Beam and Slab Floor Systems— Composite Design by Yield Line Theory

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Beam and Slab Floor Systems— Composite Design by Yield Line Theory

Beam and Slab Floor Systems— Composite Design by Yield Line Theory

© All Rights Reserved

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Composite Design by Yield Line Theory

M. H O L M E S , * B.Sc., Ph.D., C.Eng.,

R. I. M A J E D , B.Sc.1-

This paper describes how beam and slab floor systems may be designed using

yield line theory. For given geometry and loading, the slab design is carried out

so as first to prevent a "slab alone" failure, beams are then selected so that

the desired load factor is provided against a combined beam and slab failure

mechanism. This is accomplished by considering three basic modes of failure,

A, B and C or D in such a way that collapse would occur by any of these basic

mechanisms at the same applied load, thus producing an economical design.

In designing the floor system any one of five different degrees of composite

action may be considered between the beams and slab. These different degrees

of composite action involve such parameters as the inclusion or not of composite

action in hogging and sagging bending, and the effect of slab reinforcement on

conposite fully plastic moments.

Experimental results are presented to show that the design method satis-

factorily predicts the mode of failure and the load at which it occurs, provided

that the correct degree of composite action is taken.

A number of design examples were considered and the effects of degree of

composite action, concrete strength, slab thickness, sides ratio etc. on structure

weight are determined, thus enabling general recommendations to be made on

efficient design offloor systems.

NOMENCLATURE INTRODUCTION

L, l dimensions of bay in X-direction and Y-direction F I G U R E 1 shows that in a floor system typical

respectively

internal bays are present which are c o n t i n u o u s in

Mb fully plastic moment of the secondary beam (in Y-

direction) f o u r directions. It also indicates t h a t edge b a y s will

Ma fully plastic moment of the main beam (in X-direction) occur which are c o n t i n u o u s in three directions.

Mc fully plastic composite moment of the slab and the

secondary beam at mid-span

Me fully plastic composite moment of the stab and the

main beam at mid-span

M, fully plastic composite moment of the slab and the

secondary beam at support

M fully plastic composite moment of the slab and the

main beam at support %"

Ms fully plastic moment of the slab /Internol bay ' External bay

mode A

Mx sum of fully plastic moments at mid-span and support

of the main composite beam, in case of non-composite

design for type (1) assumption Mx = Mn 1

My sum of fully plastic moments at mid-span and support Intemol boy External bay

of secondary composite beam, for type (1) assumption mode C mode A

M,=M~

p uniform loading per unit area

U internal work done in a system

V external work done in a system Fig. 1. Multi-bay continuous beam and slabfloor system.

p ratioofthesidesofaslab = I/L

0 rotation of a plastic hinge

Mc + Mb C o r n e r bays m a y also occur which are only con-

Yc M, .L/2 tinuous in two directions. This figure also indicates

Me+ M~ the three basic m o d e s o f failure which m a y o c c u r

7~ M,. t/2

due to self a n d a p p l i e d u n i f o r m l o a d for u n d e r

* Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Aston. reinforced slabs. The basic m o d e s are shown in

1"Post-Graduate research student, University of Aston. m o r e detail in figure 2.

215

216 M. Holmes and R. 1. Mq/ed

Depending upon whether or not a shear connec- figure 1. The failure is due to three plaslic hinges

tion is provided between the beams and slabs, forming in the secondary beam, with a sagging

composite action may need to be considered. Such yield line running down the centre of the slab and

consideration may be limited to areas in which two hogging yield lines running along the main

sagging yield lines are formed or extended to beams at support as shown in figure 2.

include the formation of both sagging and hogging For a unit of deflection at the centre yield line,

yield lines. then

I 2

0- -

Ms Ms I/2 /

,- L/2

~Mb a 0 Mb [ For UDL p/unit area of slab,

Mb External work ( V ) = ~ ( t o t a l load on an

i M,; I ,M. J element deflection at

the centre of gravity of

the load)

Col lapse by mode A

I 1 ! I

=- pL ~ x ~ +pL 2- x 2-

!~ L/2

thus

plL

MB v-- T tl)

v

fracture line x rotation

Collapse by mode B

about corresponding

'%q /li axis of rotation) +

(plastic moment of the

beam x rotation of

plastic hinge at that

point.

