear-Dynamic Elastic OR Inelastic Physical significance of Results (e) 2D Frame (f) Grid-Plate

Mu&&(t) + Cu&(t) + Ku(t) + F(t) NL = F(t) Fig. 1 Various Ways to Model a Real Struture

## Dimensions of Elements DOF for 1D Elements DOF for 2D Elements

1 D Elements (Beam type) Dy Dy Dy
Ry ?
Ry ?
Can be used in 1D, 2D and 2D Rz Dy
Dz Dx Dy
2-3 Nodes. A, I etc. Dx Dy
Truss and Beam Elements (1D,2D,3D)
Rz Dz Dx Rx
2D Truss 2D Beam 3D Truss Dx Rx
Rz
2 D Elements (Plate type)
Can be used in 2D and 3D Ry
Model Plane Stress, Plane Strain, Axisymmetric, Plate and Shell Elements (2D,3D) Dy Plate Shell
Dy Dy Membrane
3-9 nodes. Thickness Rz
Dx Rz Rx Dz Dx Rx
Rz
3 D Elements (Brick type)
2D Frame 2D Grid 3D Frame
Can be used in 3D Model
6-20 Nodes.
Brick Elements

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DOF for 3D Elements Analysis Type Basic Analysis Types

## Excitation Structure Response Basic Analysis Type

Dy
The type of Analysis to be carried out Static Elastic Linear Linear-Elastic-Static Analysis
Dz Dx depends on the Structural System Static Elastic Nonlinear Nonlinear-Elastic-Static Analysis
Static Inelastic Linear Linear-Inelastic-Static Analysis
Static Inelastic Nonlinear Nonlinear Inelastic Static Analysis
Nonlinear-Inelastic-Static
Solid/ Brick
The Type of Excitation (Loads) Dynamic Elastic Linear Linear-Elastic-Dynamic Analysis
The Type Structure (Material and Geometry) Dynamic Elastic Nonlinear Nonlinear-Elastic-Dynamic Analysis
The Type Response Dynamic Inelastic Linear Linear-Inelastic-Dynamic Analysis
Dynamic Inelastic Nonlinear Nonlinear-Inelastic-Dynamic Analysis

## Static Excitation Elastic Material Linearity

Time and returns to initial state of deformation, stress, strain (Deflection doubles if load is doubled)
When the Load can be assumed to be applied Slowly etc. after removal of load/ excitation Non-Linearity
Dynamic Excitation Inelastic
I l ti Material
M t i l The
h response is
i not directly
di l proportional
i l to
When the Excitation varies rapidly with Time Does not follow the same path during loading and excitation
unloading and may not returns to initial state of (deflection may become 4 times if load is doubled)
When the Inertial Force becomes significant
deformation, stress, strain etc. after removal of load/ Non-linear response may be produced by:
excitation Geometric Effects (Geometric non-linearity)
Material Effects (Material non-linearity)
Both

## Elasticity and Linearity The Finite Element Method

Linear-Elastic Linear-Inelastic
Action
Action

History
Brief Description

Deformation Deformation
Introduction to FEM General Steps
Computer Programs
Action
Action

Nonlinear-Elastic Nonlinear-Inelastic

Deformation Deformation

3
Definition Discretizations

The finite element method is a numerical method for Model body by dividing it into an equivalent system
solving problems of engineering and mathematical of smaller bodies or units (finite elements)
physics. interconnected at points common to two or more
elements (nodes or nodal points) and/or boundary
Useful
U f l for
f problems
bl with
i h complicated
li d geometries,
i lines and/or surfaces.
solutions can not be obtained.

## Hrennikoff [1941] - Lattice of 1D bars to Grew out of aerospace industry.

McHenry [1943] - Model 3D solids Post-WW II jets, missiles, space flight
Courant [1943] - Variational form Need for light weight structures
Levy [1947, 1953] - Flexibility & Stiffness Required accurate stress analysis
Argryis and Kelsey [1954] - Energy Prin. for Paralleled growth of computers
Matrix Methods
Turner, Clough, Martin and Topp [1956] - 2D
elements
Clough [1960] - Term Finite Elements

Structural/Stress Analysis Obtain a set of algebraic equations to solve for Irregular Boundaries
Fluid Flow unknown nodal quantity (displacement).
Heat Transfer Secondary quantities (stresses and strains) are
Different Materials
Electro-Magnetic Fields expressed in terms of nodal values of primary
quantity Boundary Conditions
Soil Mechanics Variable Element Size
Acoustics Easy Modification
Dynamics
Nonlinear Problems (Geometric or Material)

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Steps in Process
Computer Programs Programs

## Small Special Purpose Programs ALGOR

Discretize and Select Element Type
Truss ANSYS
Select a Displacement Function
Frame COSMOS/M
Define Strain/Displacement and Stress/Strain
Plane Stress STARDYNE
Relationships
Heat Transfer IMAGES-3D
Derive Element Stiffness Matrix & Eqs.
MSC/NASTRAN
Assemble Equations and Introduce B.C.s Large General Purpose Program (Commercial)
SAP90
Solve for the Unknown Degrees of Freedom ADINA
Solve for Element Stresses and Strains NISA
Interpret the Results

Programs

## Easy input - preprocessor. High development costs.

Solves many types of problems Less efficient than smaller programs,
Modular design - fluids, dynamics, heat, etc. Often proprietary. User access to code limited.
Can run on PCs now.
Relatively low cost.

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Matrix Algebra
Review Topics A matrix is an m x n array of numbers
Technical Review
arranged in m rows and n columns.
m = n A square matrix.
matrix
Linear Algebra
m = 1 A row matrix.
Matrix Operations
n = 1 A column matrix.
Basic Elasticity
aij Element of matrix a row i, column j

## Multiplication of a matrix by a scalar. Multiplication of two matrices Transpose of a matrix:

[a] = k [c] aij = kcij If [a] is m x n then [b] must have n rows Interchange of rows and columns
Addition of matrices. [[c]] = [a]
[ ] [b]
[ ] T
aij = aji
Matrices must be of same order (m x n)
Add them term by term n If [a] is m x n then [a]T is n x m
[c] = [a] +[b] cij = aij + bij cij = aiebej If [a] = [a]T then [a] is symmetric.
e =1 [a] must be a square matrix

## Matrix Operations Matrix Operations Matrix Operations

The identity matrix (or unit matrix) is The inverse of a matrix is such that: Differentiating a matrix:
denoted by the symbol [I]:

[a ][a ]
1
= [I ] d daij
[a][I] = [I][a] = [a]
[a] =
1
[I ] = 0
0
1
0
0
dx dx
0 0 1
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## Differentiating a matrix: Integrating a matrix. Need to find the determinant

1 a a x
U = [x y] 11 12
2 a21 a22 y a = determinant of matrix [a]
U
x a a12 x
[a]dx = aij dx Need to find the co-factors of [a]
=
11
U a a
21 22 y
y
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## Cofactors Stress Equilibrium Equations

Cofactors of [aij] are given by:
x xy xz
C ij = ( 1) i + j d Review of Elasticity Equations + + + Xb = 0
x y z
where matrix d is the first minor
of a ij and is matrix [ a ] Linear, homogeneous, isotropic xy y yz

material behavior. + + + Yb = 0
with row i and column j deleted. x y z
Then : [C ]
T
xz yz z
[a ij ] 1 = + + + Zb = 0
a x y z
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## Strain Displacement 3D Stress-Strain Matrix

Stress-Strain Relationships
1 0 0 0
u u v 1 0 1 0
x = xy = + 0 0
0 0
x y x x
1 0 0 0 x 1 0 0 0

0 y
v u w y
1 0 0 E 0 1 2
0
y = xz = + [ D] = 0 0 0
y z x
z E 0 0 0 12 0
0 z (1 + )(1 2) 2

= 1 2
( +)( ) 2 0 0 0 0 0
w w v xy 1 1 2 xy 2
z = yz = + 0 0 0
12
0 yz
z y z 0 1 2
yz
2 0 0 0 0 0
zx 2
(u,v,w) are the x, y and z 12zx
0 0 0 0 0 E
2 Note : G =
components of displacement 2( 1 +)
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Plane Stress Matrix Plane Strain Matrix Sets of Linear Algebraic Eqs.

Cramers Rule
1 0 1 0
E Inverse Method
E [ D] = 1
[ D] = 1 1 0
(1 + )(1 2)
0 Gaussian Elimination
( ) 1 0 0
1 2

Gauss-Seidel Iteration

0 0 2
2
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## Cramers Rule Example: Example:

[a ]{ x } = {c}
or in in d e x n o ta tio n : Consider the following equations:
In matrix form :
x1 + 3x 2 2x 3 = 2
n

a ij x = ci
1 3 2 x 1 2
j
j= 1

L et m a trix [d (i) ] b e m a tr ix [a ] 2 1 4x
2x 4 2 + 2x
2 3 =1
w ith c o lu m n i rep a ced by {c}.
4x 2 + x 3 = 3 2 4 2 x 2 = 1
T h en:

0 4 1 x 3 3
(i)
d
xi =
a

## Technical Review 22 Technical Review 23 Technical Review 24

Solving:
1 2 2
2 3 2 2 1 2 1 3 2
1 4 2 d ( 2)
0 3 1 2 4 1
d( 1 ) x2 = = = 1.1 d( 3)
3 4 1 41 a 1 3 2 0 4 3
x1 = = = = 4.1 x3 = = = 1.4
a 1 3 2 10 a 1 3 2
2 4 2
2 4 2 2 4 2
0 4 1
0 4 1 0 4 1

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## Inversion Example Example

[a ]{x} = {c} 1 3 2 x 1 2 x 1 1.2 1.1 0.2 2 4.1

[a ] [a ]{x} = [a ] {c}
1 1
2 4 2 x 2 = 1 x 2 = 0.2 0.1 0.2 1 = 1.1

[ I ]{x} = [a ] {c}
1 x 3 0.8 0.4 0.2 3 1.4
0 4 1 x 3 3
{x} = [a ] {c}
1

## General System of n equations with n unknowns: Eliminate the coefficient of x1 in every

equation except the first one. Select a11 a 11 a 12 K a1n x1 c1
as the pivot element.
a 11 a 12 K a1n x 1 c1 th multiple
Add the lti l -a21/ a11 off th
the fi
firstt row 0 a 22 K a 2 n x 2 c 2
to the second row. =
a 21 a 22 K a 2 n x 2 c 2
Add the multiple -a31/ a11 of the first row M M M M M
= to the third row.
M M M M M
Continue this procedure through the nth 0 a n 2 K a nn x n c n
row
a n 1 an2 K a nn x n c n
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## Steps in Gaussian Elimination

Steps in Gaussian Elimination After This Step:
Eliminate the coefficient of x2 in every Repeat the process for the remaining
equation below the second one. Select a 11 a 12 a 13 K a1n rows until we have a triangularized
a22 as the pivot element. x1 c1 system of equation.
0 a 22 a 23 L a 2 n
Add the lti l -a 32/ a 22 off th
th multiple the second
d x 2 c 2 a11 a12 a13 a14 L x 1 c1
a1n
row to the third row. 0 0 a 33
K a 3 n = 0 a a23 a24 L x c
a2n
22 2 2
Add the multiple -a 42/ a 22 of the second M M 0 0 a33
a34
L a3n
x 3 c3
row to the fourth row. M M M M =
0 0 0 a44
L a4n x 4 c4
Continue this procedure through the nth x n c n
M M
0 a n 3 K a nn
row 0 M M M M M

0 0 0 0 L a nnn 1 x n cnn 1
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## Solve Using Back-substitution Example

Eliminate the coefficient of x1 in every
cn 1 equation except the first one.
x n = nn 1 2 2 1 x 1 9
a nn Select a11 =2
2 as the pivot element.
2 1 0 x = 4 Add the multiple -a21/ a11 = -2/2 = -1 of the
2 first row to the second row.
xi =
1 n
1 1 1 x 3 6 Add the multiple -a31/ a11 = -1/2=-0.5 of
a1, n + 1 a ir x r the first row to the third row.
a ii r = i +1

## Step 1 Steps in Gaussian Elimination Step 2

Eliminate the coefficient of x2 in every
equation below the second one. Select
2 2 1 x1 9 a22 as the pivot element. (Already done 2 2 1 x1 9
0 1 1 x = 5 in this example.) 0 1 1 x = 5
2 2
0 0 0.5 x 3 1.5 0 0 0.5 x 3 1.5

## Solve Using Back-substitution

Gauss-Seidel Iteration Gauss-Seidel Iteration
c
3
x3 = 3 = 2 = 3
( ) Write equations in form :

a 33 1
2
( ) x1 =
1
(c1 a12 x 2 a13 x 3 L a1n xn )
Assume a set of initial values for unknowns.
Substitute into RHS of first equation. Solve
a11 for new value of x1
( 5 + 3) = 2 1 Use
U new value l off x1 andd assumedd values
l off
x2 = x2 = (c 2 a 21x1 a 23 x 3 L a 2n x n ) other xs to solve for x2 in second equation.
1 a 22 Continue till new values of all variables are
M obtained.
x2 =
(9 2( 2) 3) = 1 1 Iterate until convergence.
2 xn = (cn a n1x1 a n 2 x 2 L a n .n 1x n 1 )
a nn
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## Example Example Example

4x 1 x 2 =2 x1 = 1
4
(2 + x 2 ) = 1 4 (2 + 1) = 3 4 x1 = 1
4
(2 + x 2 ) = 1 4 (2 + 1.68) = 0.922
x1 + 4x 2 x 3 =5
x2 = 1
4
( )
(5 + x1 + x 3 ) = 1 4 5 + 3 4 + 1 = 1.68 x2 = 1
4
(5 + x1 + x 3 ) = 1 4 (5 + 0.922 + 1.672) = 1.899
x 2 + 4x 3 x 4 =6 x3 = 1 (6 + x 2 + x 4 ) = 1 4 (6 + 1.899 + ( 0.16)) = 1.944
x 3 = 1 (6 + x 2 + x 4 ) = 1 (6 + 1.68 + ( 1)) = 1.672 4
x 3 + 2x 4 = 6 4 4
x4 = 1 ( 2 + x 3 ) = 1 2 ( 2 + 1.944) = 0.0.28
x 4 = 1 ( 2 + x 3 ) = 1 ( 2 + 1.67 ) = 0.16 2
2 2
x1 = 1 x2 = 1 x3 = 1 x 4 = 1
2
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Iteration x1 x2 x3 x4
0 0.5 1.0 1.0 -1.0
1 0.75 1.68 1.672 -0.16
2 0 922
0.922 1 899
1.899 1 944
1.944 -0
0.028
028
3 0.975 1.979 1.988 -0.006
4 0.988 1.9945 1.9983 -0.0008
Exact
4
1.0 2.0 2.0 0.0

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6
Definition:

## Stiffness Method For an element, a stiffness matrix k

x notation denotes
is a matrix such that f = k d
local coordinates
where k relates local coordinates (x, y , z ) Boldface type indicates matrices.

## to local forces f of a single element.

Stiffness Method 1 Stiffness Method 2 Stiffness Method 3

## k Uniaxial Bar k = AE/L

k - spring constant
Circular Torsion k = GJ/L
1 2 node x local One
One-dimensional
dimensional heat conduction
x coordinate
k = AKxx/L
f1x ,d1x f 2 x ,d 2 x node direction
One-dimensional fluid flow (porous
f1x local nodal force
L f 2 x local nodal force medium) k = AKxx/L
d 1x deg ree of freedom d 2 x deg ree of freedom

## Stiffness Relationship for a Steps in Process Step 1 - Select the Element

Spring Type
1. Discretize and Select Element Type
2. Select a Displacement Function k
f1x k 11 k 12 d 1x 3. Define Strain/Displacement and
1
= Stress/Strain Relationships 2 T

k 22 d 2 x
T
x
f 2 x k 21 4. Derive Element Stiffness Matrix & Eqs.
5. Assemble Equations and Introduce B.C.s
d1x d 2 x
6. Solve for the Unknown Degrees of Freedom
7. Solve for Element Stresses and Strains
L
8. Interpret the Results
Stiffness Method 7 Stiffness Method 8 Stiffness Method 9

1
Step 2 - Select a Displacement
Function
Express u as function of d 1x and d 2 x
Assume a displacement function u Substituting back into: u = a1 + a 2 x
Assume a linear function. u(0) = a1 + a 2 (0) = d1x = a1 d d 1x
u = a1 + a 2 x
u x Yields: u = 2 x x + d 1x

u(L) = a1 + a 2 (L) = d 2x = a 2 L + d 1x L
Number of coefficients = number of d-o-f
Write in matrix form.
d 2x d1x
a Solve for a2 : a2 =
u = [1 x] 1 L
a 2
Stiffness Method 10 Stiffness Method 11 Stiffness Method 12

## In matrix form: Shape Functions

x x d 1x N1
u = 1
L L d 2 x N1 and N2 are called Shape Functions or
Interpolation Functions. They express the
dd
u = [N 1 N 2 ] 1x
shape of the assumed displacements.
displacements
N1 =1 N2 =0 at node 1
2x
d
N1 =0 N2 =1 at node 2 1 2
Where : N1 + N2 =1
x x
N1 = 1 and N 2 = L
L L
Stiffness Method 13 Stiffness Method 14 Stiffness Method 15

Step 3 - Define
Strain/Displacement and
N1 Stress/Strain Relationships
N2 N2

T = k
= u( L ) u( 0)
1 2 1 2

L L
= d 2x d 1x
T - tensile force - total elongation
Stiffness Method 16 Stiffness Method 17 Stiffness Method 18

2
Deformed Linear Spring Step 4 - Derive the Element
Element Stiffness Matrix and Equations

## k f1x = T f1x k k d1x

=
1 f 2 x = T f 2 x k k d 2 x
2
(
T = f1x = k d 2 x d1x )
T = f 2 x = k (d 2 x d1x ) [k ] = kk k
k
f1x = k (d1x d 2 x )
d1x
d 2 x

f 2 x = k (d 2 x d1x )
L

## Stiffness Method 19 Stiffness Method 20 Stiffness Method 21

Step 5 - Assemble the Element Step 6 - Solve for Nodal Step 7 - Solve for Element
Equations to Obtain the Global Displacements Forces
Equations and Introduce the B.C.

