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Fire Sprinkler Installation and

Placement per NFPA 13

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NFPA 13 Scope
1.1.1 This standard shall provide the minimum
requirements for the design and installation of
automatic fire sprinkler systems and exposure
protection sprinkler systems . . .

1.1.2 This standard is written with the assumption


that the sprinkler system shall be designed to
protect against a single fire originating within the
building.
Purpose
The purpose of this standard shall be to provide a
reasonable degree of protection for life and
property from fire . . .
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Scope and Purpose
This standard is written with the assumption that the sprinkler
system shall be designed to protect against a single fire
originating within the building.
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Retroactivity
Does not apply to buildings prior to the
effective date of standard
When AHJ determines there is an
unacceptable risk appropriate portions of this
standard may be applied
Definitions
Definitions
NFPA Official Definitions
Approved
Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ)
Listed
Shall
Should
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Approved

Acceptable to the AHJ


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Authority Having Jurisdiction
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Listed
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Shall v. Should
Shall is mandatory
Should is a recommendation
It is the intent of the standard that if the
recommendations are not followed, that the
system will still operate and function in
accordance with the scope and purpose of the
standard.
Owners Certificate

A.23.1(b)
Preliminary Drawings

A.23.1(a)
Water Supply Information

A.23.3.2(d)
Working Drawings

A.23.1.1
Working Drawings
Water Supply Information
Working Drawings
Hydraulic Calculations
23.3.5
Summary
Graph
Water Supply Analysis
Node Analysis
Detailed Worksheets
Symbols
Occupancy/Hazard Classification
Occupancy/Hazard Classification
Light Hazard
Occupancy/Hazard Classification
Ordinary Hazard Group One
Occupancy/Hazard Classification
Ordinary Hazard Group Two
Occupancy/Hazard Classification
Extra Hazard Group One
Occupancy/Hazard Classification
Extra Hazard Group Two
Occupancy/Hazard Classification
Storage
Occupancy/Hazard Classification
Class I
Occupancy/Hazard Classification
Class II
Occupancy/Hazard Classification
Class III
Occupancy/Hazard Classification
Class IV
Occupancy/Hazard Classification
Group A Plastics
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Occupancy/Hazard Classification

Mixed Occupancies
Occupancy/Hazard Classification
Mixed Commodities
Design Criteria

Sprinkler Hose Allowance


Hydraulic Calculations
Water demand determined from:
density/area curves with density/area method
greatest demand room with room design
method
special design areas
special design approaches
Hydraulic Calculations
Area/Density design method
Used with occupancy classification of hazard
Definition of density
Definition of area
Minimum flow is always the product of the
density multiplied by the area
Area/density curves
Design Criteria

Figure 11.2.3.1.1
Hydraulic Calculations
Room design method
Modification of area/density method
Allows the area to be limited to the largest
partitioned area
Communicating spaces must be considered
Requirements for corridors
Hydraulic Calculations
Specific Applications
Extended Coverage Sprinklers
Residential Sprinklers
Large Drop Sprinklers
ESFR Sprinklers
Design Criteria
Area/Density
Sprinkler Demand

Determine the occupancy hazard


Choose density/area
Apply adjustments
Design Criteria

Q=AxD
Q = Flow (gpm)
A = Sprinkler Operating Area
D = Density (gpm/ft)
Design Criteria
Adjustments
QR sprinklers deduct based on ceiling height

Dry systems add 30%

Sloped ceilings add 30%

High temperature sprinklers deduct 25%

Multiple adjustments are possible!


Design Criteria

Examples

Light hazard occupancy = 1500 ft2


Dry system add (30%) = 1950 ft2
Extra hazard occupancy = 3000 ft2
High temp. sprinklers deduct (25%) = 2250 ft2
Design Criteria

Multiple Adjustments
Extra hazard occupancy 2500 ft
Dry system (30%) 3250 ft
High temp (-25%) 2438 ft
Hose Stream Allowance

Table 11.2.3.1.2
Design Criteria
Occupancy: Light Hazard
Area: 1500 ft

Sprinkler Demand:
Hose Demand:
Duration:
Total Water Supply needed:
Design Criteria
Occupancy: Light Hazard
Area: 1500 ft

Sprinkler Demand: 150 gpm


Hose Demand: 100 gpm
Duration: 30 minutes
Total Water Supply needed: 7500 gallons
Design Criteria
Building: 1200 ft stand alone paint spray booth*
Occupancy:

Sprinkler Demand:
Hose Demand:
Duration:
Total Water Supply needed:

* Local alarm only


Design Criteria
Building: 1200 ft stand alone paint spray booth*
Occupancy: Extra Hazard (Group 2)

Sprinkler Demand: 480 gpm


Hose Demand: 500 gpm
Duration: 120 minutes
Total Water Supply needed: 117,600 gallons

* Local alarm only


Design Criteria

Occupancy: Hospital

What is the highest expected sprinkler demand?