:~ L ~,

, I = (M~.L.20+2M~.L.O)

Collapse by mode C +(Mb.O+ M~. 20+ Mh.O)

thus

U =8M~.L+8M~

Collapse by mode D l / (27

Fig. 2. htternal bay of multi-bay continuous frame. Basic

modes of collapsefor UDL. Equating the external and internal work done, an

expression for the collapse load is obtained,

In the first instance equations will be derived namely:

for the three basic modes of failure, assuming that plL 16M~L 16M b

- ' F - - (3)

composite action is not present, for a typical 1 l

internal bay. Subsequently in Appendix 1 it will be

shown how these basic equations are modified for Re-arranging equation (3) the required plastic

edge and corner bays and for various degrees of moment of the secondary beam for collapse by

composite action. mode A to occur is obtained from:

p12L

FAILURE LOADS, INTERNAL BAY, My = Mb-- 16 M,L (4)

NON-COMPOSITE

This type of failure consists of a "repeating Here failure consists of a "repeating element" of

element" of one secondary beam of length l, and a one main beam and a slab of width I as shown in

slab of width equal to the average length of the two figure 1. The failure is due to three plastic hinges

adjacent bays. In the case of equal bays, the slab forming in the main beam, with three correspon-

width equals the length of the bay L as shown in ding yield lines in the slab, as shown in figure 2.

Beam and Slab Floor Systems--Composite Design by Yield Line Theory 217

Following the previous method, for unit deflec- V = p (volume of two half-pyramids + central

tion at the centre yield line, portion)

1 2 V = p (~.l-l.tan q~. 1 +.l-1 . ( L - I tan ~b))

0-

C/2 L

hence, V = plL__( 3 - p tan q~) (10)

"" 6

[plL 1\

Equating the internal and external work done,

thus, and re-arranging the collapse load by mode C is

p/L given by:

V = -- (as for mode A) (5)

2

and plL = p ( 3 - p t a n 4)) t a ~ 1 M, (11)

U = (Mfl.O+MJ.20+MJ.O)

Where for a minimum value of p, tan q~ =

+(Mn.O+ Mn.20+ Mn.O )

~ / ( p 2 + 3) - p .

.. U = 8Mfl q_8M~ (6) The value of M s to cause independent collapse

L L of the slab by model C is therefore:

Equating equations (5) and (6), the collapse load M s = plL p ( 3 - p tan q~) (12)

is:

plL = 16Mfl+ 16MB (7) 4 8 I t a n ~ + 11

L L

Collapse by mode D, occurring when p > 1.0, can

Re-arranging equation (7), the required plastic by similar means be shown to occur at a total

moment of the main beam for collapse to occur applied load of:

by mode B is:

plL 2 pIL - (3p-tan~)48p [ t~n1 ~ +p 1 M s (13)

Mx = M8 = ~ - M f l (8)

16

Where for a minimum value of p, tan ~ =

(c) Independent collapse of the slab

For a uniformly distributed load, depending on

the ratio of the sides, p = l/L, the two modes of

collapse C or D shown in figure 2 are possible.

Applying the virtual work theory, and letting the Re-arranging equation 13 to find the value of Ms

centre fracture line displace a unit distance down- to cause independent slab collapse by mode D,

wards: (3p - tan ~b)

U = ~ (total moment along a fracture line M,=plL 48PItan@ ] + p (14)

rotation of the two elements about that

line)

Failure loads for other conditions

Each of these products can be resolved into the

sum of two components, namely, (the projection The way in which the basic equations above,

of the moment on to each rectangular co-ordinate equations (4), (8), (12) and (14) are modified for

axis rotation of the elements about that axis), edge and corner bays and for two different types

where the axes are parallel to the supporting sides of composite action, is shown in Appendix 1.

of the rectangle. The detailed derivation of these equations is given

For mode C, occurring when p < 1.0 elsewhere[l].