[K ] = [k (e ) ]
N
Obtain : Once displacements at each
e =1 [K ]{d} = {F} node are known, then substitute
back into element stiffness equations
{F} = {f (e ) }
N
Then Solve! to obtain element nodal forces.
e =1

Stiffness Method 22 Stiffness Method 23 Stiffness Method 24

## Two Spring Assembly For element 1 :

f1x k 1 k 1 d1x Elements 1 and 2 remain connected
=
f 3 x k 1 k 1 d 3 x at node 3. This is called the continuity
1 2
1 3 2 p y requirement.
or compatibility q
x
For element 2 :
F3x F2x
k1 k2 f 3 x k 2 k 2 d 3 x
=
f 2 x k 2 k 2 d 2 x d (31x) = d (32x) = d 3x

## Stiffness Method 25 Stiffness Method 26 Stiffness Method 27

3
Assemble Global force matrix Nodal forces consistent with F3 x = k 1d1x + k 1d 3 x + k 2 d 3 x k 2 d 2 x
element force sign convention. F2 x = k 2 d 3 x + k 2 d 2 x
F1x = k 1d1x k 1d 3 x
F3x = f 3(1x) + f 3( 2x) 2
in matrix form :
1
1
3 2
F1x k 1 0 k 1 d 1x
F2x = f2( 2x)
k 2 d 2x

F1x f 1(x1 )
f 3(1x) f 3( 2x ) f 2( 2x ) F2x F2 x = 0 k2
F k k2 k 1 + k 2 d 3x

F1x = f1(x1) F3x 3x 1
or
[F] = [K ]{d}
Stiffness Method 28 Stiffness Method 29 Stiffness Method 30

## Global Force Matrix : Global Displacement Matrix : Assembly of [K] -

F1x d1x An Alternative Look. Assembly of [K]

F2 x d 2 x
d1x d 3 x
F3x d 3x
k k1
2 (1)
]= 1
k 1
1 [k
Global Stiffness Matrix : 1 3 2
x k 1
k1 0 k1 F3x F2x

0 k2 k2 k1 k2 d 3 x d 2 x

k1 k 2 k1 + k 2 k k2
[k ( 2 ) ] = 2
k 2 k 2
Stiffness Method 31 Stiffness Method 32 Stiffness Method 33

## Expand Local [k] matrices to

1 0 1 d 1x
(1)
Global Size Force Equilibrium

k1 0 0 0 d (21x)
1 0 1 d1x f1x
(1) (1 )
(1) (1)

k 1 0 0 0 d 2 x = f 2 x f (1) 0 F 1 0 1 d (31x)
1 0 1 d d (1) f (1)
1x ( 2 ) 1x
3 x 3 x 0 + f 2 x = F2 x 0 0 0 d 1( 2x ) F1x
0 0 0 d1x f1x
( 2) ( 2) f (1) f ( 2 ) F

( 2 ) ( 2 )
k 2 0 1 1 d 2 x = f 2 x
3x 3x 3x + k 2 0 1 1 d (22x) = F2 x

( 2) ( 2)
0 1 1 d 3x F3x
(2)
0 1 1 d 3 x f 3 x
Stiffness Method 34 Stiffness Method 35 Stiffness Method 36

4
Compatibility Boundary Conditions

## k1 0 k1 d 1x F1x d (1) d ( 2 ) d Must Specify B.C.s to prohibit rigid

1(1x) 1( 2x) 1x body motion.
0 k2 k2 d 2x = F2 x d 2 x = d 2 x = d 2 x Two type of B.C.
B.C.ss
d 3x F3 x (1) ( 2 )
k 1 k2 k1 + k 2 Homogeneous - displacements = 0
d 3 x d 3 x d 3 x

Nonhomogeneous - displacements =
nonzero value

## Stiffness Method 37 Stiffness Method 38 Stiffness Method 39

Partitioning
Homogeneous B.C.s
Let d 1 be the uncontrained or free displacements
and let d 2 be the constrained or specified displacements. Delete row and column corresponding
2
to B.C.
1
K 11 M K 12 d1 F1 1 3 2 So
Solve
e for
o uunknown
o displacements.
d sp ace e ts
L L L L = L x
Compute unknown forces (reactions)
K 21 M K 22 d 2 F 2
F3x F2x
from original (unmodified) stiffness
k1 k2
matrix.
K 11 d1 = F1 K 12 d 2
F 2 = K 21 d1 + K 22 d 2
Stiffness Method 40 Stiffness Method 41 Stiffness Method 42

k1 0 k1 0 F1x

k2
Nonhomogeneous B.C.s Nonhomogeneous B.C.s
0 k2 d 2x = F2x
k 1 k2 k1 + k 2 d 3x F3x

Transfer terms associated with known
k1 F1x d-o-f to RHS.
0 k1
Solve for unknown displacements.
k2 k 2 d 2 x F2x 0 k2 k2 d 2x = F2x
= Compute unknown forces (reactions)
k k 1 + k 2 d 3 x F3x k 1 k2 k 1 + k 2 d 3x F3x
2 from original (unmodified) stiffness
matrix.

F1x = k 1 d 3x
Stiffness Method 43 Stiffness Method 44 Stiffness Method 45

5
Nonhomogeneous B.C.s Properties of [K] Matrix EXAMPLE: Three Spring Assembly

## Symmetric - both element [k] and global [K]

k2 k 2 d 2 x F2 x [K] is singular. Must apply B.C. to prohibit
k =
k 1 + k 2 d 3 x k 1 + F3 x rigid body motion.
motion k1=1000 lb/in k2=2000 lb/in k3=3000 lb/in
2 Terms on main diagonal are positive Kii and 1 3 4 2 x

k11
1 2 5000 lb 3

## Stiffness Method 46 Stiffness Method 47 Stiffness Method 48

[ k ] = 1000
(1 ) 1000
1000

1000

[k ] ( 2) 2000 2000
=
1000
0
[ K] =
0
3000
1000
0
0
3000

1000
0

0
3000
1000
0
0 d1x F1x
3000 d F
2 x = 2 x
2000 2000 1000 0 1000 + 2000 2000 1000 0 3000 2000 d 3 x F3 x

[k ]
3000 2000 2000 + 3000 3000 2000 5000 d 4 x F4 x
3000 3000 0 0
( 3)
=
3000 3000
Stiffness Method 49 Stiffness Method 50 Stiffness Method 51

d 1x = d 2 x = 0 Element 1
d 3 x = 10 in
11
0 0 0 d 1x F1x
0 d 4x = 15 1000 1000 0 f1x
1000 1000 10 =
in
0 0 d 2 x F2 x
11
0 0 1000 0 0 F1x 11 f 3 x
= 1000 0
0 F
0 0 2000 d 3 x F3 x
3000 0
3000 0 3000 10 = 2x f1x 909.1
0 0 2000 5000 d 4 x F4 x 1000 0 3000 2000 11 F3x =

0 3000 2000 5000 15 11 F4 x ff 3x 909.1
3000 2000 d 3 x 0 F1x 909.1 1
F 4090.9
2000 5000 d = 5000 3 909.1 lb
2x 909.1 lb 1
4x = x
F3x 0
F4 x 5000
Stiffness Method 52 Stiffness Method 53 Stiffness Method 54

6
Element 2 Element 3 EXAMPLE
2000 2000 10 11 f 3 x 3000 3000 15 f 4x Nonhomogeneous B.C.
2000 2000 15 = 3000 3000 11 =
11 f 4x 0 f 2 x
f 3x 909.1 f 4x 4090.9
= =
ff 2x 4090.9
k k k k
f 4x 909.1 1 2 3 4
5 x

2 3 4090.9 lb 1 2 3 4
4 909.1 lb 2
909.1 lb 3 4090.9 lb 4
x x k=200 kN/m

## 200 200 0 0 0 200 200 0 0 0 d1x F1x

200 400 200
0 d 2x F2 x
[ k ]= [ k ]= [ k ]= [ k ]
(1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) 200 200
=
200 200
200 400 200
0
[ K ] = 0 200 400 200 0

0
0
0
200 400 200

0 d 3x = F3 x

200 400 200

0 0 200 400 200 d 4 x F
0 0 4x
0 200 200 d 5 x F5x
0 0 0 200 200
0 0

## Stiffness Method 58 Stiffness Method 59 Stiffness Method 60

d 1x = 0
d 5x = 20 mm = 0.02 m 400 200 0 d 2 x 0
0 200 400 200 d = 0
F2 x = F3 x = F4x = 0 3x
200 400 200 0 d 2 x 0
200 400 d 4x 4
0
200 200 0 0 F1x 0
0 0 0 200 400 200 0 d 3 x = 0

200 400 200 0 d 2x 0 d 2 x 0.005 m
200 400 200 d 4x 0
0
0 0
0 200 400 200 0 d 3x = 0 d 3 x = 0.01 m
0.02
200 400 200 d 4x 0 d 0.015 m
0 0
4x
0 0 0 200 200 0.02 F5x

## Stiffness Method 61 Stiffness Method 62 Stiffness Method 63

7
Element 1
200 200 0 0 0 0 F1x
200 400 200 0 0 .005 F2 x 200 200 0 f1x Three Spring Assembly

## 0 200 400 200

0 .01 = F3 x
200 200 .005 =

f 2 x k2
200 400 200 .015 F
0 0
4x f1x 1.0 kN
0 200 200 .02 F5x
3
0 0
=
k1
2
F1x 1.0 kN ff 2x 1.0 kN P 2 x
F 0.0 kN 2
k3
2x 1
1
F3x = 0.0 kN 2 1.0 kN 1 4
1.0 kN 1 2
F 0.0 kN x 3
4x Rigid Bar
F5 x 1.0 kN
Stiffness Method 64 Stiffness Method 65 Stiffness Method 66

B.C. : d 1x = d 3x = d 4x = 0
Free Body Diagram
Compatibility : d (1) (2) (3)
2x = d 2x = d 2x Free Body Diagram
(2)
(1) f 2x
m : F1x = f1x
(1) (1)
Nodal equilibriu
q F1x (1) f1x f 2x
f1x
(1) (2) (3)
P = f 2x + f 2x + f 2x
(1) P
1 1 2 f 2x
1
(2)
F3x = f 3x (3)
f 2x
(3)
F4x = f 4x
Stiffness Method 67 Stiffness Method 68 Stiffness Method 69

## Free Body Diagram Matrix Form of Stiffness Equations Applying B.C.

2 3 (2)
f 3x F3x k1 k1 0 0 d1x F1x k1 k1 0 0 0 F1x
k k 3 d 2x F2x k
3 1 k1 + k 2 + k 3 k2
1 k1 + k 2 + k 3 k2 k 3 d 2x P
2 = =
0 k2 k2 0 d 3x F3x 0 k2 k2 0 0 F3x

2 4 0 k3 0 k 3 d 4x F4 x 0 k3 0 k 3 0 F4 x
(3)
f 4x F4x
4
3

## Stiffness Method 70 Stiffness Method 71 Stiffness Method 72

8
0 0 0 0 0 F1x
Potential Energy Approach
0 k + k + k 0 d 2 x P
Solving for Global Forces
0
=
1 2 3

0 0 0 F3 x Equilibrium at minimum potential

0 0
F1x = k 1d 2 x energy.
0 0 0 0 0 F4 x
F2 x = k 2 d 2 x Total potential energy defined as the
sum of internal strain energy U and
( k 1 + k 2 + k 3 )d 2x = P F3 x = k 2 d 2 x potential energy of external forces .
P p = U +
d 2x =
(k 1 + k 2 + k 3 )
Stiffness Method 73 Stiffness Method 74 Stiffness Method 75

dU = F dx
Force-Deformation Curve F=kx
System dU = k x dx

F
U = k x dx
F 1 2 1 1
U= kx = (kx)x = Fx
x 2 2 2
k k = Fx
1 2
p = kx Fx
x 2
Stiffness Method 76 Stiffness Method 77 Stiffness Method 78

## Stationary Value Stationary Values Stationary Value

G
G = G( x)
Stationary value can be maximun, maximum p = p (d 1 , d 2 , L , d n ) = p ({d i })
minimum or a neutral point
minimum,
neutral First variation of p (denoted as p )
defined as value of x such that :
is used to minimize p
dG
=0
dx
minimum
x
Stiffness Method 79 Stiffness Method 80 Stiffness Method 81

9
u
Equilibrium occurs when the di define
a state such that p = 0 for arbitrary Admissible Displacement Function
u+ u
admissible variations in di from the An admissible variation is one in which the
equilibrium
ilib i state
t t di l
displacementt field
fi ld satisfies
ti fi the
th boundary
b d
conditions and inter-element continuity. u

## Actual Displacement Function

x
Stiffness Method 82 Stiffness Method 83 Stiffness Method 84

F F
in Displacements in Displacements
p
p p p =0 (i = 1,2,3,L, n )
p = d 1 + d 2 + L d n d i
d 1 d 2 d n x
k
p = 0 or
k = 500 lb/in

p p p
= 0, = 0, L , =0 x
d 1 d 2 d n p
=0
{d }
Stiffness Method 85 Stiffness Method 86 Stiffness Method 87

p = U + p p = 250x 2 1000x
10000 PE

=0
x
8000

1
U = kx 2
Deformation Potential Energy
p -4.00 8000
6000

-2.00
5250
3000
x
4000

= Fx
-1.00 1250
0.00 0

x = 2.00 in
2000
1.00 -750

p
2.00 -1000
3.00 -750 0 x

x
-2000

## Stiffness Method 88 Stiffness Method 89 Stiffness Method 90

10
3 p
(pe) = 2 k 1 (d 3x d1x )2
1
EXAMPLE p =
d 1x
= k 1d 3x + k 1d 1x f1(x1) = 0
e =1
p
= k 3 d 2x k 3 d 4x f 2( 3x) = 0
+ k 2 (d 4 x d 3 x )2 + k 3 (d 2x d 4x )2
1 1
d 2 x
k2=2000 lb/in
2 2 p
k1=1000 lb/in k3=3000 lb/in = k 1d 3x k 1d 1x k 2 d 4x + k 2 d 3x f 3(1x) f 3( 2x) = 0
1 3 4 2 x f1(x1) d 1x f 3(1x) d 3 x f 3( 2x) d 3x f 4( 2x) d 4x d 3 x
p
f 4( 3x) d 4x f 2( 3x) d 2x = k 2 d 4x k 2 d 3x k 3 d 2x + k 3 d 4x f 4( 2x) f 4( 3x) = 0
1 2 5000 lb 3 d 4 x

## Stiffness Method 91 Stiffness Method 92 Stiffness Method 93

k1 0 k1 0 d1x f1(x1)

0 k3 0 k 3 d 2 x f2(x3)
=
k1 0 k1 + k 2 k 2 d 3x f3(x1) + f3(x2 )

0 k3 k2 k 2 + k 3 d 4 x f4(x2 ) + f4(x3)
f1(x1) F1x

f2(x3) F2 x
(1) ( 2 ) =
f3x + f3x F3x

f4 x + f4 x F4 x
( 2) ( 3)

Stiffness Method 94

11
Bar Element Bar Element
y
Linear elastic bar element
Truss Elements
y
Prismatic (constant cross-section) x , u
T
Tensile forces T directed along the bar applied 2
at nodes 1 and 2
L
Global coordinate system (x,y) d 2 x , f 2 x
1
Local coordinate system (x , y ) T

Length L, Cross-sectional Area A, Modulus of d 1 x , f 1 x
Elasticity E
x
Truss Elements 1 Truss Elements 2

## = E Assumptions Step 1 - Select the Element Type.

d u The bar cannot resist shear forces.
=
d x That is: f 1 y = f 2 y = 0
The bar element is selected
A xx = T = A Effects of transverse displacements with the properties previously
are ignored. discussed.
Hookes law applies.
d d u
AE =0 That is: x = E x
d x d x
Truss Elements 4 Truss Elements 5 Truss Elements 6

## Step 2 - Select a Displacement d d 1x

Express u as function of dand d 2 x u = 2 x
x + d 1x
Function 1x
L
x x d 1x
Assume a displacement function
u u = 1
L L d 2 x
Assume a linear function. u ( 0 ) = a 1 + a 2 ( 0 ) = d 1 x = a 1
d
d
u ( L ) = a 1 + a 2 ( L ) = d 2 = a 2 L + d 1 x u = [ N 1 N 2 ] 1x
u = a 1 + of
Number a 2 coefficients
x = number d
2 x
of d-o-f Where :
Write in matrix form: a N1 = 1
x
and N 2 =
x
u = [1 x ] 1 L L
a 2
Truss Elements 7 Truss Elements 8 Truss Elements 9

1
Displacement plotted along length of bar.
Shape Functions 1 1
N1 d 2 x
y
N2 u
N1 and N2 are called Shape Functions or
x
Interpolation Functions. They express the
2
shape of the assumed displacements.
displacements
N1 =1 N2 =0 at node 1 d 1 x L
N1 =0 N2 =1 at node 2 1 2
N1 + N2 =1 1

L
x
Truss Elements 10 Truss Elements 11 Truss Elements 12

Displacement plotted along length of bar. Step 3 - Define Strain/Displacement and Step 4 - Derive the Element
Stress/Strain Relationships Stiffness Matrix and Equations
y
d d 1x
u
u = 2 x x + d 1x T = A
L ( )
d 2 x x
d d 1x
2
T = AE = AE 2 x
( )
L
d 2 x d 1x
d 1 x L
du
= = d d 2 x
f 1x = T = AE 1 x
( )

1
dx L L

x = E
Truss Elements 13 Truss Elements 14 Truss Elements 15

## Step 4 - Derive the Element Step 4 - Derive the Element

Stiffness Matrix and Equations Stiffness Matrix and Equations Step 5 - Assemble the Element
Equations to Obtain the Global
f 1 x AE 1 1 d 1 x Equations and Introduce the B.C.
f 2 x = T =
f 2 x L 1 1 d 2 x
( ) [K ] = [k ( e ) ]
N
d d 1 x
f 2 x = T = AE 2 x e =1