What is the highest expected water supply?


Water Supplies
Water Supplies
Water Supplies
What is a sprinkler system?

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What is a sprinkler system?
Three essential components
Water supply
Sprinkler
Connection between the two

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Wet Pipe Sprinkler Systems
Dry Pipe Sprinkler Systems
Dry Pipe Sprinkler Systems

System Performance

60-second water delivery


1900 l (500 gal) volume exemption
2850 l (750 gal) volume exemption with a quick-
opening device
Water delivery calculation
Water delivery to test manifold
Dry Pipe Sprinkler Systems
Hazard Number of Most Maximum Time
Remote of Water Delivery
Sprinklers (seconds)
Initially Opened
Light 1 60 seconds
Ordinary I 2 50 seconds
Ordinary II 2 50 seconds
Extra I 4 45 seconds
Extra II 4 45 seconds
High piled 4 40 seconds
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Dry Pipe Sprinkler Systems
Dry Pipe Sprinkler Systems
Maintained
Restored within 30 min.
Sources
Shop Air Supply
Automatic Compressor
Setting
Valve Specifications
1.4 bar (20 psi) above calculated trip pressure
Preaction Systems
Preaction Systems

Single Interlock
Non-Interlock
Double Interlock
Deluge Systems
Sprinkler System Components

Listed
vs
Approved
Sprinkler System Components
Sprinklers
Characteristics
Thermal Sensitivity
Temperature Rating
Orifice Size
Installation Orientation
Water Distribution Characteristics
Special Service Conditions
Thermal Sensitivity
Temperature Rating

Table 6.2.5.1
Temperature Rating
Orifice Size
Orientation
Distribution Characteristics
Special Service Conditions
Special Service Conditions
Special Service Conditions
Spare Sprinklers
Sprinkler Identification
Pipe and Fittings
Valves
Valves
Identification of Valves
Fire Department Connections
Water Flow Alarm Devices
Hangers and Braces
Hangers and Braces
Hangers and Braces
Sprinkler System Components
What is the temperature rating of this sprinkler?
Sprinkler System Components
Can this sprinkler be removed, cleaned, and
reinstalled?
Sprinkler System Components
Can this check valve be removed, reconditioned, and
installed in another system?
Sprinkler System Components
Are fire department connections required to be in
conformance with NFPA 1963?
Sprinkler System Components
How do I know if the correct type of pipe was installed
in the system?
Sprinkler System Components
How many spare sprinklers are required for a protected
facility having 960 sprinklers?
Sprinkler System Components
How do I verify who welded a particular outlet on
system piping?
Installation Requirements
System Area Limitations
Maximum of 4830 m (52,000 ft) on any single level
Excludes Mezzanines
Extra Hazard 3720 m (40,000 ft)
Storage 3720 m (40,000 ft)
Dry systems limited by volume and/or water delivery
Control Valves
Supervision
Check Valves

Figure A.8.16.1.1
Post Indicator Valves
System Drainage
System Drainage

Wet System vs. Dry and Preaction Systems


Auxiliary Drains
Protection Against Freezing
8.16.4.1.1 Where any portion of a system is subject to
freezing and the temperatures cannot be reliably
maintained at or above 4C (40F), the system shall be
installed as a dry pipe or preaction system.
Water Flow Alarms
Fire Department Connections

Who determines where the fire


department connection is located?

Location
Arrangement
Test Connections
Backflow Assemblies
Hose Connections
Installation of Hangers
Installation of Hangers

Trapeze Hangers
Installation of Hangers

Hangers installed in concrete


Installation of Hangers

Hangers installed in wood


Installation of Hangers
Installation of Hangers

Table 9.2.2.1(b)
Installation of Hangers

End of branch line hangers


Installation of Hangers
Installation of Braces
Installation of Braces

Figure A.9.3.2(a)

Flexibility
Installation of Braces

Clearance
Installation of Braces

Lateral Bracing
Installation of Braces

Longitudinal and Double Duty Bracing


Installation of Braces
Lateral brace spacing required on all feed and cross
mains regardless of size
Lateral bracing required on all branch lines and other
piping if larger than 2 in diameter
Lateral bracing must be spaced per the limitations of
table 9.3.5.3.2(a) through (e)
Installation of Braces
2 or larger branch line starter pieces which do not exceed
12-0 in length do not require bracing
Last length of pipe must be provided with a lateral brace, not
more than 6 from end of main
Lateral bracing must not be spaced more than 40 on center
Lateral brace may act as longitudinal if within 24 of center
line of pipe to be braced longitudinally.
Installation of Braces
Pipes individually supported by rods less than 6 in.
long do not require LATERAL bracing