In calculating the composite fully plastic moment

U = 4. tan 4~ M~'-I+2"LMs'-1 of the secondary beams (Me) and main beams (Me),

the following assumptions are made for sagging

yield lines:

+(L-/tan ~b)Ms. +4. Ms./tan

(1) The whole of the area of steel beam below the

plastic neutral axis is stressed to the tensile

+2"lM~'l tan ~b yield stress.

(2) The whole of the area of steel beam above the

[ 8 + 8p]jM s plastic neutral axis is stressed to the compressive

.. U=lta~ (9) yield stress.

218 M. Holmes a n t / R . I. Mq/ed

(3) The area of concrete below the plastic neutral against collapse of 1.75. Turning now to ligure 4

axis is neglected. for independent collapse of the slab, then 7, > 17.0

strength.

U,.

(4) The area of concrete above the neutral axis

is stressed to where U~ is ~th of the cube

and 7,- > 6.5.

Hence

Me+ Mn

(5) In calculating the values of M c and M e the >_ 17.0

M,(I/2) -

effect of slab reinforcement acting at its yield

stress may be included or not. (See later .. ( M , . + M s ) > 17.0 x 3600 x101b ft.

comments on effect of inclusion or exclusion.) > 612-2 kips ft.

(6) The usual assumptions are made with regard and

to the equality of total tension and total com- M,. + M h

~ > 6 " 5

pression, and the linearity of strain distribution. M,(L/2) -

Three neutral axis positions are possible i.e. (M,.+ M b) > 6.5 x 3600 x 15 lb ft.

neutral axis in the slab, beam flange or beam web. > 351.1 kips ft.

For the purpose of calculating M~ or Me the full

width of slab is taken as effective. This is because ;"c )'e Fal~urt M~I

the composite moment calculated from the effective

I S~ob and

width taken as composite plus the remaining width

at slab ultimate moment is approximately equal Mode B

to the composite moment calculated from the full

width of slab taken as composite.

Mode A o r B

Similar assumptions are made when calculating

the fully plastic hogging moments for the secondary (Mc+Mb) (MeMB)

X = Ms.L/2 ; )'e= MS.L/2

beams (M,) and main beams (MN), where three

neutral axis positions are again possible.

io 15 20

The use o f design charts p,L/L

Design charts may be used to minimise com- Fig. 4, Boundary equations UDL composite action at

putational work. For example equations (11) and middle span of secondary and main beams. Slab con-

(13) may be plotted to show M J p l L against p as in tinuous in four directions.

figure 3, and these same equations may be com-

bined with equations 9A and 10A of Appendix 1 For the main beam with a slab width of 20 ft. for

to give figure 4. The way in which these two figures 6,000 lb/in 2 concrete and using a 6 in. slab thick-

may be used to design a beam and slab floor system ness, the minimum size of beam, from tables of

is best illustrated by an example. composite section properties, is a 16 x 7 x 36 U.B.

plus a 6 in. thick slab. The value of ( M e + M n ) of

the chosen composite beam is 621.6 kips ft., which

is more than the minimum required value of

20

612.2kips ft. Other allowable combinations of

main beam and slab sizes to satisfy the required

I

O

~n~,) 'pkL =l'1[ J --

(Me + M s ) value are as follows :

14x 6 x 38 U.B. + 7 in. thick slab (642.3 kips ft.

1 I I I t I I t I I i i I I J I ; i I i I 15 x 6 x 35 U.B. + 8 in. thick slab (642.2 kips ft.)

05 IO 15 20

Fig. 3. Graph of M../plL against p. 1 2 x 5 x 2 5 U.B. plus a 6in. slab thickness would

give an ( M e + Mb) value of 356.7 kips ft. which is

Consider an internal bay 30 ft long by 20 ft wide greater than the minimum required value of

(i.e. p = ~) which is required to support a load of 351"1 kips ft.