L [ ]
k =
AE 1
L 1
1
1
{F} = {f ( e ) }
N

e =1

## Truss Elements 16 Truss Elements 17 Truss Elements 18

2
Step 6 - Solve for Nodal Step 7 - Solve for Element
Displacements Forces Three Bar Assembly
3000 lb
3
Obtain : Once displacements at each 1
1 2 3 4 x

## [K ]{d} = {F} node are known, then substitute

back into element stiffness equations 30 in 30 in
2
30 in

## Elements 1 & 2 Element 3

E = 30 x 106 psi E = 15 x 106 psi
A = 1 in2 A = 2 in2

## For element 1 : For elements 1 & 2 :

f 1 x k 1 k 1 d 1 x
= f 1 x
k 1 k 1 d 1 x For elements 1 & 2 :
f 2 x k 1 k 1 d 2 x
= 1 1
For element 2 :
k 1
f 2 x k 1 d 2 x
[ k ] = 10
(1) 6

ff 2 x k 2 k 2 d
d 2 x
A E
k1 = 1 1 1 1
= L1
f 3 x k 2 k 2 d 3 x A2 =1 E 2 = 30 x 10 6 L 2 = 30
[ k ] = [ k ]
6
A1 = 1 E 1 = 30 x 10 L 1 = 30 (2) (1)
For element 3 :
f 3 x k 3 k 3 d 3 x k1 =
(1 )(30 x 10 6 )

f 4 x
=
k 3

k 3 d 4 x

( 30 )

## For element 3 : Assemble Global force matrix

f 3 x k 3 k 3 d 3 x For element 3 : F1 x = f 1(x1 )
=
f 4 x k 3 k 3 d 4 x 1 1 F2 x = f 2(1x) + f 2( 2x )
A E
= 3 3
[ k ] = 100
(3) 6

k3
L3 1 1 F3 x = f 3( 2x ) + f 3( 3x )
A1 = 2 E 1 = 15 x 10 6 L 1 = 30 F4 x = f 4( 3x )

k3 =
( 2 )(15 x 10 6 )
( 30 )
Truss Elements 26 Truss Elements 27

3
k1 k1 0 0
k k1 + k 2 k2 0
[K ] = 1 F1 x
F
1 1 0 0 d 1x
3000 6 2 1 d 2 x
0 k2 k2 + k3 k3 0 d 2 x
6 1 1 = 10
1 d 3 x
2x 2
0 0 k3 k3 = 10
0 1

1 d 3 x
0 1
F3 x 2
1 F4 x
1 0 0 0 0 1 1 d 4 x
1 2 1 0
[K ] = 10 6 Solution :
0 1 2 1 B .C .' s
d 2 x = 0 .002 in d 4 x = 0 .001 in
0 0 1 1 d 1x = 0 d 4x = 0

## Truss Elements 28 Truss Elements 29 Truss Elements 30

F1 x 1 1 0 0 0
Appropriate Displacement
Functions u = constant
F 2 x 1 2 1 0 0 .002
= 10
6
d 1x = a 1
F3 x 0 1 2 1 0 .001 Usually Polynomials
d 2 x = a 1
F4 x 0 0 1 1 0 Continuous within element.
F1 x 2000 lb Inter-element
Inter element compatibility.
compatibility Prevent a2 = 0
overlap or voids.
F 2 x 3000 lb u = N 1d 1x + N 2 d 2 x = (N 1 + N 2 )a 1
=
Allow for rigid body displacement and
F3 x 0 lb constant strain. N1 + N 2 = 1

F4 x 1000 lb

## Potential Energy Approach

p = U + L
p = U + A
dU = x ( x )( y )( z )d x p = x x d x f1x d 1x f2 x d 2 x
M 2 0
dU = x d x dV b u dV T x u dS fix d ix
= X u T x dS u X b d
dv
x V S i =1
U = x d x dV
S V
V 0
1
U =
2
V
x x dV

## Truss Elements 34 Truss Elements 35 Truss Elements 36

4
u = [ N ] {d }
{ x } = 1 1
L
{}
d { x } = [D ]{ x }
[N ] = 1 x x L
L
L
{ x } = [B ] d {} [D ] = [E ]
d
{}
d = 1x [B ] = 1 1
L
d 2 x L
{ x } = [D ][B ]{d }
Truss Elements 37 Truss Elements 38 Truss Elements 39

{d } [B ] [D ] [B ] {d }dx {d } {P}
L
L A T T T T
p =
A
{ } {P}
L
A
x x d x f 1x d 1x f 2 x d 2 x { } { x } d x d
T
p = p =
T
2
2 x 0

{d } [N ] { T }dS {d } [N ] {X }dv
0 2 0 T T T T

{u } { } { } x b

u Tx dS u X b dv T x dS {u } X b dv
T T
S V

S V S V

## Truss Elements 40 Truss Elements 41 Truss Elements 42

{ U }= { d } [B ] [D ] [B ] {d }
T T T

{ f s } = [N ]T { Tx } dS
*

p =
AL
2
{}
T
d [B ]T [D ]T [B ] d d
T
{} { }{}
f
{ U }= d 1x
*
[
1

]
d L [E ] 1 1 d 1x

L
2x
S
1
L d 2 x

{ fb } = [N ]T {X b }dv
L
{ f } = { P } + [N ] { Tx } dS + [N ] {X b }dv
T T
U* =
E 2
(
d 1x 2 d 1x d 2 x + d 22 x )
S V L2
V
{ d } { f }= d
T
f + d 2 x f2 x
1x 1x

## Truss Elements 43 Truss Elements 44 Truss Elements 45

5
Transformation of a Vector in 2
p Dimensions
d 1x
=
AL E
2 L2
(
2 d 1x 2 d 2 x f1x ) p 1 d 1 x f 1 x 0 y
=
AE 1 y
1 = r
{ d } L 1 d 2 x f 2 x 0 d
xx
p [k ] = [B ]T [D ][B ] dV j

d 2 x

=
AL E
2 L2

(
2 d 2 x 2 d 1x f2 x ) V j
i
[D ] T
= [D ]
x
r i
d = d x i + d y j = d x i + d y j
Truss Elements 46 Truss Elements 47

## Transformation of a Vector in 2 a+b =i

Dimensions a = i cos
a + b = j
y i =1
y a = cos j
a = cos
b = sin
i b = sin ii
b j x
j
i a = cos i j = sin i + cos j

a
a b b = sin ( j )

i x i = cos i sin j
Truss Elements 50 Truss Elements 51

d = d x i + d y j = d x i + d y j
Global Stiffness Matrix
d x (cos i sin j ) + d y (sin i + cos j )
= d x i + d y j C S
Tranformat ion matrix f 1 x AE 1
=
1 d 1 x

d x cos + d y sin = d x S C L 1 1 d 2 x
f 2 x
- d sin + d cos = d
{f } = [ k ]{d}
x y y

C = cos
Want :
d x C S d x
= S = sin { f } = [ k ]{ d}
d y S C d y
Truss Elements 53 Truss Elements 54

6
Global Stiffness Matrix d 1 x = d 1 x cos + d 1 y sin f 1 x = f 1 x cos + f 1 y sin
d 2 x = d 2 x cos + d 2 y sin f 2 x = f 2 x cos + f 2 y sin
{ f } = [ k ]{ d} d 1x f 1x

dd 1 x C S 0 0 d 1y ff 1 x C S 0 0 f 1y
f 1x d 1x = =
f d d 2 x 0 0 C S d 2 x f 2 x 0 0 C S f 2 x
{ f } = 1y { d} = 1 y d 2 y

f 2 y

f 2 x d 2 x
f 2 y

d 2 y
{ d} = [ T * ]{d} { f } = [ T * ]{f }
Truss Elements 55 Truss Elements 56 Truss Elements 57

{ f }= [ k ] {d }
{ d }= [ T ] {d }
* d 1 x C S 0 0 d 1x C S 0 0

0 d 1 y S
d 1 y S C 0
C 0 0
{ ff }= [ kk ] [ T ] {d }
*
d
=
d 2 x 0 0 C

S d 2 x

[ T ]=
d 2 y 0 0 S

C d 2 y
0 0 C S

{ f }= [ T ] {f }
*
{ d} = [ T ]{d} 0 0 S C

[ T ]{f } = [ k ] [ T ]{d }
* * { f } = [ T ]{f }
Truss Elements 58 Truss Elements 59 Truss Elements 60

## Expand [k] to 4x4 size:

[ T ] {f } = [ k ] [ T ]{d } C2 CS C2 CS
{f } = [ T ] 1 [ k ] [ T ]{d }
f 1 x 1 0 d 1x
1 0 S2 CS S2
[ k ] = AE CS2
ff 1 y AE 0 0 0 0 d 1 y L C CS C2 CS

f 2 x
=
L 1 0 1

0 d 2 x
[ T ] 1 = [ T ] T
CS S2 CS

S 2
f 2 y

0 0 0

0 d 2 y {f } = [ T ]T [ k ] [ T ]{d }
[ k ] = [ T ]T [ k ] [ T ]
Truss Elements 61 Truss Elements 62 Truss Elements 63

7
C2 C2 CS
EXAMPLE
CS

CS S 2
CS S2 3
[ k ] = AE 3 3 3

y A=2 in2 L C2 CS C2 CS 4 4 4 4
E=30 x 106 psi 3 1 3 1
L=60 in CS S2 CS S 2 ( 2 )( 30 x10 6 ) 4
[k] = 3
4 4 4
x = 30 o 60
3 3 3

4 4 4 4
3
C= 3 1 3 1
L 2
4 4 4 4
30o 1
S=
2
Truss Elements x 64 Truss Elements 65 Truss Elements 66

## Stress Computation Stress Computation

f
= 2x
f 1 x AE 1 1 d 1 x A
0 .75 0 .433 0 .75 0 .433 =
L 1 1 d 2 x
0 .25 0 .433 0 .25 f 2 x

[ k ] = 10 6
f 2 x =
AE
[ 1 1] dd 1x
0 .75 0 .433 y L d 2 x
x
symmetric 0 .25
2
L f 1 AE
f 2 x = 2x = [ 1 1] d 1x = E [ 1 1] d 1x
A A L 2x L
d d 2 x

f 1 x x
Truss Elements 67 Truss Elements 69
1

## Stress Computation Stress Computation Example

E
= [ 1 1] d 1x A = 4 x 10-4 m2
= [ C ] {d}
x
L E = 210 GPa
d 2 x
y = 60o
[ 1 1]
dd E C S 0 0
E
= [ 1 1] 1 x
L
[ C ]= 2
d1x = 00.25
25 mm
d1y = 0.0 mm
d 2 x L 0 0 C S
{ d} = [ T * ] {d}
d2x = 0.50 mm
[ C ]= E [ C S C S ] d2y = 0.75 mm
=
E
L
[ 1 1] T * [ ] {d} L 60o
x
= [ C ] {d}
1
Truss Elements 70 Truss Elements 71 Truss Elements 72

8
Stress Computation Stress Computation 3-Bar Truss Example
2
210 x 10 6 kN / m 1 3 1 3 0 .25 x 10 3 m 3
[ C ]= 6
2m 2 2 2 2 210 x 10 1 3 1
3 0 .0 m
= 3 1
2 2
d 1x 0 .25 x 10 3 m 2 2 2 2 0 .50 x 10 m

10 ft
d 0 .75 x 10 3 m

{d} = d 1y = 0.0 m 3 = 81 .32 x 10 3 kN / mm 2
45o

2 x 0 .50 x 10 m
4
d 2 y 0 .75 x 10 3 m = 81 .32 MPa 1 45o 3

10 ft

## Data for 3-Bar Truss Example

E = 30 x 106 psi for all members 0 0 0 0
0 .5 0 .5
0 0 .5 0 .5
1
[ ]
6 0 .5
[k ]
( 30 x 10 ) ( 2 ) 1 0 ( 30 x 10 6 ) ( 2 ) 0 .5 0 .5
k (1 ) = (2)
=
0 .5
Element Node i Node j L (ft) A (in2)
1 1 2 10.00 2

90
C
0
S
1
C2
0
S2
1
CS
0
(10 ) (12 ) 0

0 0 0

( )
(10 ) 2 (12 ) 0 .5

0 .5 0 .5 0 .5

2
3
1
1
3
4
10.00
14.14
2
2
45
0
0.7071 0.7071
1 0
0.5
1
0.5
0
0.5
0 0 1 0 1 0 .5 0 .5 0 .5 0 .5

## Truss Elements 76 Truss Elements 77 Truss Elements 78

k (1 ) (1 )
k 12 (1 )
k 13 (1 )
k 14 0 0 0 0
11 k ( 2 ) (2)
k 12 0 0 (2)
k 13 (2)
k 14 0 0
k (21
1)
k (22
1)
k (23
1)
k (24
1)
0 0 0 0 11
1 0 1 0 (1 ) k (21
2)
k (22
2)
0 0 k (23
2)
k (24
2)
0 0
k
31 k (32
1)
k (33
1)
k (34
1)
0 0 0 0
0 0
[ ] 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
6 0 0 (1 )
( 30 x 10 ) ( 2 )
k ( 3) = [ K ] = k 41 k (42
1)
k (43
1)
k (44
1)
0 0 0 0 + L 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
(10 ) (12 ) 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
L (2) +L
k 31 k (32
2)
0 0 k (33
2)
k (34
2)
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (2)
k 41 k (422 ) 0 0 k (432 ) k (442 ) 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

## Truss Elements 79 Truss Elements 80 Truss Elements 81

9
Point to Ponder
k ( 3 ) (3)
k 12 0 0 0 0 (3)
k 13 (3)
k 14
11 1 .354 0 .354 0 0 0 .354 0 .354 1 0
0 .354 0
k (21
3)
k (22
3)
0 0 0 0 k (23
3)
k (24
3)
1 .354 0 1 0 .354 0 .354 0 Why are rows and columns 3 & 8 equal to
0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
zero?
0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 [K ] = ( 500000 ) xx-displacement
displacement at node 2 is 3rd d
d-o-f
o f and yy-
L 0 .354 0 .354 0 0 0 .354 0 .354 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 displacement at node 4 is 8th d-o-f.
0 .354 0 .354 0 0 0 .354 0 .354 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 These displacements must be zero because
(3) (3)

k 31 k (32
3)
0 0 0 0 k (33
3)
k 34 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 of geometry (not B.C.)
(3)
k 41 k (423 ) 0 0 0 0 k (433 ) k (443 )

## Assembling the Global Stiffness

Position in local [k] adds to Position in Global [K] Position in local [k] adds to Position in Global [K]
Matrix - [K]
row m 2i-1 if m=1 row m 2j-1 if m=3
2i if m=2 2j if m=4
column n 2i-1 if n=1 column n 2i-1 if n=1
2i if n=2 2i if n=2
If there are 2 degrees of freedom and element ei
connects nodes i & j then the Global [K] matrix is Upper Right Quadrant: Lower Right Quadrant:
row m 2i-1 if m=1 row m 2j-1 if m=3
assembled as follows:
2i if m=2 2j if m=4
column n 2j-1 if n=3 column n 2j-1 if n=3
2j if n=4 2j if n=4

## Suppose i=1 and j= 3

Position in local [k] adds to Position in Global [K]
row m column n row column
Position in local [k] adds to Position in Global [K] k ( 2 ) (2)
k 12 0 0 (2)
k 13 (2)
k 14 0 0
1 1 2i-1 2i-1
row m column n row column
11
k (21
2)
k (22
2)
k (23
2)
k (24
2)
1 1 1 1
1 2 2i-1 2i
1 2 1 2 0 0 0 0
1 3 2i-1 2j-1
1 3 1 5
1
2
4
1
2i-1
2i
2j
2i-1
1 4 1 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 1 2 1
2 2 2i 2i
2 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
2 3 2i 2j-1
2 3 2 5 ( 2)
2
3
4
1
2i
2j-1
2j
2i-1
2 4 2 6 k 31 k (32
2)
0 0 k (33
2)
k (34
2)
0 0
3 1 5 1
( 2)
k (422 ) k (432 ) k (442 )
3 2 2j-1 2i
k 41 0 0 0 0
3 2 5 2
3 3 2j-1 2j-1
3 3 5 5
3
4
4
1
2j-1
2j
2j
2i-1
3 4 5 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
4 2 2j 2i
4 1 6 1
4 3 2j 2j-1
4
4
2
3
6
6
2
5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
4 4 2j 2j
4 4 6 6
Truss Elements 88 Truss Elements 89 Truss Elements 90

10
Position in local [k] adds to Position in Global [K]
If there are 3 d-o-f per node (3D truss): If there are 3 d-o-f per node (3D truss): row m column n row column
Position in local [k] adds to Position in Global [K] Position in local [k] adds to Position in Global [K] 1 1 3i-2 3i-2
row m 3i-2 if m=1 row m 3j-2 if m=4 1 3 3i-2 3i
3i-1 if m =2 3j-1 if m =5 1 4 3i-2 3j-2
1 5 3i-2 3j-1
3i if m =3 3j if m =6 1 6 3i-2 3j
column n 3i-2 if n=1 column n 3i-2 if n=1 2 1 3i-1 3i-2
3i-1 if n =2 3i-1 if n =2 2 2 3i-1 3i-1
3i if n =3 3i if n =3 2 3 3i 1
3i-1 3i
2 5 3i-1 3j-1
row m 3i-2 if m=4 row m 3j-2 if m=4 2 6 3i-1 3j
3i-1 if m =5 3j-1 if m =5 3 1 3i 3i-2
3i if m =6 3j if m =6 3 2 3i 3i-1
column n 3j-2 if n=1 column n 3j-2 if n=4 3 3 3i 3i
3j-1 if n =2 3j-1 if n =5 3 4 3i 3j-2
3 5 3i 3j-1
3j if n =3 3j if n =6 3 6 3i 3j
Truss Elements 91 Truss Elements 92 Truss Elements 93

## Position in local [k] adds to Position in Global [K]

row m column n
4 1
row
3j-2
column
3i-2
0 d 1x
4 2 3j-2 3i-1 10000 d
4 3 3j-2 3i 1 .354 0 .354 0 0 0 .354 0 .354 1 0 1y
4
4
4
5
3j-2
3j-2
3j-2
3j-1
0 .354
1 .354 0 1 0 .354 0 .354 0 0 F2 x 0
4 6 3j-2 3j 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
F 0
5
5
1
2
3j-1
3j-1
3i-2
3i-1