Longitudinal bracing is still required


Installation of Braces
Longitudinal sway bracing spaced at a maximum of
80-0 on center shall be provided for feed and cross
mains.
The distance between the last brace and the end of
the pipe shall not exceed 40
Longitudinal braces shall be allowed to act as
lateral braces if they are within 24 of the
centerline of the piping braced laterally.
Installation of Braces

Figure A.9.3.5(b)
Installation of Braces

Figure 9.3.5.9(e)

Zone of Influence
General Requirements for the Use of
Sprinklers
Installed in accordance with their listing
Can be installed in positions outside the listing for
special conditions
Use of Sprinklers
Use of Sprinklers
Use of Sprinklers
Use of Sprinklers

Table 8.3.2.5(b)
Use of Sprinklers

Thermal Sensitivity
Use of Sprinklers

Standard Spray Upright and Pendent


Use of Sprinklers

Standard Spray
S Sidewall
Use of Sprinklers

Extended Coverage
Use of Sprinklers

Residential
Use of Sprinklers
Use of Sprinklers

Early Suppression Fast Response (ESFR)


Use of Sprinklers

Control Mode Specific Application (CMSA)


Use of Sprinklers

Special Sprinklers
Sprinkler Area of Coverage

The area of coverage of the sprinkler is calculated:


As = S L

S is the distance between sprinklers along the branchline


L is the distance between sprinklers between the branchlines
Sprinkler Area of Coverage
(1.52 m)

(3.04 m)

(1.97 m) (3.96 m) (3.96 m) (3.04 m)


[Enter Presentation Title Here]
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Upright and Pendent
(1.21 m)
(1.21 m)

(3.96
(3.96m)
m)
(3.04m)
(3.96 m)

(0.6 m)
[Enter Presentation Title Here]
(0.6 m) 147
Upright and Pendent

(2.3 m)

(3.04 m) (2.43
(2.43m)
m)

(3.96 m)
(2.13 m) [Enter Presentation Title Here]
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Deflector Position
Deflector Position
Under unobstructed construction, the
distance between the sprinkler deflector and
the ceiling shall be a minimum of 25 mm (1
in.) and a maximum of 405 mm (12 in.)
throughout the area of coverage of the
sprinkler.
Deflector Position
Under obstructed construction,
of 25 mm (1 in.) to 150 mm (6 in.) below the
structural members and a maximum distance
of 560 mm (22 in.) below the ceiling/deck
Installed in each bay of obstructed
construction, with the deflectors located a
minimum of 25 mm (1 in.) and a
maximum of 405 mm (12 in.) below the
ceiling/deck
Obstructions

Pattern Development
Obstructions

Reaching the Hazard


Clearance to Storage
Skylights
Sprinkler Types
Standard Upright & Pendant 8.6
Sidewall Standard Spray 8.7
Extended Coverage Upright & Pendant 8.8
Extended Coverage Sidewall Spray 8.9
Residential 8.10
Control Mode Specific Application 8.11
Early Suppression-Fast Response 8.12
Sprinkler Types
General 8.X.1
Determination of Protection Area 8.X.2
Sprinkler Spacing 8.X.3
Deflector Position 8.X.4
Obstruction to Sprinkler Discharge 8.X.5
Clearance to Storage 8.X.6
Ceiling Pockets (if addressed) 8.X.7
Standard Spray Upright and Pendent

Table 8.6.2.2.1(a)
Standard Spray Upright and Pendent

Figure 8.6.4.1.1.3(A)
Standard Spray Upright and Pendent

Figure 8.6.4.1.1.3(B)
Standard Spray Upright and Pendent

Figure 8.6.4.1.3.1(b)
Standard Spray Upright and Pendent
Standard Spray Upright and Pendent
Standard Spray Upright and Pendent
Standard Spray Upright and Pendent
Standard Spray Upright and Pendent
Standard Spray Sidewall
6 10 7

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Standard Spray Sidewall

Table 8.7.2.2.1
Standard Spray Sidewall
Standard Spray Sidewall
Standard Spray Sidewall
Standard Spray Sidewall
Standard Spray Sidewall
Extended Coverage

Table 8.8.2.1.2
Extended Coverage

A > 4C or 4D
A < 36in.
Extended Coverage
CMSA
ESFR
Special Conditions

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Special Conditions
Special Conditions
System Acceptance
System Acceptance
System Acceptance
System Acceptance
Hydrostatic Tests
Dry Pipe & Double Interlock Preaction System(s) Air
Test
System Operational Tests
Pressure Reducing Valves
Backflow Prevention Assemblies
Exposure Systems

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System Acceptance
System Maintenance
NFPA 13

Questions?
Thank You!