175 lb/ft 2 (including an allowance for dead load). In the above example the effect of the slab

Shear connection is to be provided to give com- reinforcement on the plastic composite moment

posite action in sagging bending only. was neglected for ease of computation. If the

From figure 3 for p = ~ a minimum slab moment reinforcement is neglected than values of Mc or

of 3600 lb ft/ft is indicated using a load factor Me can readily be tabulated for various slab widths

Beam and Slab Floor Systems--Composite Design by Yield Line Theory 219

and strengths and standard beam sizes. The linear up to a load of approximately 14 tons, after

inclusion of slab reinforcement into the calculation which there were easily seen cracks in the lower slab

of composite moment introduces a number of surface parallel to the transverse centre line. Failure

additional parameters, so that tabulation of values of the model occurred at a deflection of the slab

is no longer feasible. Thus each case must be centre equal to 1.1 in. and of the mid-spans of the

independently calculated which leads to an exces- main beams equal to 1.0 and 0.8 in. Tension cracks

size amount of hand calculation or the use of a seen at the supports on the upper surface were first

computer. In the above example, using a 6 in. slab, of the slab close to the secondary beams at a load of

and the same cube strength, the main and secondary 18-0 tons. By the end of the test, these cracks were

beam size are reduced to 1 5 6 x 3 5 U.B. and running along the full width of the slab and were

1 2 x 4 x 19U.B. if the slab reinforcement is ~6 1 in. wide and 2 in. deep into the slab.

included. This gives values of (Me+MB) and The crack pattern indicated that the mechanism

(Mc+Mb) of 645.5 kips ft. and 379.5 kips ft. of failure was mode B. Failure occurred at a load

respectively. of 35.6 tons.

Strain distributions are shown in figures 6 and 7.

EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION The first of these figures indicates the strain dis-

tribution perpendicular to the transverse centre line

To assess the validity of the assumptions made

on the upper slab surface. The compressive strain is

in deriving the theory three model floors were con-

nearly constant across the whole slab width up to

structed and tested to failure. In particular the

a load of 29 tons, indicating that the total width of

experimental work was used to ensure that the

the slab was acting compositely with the beams.

mode of failure could be reliably predicted, and to

examine which of the various assumptions on degree

of composite action were the most accurate. +CI C2 C3 394/T C4 C5

Gauge no. | 0 [ - - ,

Only one of the model tests will be described as ! m t I2T

this will serve to bring out all the essential points.

This model had two opposite sides continuous and i 500

two opposite sides non-continuous and was

designed so as to fail by mode B mechanism. The 6.

reinforced slab was 9 ft x 5 ft by 2 in. thick which U

lODO

from 3 in. x 1 in. x 41b R.S.J. Uniform loading was

simulated by the application of sixteen point loads 1500

Strain x I0 "6

applied by means of a system of interconnected

hydraulic jacks. Shear connection was provided by Fig. 6. Distribution o f strain ~ the transverse centre line

of the slab upper surface. Test M,.

2 in. long by in. diameter stud connectors, whose

ultimate capacity and load/slip characteristics had

been determined from tests on push-out specimens.

7 .... 7-cg-- -1-

An overall picture of the behaviour is gained

from figure 5 which shows the load-deflection

'I ~IC4 'I

I mrc~-- -

graphs for the centre of the slab and the mid-spans I ~IC2

of the beams. The load-deflection relationship was 7-t

1"ct

Upper slab surface

D5 D4 D3 D2 DI

35 -

#~/> . " ..

3C

/// Gou no. +_0!C 7 C8 3.94,......C9 C8 C~

2~

500

.-/

/# o,en:F::dgll:

ll:n:Igl."led:I=:

I0

D4 Ceneral deflection of secondary b e a m 8 IO00

D5 Central deflection of secondary beam

5

! ' , J I

O 015 030 045 0~60 075 09 105 120 I 5~ Strain x 10- 6

Deflection, in.

Fig. 7. Distribution of strain along the transverse centre line

Fig. 5. Load against deflection graph for test MI. of the slab upper surface. Test M,.

220 M. Holmes and R. I. Mqjed

The second of these figures shows the strain dis- Strain readings from similar cross seclional

tribution along the transverse centre line on the locations but which refer to the composite main

upper slab surface, and shows that the beams are beam at the support are shown in figure I0. Here

relatively so weak in torsion that no measurable the position is distorted by local effects which

"encastre support" condition is induced in the slab.