[K ] = ( 500000 )
0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0

{F} = 2 y {d} =
5
5
3
4
3j 1
3j-1
3j-1
3i
3j-2
0 .354 0 .354 0 0 0 .354 0 .354 0 0
F3 x 0
5 5 3j-1 3j-1 0 .354 0 .354 0 0 0 .354 0 .354 0 0 F3 y 0
5 6 3j-1 3j 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

6
6
1
2
3j
3j
3i-2
3i-1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 F4 x 0
F4 y
6
6
3
4
3j
3j
3i
3j-2 0
6 5 3j 3j-1
6 6 3j 3j
Truss Elements 94 Truss Elements 95 Truss Elements 96

0 .414 x 10 2

30 x 10 6 1 .59 x 10 2
(1 ) = [0 1 0 1]
120

(1 ) = 3965 psi
0
0 1 .354 0 .354 d 1 x

= ( 500000 ) 0
1 .354 d 1 y

10000 0 .354 0 .414 x 10 2

( 2 ) = 1471 psi
30 x 10 6 2 2 2 2 1 .59 x 10 2
( 2) =
120 2 2 2 2 0
d 1 x 0 .414 x 10 2 in 0
d = 2
1 y 1 .59 x 10
( 3 ) = 1035 psi
in 0 .414 x 10 2
2
30 x 10 6
( 3) = [ 1 0 1 0 ] 1 .59 x 10
120 0
0

Truss Elements 97 Truss Elements 98 Truss Elements 99

11
d x i + d y j + d z k = d x i + d y j + d z k
3D Truss Problems y
^
y 2
^
x
(d i + d j + d k ) i = (d i + d
x y z x y j + d z k ) i
Need 3D transformations
d x + 0 + 0 = d x i i + d y j i + d z k i
3D trusses are called space trusses
x x1
1 i i = 2 = C x = cos x
L
y y
j i = 2 1
= C y = cos y
x L
z z z1
^ k i = 2 = C z = cos z
z L
L= ( x 2 x 1 ) 2 + ( y 2 y 1 ) 2 + ( z 2 z1 ) 2
Truss Elements 100 Truss Elements 101 Truss Elements 102

d 1x [k ] = [T * ]T [k ] [T * ]
d
1y C x Cy Cz 0 0 0 C 2 C xC y C xC z C 2x C xC y C xC z
d 1 x C x Cy Cz 0 0 0 d 1 z [T ] =
*
x
= 0 Cx Cy C z C 2y CyCz C xC y C 2y CyCz
C z d 2 x
0 0

d 2 x 0 0 0 Cx Cy C 2z C xC z CyCz C 2z
d 2 y [k ] = AE
C x 0 L
C 2x C xC y C xC z

d 2 z C y 0 symmetric C 2y CyCz

C 2z
C z 0 AE 1 1 C x Cy Cz 0 0 0 symmetric
[k ] =

[T ] = C0
* x Cy
0
Cz
0 Cx
0
Cy
0 0
C z
0

0
Cx L

Cy

1 1 0 0 0 Cx Cy C z

0 C z
Truss Elements 103 Truss Elements 104 Truss Elements 105

## Inclined or Skewed Supports d 3 x cos sin d 3 x {d } = [T1 ]{d }

=
cos d 3 y
y F2x 2 3
y
x

d 3 y sin {d } = [T1 ]T {d }
{d 3 } = [t 3 ]{d 3 }
[ I ] 0 0
1
[t 3 ] =
cos sin [T1 ] = 0 [ I ] 0

sin cos
0 0 [t 3 ]
B.C. at node 3 fixes y displacement x
Truss Elements 106 Truss Elements 107 Truss Elements 108

12
{f } = [T1 ] {f } F1 x
F
d 1x
d
{f } = [K] {d} 1y
F2 x
1y
d 2 x
F = [T1 ][K ][T1 ]
T
[T1 ] {f } = [T1 ][K ]{d} 2 y
F3 x

d
2y
d 3 x
{f } = [T1 ][K ][T1 ]T {d }
F3 y

d 3 y

## Truss Elements 109 Truss Elements 110

13
Galerkin Method
Weighted Residual Approximate solutions, including FE
Methods
Notation:
solutions, can be constructed from
governing differential equations. One x independent variables, e.g. coordinates of a point
approach is the Galerkin method. This can u = u (x) dependent variables, e.g. displacements of a point
be applied to non-structural problems. u% = u% ( x ) approximate solution
f function of x (may be constant or zero)
D differential operator

## Problem Statement Problem Statement Approximate Solution

u% is a linear combination
In domain V: Residual in domain V: of basis functions
D -f = 0
Du R = Du
D% -f u% is a typically a polynomial
of n terms whose
w ith appropriate B.C.
i th term is muliplied
by a generalized d.o.f. a i
Weighted Residual Methods 4 Weighted Residual Methods 5 Weighted Residual Methods 6

## Solution One-Dimensional Example One-Dimensional Example

du
Minimize residual w .r.t. weights LT x = E x = E
dx
Best Approximation:
d 2u
q = cx P AE +q =0
dx 2
d x
W Rdv = 0
i i = 1, 2, K , n A
dx
+q = 0

## Weighted Residual Methods 7 Weighted Residual Methods 8 Weighted Residual Methods 9

1
One-Dimensional Example Exact Solution Galerkin Problem
2
d u cx d 2 u% cx
LT
+ =0
d 2 u cx
+ =0 dx 2 AE Wi 2 +
dx
dx = 0
AE
dx 2 AE 0
du
AE = P at x = L T
dx
du du%
AE = P at x = L T P cL2T c Wi =
dx u= x+ x x3 da i
AE 2AE 6A E
Weighted Residual Methods 10 Weighted Residual Methods 11 Weighted Residual Methods 12

Galerkin Problem
Integration by Parts Galerkin Problem
d 2 u% cx
LT

Wi 2 + dx =
d ( uv ) = udv + vdu dx AE LT
d 2 u%
0
LT

Wi
d 2 u% T L

dx + Wi
cx
dx = 0 W i
dx 2
dx =
0
dx 2 0
AE
A E 0
LT
du
LT
dWi du%
udv = uv vdu u = Wi du =
dWi
dx
Wi dx +
0

0
dx dx
dx

d 2 u% du
dv = dx v =
dx 2 dx
Weighted Residual Methods 13 Weighted Residual Methods 14 Weighted Residual Methods 15

Galerkin Problem
Assumed Function Integrals
LT
d 2 u% cx
u% = a 1 x + a 2 x 2
LT
W dx + dx = cx P
i 2
AE du% dW1 ( 1 )( a 1 + 2a 2 x ) + x
AE
dx + L T =0
= W1 = x
0 AE
=1
0
LT L
d 2 u% T
cx
W dx + Wi dx = 0 da 1 dx

i 2
dx AE LT
0 0
cx P
du
LT LT
dWi du% cx du% dW2 ( 2x )( a + 2a 2 x ) + x 2
AE
dx + L T =0
= W2 = x = 2x
1
2

AE
Wi dx + dx dx + Wi AE dx 0
0 0 da 2 dx
Weighted Residual Methods 16 Weighted Residual Methods 17 Weighted Residual Methods 18

2
Solution Solution Solution
P 7cL2T cL T 2
P 7cL2T P 7cL2T cL T 2 u% = x+ x x
a1 = + u% = x+ x x AE 12AE 4AE
AE 12AE AE 12AE 4AE
P cL2T c
u= x+ x x3
AE 2AE 6AE
cL T du% P 7cL2T cL T
a2 = % = E = + x
4AE dx A 12A 2A 2

## Galerkin FEM Formulation: Galerkin FEM Formulation:

Quantity Location Exact Galerkin
d 2u u% = N {d }
u L/2 0.2292 0.2292 AE + q(x) = AEu ,xx + q(x) = 0
u L 0 3333 0.3333
0.3333 0 3333 dx 2 L x x
F = AEu ,x N =
L
u,x 0 0.5000 0.5833
u,x L/2 0.3750 0.3333 L
{d} = u 1
T
u,x L 0.0000 0.0833 L
x, u u 2
A, E q = q (x)

## Galerkin FEM Formulation: Galerkin FEM Formulation:

u% = N 1u 1 + N 2 u 2 For EA constant:
Lj Lj
u%
N els
Wi = = Ni N i ( AEu% ,xx + q ) dx = 0 N AEu%
i ,xx dx =
d i j=1 0 0

L x x
Lj

N = N
L
N i AEu% ,x AEu% ,x dx
L L 0
0
i ,x

## Weighted Residual Methods 25 Weighted Residual Methods 26 Weighted Residual Methods 27

3
Galerkin FEM Formulation:
N els L j B = N ,x
N ( AEu% i ,xx + q ) dx = 0

j=1 0

F=AEu% ,x
N els L j N els
1 1 u% 1
(N AEu% ,x + N i q ) dx + N i AEu% ,x 0 = 0 u% ,x = B {d } =
For ends of the element L

L u% 2
i ,x

L
j=1 0 j= 1

## Weighted Residual Methods 28 Weighted Residual Methods 29 Weighted Residual Methods 30

N els L j

(N AEu% ,x + N i q ) dx
Beam Dynamics
i ,x
j=1 0
N els
L
[ k ]j = [ B ] AE [ B ] dx
N els T

+ N i AEu% ,x 0 = 0
L
j= 1 0
j= 1 d4v d2v
N els L
EI + (x) = 0
{re }j = [ N ]
T
L
qdx dx 4 dt 2
j=1 0
N els
L
EIv ,xxxx + L &&
v=0
[B ] AE [ B ] dx {d }j
T

{P } = ([ N ] )
N els L
T
j= 1 0 F =0
j= 1 0

([ N ] F )
N els L N els

[N ]
L
qdx +
T T
= =0
j= 1 0 j=1 0

## Weighted Residual Methods 31 Weighted Residual Methods 32 Weighted Residual Methods 33

Shape Functions
1.000
B.C. N1 N3

N1 =
1
L3
( 2x 3
3x L + L2 3
) 0.500
N2
EIv ,xx -M
M B =00 N2 =
1
L3
( x 3 L 2x 2 L2 + xL
3 ) 0.000
L

N3 =
1
L3
( 2x 3
+ 3x 2 L )
-0.500
N4 =
1
L3
( x L x L )
3 2 2

## Shape Functions for Beam Element

Weighted Residual Methods 34 Weighted Residual Methods 35 Weighted Residual Methods 36

4
v% = N 1 v 1 + N 2 1 + N 3 v 2 + N 4 2
EI constant Integration
v1
Lj (by parts twice!)
{d} = 1 ( EIv v ) dx = 0

T
N + L && L
v2 N
T
,,xxxx
v% ,xxxx dx =
2
0
0
L
v%
L

N
T T
v% ,xx dx + N v% ,xxx N ,x v% ,xx 0
T
Wi = = Ni
d i
,xx
0

## Weighted Residual Methods 37 Weighted Residual Methods 38 Weighted Residual Methods 39

Lj

N ( EIv% )
T
+ L &&
v% dx = 0 EIv ,xx -M B =0
,xxxx

( N )
0 L
T
EIv ,xxx -VB =0
&&
EI v% ,xx + L N v% dx =
T

( N )
,xx L
T
&&
EI v% ,xx + L N v% dx =
T

( N )
L 0
T ,xx
EI v% ,xx + L N &&
T
v% dx + L
N v% ,xxx N ,x v% ,xx
T T 0
,xx
0 0 T VB T M
L

N N ,x B
EI 0
L
N v% T
%
T

,xxx N ,x v ,xx 0 = 0 EI

[k ] = ( B )
L
T
EI B dx
v% = N {d
&& &&} d
( AkT,x )
0

[m ] = ( L N )
L

v% ,xx = B {d }
T
N dx = dx
0
B = N ,xx L

{R } = N
VB T M
N ,x
T
Af + d ( Af )
B

EI EI 0 Af

## Weighted Residual Methods 43 Weighted Residual Methods 44 Weighted Residual Methods 45

5
T% = N 1 T1 + N 2 T2 L
d 0
T% = N {Te }
T
Wi =
T%
= Ni N
T

dx
(
AkT% ,,x dx =

)
d i 0 0
L x x
N =
L L

## Weighted Residual Methods 46 Weighted Residual Methods 47 Weighted Residual Methods 48

T% ,x = N ,x {Te } L

[k T ] = N ,x Ak N ,x {Te } dx
T

L
0
N ,x ( ) dx N ( Af ) =
T
AkT% ,x
T 0
0 L
A F 1 1
0
N ,x Ak N ,x {Te } dx = 1 1
T
[k T ] = kA 1 1
0 A 2 F2

## Two Dimensional Problems Poissons Equation Shape Functions

( k x ,x ) + y ( k y ,y ) + Q = 0

In volume V:
x
( k x ,x ) + y ( k y ,y ) + Q = 0 % = N { e }
x
is known If k = k x = k y = constant: Shape functions depend on 2D element:L
lk x ,x + mk y ,y f B = 0 k + Q = 0
2

## Weighted Residual Methods 52 Weighted Residual Methods 53 Weighted Residual Methods 54

6
Galerkin Residuals Integration by Parts Integration by Parts
%
0 N
T
(%
x k x ,x dxdy =

) N
T
( )
y k y ,y dxdy =

0

( ) (
N x k x % ,x + y k y % ,y
T
) + Q dxdy =
N ,x k x % ,x dxdy
T

N ,y k y % ,y dxdy
d d T
M
0
+ N k x % ,x ldS
T

+ N k y % ,y mdS
T

## Galerkin Residuals Galerkin Residuals

% ,x = N ,x { e } ( N ,x
T T
k x N ,x + N ,y k y N ,y dxdy ){ }
e [k ] = N ,x k x N ,x + N ,y k y N ,y dxdy
T T

{r } = N Q Qdxdyy + N f B dS
T T
N Qdxdy + N f B dS
T T
=

% ,y = N ,y { e }

## Weighted Residual Methods 58 Weighted Residual Methods 59 Weighted Residual Methods 60

7
Beam Stiffness Beam with positive nodal displacements,
rotations, forces, and moments.
Beam, Plane Frame and
Grid Equations
A beam is a long, slender structural member
y , v
that pproduces significant
g f bendingg effects
ff as
opposed to axial or twisting effects. 1 , m 1
1 x 2 2 , m 2

L
f 1 y , d 1 y f 2 y , d 2 y
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 1 Elements 2 Elements 3

## Beam theory sign conventions for shear

forces and bending moments. FEM Sign Conventions y , v
w(x)

## Valid at All Nodes:

1. Moments are positive counterclockwise.
x
2. Rotations are p
positive counterclockwise.
3. Forces are positive in the local y direction. w(x)
m m 4. Displacements are positive in the local y
M
direction. M + dM
L dx
V V
V V + dV
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 4 Elements 5 Elements 6

## Force and moment equilibrium: Curvature-moment relationship: d 2 v M

=
d x 2 EI
w d x + dV = 0 1 M d 2 v
= = = d 2 d 2 v
V d x + dM = 0 EI d x 2 EI = w (x )
dV d x 2 d x 2
w= d v
d x = Some cases :
d x
dM 4
V= d 2 v M EI d v = 0
d x =
d x 2 EI d x 4

Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 7 Elements 8 Elements 9

1
Step 2: Select a Displacement Function
Step 1: Select Element Type Solve for ais
v = a 1 x + a 2 x + a 3 x + a 4
3 2

v = 3a 1 x 2 + 2a 2 x + a 3
y , v v(0) = d 1yy = a 4
2
L
( L
1
)
v = 3 d 1y d 2 y + 2 1 + 2 x 3 +

( )
1 , m 1
1 x 2 2 , m 2

dv(0)
dx
= 1 = a 3
3

( 1
) 2

(
L2 d 1y d 2 y L 2 1 + 2 x + 1 x + d 1y )
v(L) = d 2 y = a 1 L3 + a 2 L2 + a 3 L + a 4
L
dv(L)
f 1 y , d 1 y f 2 y , d 2 y = 2 = 3a 1 L2 + 2a 2 L + a 3
d x
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 10 Elements 11 Elements 12

## Matrix Form Matrix Form Collect Terms

d 1y
[N ] = [N1 N2 N3 N4 ] N1 =
1
( 2x 3
3x 2 L + L3 )
L3

v = [ N ] d = [ N ] 1
{} 2 3 1 2 1
d 2 y
N 1 = 3 x 3 2 x 2 + 1
L L
N 2 = 2 x 3 x 2 + 1x
L L N2 = 3
L
( x L 2x L
3 2 2
+ xL
3 )
2 3 1 1 1
2 N 3 = 3 x 3 + 2 x 2
L L
N 4 = 2 x 3 x 2
L L
N3 = 3
L
( 2x 3
+ 3x L 2
)
1
N4 = 3 ( x L x L )
3 2 2

[N ] = [N1 N2 N3
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
N4 ]
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
L
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 13 Elements 14 Elements 15

## Properties of Shape Functions Properties of Shape Functions Properties of Shape Functions

N 2 (0) = 0
N 3 (0) = 0
1 3
( )
( )
N 1 ( 0) = L =1
1 4
L3 1
(
N 3 ( L ) = 3 2 L3 + 3L2 L = 1 ) N 2 (L) = L 2L4 + L4 = 0
1
(
N 1 ( L ) = 3 2 L3 3L2 L + L3 = 0 ) L L3

dN 1 1
L
(
= 3 6 x 2 6 x L )
dN 3
d x
1
(
= 3 6 x 2 + 6 x L
L
)
dN 2
d x
=
1
L3
(
3 x 2 L 4 x L2 + L3 )
d x L
dN 1 dN 2
dN 1
( 0) = 0 (0 ) = 0 (0) = 1
dx d x d x
dN 1 1
(
( L ) = 3 6 L2 6 LL = 0 )
dN 1
d x
1
(
( L ) = 3 6 L2 + 6 LL = 0
L
) dN 2
(L) =
1
(
3L3 4L3 + L3 = 0 )
d x L d x 3
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
L
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 16 Elements 17 Elements 18

2
Step 3 : Define Strain/Displacement
Properties of Shape Functions 1.000
Relationships
N1 N3
N 4 (0) = 0 d u
0.500 x (x , y ) =
N 4 (L) =
1 4
L3
(
L L4 = 0 ) N2 d x
L d v
dN 4
d x
1
(
= 3 x 2 L 2 x L2
L
) 0.000
N4
u = y
0 d x
dN 4
(0) = 0
d 2 v
x (x , y ) = y
d x -0.500
dN 4
d x
1
(
(L) = 3 L3 2L3 = 1
L
) Shape Functions for Beam Element d x 2
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 19 Elements 20 Elements 21

Step 3 : Define Stress/Strain Step 4 : Derive the Element Step 4 : Derive the Element
Relationships Stiffness Matrix and Equations Stiffness Matrix and Equations
3
= EI d v ( 0 ) d 2 v ( 0 )
f1y = V 1 = m
m = EI
d 2 v d x 3 d x 2
m ( x ) = EI ( )
d xx 2
EI
(
= 3 12 d 1y + 6 L 1 12 d 2 y + 6 L 2
L
) =
EI
L3
6 L d 1y + 4 L2 1 6 L d 2 y + 2 L2 2

d 3 v
V = EI f2 y = V
3
= EI d v ( L ) 2 = +m
m = EI
d 2 v ( L )
3 d x 2
d x d x 3
EI
(
= 3 12 d 1y 6 L 1 + 12 d 2 y 6 L 2
) =
EI
L3
(
6 L d 1y + 2 L2 1 6 L d 2 y + 4 L2 2 )
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
L Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 22 Elements 23 Elements 24

## Step 4 : Derive the Element

Stiffness Matrix and Equations Stiffness Matrix
12 6L 12 6L
f 1 y 12 6L 12 6L d 1 y
4 L2 2 L2 Step 5 : Assemble Element

m 1 EI 6 L
= 3
4 L2 6L 2 L2 1 [ ]
k =
EI 6 L
3 12 6L
6L
12 6L Equations to Obtain the Global
6 L d 2 y L
f 2 y L 12 6L 12 Equations and Introduce
m 6L 2 L2 6L 4 L2
6L 2 L2 6L 4 L2 2
2 Boundary Conditions
Note units on kij terms. Derived from direct stiffness
approach. Identical to matrix methods!

Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 25 Elements 26 Elements 27

3
Example

y
d 1 y 1 d 2 y 2 d 2 y 2 d 3 y 3

1
1000 lbft 12 6L 12 6L 12 6L 12 6L
6L 6L 2 L2
2 L2
1
x 2 2
3
[ ]
k (1 ) =
EI 4 L2 6L
[ ]
k ( 2 ) =
EI
L3 12
4 L2
6L
6L
6L
L3 12 6L 12 6L 12

1000 lb
6L 2 L2 6L 4 L2 6L 2 L2 6L 4 L2
E, I are constant through out the beam
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 28 Elements 29 Elements 30

## F1 y 12 6L 12 6L 0 0 d 1 y The Boundary Conditions are :

M 6L 4 L2 6L 2 L2

0 1
1000 24 0 6 L d 2 y
0
EI
2 L2 2
1
F2 y EI 12 6L 12 + 12 6L + 6L 12 6 L d 2 y d 1y = 0 1000 = 3 0 8 L2
=
3 6L 2 L2 4 L 2 + 4 L2

2 L2 2

0 L 6L 2
M
2 L 6L + 6 L 6L 1=0
2 L2 4L 3
F3 y 0 0 12 6L 12 6 L d 3 y

2 L2

4 L2 3
d 3 y = 0
M 3 0 0 6L 6L
Solve for nodal displacements and reactions at
node 1 and node 3.
Impose B.C.' s and reduce equations :

Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 31 Elements 32 Elements 33

Example

d
P y F1 y 12 6L 12 6L 0 0 1y
6L The Boundary Conditions are :
M1 4 L2 6 L 2 L2 0 0 1

1 F EI 12 6 L 12 + 12 6 L + 6 L 12 6 L d 2 y d 2 y = 0
3
2y
= 3 2
1 M 2 L 6 L 2 L2 6 L + 6 L 4 L2 + 4 L2 6 L 2L
2 d 3 y = 0
d
x 2 2 F 0 0 12 6 L 12 6 L d
3y 3y
M 3 0 0 6L 2 L2 6 L 4 L2 3 = 0
3
L L
Impose B.C.' s and reduce equations :
E, I are constant through out the beam
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 34 Elements 35 Elements 36

4
P 4 L2 2 L2 6 L d 1 y
EI 2 P
0 = 3 2L 8 L2 6 L 1 7 PL 3
0 L 6L F1y

12 2

6L

F1 y
M
12
6L
6L 12 6L 0 0 12 EI
3 PL 2 M 0
1 4 L2 6L 2 L2 0 0 1 5
P

7 PL 3 F2 y EI 12 6L 12 + 12 6L + 6L 12 6L 4 EI
F2 y 2
=
3 6L
0
M
2 L 2 L2 6 L + 6L 4 L2 + 4 L2 6L 2 L2
PL 2 = 0
d 1y 12 EI F3 y 0 0 12 6L 12 6L
4 EI

M 2 3
2
3 PL 2 M 3 0 0 6L 2 L2 6L 4 L 0 F3 y 2 P
1 =
4 EI2
0 1
2 PL M 3 PL
4 EI 2

Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 37 Elements 38 Elements 39

f 2 y 12 6L 12 6L 0
PL 2 P
m 2 EI 6 L 4 L2 6L 2 L2

= 3 4 EI
f 3 y L 12 6L 12 6L 0 1 3P/2
PL

m 3 6 L 2 L2 6L 4 L2 0 P P
3 3P/L
ff 2 y 2 P 3P/L
PL 5P/2 PL/2
m 2 PL PL/2
2
= 3
f 3 y P
2
m 3 PL
2
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 40 Elements 41 Elements 42

Example
Bending Moment Diagram
Shear Force Diagram E = 210 GPa
I = 2 x 10-4 m4
M y P = 50 kN
V
PL/2 3
1
2
x 2
1
k =200 kN/m
3m 3m

-PL
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 43 Elements 44 Elements 45

5
k
[k s ] =
k
F1 y
M
12
6L
6L 12 6L 0 0 d 1 y
k k
0 1
d 1y
1 4 L2 6L 2 L2 0 F1y 12 6L 12 6L 0 0 0
F2 y EI 12 6L 12 + 12 6L + 6L 12 6 L d 2 y Let :
M1
4L2 6L 2L2

0 1
= 3 6L 0 0
M 2 L2 6L + 6 L 4 L 2 + 4 L2 6L 2 L2 2 F2 y 12 6L 12 + 12 6L + 6L 12 0 d 2 y
2 L 6L
kL 3
6L
EI
F3 y 0 6 L d 3 y k = M 2 = 3 6L 2L2 6L + 6L 4L + 4L2 6L 0 2
2
0 12 6L 12 2L2
F L 0 k d
M 3 0 0 6L 2 L2 6L 4 L2 3 EI 3y
0 12 6L 12 + k 6L
3 y
M 3 0 0 6L 2L2 6L 4L2 0
Then :
0 0 0 0 k 0

k 3
F4 y
Plus stiffness from spring! d 4y
k k
[k s ] = EI3
L k k
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 46 Elements 47 Elements 48

## The Boundary Conditions are : Rearranging terms yields:

d 1 y = 0 8 L2 2 L 2
F1 y 12 6L 12 6L 0 0 0 0
0 6 L 2 M 6L 4 L2 6L 2 L2 0 0 0 0
EI 2 1
1 = 0 F2 y
0 = 3 2L 4 L2 6 L 3
12
EI
6L 12 + 12 6L + 6L 12 6L 0

0

M 2 = 3 6L 2 L2 6L + 6 L 4 L2 + 4 L 2 6L 2 L2 0 0 .00249
d 2 y = 0 P L 6 L 6 L 12 + k d F L 0
3 y 3y
0 12 6L 12 + k 6L k 0 .0174

M 3 0 0 6L 2 L2 6L 4 L2 0 0 .00747
d 4 y = 0 F
k

2 0 .00249 radians 4y 0 0 0 0 k 0 0

Impose B.C.' s and reduce equations : d 0 .0174 m
3y

Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 49 Elements 50 Elements 51

## F1y 69 .9 kN Distributed Loads

M 50.0 kN
1 69 .7 kN m 69.9 kN
F2 y 116 .4 kN y , v

M 2 =
w(x)
0
F 50 .0 kN 69.7 kNm 2
3y 116.4 kN 3.5 kN
M 3 0 1
x

F4 y 3 .5 kN L

Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 52 Elements 53 Elements 54

6
Work Equivalence Method -
Equivalent Loads Work Equivalence Method Example
L
0 w ( x ) v ( x ) d x = m 1 1 + m 2 2 + f 1 y d 1 y + f 2 y d 2 y

f 1 y f 2 y Wdistribute d = Wdiscrete w ( x ) = w

( ) ( )
m 2 2
1
L v ( x ) = d 1 y d 2 y + 1 + 2 x 3 +
2 Wdistribute d = 0 w ( x ) v ( x ) d x L3 L2
1
m 1
Wdiscrete = m 1 1 + m 2 2 + f 1y d 1y + f 2 y d 2 y 3
( 1
2 d 1 y d 2 y L 2 1 + 2 ) ( ) x 2 +
L
L
x + d
1 1y
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 55 Elements 56 Elements 57

## Work Equivalence Method - Collect Terms : Collect Terms :

Example L
0 w ( x ) v ( x ) d x = m 1 1 + m 2 2 + f 1 y d 1 y + f 2 y d 2 y Lw
f 1 y =

+ Lw Lw =
wL
2 2
L Lw
( L2 w
)
0 w ( x ) v ( x ) d x = 2 d 1y d 2 y 4 1 + 2 ( )
Lw wL
L
0
Lw
w ( x ) v ( x ) d x =
2
(
d 1 y d 2 y
L2 w
4
)
1 + 2 ( ) (
Lw d 2 y d 1 y + )
L2 w
( L2 w
2 1 + 2 )
(Lw ) d =
f 2 y =
2
Lw =
2
3 2 1 1y
L2 w L2 w 2 L 2 w L2 w
( )
2
(
Lw d 2 y d 1 y + )
L2 w
2 1 + 2
2 1
(Lw ) d 1y
Lw Lw m 1 = + = wL
3 + Lw Lw d 1 y + Lw d 2 y + 4 3 2 12
2 2
L2 w 2 L 2 w L2 w 2 2
L2 w L2 w wL 2
1 + L w + L w 2
4
+
3

2 4 3 m 2 = + =
4 3 12

Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 58 Elements 59 Elements 60

Nodal Hinge
y , v Hinge
Procedure also works for a f 1 y f 2 y
m 2
1 , m 1
pp 2 1 x
2
at a point other than a m 1
1
2 , m 2 = 0
L
node. L f 1 y , d 1 y f 2 y , d 2 y

Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 61 Elements 62 Elements 63

7
Nodal Hinge Partition Stiffness Matrix
Partition Stiffness Matrix
Hinge [ k condensed ] = [K 11 ] [K 12 ][K 22 ]1 [K 21 ] =
y , v 12 6L 12 6L 12 6L 12 6L
2 , m 2 4 L2 2 L2 EI 2 1
[ ]
[ ]
EI
EI 6 L 6L 6L 4 L2 6 L 2L 6L 2 L2 6L
3 3 2
1 x
x 2 k =
k L 12 6L 12 L 6 L 4 L
1 , m 1 = 0 3 12 6L 12 6L
L
1 L 1
L 6L 2 L2 6L 4 L2 [ ]
k condensed =
3 EI
L L2 L
f 1 y , d 1 y f 2 y , d 2 y 3
L 1 L 1

Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 64 Elements 65 Elements 66

## Expand Stiffness Matrix Expand Stiffness Matrix Potential Energy Approach

Hinge at node j Neglecting Body Forces.
Hinge at node i
1 L 1 0 p = U +
L 1 0 1 L
L2 0
[ k Hinge =
3
]
EI L
[ ]
k Hinge =

3 EI 0 0 0 0 U=
1
2
x x dV
L3 1 L 1 0 L 3 1 0 1 L V

L L2

0 0 0 0 L 0 2 2
= Ty v dS f iy d iy m i i
S i =1 i =1
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 67 Elements 68 Elements 69

v = [ N ] {d }
d 1y
2
v
1 L
1 { x } = y d
p = x x dA d x v Ty b d x dx 2
2 0
{d } =
x A

d 2 y
[B ] = 12 x 3 6 L 6 x L 4 L2 12 x + 6 L 6 x L 2 L2

L L3 L3 L3
f1y d 1y f2y d 2y m 1 1 m 2 2

{ x } = y [B ]{d }
2
2
v
{ x } = y d
dx 2
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 70 Elements 71 Elements 72

8
{ x } = [D ]{ x }
L
1 1
2 { } { } dAd x
L
p = 2 x dA d x v Ty b d x p =
T

[D ] = [E ]
x
0 x x
x A
A 0
f1y d 1y f2y d 2y m 1 1 m 2 2
{ } {P}
L
b T y {v }T d x d
T

{ x } = y [D ][B ]{d } 0

Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 73 Elements 74 Elements 75

2 {d } [ B ] [ D ] [ B ] {d }
I T T T p
=0
p = dx d {}
0 L L

## [ B ] [ D ] [ B ] dx {d } [ N ] w dx P {} Plane Frame and Grid

T T
L I
{} {}
T T
w d [N ] dx d {P }
T
0 0

Equations
L
0 {} f = [ N ] w ddx + P
T
{}

w = bT
0
L
y
[k ] = I [ B ] [ D ] [ B ] dx
T

I= y dA
2 0

## Same result as direct m ethod!

A
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 76 Elements 77 Elements 78

d 2 y d x C S d x
Stiffness Matrix y
d y
=
S

C d y
2
2
12 6L 12 6L
d1x
4 L2 2 L2
[ ]
k =
EI 6 L
3 12 6L
6L
12 6L
d 1 y , y
d y
L
d 1 y

S

C 0 0 0

0 d1y

L
2 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
6L 2L 6L 4 L2 x =
1 x d 2 y 0 0 0 S C 0 d 2x

Recall the stiffness matrix for a beam element. 2 0 0 0 0 0 1 d 2 y

Arbitrarily oriented beam element. 2
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 79 Elements 80 Elements 81

9
f 2 y
[k ] = [T ]T [k ][T ] y f 2 x
C = cos
2
S = sin
S C 0 0 0 0 12 S 2 12 SC 6 LS 12 S 2 12 SC 6 LS
0 0 1 0 0 0

[T ] =
12 C 2 6 LC 12 SC 12 C 2 6 LC

0 0 0 S C 0 EI
[k ] = 3
4 L2 6 LS 6 LC 2L 2

ff 1 y L
L symmetric 12 S 2 12 SC 6 LS
0 0 0 0 0 1

x
12 C 2
6 LC x
1
symmetric 4 L 2 f 1 x

## Local forces on a beam element.

Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 82 Elements 83 Elements 84

## Axial forces/dis placements :

f 1x AE 1 1 d x C1=(AE)/L
=
f 2 x L 1 1 d y C2=(EI)/L3 d 1x C S 0 0 0 0 d 1x C S 0 0 0 0

Combining Results : d 1 y S C 0 0 0 0 d 1 y S
C 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
ff 1 x C 1 C1 d d 1 x

1
= [T ] =
0 0 0 0
dd 2 x 0 0 0 C S 0 d 2 x 0 0 0 C S 0

12 C 2 6C 2 L 0 12 C 2 6C 2 L d 1y d 0
f 1 y 0 0 S C 0 d 2 y 0 0 0 S C 0
2y
2
m 1 4 C 2 L2 0 6C 2 L 2C 2 L 1
= 1 2
f 2 x symmetric C1 0 0 d 2 x 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
f 12 C 2 6C 2 L d 2 y
2y
m 2 symmetric 4C 2 L2 2

Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 85 Elements 86 Elements 87

2 12 I 2 12 I 6I 12 I 2 12 I 6I
AC 2 +

[k ] [T ]
AC + 2 S A 2 CS S S A CS S
L L L L2 L2 L A rigid plane frame is defined as a series of beam
[k ] = [T ] T

[k ] = E
AS +2 12 I 2
L2
C
6I
L
C

4I

A

6I
12 I
L2
S
CS

AC +

2

6I
12 I 2

C
L2
S

6I
L
C

2 I
elements rigidly connected to each other. That is
the original angles between members at the joints
C = cos
L L
L
symmetric AC 2 +
12 I 2 12 I 6 I remain unchanged after deformation.Moments are
S A 2 CS S

L2 L
12 I 2
L
6I
transmitted from one member to another at the
S = sin symmetric AS 2 + C S
L2 L joints. Additionally, the element centroids and the
symmetric 4 I
applied loads lie in a common plane. Element
stiffnesses are functions of E, A, I, L and .

Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 88 Elements 89 Elements 90

10
10 ft

## 10000 lb 2 3 5000 lb-in

2
E = 30 x 106 psi
10 ft A = 10 in2
1 3 I = 200 in4 for elements 1 and 3.
y 5 ft I = 100 in4 for element 2.
4
1
x

Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 91 Elements 92 Elements 93

2 12 I 2
A
12 I
CS
6I
AC 2 +
12 I 2
S

A
12 I
CS
6I
Element 1 d 1x d 1y 1 d 2x d 2y 2
AC + 2 S S S
L L2 L L2 L2 L Directed from node 1 to node 2.