The strains at mid-span of the main beams and ..... ~ ompressive

in adjacent concrete areas are shown in figure 8.

C13 - - -

These indicate full plasticity of the cross-section. R7

Figure 9 shows the distribution of strain through

the composite main beam at mid-span (section I-I C 24

C33

section shows a high degree of composite action Be

between the slab and beam, although evidence of a

certain amount of slip particularly at higher load, Be

is also indicated. A neutral axis position at failure ,I

consistent with theoretical predictions is also B4

50~, 2(i00 i000 :~

Strain x t0 s Tensile ~ -

beam at support. Test M~.

~?o ,,,' ,-- :

beam. These local effects were induced by rotation

o

of the secondary beam at the support. Again

// BI Tensile s!min ir, !ower flange

although slip is evident between slab and beam, the

B2 Tensile strain in the m~ddle of the web

I l / []3 Tensile strain in u~oer flange

/ C25 Tensile strc;in in lower slab surface

shear connectors were capable of developing the

5 ~/ R[ Tensile strain al longitLJdinal reinforcement fully plastic composite hogging moment.

CI Compressive strain in upper slab sclrface

400 1200 }O00 2800 3600

train x I0 c

collapse load with theoretical values calculated on

various assumptions on the degree of composite

Fig. 8. Load against strain graph for composite beam and action. This comparison indicates that composite

slab at mid-span. Test M~.

action nearly doubled (0.56-0.98) the collapse load

of the non-composite system. It also indicates that

Compressive the effect of the steel reinforcement on the com-

C~ 0 tooo pooo

posite moment was significant (0.74-0.88 and

0.84-0.98). Unfortunately the inclusion of the steel

C~- ~ J J 7 - - reinforcement prevents the use of design charts and

therefore adds considerably to the required design

j" 1/~. computation. If design charts are used (adopting

type 2 of table 1) then the calculated collapse load

Be

will be 74 per cent of the actual collapse load.

S t r a i n x I 0 ~6 Tensile

In the design of both non-composite and com-

Fig. 9. Distribution of strain through main composite posite beam and slab floor systems, only the upper-

beam at mid-span. Test M~.

bound solutions were considered. This was because

this type of solution can be relatively easily modified

indicated by figure 9. The shear connection was, to include composite action. It is true that a lower

however, very adequate in respect of developing bound solution gives a "safe value" for the collapse

the fully plastic composite moment. The strain dis- load of a structure and thus should be preferred to

tributions show the tendency of the neutral axis an upper bound solution. Nevertheless, in using an

to rise at higher loads and indicate that the slab upper bound solution, it should be remembered

reinforcement had high tensile strains before failure that there are many factors that play a part in

which would contribute considerably to the ultimate improving the safety of the solution, such as com-

strength of the composite section. pressive and tensile membrane action and strain

Beam and Slab Floor Systems--Composite Design by YieM Line Theory 221

Table 1. Comparison of theoretical and experimental values As mentioned earlier a computer programme

for beam and slab floor. was written[2] to enable designs based on all types

of composite action to be obtained. For the design

Theoretical example given earlier in the paper, which was

collapse load

Type of assumption on Theoretical designed using type (2) composite action, it was

degree of composite collapse load Exp. found that redesign by type (5) composite action

action (mode B) (tons) collapse load resulted in a 14 per cent saving by weight in the

main beams. For this same example type (5) shows

(l) No composite action 20-0 0.56

a 38 per cent saving compared with type (1) which

(2) Composite action in ignores composite action completely.

sagging bending, Other points which became evident from the

ignoring the effect of 26.3 0'74

slab reinforcement on design of a large number of examples were:

the composite plastic

moment (1) The best slab thickness was the minimum

(3) As (2) above but needed to provide the required Ms value with

including the effect of an under reinforced condition. Increasing the

slab reinforcement on 31"5 0-88 slab thickness above this value normally

on the composite

plastic moment. resulted in the use of the same or heavier beam

sections.