AS 2 +
12 I 2 6I 12 I
AC 2 +
12 I 2 6I 0 .167 0 10 0 .167 0 10
C C A
2
CS S C x x 1 60 ( 60 )
L 2 L L L 2
L C = cos 90 o = 2 = =0 10 0 0 10 0

[k ] = E 4I
6I
S
6I
C 2 I L(1) 120
L L
L
6I y 2 y 1 120 0 800 10 0 400
symmetric

AC 2 +
12 I 2
L2
S
12 I
A 2 CS
L L
S

o
S = sin 90 =
L(1 )
=
120
=1 [k ] = 250000
12 I 2 6I 0 .167 0 10
symmetric AS 2 + C C 12 I 12 ( 200 )

symmetric
L2 L
4 I
= = 0 .167 symmetric 10 0
L2 120 2
6 I 6 ( 200 ) 800
= = 10 .0
L 120
E 30 10 6
= = 250 ,000
L 120
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 94 Elements 95 Elements 96

Element 2 d 2x d 2y 2 d 3x d 3y 3 Element 3
Directed from node 2 to node 3. 10 0 0 10 0 0 Directed from node 3 to node 4.
x x2 60 ( 60 ) 0 . 0835 5 0 0 .0835 5 x x3 60 ( 60 )
C = cos 0 o = 3 = =1 C = cos 270 o = 4 = =0
L( 2 ) 120 L( 3 ) 120
400 0 5 200
o
S = sin 0 =
y 3 y 2 120 120
= =0 [k ] = 250000 o
S = sin 270 =
y4 y3
=
0 120
= 1
L( 2 ) 120 10 0 0 L( 3 ) 120
12 I
=
12 (100 )
= 0 .0835
symmetric 0 .0835 5 12 I 12 (100 )
= = 0 .167
L2 120 2 L2 120 2
400
6 I 6 (100 ) 6 I 6 (100 )
= = 5 .0 = = 10 .0
L 120 L 120
E 30 10 6 E 30 10 6
= = 250 ,000 = = 250 ,000
L 120 L 120
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 97 Elements 98 Elements 99

11
d 3x d 3y 3 d 4x d 4y 4 Assemble Global Matrix Apply B.C.
0 .167 0 10 0 .167 0 10
d1y = 0
10 0 0 10 0 k (1 ) (1 )
k 12 0 0
11 d1x = 0
800 10 0 400 k (1 ) k (22
1) (2)
+ k 11 (2)
0
[k ] = 250000 [K ] = 21
k 12
0 .167 0 10 (3) 1 = 0
0 k (21
2)
k (22
2) (3)
+ k 11 k 12
10 0 3)
0 0 (3)
k 21 k (22
d4x = 0
800
d4y = 0
4 = 0
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 100 Elements 101 Elements 102

## Equilibrium Equations: Displacements:

10 .167 0 10 10 0 0
10 .0835 5 0 0 .0835 5 d 2 x 0 .211 in
10000 10 .167 0 10 10 0 0 d 2 x d
2 y 0 .00148 in
0
1200 0 5 200 5 d 2 y
[K ] = 250000 10 .0835 5 0 0 .0835

10 .167 0 10 0
= 250000

1200 0 5 200 2
10 .0835 5 0 10 .167 0 10 d 3 x =
0 10 .0835 5 d 3 y d 3 x 0 .209 in
1200
5000

1200 3 d 3 y 0 .00148 in

Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 103 Elements 104 Elements 105

C=0 { d }= [ T ] {d }
S=1
C S 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
S 0 1 0 0 0 0
C 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0

0 0

1 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0 For Element 1:
[T ] =

0 0 1 0 0 0

[T ]{d } =
0 0 1 0 0 0

0

0 0 0 C S 0 [T ] = 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 .211
0 0 0
0 0 0 S C 0 0 0 1
0 1 0 0 0 .00148
0 0

0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0

0 0 0 0 0 1 0 .00153
0 0 0 0 0 1
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 106 Elements 107 Elements 108

12
3700 lb Example: Cantilever beam with a bar
{ f } = [ k ][T ] {d} 4990 lb element support. 2 10 3

0
(12 )(5 10 5 ) (
0
6 5 10 5 )
2 10 3 0
(12 )(5 10 5 ) (
0
6 5 10 5 )

223000 lbin 0
3700 lb 32 3 32 3

4990 lb

( ) (
6 5 10 5 ) (

)
[ ] 4 5 10 5 2 5 10 5
9
210 10 0
k (1) = 3
3 Bar: 3 2 10 3
0 0

( ) (
)
{} 376000 lb in A = 1.0 x10-3 m2 (12 ) 5 10 5
6 5 10 5
f = y E = 210 GPa

32 3

3700 lb x 2

(
4 5 10 5

)

Beam:
4990 lb 376000 lbin A = 2.0 x10-3 m2
4990 lb 45o 1 2
223000 lb in 1 x I = 5.0 x10-5 m4
y E = 210 GPa
3m
z 3700 lb
500 kN
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 109 Elements 110 Elements 111

## cos 2 45 0 (cos 45 )(sin 45 )

0 0
cos 2 45 0 (
cos 45 0 )(sin 45 ) 0

sin 2 45 0 (
cos 45 0 )(sin 45 )
0
sin 2 45 0
2 0 0 2 0 0 [k ]
(2)
= C
0 .0667 0 .10 0 0 .0667 0 .10
cos 2 45 0 (cos 45 )(sin 45 )
0 0

## 0 .354 0 .354 0 .354 0 .354

0 .354
[ ] [k ] = 70 10
sin 2 45 0
0 .20 0 0 .10 0 .10 0 .354 0 .354
k (1) = 70 10 6 (2) 6
2 0 0 0 .354 0 .354
0 .0667 0 .10 (1 10 )(210 10 )
3 9
C = 0 .354
0 .20 3
cos 45 o

Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 112 Elements 113 Elements 114

AFTER ASSEMBLY
AND APPLICATION OF B.C.S 2 .354 0 .354 0 d1x 0 {f }= [ k ] [ T ]{ d }

70 10 6 0 .421 0 .10 = d1x
d 2x 500000

f 1 x AE 1 1 C S 0 0 d 1 y
0 .20 1 0
=
2 .354 0 .354 0 f 3 x L 1 1 0 0 C S d 3 x

[K ] = 70 10 6 0 .421 0 .10

d 3 y

d1x 0 .00338 m
0 .20 f 1 x =
AE
(C d 1 x + S d 1 y ) = 670 kN
d 2x = 0 .0225 m L
f 3 x = 670 kN
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 115 Elements 116 Elements 117

13
670 kN
f 1 x C1 0 0 d1x
Grid Equations

f 1 y = 0 12 C 2 6C 2 L d1y
670 kN
4 C 2 L 2 1 A grid is a structure on which loads are applied
m 1 0 6C 2 L
0.0 kNm 78.3 kNm perpendicular to the plane of the structure, as opposed
to a plane frame where loads are applied in the plane of
f 1 x 473 kN the structure
473 kN
473 kN
f 1 y = 26 .5 kN

m 1 78 .3 kN m 26.5 kN 26.5 kN
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 118 Elements 119 Elements 120

## Typical Grid Structure. Step 1

y y
F1 m 1 x , 1 x m 2 x , 2 x
m 2 x , 2 x
m 1 x , 1 x
x
F2 m 1 z , 1 z 1 2 1 x
F4 x 2
F3 2 z , 2 z
m
z
z f 1 y , d 1 y L f 2 y , d 2 y
F5 m x , x m x , x

1 x
2
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 121 Elements 122 Elements 123

Step 3
Step 2 AB = max d x = R d
= a 1 + a 2 x
d
y

= 2 x

1 x
x + 1 x

R max = R
L d x

( )

= [N 1 N 2 ] 1 x

max
O x
d r
=r = 2 x 1 x
A
2 x

N1 = 1
x
B
d x L
L
x
z d
= G
N2 = dx
L
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 124 Elements 125 Elements 126

14
Step 4
J For sections made up of thin rectangular
m x =
R shapes:
m x =
GJ
(
2 x 1 x ) m 1 x G J 1
=
1 1 x

L 1 1 2 x
L
m 1x = m x
mm 2 x
1
m 1 x =
GJ
(
1 x 2 x ) J= 3 b i t i3
[k ] = GLJ 11
L 1
m 2 x = m x
1
m 2 x =
GJ
L
(
2 x 1 x )
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 127 Elements 128 Elements 129

b2
Combine with basic beam element
b t2

t b t
t tw 12 EI 6 EI 12 EI 6 EI
t1 h 3 0 0
L L2 L3 L2
t1 h a GJ GJ
t h
b1
t2
t f 1 y 0 0 0 d 1 y
t t1 L L
m 1 x 4 EI 6 EI 2 EI 1 x
m 0
b1 L L2 L 1 z
2 t t 1 (a t )2 (b t 1 )2
t 1z =

b2 b J= 3 f 2 y 12 EI 6 EI d 2 y
b t 0
a t + b t 1 t 2 t 12 J= ( h + 2b ) m
2x
L3 L2 2 x

t3
( ) t3 3 GJ
J= ( h + 2b ) J=
1
b 1 t 13 + b 2 t 32 J= ( h + 2b ) m 2 z symmetric 0 2 z
3 3 3 L
4 EI
L
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 130 Elements 131 Elements 132

12 EI 6 EI 12 EI 6 EI
3 0 0 Transformation:
L L2 L3 L2
GJ GJ
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 20 ft
0

L L C S 0 0 0 x j xi
4 EI 6 EI 2 EI
0 0 S C 0 0 0 C= 3
[ k Grid ] = L L2 L [TGrid ] = L
x
12 EI
0
6 EI 0 0 0 1 0 0 z j zi 10 ft 4
3 2 0 0 0 0 C S S= 2

L L
L 3
GJ 0 0 0 0 S C
symmetric 0 10 ft
L 1
4 EI 1
L [ k Grid ] = [TGrid ] T
[k Grid ][TGrid ] 2
100 kip

Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
z Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 133 Elements 134 Elements 135

15
For all elements :
E = 30 10 3 ksi I = 400 in 4 Element 1:
Boundary Conditions G = 12 10 3 ksi J = 110 in 4
12 EI 12 ( 30 10 3 ) (400 )
Directed from node 1 to node 2.
= = 7 .45
d 1 y 0 d 3 y 0 d 4 y 0 L3 (22 .36 12 )3 x x 1 0 20

C = cos = 2 = = 0 .894
1x = 0 3 x = 0 4 x = 0 6 EI 6 ( 30 10 3 ) (400 )
= = 1000
L(1 ) 22 .36
0 0 0 L2 (22 .36 12 ) z z1 20 10
1z 3z 4z S = sin = 2
GJ
=
(12 10 ) (400 ) = 4920
6
L(1 )
=
22 .36
= 0 .447
L (22 .36 12 )
4 EI 4 ( 30 10 3 ) (400 )
= = 179 ,000
L (22 .36 12 )
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 136 Elements 137 Elements 138

## Directed from node 1 to node 3. Directed from node 1 to node 4. k (1 ) + k ( 2 ) + k ( 3 ) (1 )

k 12 ( 2)
k 12 (3)
k 12
x x 1 0 20 x x 1 20 20 11 11 11
C = cos = 3 = = 0 .894 C = cos = 4 = =0 k (21
1)
k (22
1)
0 0
L(1 ) 22 .36 L(1 ) 10 [K ] =
k (21
2)
0 k (22
2)
0
y y 1 0 10 z z 1 0 10
S = sin = 3 = = 0 .447 S = sin = 4 = = 1 (3)
k 21 0 0 3)
k (22
L(1 ) 22 .36 L(1 ) 22 .36

Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 139 Elements 140 Elements 141

## Applying B.C.s Local Forces Procedure

[K ] = [ k 11( 1 ) + k 11
(2)
+ k 11
(3)
] 1. Find k, T for element.
100 98 .2 5000 1790 d 1 x 2. Get element nodal displacements.
{ff } = [kk Grid ] [TGrid ] {d}

0 5000 479000 0 = 1x 3 Calculate element nodal forces.
3. forces

0 1790 0 299000 1 z
d 1 x 2 .83 in

1 x = 0 .0295 rad

Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 142 Elements 143 Elements 144

16
Beams in 3D Bending in x^- z^Plane
Bending in Two Planes
1. Considers beam elements arbitrarily oriented in 12 L
y 6 L2 12 L 6 L2
space.
2. First considers bending about two axes. 1 y , 1 y
m
2 y , 2 y
m [k y ] = E I4y 4 L3 6 L2 2 L3
f 1 z , d 1 z f 2 z , d 2 z L 12 L 6 L2
3. Adoptsp a sign g convention for axes
4 L3
a. x positive directed from node i to node j

## b. y positive directed along axis for which moment of

m 1 z , 1 z x
inertia is minimum. L I y - moment of inertia of cross - section about principal axis y
2 z , 2 z
m
c.
z positive directed along axis for which moment of f 1 y , d 1 y f 2 y , d 2 y
the weak axis. That is I y < I z
inertia is maximum. z
d. right hand rule applies.

Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 145 Elements 146 Elements 147

## Bending in x^ - y^Plane Add Two Bending Results, Axial A E

0 0 0 0 0
12 L

6 L2 12 L 6 L2

Stiffness and Torsional Stiffness L
12 E I z 6 E Iz
0 2
4 L3 6 L2 2 L3 0 0 0
Gives a 12 x 12 Element Stiffness Matrix
[k ]
z
E Iz
= 4
L

L3
12 E I y 6 E Iy
L

6 L2 6 6

12 L
0 0 0 0
[ k 11 ] = L3
GJ
L2

4 L3

[ k ] = kk
0 0 0 0 0
e 11 k 12 6
6 E Iy
L
4 E Iy

I y - moment of inertia of cross - section about principal axis z
0 0
L2
0
L
0
the strong axis. That is I z > I y
21 k 22 6
0
6 E Iz
0 0 0
4 E Iz

Positive sense for rotation is different, resulting in sign changes. L2 L
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 148 Elements 149 Elements 150

AE AE A E
0 0 0 0 0 L
0 0 0 0 0 L 0 0 0 0 0
L 6 E Iz
12 E I z 6 E Iz
12 E I z
12 E I z 6 E Iz
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
L3 L2 L3 2
L L3 2
L
12 E I y 6 E Iy
12 E I y 6 E Iy 0 0 0 0
12 E I y 6 E Iy
0 0 0 0
[ k 12 ] =
0 0
L3
0
L2
0

[ k 21 ] = L3
GJ
L2
[ k 22 ] = L3 L2

GJ 0 0 0 0 0 GJ
0 0 0 0 0 L 0 0 0 0 0
L 6 E Iy 2 E Iy L
6 E Iy 2 E Iy 0 0 0 0 6 E Iy 4 E Iy
0 0 0 0 L 2
L 0 0 0 0
L2 L 6 E Iz 2 E Iz L2 L
6 E Iz 2 E Iz 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 L2 L 6 E Iz 4 E Iz
L 0 0 0 0

2
L L 2
L

Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 151 Elements 152 Elements 153

17
[ k ] = [ T ]T [ k ][ T ] C xx C y x C z x y
yy y
yx
xy
3x 3 = C
x
0 0 0
C y y C z y
xy
xx

0 3x3 0 0 C xz
zy

C z z
yz

[ T]= C y z xz
x

0 0 3x3 0
Generally : C y x C xy z zx

0 0 0 3 x 3 zz
z

Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 154 Elements 155 Elements 156

## The y axis is chosen to be to x and to z axes.

u x = cos xx i + cos y x j + cos z x k The z axis is to x and to y axes.
i j k
x j xi k u x = A u y = 0 0 1 i j k
cos xx = =l l m n 1
L u x u y = u z = l m n
A = sin zy = 1 cos 2 z y = 1 n2 D
y j yi -m l 0
cos y x = =m l +m +n =1
2 2 2

ln mn
L 1-n = l +m
2 2 2
u z = i j + D k
D D
z j zi (
D = l2 + m2 =A )
1 2

cos zx = =n m l
L u y = i + j
D D
Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 157 Elements 158 Elements 159

3D Summary
l m n
m 1. Need to specify direction cosines for beam
[ ]
=
l
0 element so Iy and Iz can be calculated.
D D 2. Process can be difficult.
ln
mn
D 3. Need local directions to calculated axial
D D stress.

Beam, Plane Frame and Grid Beam, Plane Frame and Grid
Elements 160 Elements 161

18
Two-dimensional Elements Plane Stress
Plane Stress/Strain 1. Thin plate elements . 1. A state of stress in which normal stress
Stiffness Equations 2. Two coordinates to define position. and shear stresses directed perpendicular
3. Elements connected at common nodes and/or
along common edges
edges.
to the plane of the body are assumed to
4. Nodal compatibility enforced to obtain be zero.
equilibrium equations 2. If x-y plane is plane of body then only
5. Two types nonzero stresses are: x,y ,xy
Plane stress
1.

2. Plane Strain
3. Zero stresses: z ,xz ,yz

## Plane Stress/Strain 1 Plane Stress/Strain 2 Plane Stress/Strain 3

y
y
Plane Strain
T
T
1. A state of strain in which normal strain
T and shear strains directed perpendicular to
x x
the plane of the body are assumed to be
zero.
2. If x-y plane is plane of body then only
nonzero strains are: x , y , xy
Plane Stress Problem: Plane Stress Problem:
Plate with a Hole Plate with a Fillet
3. Zero strains: z , xz , yz

## Plane Stress/Strain 4 Plane Stress/Strain 5 Plane Stress/Strain 6

y
y

Plane stress: z 0
Plane strain: z 0
x
Plane Strain Problem: Plane Strain Problem:
z
Plane Stress/Strain 7 Plane Stress/Strain 8 Plane Stress/Strain 9

1
y
2D State of Stress and Strain xy

xy
y x
{} = y
xy
x dy
x
x

dx

xy xy
y
Two-dimensional State of Stress
Plane Stress/Strain 10 Plane Stress/Strain 11 Plane Stress/Strain 12

x + y
2 u
x y x =
1 = + + xy
2
x
2 2
v
x + y x y
2
P y =
2 = + 2xy y
2 2 x
u v
tan 2 p =
2 xy xy = +
x y y x

## Plane Stress/Strain 13 Plane Stress/Strain 14 Plane Stress/Strain 15

y, v u
dy
y
Full 3-D Stress-Strain Relationships
v
v+ dy
y D
x u
y v x 1 0 0 0 x

{} = y

dx
B 1 0 y
dy x
A 0 0
y
v v z E 1 0 0 0 z
x, u =

x (12 )
u
xy (1 + )(1 2) 0 0 0 2 0 0 xy

xy
yz 0 0 0 0
(12 )
0 yz
u
2
(12 )
dx u+ dx
x zx 0 0 0 0 0 2 zx

## Displacements and rotations of lines of an element in the x-y plane

Plane Stress/Strain 16 Plane Stress/Strain 17 Plane Stress/Strain 18

2
Full 3-D Stress-Strain Relationships

1 0 0 0
x 1 x yz = 0
0 0 0
1
2

2
0

y
y 1 0 0 0 x 1 1 x
0 E (12) z
zx = 0 E 2 2
= 0 0 0 0 0 y = 1 0 y
(1 + )(
1 2) +
( )
2 ( 1 )(1 2 ) 1 1
xy
(12) xy
0 0 0 0 0
2
0 yz z = x + y xy
0 0
(1 2 ) xy

0 (12)
zx 1

2

0 0 0 0 0
2

## Plane Stress/Strain 19 Plane Stress/Strain 20 Plane Stress/Strain 21

x
1 + 2 2

2 2
0

1
0
1 0
1 1

E

2 2
1 + 2 2

x

x 1

1

x
0 y
y =
(1+ )(1 2 )
xy

1 1
(1 )(12 ) xy

y

=
E
(1 + )

1
1
1
0

y

[ D ] = E 2 1 0

0 0 2(1 )

xy (1 ) xy 1 (1 )
0 0
2 (1 )
x
1 2 (1 2 )
1 0
0 0
2
1 x 1 0
{} = [ D ]{}
(1 2 ) 1 2 x x
E
0 y

y = E
(1+ )(1 2 ) 1 1 y = 1 0 y
( 1 + ) (1 )
0 (1 )(12 )
xy 0 2(1 )

xy
xy

0 0
(1 )
2

xy

For Plane Stress
Plane Stress/Strain 22 Plane Stress/Strain 23 Plane Stress/Strain 24

## Plane Strain Full 3-D Stress-Strain Relationships

1 0 0 0 1
yz = 0 x x
0 x 0
1 0 0
y
x
y
1 0 E 1 0
zx = 0
0 0
y =
z E 0 y
(1+)(12)
(12)
=
xy
0 0 0 0 0
(12)

(1+)(
1 2) 2
xy
xy xy 0 0
z = 0 yz

0 0 0 0
(12)
2
0 0

2
xz (12) 0
0 0 0 0 0
2
Plane Stress/Strain 25 Plane Stress/Strain 26 Plane Stress/Strain 27

3
1 Step 1 - Select the Element Type y
0
T T
E
[ D ]= 1 0 1. Discretize Body into Three-Noded
( 1 + )( 1 2 )
Triangular Elements.
0 0
(1 2 )
2 2. Two degrees
degrees-of-freedom
of freedom per node.
{} = [ D ]{} 3. These are x and y displacements.
4. ui - x displacement at ith node.
For Plane Strain 5. vi - y displacement at ith node.
Thin Plate in Tension x

## i-j-m numbered counterclockwise!

y m (xm, ym)
m
ui y
v i (xi, yi)
di i
u
{d i } =
ui
{d} = d j {d} = j
i j

d v i vj
m u m j (xj, yj)

v m
x x
Discretized Plate Using Triangular Elements
Plane Stress/Strain 31 Plane Stress/Strain 32 Plane Stress/Strain 33

## Step 2 - Select Displacement Function

Linear Functions u (x , y ) a 1 + a 2 x + a 3 y
{ } = =
Select Linear Functions: 1. Ensures compatibility between elements. v (x , y ) a 4 + a 5 x + a 6 y
2. Displacements vary linearly along any line. a1
a
u (x , y ) = a 1 + a 2 x + a 3 y 3. Displacements vary linearly between nodes. 2
v (x , y ) = a 4 + a 5 x + a 6 y 4. Edge displacements are the same for adjacent 1 x y 0 0 0 a 3
elements if nodal displacements are equal. { } =
0 0 0 1 x y a 4
a 5

a 6

## Plane Stress/Strain 34 Plane Stress/Strain 35 Plane Stress/Strain 36

4
i j m
Conditions on the ais: 1
ui 1 xi yi a1 [x ] 1 = i j m
u i = a1 + a 2 x i + a 3 y i 2 A
i j m

u j = a1 + a 2 x j + a 3 y j uj = 1 xj yj a2
u m = a1 + a 2 x m + a 3 y m 1 xi yi If i-j-m
u m 1 xm y m a 3 2A = 1 xj yj counterclockwise!
vi = a4 + a5 xi + a6 yi 1 xm ym
v j = a4 + a5 x j + a6 y j
{a } = [x ]1 {u } ( )
2 A = x i y j y m + x j (y m y i ) + x m y i y j ( )
vm = a4 + a5 xm + a6 y m

## Plane Stress/Strain 37 Plane Stress/Strain 38 Plane Stress/Strain 39

a 1

i j m {u} = [1 x y ] a 2
i = x j y m y jx m a1 ui a
1 3
j = xm yi ymxi a 2 = i j m uj
a 2 A u
i j m i j m ui
m = xi y j yix j 3 m 1
{u} = [1 x y] i j m uj
i = yj ym i = xm xj Also : 2A u
i j m m

j = ym yi j = xi xm a 4 i j m vi
m = yi y j m = xj x 1 i u i + ju j + m u m
a 5 = i j m vj {u} = 1
[1 x

y ] i u i + ju j + m u m
a 2 A v 2A
i j m u + u + u
6 m i i j j m m

## Plane Stress/Strain 40 Plane Stress/Strain 41 Plane Stress/Strain 42

ui
1
( i + i x + i y ) u i + Ni = ( i + i x + i y ) v
i
1 2A
u(x, y ) = ( j + j x + j y ) u j + u( x, y ) N i
{ } =
0 Nj 0 Nm 0 u j
2A
( m + m x + m y ) u m

Nj =
1
2A
(
j + jx + jy ) =
v( x, y ) 0 Ni 0 Nj 0

N m v j

u m
1
Nm = ( m + m x + m y ) v m
2A { } = [N ] {d}
( i + i x + i y ) v i +
1 u ( x , y ) = N i u i + N ju j + N m u m
( j + j x + j y ) v j +
v(x, y ) = N i 0 Nj 0 Nm 0
2A
[N ] = N m
v( x, y ) = N i v i + N j v j + N m v m 0 Ni 0 Nj 0
( m + m x + m y ) v m
Plane Stress/Strain 43 Plane Stress/Strain 44 Plane Stress/Strain 45

5
Ni = 1 at node i
Ni = 0 at node j Ni Nj
Ni = 0 at node m
Nj = 0 at node i
m
Nj =1 at node j
Nj = 0 at node m m
Nm = 0 at node i i i
Nm = 0 at node j x x
Nm = 1 at node m y y
j
Ni + Nj + Nm = 1 j

## Plane Stress/Strain 46 Plane Stress/Strain 47 Plane Stress/Strain 48

Nm Strain/Displacement

u

m x x
i Define Strain/Displacements {} = y = v
x and Stress/Strain Relationships y
xy u v
y + x
y

j

## Plane Stress/Strain 49 Plane Stress/Strain 50 Plane Stress/Strain 51

u
= u ,x = (N i u i + N ju j + N m u m )
x x
ui
u , x = N i, x u i + N j, x u j + N m, x u m v
N i, x =
Ni
=
1
( i + i x + i y ) = i x =
u
=
1
(
i u i + ju j + m u m ) x i 0 j 0 m 0 i
x 2A
1 u
x 2A x 2A
y = 0 i 0 j 0 m j
y =
v
=
1
(
i vi + jv j + m vm ) 2A v
N j, x =
j y 2A
xy
i
i j j m m j
u m
2A xy =
v u
+ =
1
x y 2A
(
i u i + ju j + m u m + i v i + j v j + m v m )
m v m
N m, x =
2A
u
x = =
1
( i u i + ju j + m u m )
x 2A

## Plane Stress/Strain 52 Plane Stress/Strain 53 Plane Stress/Strain 54

6
1 0
Stress/Strain
{} = [B ] { d} [ D ] = E 2 1 0
1
i 0 j 0 m 0 (1 )
1
[B ] = 0 i 0 j 0 m 0 0
2
2A
i i j j m m {} = [ D ]{}
For Plane Stress
Plane Stress/Strain 55 Plane Stress/Strain 56 Plane Stress/Strain 57

1 0

E
[ D ]= 1 0
( 1 + )( 1 2 )

## {} = [ D ]{} = [ D ][B ]{d} {} = [ D ]{} = [ D ][B ]{d}

0 0
(1 2 )
2
{} = [ D ]{}
For Plane Strain
Plane Stress/Strain 58 Plane Stress/Strain 59 Plane Stress/Strain 60

## Step 4 - Element Stiffness Potential Energy Approach Potential Energy Approach

1
{ x }T { x } dV
( ) 2
p = p ui , vi ,u j, v j,um , vm U=
V
p = U + = U + b + p + s
1
U= { x }T [D ] { x } dV
2
V
Plane Stress/Strain 61 Plane Stress/Strain 62 Plane Stress/Strain 63

7
b = { }T {X}dV 1
{d}T [B ] [D ] [B ] {d} dV
T
p =
1
{d}T [B ] [D ] [B ] dV {d}
T
p =
2 V 2
V V

T T
T T

s = { } T
{T} dS V V

T

[N ] {T} dS
S T T
{d} {P } {d}
T T T

b = {d}T {P}
S
S

## Plane Stress/Strain 64 Plane Stress/Strain 65 Plane Stress/Strain 66

T
T T 1 T
p = {d}T [B ] [D ] [B ] dV {d} {d}T {f }
[B ] [D ] [B ] dV {d} = {f }
{f } = [N ] {X} dV + {P } + [N ] {T} dS 2 V
V
V S
p T
= [B ] [D ] [B ] dV {d} {f } = 0
{d}
V [k ] = [B ]T [D ] [B ] dV
V

## Plane Stress/Strain 67 Plane Stress/Strain 68 Plane Stress/Strain 69

Example 7.1
i = y j y m = 0 1 = 1
[k ] = [B ]T [D ] [B ] dV t = 1 in
E = 30 x 106 psi
V = 0.25 j = y m y i = 1 ( 1) = 2
m=3 (0,1)
Find [k]
[k ] = t [B ] [D ] [B ]
T
dx dy m = y i y j = 1 0 = 1
A jj=22 i = x m x j = 0 2 = 2
For the constant Strain Triangle : (2,0)
j = xi xm = 0 0 = 0
[k ] = t A [B ] [D ] [B ]
T i=1
(0,-1) m = x j xi = 2 0 = 2

## Plane Stress/Strain 70 Plane Stress/Strain 71 Plane Stress/Strain 72

8
A= 2
T

[k ] = (2 )(30 10 )
1 0 2 0 1 0 6 1 0 2 0 1 0
[B ] = 1 0 2 2 0 2 0 0 0 2
0 0 0 (4 )(0.9375 )(4 ) 2 .5
1 .25
1 .25 2 1 .5 0 .5 0 .25
2 (2) 2 1 0 2 2 1 4 .375 1 0 .75 0 .25 3 .625
2 1 0 2 2 1

1 .25 0

1 0 2 0 1 0 (
[k ] = 4 10 )
6 2 1 4 0 2 1

1 .25 0 1 .5 0 .75 0 1 .5 1 .5 0 .75
30 10 6 .25 1 0 0 2 0 0 0 2 0 .5 0 .25 2 1 .5 2 .5 1 .25
[D ] = .25 1 0 1 .25
0 0 2 1 0 2 2 1 0 .25 3 .625 1 0 .75 1 .25 4 .375
1 (.25 )2 1 .25 2
0 0
2

## Plane Stress/Strain 73 Plane Stress/Strain 74 Plane Stress/Strain 75

x

Given : {} = y =

xy
0 .0
0 .0025 0 .0
x 19200
1 0
0 .0025

{} = y = 4800 psi
.25 1 0 2 0 1 0
0 .0012
0 .0012
{d} = 30 10 6 1
1 (.25 )
2
.25 1 0
2 ( 2)
0

2 0 0 0 2
0 .0

0 .0 1 .25
0 0
2
2 1 0 2 2 1
0 .0

0 .0

0 .0025
xy 15000
0 .0025

## Plane Stress/Strain 76 Plane Stress/Strain 77 Plane Stress/Strain 78

y
X b Surface Forces
m
y
h Yb 1
x
X b At X b L p (lb/in2)
i j {X} = {f b } = 2 1
b Yb 3 Yb 3 x
Element with centroidal coordinate axes. L
x dA = 0 y dA = 0 X b
i x dA = 0 i y dA = 0 a
i = j = m = 2A
3
Yb
Plane Stress/Strain 79 Plane Stress/Strain 80 Plane Stress/Strain 81

9
T
{f s } = [N ] {T} dS
S N1 0 N1 p
p p 0 N 1 0
{T} = x =
p y 0 t L N 0 p t L N p
N1 0
{f s } = 0 0 2 dz dy {f s } = 0 0 2 dz dy
0 0 N2 0 0
N 1 N 3
0 N 3 p
N 0
[N ]T = 2 0 N 3 x = a , y = y 0 x = a , y = y
0 N2
N 3 0

0 N 3
Plane Stress/Strain 82 Plane Stress/Strain 83 Plane Stress/Strain 84

L2
Evaluating N i ' s on edge ap
2
1 ay
N1 = 0
p 2A
t
L (a x ) {f s } = 0
L N2 =
2A
( )2

2 aL 2 L2
L ap

2
1
N3 =
Lx ay
0
2A
2
a 3 0

## Plane Stress/Strain 85 Plane Stress/Strain 86 Plane Stress/Strain 87

1 in
p L t
2
0 1
20 in T=1000 psi
pLt/2

{f s } = p 0L t
L
10 in
2 1 3
pLt/2+ pLt/2
2 L
0 2 E = 30 x 106 psi
= 0.30
5 a 4
pLt/2
0
Plane Stress/Strain 88 Plane Stress/Strain 89 Plane Stress/Strain 90

10
{F } = [K ]{d}

R 1x d1x 0
2 3
1 R 1y d 1y 0
5000 lb F= TA
1 2 R 2x

d 2 x 0

y R 2y d 2 y 0
1
F = (1000 psi ) (1 in 10 in ) {F } =
2
{d} = =
5000 d 3x d 3x
2
0 d 3 y d 3 y
1 x 4 5000 lb F = 5000 lb
5000 d 4 x d 4 x
Two Element Model with Equivalent Nodal Loads
0 d 4 y d 4 y

## Plane Stress/Strain 91 Plane Stress/Strain 92 Plane Stress/Strain 93

[k ] = t A [B ]T [D ][B ] Element 1 i = y j y m = 10 10 = 0
Element 1
1
A= b h = 100 in 2 m=2 j = y m y i = 10 0 = 10
2 j=3
i 0 j 0 m 0 m = y i y j = 0 10 = 10
1 i = x m x j = 0 20 = 20
[B ] = 1 0 i 0 j 0 m
2A j = xi xm = 0 0 = 0
i i j j m m

m = x j x i = 20 0 = 20
1 0

E
[D ] = 1 0 i=1 0 0 10 0 10 0
1 2
( ) 1
1 [B ] = 0 20 0 0 0 20
0 0
2 200
20 0 0 10 20 10

## Plane Stress/Strain 94 Plane Stress/Strain 95 Plane Stress/Strain 96

T
0 0 10 0 10 0 1 0 .3 0
30 10 6 psi
[B ] T [D ] = 0 20 0 0 0 20 0 .3 1 0
E = 30 10 psi 6
(200 )(0 .91 )
20 0 0 10 20 10 0 0 0 .35
= 0 .3 0 0 7 140 0 0 70 140 70
6 20 0 0 400 60 0 60 400
1 0
10 0

[B ] T [D ] = 30 10 psi
E
6
3
[D ] = 75000 0 60 100 60
(1 ) 2

1 0
1
(200 )(0 .91 ) 0
10 3
0 3 .5
7

[k ]
(1 )
=
0 .91 70 0
100
0
0
35 70 35

0 0
2 6 3 .5
20
140 60 100 70 240 130

1 0 .3 0 1 0 .3 0 400 35 130
[k ] = t A [B ] T [D ][B ] = 70 60 435
[D ] = 30 10 psi 30 10 6 psi
6
0 .3 1 0 = 0 .3 1 0
(
1 0 .3 2
) 1 0 .3 (0.91 )
0 0 .35
0
6
0 7
0 0 0 20 0
2 0 0 10 0 10 0
30 10 6 psi 10 3 0
(1 )(100 ) 0 20 0 0 0 20
(200 )2 (0 .91 ) 0 0 3 .5
10 20 0 0 10 20 10
3 7

6 20 3 .5
Plane Stress/Strain 97 Plane Stress/Strain 98 Plane Stress/Strain 99

11
T
10 0 10 0 0 0 1 0 .3 0
Element 2 i = y j y m = 0 10 = 10 30 10 6 psi
[B ] T [D ] = 0 0 0 20 0 20 0 .3 1 0
(200 )(0.91 )
Element 2 m=3 j = y m y i = 10 0 = 10 0 10 20 10 20 0 0 0 0 .35
10 3 0
m = yi y j = 0 0 = 0 0
0 3 .5
i = x m x j = 20 20 = 0 [B ] T [D ] = 30 10 psi
6 10 0 20

(200 )(0.91 ) 0 20 10
j = x i x m = 0 20 = 20 0 0 20
2
m = x j x i = 20 0 = 20 0 20 0

## i=1 j=4 [k ] = t A [B ] [D ][B ] =

T

10 0 10 0 0 0 10
0
3 0
3 .5
[B ] = 1 0 0 0 20 0 20
30 10 6 psi 10
0
0 20
10 0 10 0 0 0
200 (1)(100 ) 0 0 0 20 0 20
0 10 20 10 20 0 (200 ) (0 .91 ) 0 20 10
2
0 10 20 10 20 0
0 0 20

0 20 0

## Plane Stress/Strain 100 Plane Stress/Strain 101 Plane Stress/Strain 102

k 11
(1 )
+ k 11 (2) (1 )
k 13 (1)
k 12 + k 13
( 2) ( 2)
k 12

Assembly k (311 )
[K ] = (1 ) ( 2 )
k (331 ) k (321 ) 0
=
100 0 100 60 0 60 k 21 + k 31 k (231 ) k (221 ) + k (332 ) ( 2)
k 32
0
0
(2)
35 70 35 70 k 21 0 k (232 ) k (222 )