(4) Composite action in

sagging and hogging

bending, ignoring the (2) A considerable reduction in the deflection of

effect of slab rein- 29'8 0'84 the selected supporting beams, as well as saving

forcement on the in weight, results by using composite rather

composite sagging than non-composite construction.

plastic moments.

(5) As (4) above but (3) The relationship between live load and the

including the effect of weight of the selected supporting beams and

slab reinforcement on 35'0 0.98

the composite sagging slab reinforcement is approximately linear.

plastic moments.

(4) The minimum weight of steel supporting beams

Experimental collapse by mode B at 35'6 tons. and the minimum overall structural weight were

both given by type (5) composite action. The

next lowest beam and total structure weight

hardening effects. Similarly "fan modes" were not were given by type (3) composite action.

considered since, for uniformly loaded slabs, the

reduction in the collapse load is not large. (5) There is no advantage in increasing the cube

The experimental work showed clearly that strength in terms of saving in weight of the

theoretical values based on composite action of supporting beams of the non-composite and

type (5) gave the best agreement with the experi- composite structures. Only a slight reduction in

mental results, followed by type (3) assumption. the weight of the slab reinforcement occurs

If design charts are used then theoretical values when the cube strength increases to provide

based on composite action of type (2) must be the same ultimate slab moment M~. A minimum

used, and this will result in an under estimate of the cube strength is recommended for the design of

collapse load of the structure. beam and slab floor systems.

REFERENCES

1. R . I . MAJED, The plastic behaviour of composite floor systems in relation to multistorey

structures. Ph.D. thesis, University of Aston, to be presented.

2. M. HOLMESand R. I. MAJED, The design of beam and slab floor systems by computer.

International Symposium, University of Warwick (1971 ).

Ce texte d6crit comment des syst6mes de sols h poutres et ~ dosses peuvent ~tre

conqus en utilisant la th6orie de ligne de fl6chissement. Pour une g6om6trie et une

charge donn6es, la conception de la dosse est pr6vue d'abord de fagon ~ 6viter une

d6faillance de la "dosse seule", les poutres 6tant alors choisies de sorte que ie facteur

de charge voulue soit fournie contre un m6canisme de d6faillance combin6 de la

poutre et de la dosse. Ceci est possible en consid6rant trois modes fondamentaux de

d6faillance A, B e t C ou D de sorte qu'un effondrement aurait lieu par n'importe

lequel de ces m6canismes fondamentaux sous la m~me charge, produisant ainsi une

conception 6conomique.

222 M. Holmes amt R. I. Maied

En concevant le syst6me de sol Fun de cinq degr6s diff6rents &action combin6e

peut &re consid6r6 entre les poutres et la dosse. Ces diff6rents degr6s d'action

combin6e impliquent des param6tres tels que l'inclusion ou non d'action combin6e de

courbature et de fl6chissement, et l'effet de renforcement de la dosse sur des moments

compos6s enti6rement plastiques.

Les r6sultats exp6rimentaux sont pr6sentds pour montrer que la m6thode de con-

ception pr6dit de fa~on satisfaisante le mode de d6faillance et la charge fi laquelle la

d6faillance a lieu, pourvu que le degr6 correct d'action combin6e soit choisi.

Un nombre d'exemples de conception ont 6t6 consid6r6s, et les effets de degr6

d'action combin6e, la solidit6 du b6ton, l'6paisseur de la dosse, le rapport des c6t6s,

etc. ont 6t6 d~termin~s, permettant ainsi de donner des recommandations g6n6rales

pour la conception efficace de syst6mes de sols.

Dieser Bericht zeigt, wie Trfiger und Bodenplattensysteme mit Hilfe der Bruchlinien-

theorie entworfen werden k6nnen. Der Plattenentwurf wird mit ei ner gegebenen

Geometrie und Belastung so durchgeftihrt, dass zun~ichst "Plattenschaden" vermieden

wird, dann werden Tr~iger gew~ihlt, sodass der erwiinschte Belastungsfaktor ftir einen

kombinierten Tr~iger und Plattenschadenmechanismus erhalten wird. Dies wird durch

Annahme yon drei Vorgfingen ffir Erleiden von Schaden A, B und C oder D in solcher

Weise erreicht, dass Zusammenbruch infolge jeder dieser drei grundlegenden Vorg~inge

bei gleicher Belastung erfolgen wfirde, wodurch ein wirtschaftlicher Entwurf erhalten

Wird.