75000 100 130 140 60
[k ]
(2)
=
0 .91 60
70
35
240
130 435 70

400
k + k

(1)
11
(2)
11 k (1 )
13 k (1 )
12 +k (2)
13 k (2)
12

240 0 140 70 0 130 100 60
0 35
0 k (1) k (1 )
k (1 )
0 435 60 400 130 0 70
70 140 0

70 140
[K ] = (1) 31 ( 2 ) 33 32
140

60 240 130 100 71 0 0

60 0 60 400 0 400 k 21 + k 31 k (231) k (221) + k 33
(2) (2)
k 32 75000 70 400 130 435 60 35 0 0
0 .91 0 130 100 60 240 0 140 70
(2)
k (232 ) k (222 )
k 21 0 130 0 70 35 0 435 60 400
100 70 0 0 140 60 240 130

60 35 0 0 70 400 130 435

## Plane Stress/Strain 103 Plane Stress/Strain 104 Plane Stress/Strain 105

x
{} = y = [B ]{d} =
Applying the B.C.s and Solving:
xy Element 1
d 1x
d 3 x d
5000 240 0 140 70
0 x 0 30 .48 10 6 in
1y

0 0 d 0 0 10 0 10 1 0 .3
400 1 d 3 x
{} = y = [D ]{} = 30 10 psi
75000 435 60 3y 6
0 .3
0
0 20 0 0 0 20 =
= (200 ) d 3y 1 0
10
5000 0 .91 140 60 240 130 d 4 x 20 0 0 10 20
d 2 x
(0 .91 )

0 0 0 .35 0 .21 10 6 in
0 70 400 130 435 d 4 y
Element 1 d 2 y xy
0
d 3 x 609 .6 0 x 1005
d 0 0 10 0 10 0
3 y 4 .2 609 .6 10 in y = 301 psi
6
1
6 20
= 10 in (200 )
0 20 0 0 0
4 .2 10 6 in
=
2 .4
d 4 x 663 .7 10
20
xy
0 0 10 20
0
d 4 y 104 .1
0
Compare with : 6096 10 6 in 30 .48 10 6 in x
1
0 = 0 = y
PL (200 )
= = 670 10 6 in
6 6
42 10 in 0 .21 10 in xy
AE
Plane Stress/Strain 106 Plane Stress/Strain 107 Plane Stress/Strain 108

12
10 0 10 0 0 0
Element 2
1
[B ] = 0 20 20
x
0 0 0
200
0 10 20 10 20 0 0

{} = y = [B ]{d}

d 1x 0
0
d 1y 10 0 10 0 0
Element 2 Element 2
d 4 x

{} = 1
0 0 0 20 0
663 .7 10 6 in
20
xy {d} =
200
0 10 20 10 20
104 .1 10 6 in
0
d 4 y 609 .6 10 6 in

d 3x
4 .2 10 in
6

d 3 y

Element 2
x
{} = y = [D ]{}

xy
x 995

y = 1 .2 psi
2 .4
xy

## Plane Stress/Strain 112

13
x
x = + T
= E ( T ) E
Thermal Stresses 1
= [D ]
1
E

1 E
0 = T {} = [D ]1 {} + { T }
Linear stress/strain law with initial thermal strain. {} = [D ]({} { T })
Thermal Stresses 1 Thermal Stresses 2 Thermal Stresses 3

## Strain Energy Strain Energy Strain Energy

1 1
1 T
(
U = {d } [B ] [D ][B ]{d } dV
T
)
{}T ({} { T }) 2 ({} { }) [D ]({} { })dV 2V
T
u0 = U= T T

2
( )
V
1
{} = [B ]{d} {d}T [B ]T [D ]{ T } dV
2 V

1
u 0 = ({} { T }) [D ]({} { T })
T
1
U = ([B ]{d} { T }) [D ] ([B ]{d} { T }) dV
T
2 2V
1
2 V
({ T }T [D ][B ]{d} dV )
U = u 0 dV 1
( )
U = {d} [B ] { T } [D ] ([B ]{d} { T }) dV
T T T

V 2V +
1
2 V
({ T }T [D ]{ T } dV )
Thermal Stresses 4 Thermal Stresses 5 Thermal Stresses 6

## Strain Energy Thermal Strain Matrix

U = UL + UT (one-dimensional bar):
U
{d}
=0 { T } = { x } = { T}
1
(
U L = {d} [B ] [D ][B ]{d} dV
T T
) T

2V U L
(
= [B ] [D ][B ]{d} dV
{d} V
T
)
({d} [B ] [D ]{ })dV
T T
UT = L
T
{f T } = A [B ]T [D ]{ T}dx
([B ] [D ]{ })dV = {f }
V U T T
=
( ) {d}
T T
1
{ T }T [D ]{ T } dV
0

2 V
Constant = V

## Thermal Stresses 7 Thermal Stresses 8 Thermal Stresses 9

1
Thermal Strain Matrix Thermal Strain Matrix
(one-dimensional bar): (two-dimensional element):
[D ] = E
Plane Stress
xT T Constant Thickness
{ T } =
[B ] = 1 1
yT = T
0

Constant Strain Triangle
L L xy T

{f T } = T 1 =
f E TA
Plane Strain
xT T
{f T } = [B ]T [D ]{ T }t A

f T 2 E TA { T } = y T = (1 + ) T
{ }
0
{ T } = x T = { T} xy T

## Plane Stress : A = 4 in2

i Procedure E = 30 x 106 psi
= 7.0 x 10-6 (in/in)/oF

f Tix
i 1. Evaluate thermal force matrix and treat this as T = 50o F
an equivalent nodal force matrix.
2
f Tiy E t T j
1 3
2. Apply: {F}=[K]{d}-{F0}.
{f T } = = 3. If only thermal loads are present, then
1 2 x
M 2 (1 ) j {F0}=[K]{d}.
4 ft
4. Back-substitute known {d} to obtain element
f Tmy m nodal forces, stresses, and strains.
Find reactions at fixed ends and the axial stress due to a 50o F
temperature rise.
m
Thermal Stresses 13 Thermal Stresses 14 Thermal Stresses 15

E TA 1 1 0 d1
For each element: Assembling Global Matrices:
AE
0 = 1 2 1 d 2
E TA E TA L 2
AE 1 1
[k ] = {f T } = E TA E TA = 0

E TA 0 1 1 d 3
L 2 1 1 E TA

E TA
1 1 0 B .C .

{f T } =
E TA

[K ] = AE 1 2 1 d1 = d 3 = 0
L 2
E TA 0 1 1 Solving
d2 = 0
Thermal Stresses 16 Thermal Stresses 17 Thermal Stresses 18

2
Bar 1
Reaction Forces: Axial Stress: A = 12 x 10-4 m2
T = -10o C E = 70 GPa
only in Bar 1 = 23.0 x 10-6 (mm/mm)/oC
F1 x 0 E TA E TA 3
2
F2 x = 0 0 = 0 2
F 0 E TA E TA 42000 lb 1 2
3x = = 10500 p
psi 1
4 x
F1 x 42000 4 in 2 3
2m 2
F2 x = 0 lb 2m
F 42000 Bar 2 & 3
3x A = 6 x 10-4 m2
E = 100 GPa
= 20.0 x 10-6 (mm/mm)/oC

## For element 1: For elements 2 & 3: Assembling Global Matrices:

[k ] = (12 10 )(70 10 ) [k ] = (6 10 )(100 10 )
4 6
1 1 4
1 6
1
1 1 1
2 2 1
( E TA )1 19 .32
1
[k ] = 42000
1 1 1
1
[k ] = 30000
1 1 1

(E TA )1

19 . 32

{f T } =
E TA E TA {f T } = =
{f T } = 0 0
E TA E TA

{f T } =
19 .32
{f T } =
0
0 0
19 .32 0
Thermal Stresses 22 Thermal Stresses 23 Thermal Stresses 24

## 42 42 0 0 d1 19 .32 Reaction F1x 42 42 0 0 0 19 .32

Assembling Global Matrices: Forces:

F 42 102 30 30 1 . 89 10 4 19 .32
42 42 + 30 + 30 30 30 d 2

19 .32

2 x
= 1000

42 42 0 0 1000 = F3 x

0

30 30 0

0

0

0 30 30 0 d 3
0
F3 x 0 30 0 30 0 0

42 42 + 30 + 30 30 30
0 30 0 30 d 4 0
[K ] = 1000
0 B .C . F1x 11 . 38
30 30 0
d1 = d 3 = d 4 = 0
F 0

2 x
Solving = kN
0 30 0 30 F3 x 5 .69

d 2 = 1 .89 10 4 m
F3 x 5 .69

## Thermal Stresses 25 Thermal Stresses 26 Thermal Stresses 27

3
Axial Stresses: A = 2 in2
E = 30 x 106 psi 0 0 0 0

[k ] = (2 )(30 10 )
= 7.0 x 10-6 (in/in)/oF 6
1
y For element 1:
11 .38 kN 0 1 0
1 = = 9 .48 MPa 1
Node 2 - i
12 10 4 m 2 T = 75o F (8 12 ) 0 0 0 0
(in element 1 only) Node 1 - j
5 .69 kN 0 1 0 1
2 = = 9 .48 MPa = 90o
1
6 10 4 m 2 cos = 0.0 E TA
8 ft 2
sin = 1.0
{f T } = f 2 x =
5 .69 kN f 1 x E TA
3 = = 9 .48 MPa
6 10 4 m 2 6 ft 31500 f 2 x
{f T } =
2 3
=
x 31500 f 1 x

## Convert Temperature force to global coordinates: Assembling Global Matrices:

For element 2:
Node 3 - i Node 1 - j
f 2 xT C S 0 0 f 2 xT
f S = 180o-53.13o =126.87o 0 .36 0 .48 0 0 0 0
2 yT C 0 0 f 2 yT cos = -0.6 sin = 0.8
f =
1 xT 0 0 C S f 1 xT 0 .48 1 .89 0 1 .25 0 0
0 .36 0 .48 0 .36 0 .48
f 1 yT C f 1 yT
[k ] = (2 )(30 10 )
0 0 S
6
0 .48
8 0 .6
64 0 64
0 .6 0 0 0 0 0 0
[K ] = 0 .50 10 6
f 2 31500 f 2 xT 0 (10 12 ) 0 .36 0 0 .36 0 .48 0 1 .25 0 1 .25 0 0

xT f 31500
f 2 yT 0 2 yT 0 .48 0 .64 0 .48 0 .64 0
= f = 0 0 0 0 .36 0 .48

31500 0
{f T } =
f 1 xT 1 xT 0
f 0 0 .48 0 .64
f 1 yT 31500
0 0 0 0
1 yT 0
Thermal Stresses 31 Thermal Stresses 32 Thermal Stresses 33

## Assembling Global Matrices:

Reaction Forces (Element 1):
0 B .C .

d 1x = d 2 x = d 3 x = 0
{f }= [k ]{d} {f }
31500

0
{ f T } =

d 2y = d 3y = 0 T

{d}= [T ]{d}

31500
*

Solving
0
(Eq . 3 .1 .14 )

0

d 1 y = 0 .0333 in

## Thermal Stresses 34 Thermal Stresses 35 Thermal Stresses 36

4
Reaction Forces (Element 2): Reaction Forces (Element 2):
Reaction Forces (Element 1):

0 0
( ) 0 0 31500
{f }= [k ]{d} {f }
f 2 x 2 30 10 6 1 1 0 1 0 ( )
f 2 x 2 30 10 6 1 1 0 .6 0 .8 0 0 0 31500
=
f1x (8 12 ) 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 31500 =
f1x (10 12 ) 1 1 0 0 0 .6
0 .8 0 31500

T

{d}= [T ]{d}
0 .0333 0 .0333

f 2 x 10700 * f 2 x 13310
= lb
= lb f1x 13310
f1x 10700
1 = 6660 psi
1 = 5350 psi

## Thermal Stresses 37 Thermal Stresses 38 Thermal Stresses 39

t = 5 mm
Element 1
T = +50o C E = 210 GPa
= 0.30
Element 1:
4 = 12.0 x 10-6 (mm/mm)/oC x 1 = 0 .00 y 1 = 0 .00
3 x 2 = 0 .50 y 2 = 0 .00 1 0 2 0 5 0
1
3 x 5 = 0 .25 y 5 = 0 .25 [B ] = 0 1 0 2 0 5
2A
4 5 2
500 mm 1 = y 2 y 5 = 0 .25 1 1 2 2 5 5
2 = y 5 y 1 = 0 .25
0 .25 0 0 .25 0 0 0
1
0 .5
5 = y1 y 2 = 0
1 [B ] = 0 0 .25 0 0 .25 0
1 = x 5 x 2 = 0 .25 0 .125
1 2 2 = x 1 x 5 = 0 .25
0 .25 0 .25 0 .25 0 .25 0 .5 0

5 = x 2 x 1 = + 0 .50
500 mm
Thermal Stresses 40 Thermal Stresses 41 Thermal Stresses 42

Element 1 Element 2
[k ] = t A [B ] [D ][B ]
T
x 2 = 0 .50 y 2 = 0 .00
0 1 x 3 = 0 .50 y 3 = 0 .50

4 .0625 0 .3125 4 .375 3 .75
[D ] = E 1 0
8 .4375 4 .0625 x 5 = 0 .25 y 5 = 0 .25
1 2 ( )

0 1
4 .0625
8 .4375 0 .3125 4 .0625 4 .375 12 .5 2 = 0 .25

2 0 [k ] =
4 .0625 0 .3125 8 .4375 4 .0625 4 .375 3 .75

3 = 0 .25
0 .3125 4 .0625 4 .0625 8 .4375 4 .375 12 .5 5 = 0 .5
1 .3 0 4 .375 4 .375 4 .375 4 .375 8 .75 0
2 = 0 .25
[D ] = 210 10 .3 1 0
9
3 .75 12 .5 3 .75 12 .5 0 25
(0 .91) 3 = 0 .25
0 0 0 .35 5 = 0

## Thermal Stresses 43 Thermal Stresses 44 Thermal Stresses 45

5
Continue process for elements 3 and 4.
Element 2 Calculate thermal force matrices for each element: Thermal force matrices for each elements 1 & 2:
[k ] = t A [B ] [D ][B ]
T

i 112500 + 112500
8 .4375 4 .0625 4 .0625 0 .3125 12 .5 4 .375 112500 112500
4 .0625
8 .4375 0 .3125 4 .0625 3 .75 4 .375 i
+ 112500 + 112500
E t T j {f } {f }
{f T } =
4 .0625 0 .3125 8 .4375 4 .0625 12 .5 4 .375 1
=
2
=
[k ] =
T T
112500 + 112500
12 .5
4 .375
4 .0625
3 .75
4 .0625
12 .5
8 .4375
3 .75
3 .75
25
4 .375
0
2 (1 ) j 0

225000

4 .375 4 .375 4 .375

m
4 .375 0 8 .75
+ 225000 0

m
Thermal Stresses 46 Thermal Stresses 47 Thermal Stresses 48

Thermal force matrices for elements 3 & 4: Global Thermal Force Matrix:
f T 1 x 225000
+ 112500 112500 f
T 1 y 225000
+ 112500

+ 112500

f T 2 x + 225000

B .C .

112500 112500 f T 2 y 225000
{f }
3
= {f } 4
= f T 3 x + 225000 d 1x = d 4 x = 0
{f }
T T
+ 112500 112500 T = =
0 + 225000 f T 3 y + 225000

225000

0

f T 4 x 225000

d 1y = d 4 y = 0
f T 4 y + 225000
fT5x 0

f T 5 y 0

## Thermal Stresses 49 Thermal Stresses 50 Thermal Stresses 51

d 1x 0
d Stresses:
1y 0
d 2 x + 3 . 327 10 4 d ix

d 2 y 1 . 911 10
4
Stresses: x 1

0

i 0 j 0 m 0
d
iy

d jx
d 3 x 3 . 327 10
4 E
y = 1 0 1 0 i 0 j 0 m
{d} = = 4
m (
1
2
) 2 A d jy

{ } = [D ][B ]{d } [D ]{ T }
1 m
d 3 y 1 . 911 10 xy 0 0
2 i i j j m
d mx
Solving:
d 4 x 0 d my

d 4 y 0 1 0 T

d 5 x 2 . 123 10 4 E 1

0 T
( 1
2
) 1 0
d 5 y 6 . 654 10
9
0 0
2

## Thermal Stresses 52 Thermal Stresses 53 Thermal Stresses 54

6
Stresses: Stresses:
Element 1: Element 3:
x + 1 . 800 10 8 + 1 . 800 10 8 0 x + 1 . 800 10 8 + 1 . 800 10 8 0
8 8 7 8 8 7
y = + 1 . 342 10 + 1 . 800 10 = 4 . 57 10 Pa y = + 1 . 342 10 + 1 . 800 10 = 4 . 57 10 Pa
1 . 600 10 7 0 1 . 60 10 7 + 1 . 600 10 7 0 1 . 60 10 7
xy xy

Element 2: Element 4:
x + 1 . 640 10 8 + 1 . 800 10 8 1 . 60 10 7 x + 1 . 960 10 8 + 1 . 800 10 8 + 1 . 60 10 7
8 8 7 8 8 7
y = + 2 . 097 10 + 1 . 800 10 = 2 . 973 10 Pa y = + 5 . 880 10 + 1 . 800 10 = 1 . 212 10 Pa
2150 0 2150 2150 0 + 2150
xy xy

## Thermal Stresses 55 Thermal Stresses 56

7
Degree of polynomial Number of Degree of polynomial Number of
terms terms
Linear Strain Triangular p n p n
QST

Elements 1 3
CST
3 10

LST
4 15
2 6

Linear Strain Triangular Elements 1 Linear Strain Triangular Elements 2 Linear Strain Triangular Elements 3

v3 u1
Basic 6 noded triangular element
1 constant
u3 d1 v1
3
x y linear v4
v5 d 2 u 2
u4