Beim Entwurf des Bodensystems kann jede, aus ffinf verschiedenen Schritten

kombinierte Funktion zwischen den Balken und Platten betrachtet werden. Diese

verschiedenen Schritte kombinierter Funktion umfassen Parameter, wie Einschluss

oder Ausschluss von kombinierter Funktion in Aufw61bung und Durchbiegung und

die Wirkung von Plattenbewehrung auf kombinierte vollplastische Momente.

Es werden experimentelle Ergebnisse gebracht, die zeigen, dass die Entwurfsmethode

die Art des Erleidens von Schaden befriedigend voraussagt und die Last, unter

welcher dies erfolgt, vorausgesetzt, dass die korrekte Art kombinierter Handlung

eingehalten wird.

Es werden mehrere Entwurfsbeispiele behandelt undes werden die Auswirkungen

yon kombinierter Funktion, Betonsffirke, Plattenst/irke, Seitenverh~iltnis usw. auf

das Strukturgewicht ermittelt, wodurch allgemeine Empfehlungen fiJr einen wirk-

samen Entwurf yon Bodensystemen gemacht werden k6nnen.

Non-Composite pI2L MsL

(a) Continuous in three directions ModeA: My = Mb = (A5)

32 2

pl2L M,L pIL2 MJ

ModeA" My = Mb-- 3~ 2

(A1) ModeB: Mx = M s= (A6)

16 2

plL 2 3MJ M~ = plL p ( 3 - p tan ~b)

ModeB: Mx = M s - - - (A2) Mode C:

16 4 (A7)

24Itan-~+ 21

p(3-p tan ~b)

ModeC: M , = P / L 2 4 [-_! 3p +2-]1 (A3) tan 4) = ~[~/PZW6)-p] for minimump

I_2 tan q~ _] ( 3 p - tan ~)

ModeD: Ms = p l L

tan q5 = h/(p 2 + 4) - p] (A8)

for minimum p 2 4 P l t a - ~ + P1

Mode D: M~ tan~=x/(p4~+6)- ~ for minimum p

=pIL I 2 +3 1 (A4)

24p ~ ~p

tan~, =~pp

4E( )I

~/ 1 + pZ _1 Composite action at mid-span

(i.e. sagging yield lines only)

for minimum p (a) Continuous in four directions

Beam and Slab Floor Systems--Composite Design by Yield Line Theory 223

Mode A : My = ( M: + Mb) = 8 -MsL (i.e. sagging and hogging yield lines)

plL 2

Mode B: Mx = ( M e + M e ) = 8 - M J Mode A : My = (Mc + M.) = pI2L (AIS)

8

(A10)

plL 2

Mode C and Mode D as equations (11) and (13) ModeB: Mx = (Me+MN) = 8 (A16)

respectively

(b) Continuous in three directions Mode C and Mode D as equations 11 and 13

pl2L MsL

(b) Continuous in three directions

ModeA: My --- (M~+Mb) = 16 2

pl2L

(All)

ModeA: My = ( M c + M . ) = 1-'-6- (A17)

pIL 2 Msl

ModeB: M. = (Me+Me) = 8 2

Mode B: M x = (Me+O.5Mu+O.5Mo)

(A12)

plL z

Mode C and Mode D as equations (A3) and

(A18)

8

(A4) respectively

(c) Continuous in two directions Mode C and Mode D as equations (A3) and

(A4)

pl2L M~L

ModeA: My = ( M c + M b) = 16 2 (c) Continuous in two directions

(A13)

Mode A: My = ( M c + M . ) = pl2L (A19)

plL 2 16

Mode B: Mx = ( M e + M e ) = 8 (AI4)

plL 2

Mode B: Mx = ( M e + M e ) = 8 (A20)

Mode C and Mode D as equations (A7) and

(A8) respectively Mode C and Mode D as equations(A7)and(A8)

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