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MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy

Introduction

1. Tension test  Objectives :


2. Hardness test To obtain mechanical
3. Impact test properties.
4. Fatigue test
5. Creep test  Who need the data ?
6. Bending Test Producers
7. Flattening test Users
Research organization
Government agencies

MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy


Introduction

 Requirements :
The data shall be consistence independent of the testing
personnel and locations
Standard testing procedures and data interpretation

 International standard :
ASTM (American Standard for Testing of Materials)
JIS (Japan Industrial Standard)
BS (British Standard)
DIN (Germany Standard)
GOST (Russian standard)
API (American Petroleum Institute)
ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers)

MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy


Introduction

 Testing standards :  ASTM Standard E8 :


Standard test methods for
Specimen geometry tension testing of metallic
and dimensions materials
Testing machine
requirements  ASTM Standard C1161 :
Testing machine Standard test methods for
flexural strength of advanced
calibration procedures ceramics material at ambient
Testing procedures temperature
Data interpretation
methods  ASTM Standard D 638 :
Standard test methods for
tensile properties of plastics

MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy


MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy
Tension Test

Standard specimen size (cylinder):


Diameter = Do = 0.505 (12.8 mm)
Gauge length = Lo = 2 (50 mm)

Engineering stress = = P/Ao


Engineering strain = e = L/Lo

MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy


Dimensional Relationship of Tensile Specimens

Type ASTM (USA) BS (United DIN


Specimens Kingdom) (Germany)

Plate 4.5 5.65 11.3


(Lo/Ao)

Round 4.0 5.0 10.0


(Lo/Do)

MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy


Tension Test of Metals

Engineering stress Engineering Strain


curve
 Yield strength :
y = Py/Ao
L f Lo
e (% ) = x 100%
Lo

 Tensile strength :
u = Pmax/Ao

 Elongation :
Lo L f
e (%) = x 100%
Lo
 Reduction of Area :
Ao A f
q (%) = x 100%
MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy Ao
Yielding and Yield Strength

=Ee
=G
E = 2G (1+ )

MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy


Elastic Modulus vs Temperature

MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy


Ductile vs Brittle Materials
Brittle materials : e < 5%

MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy


MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy
MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy
Temperature Effect

MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy


Resilience (Elastic Energy)

ey

U E = de
0

UE = y ey
= y2/2E

MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy


(t) True Strain (
True Stress ( ()

 True stress : t = Pi/Ai

t = (1 + e ) t = (1 + e )

 True strain :
= dL/L=ln (Li/Lo)
= ln (1 + e)

t = K n

MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy


MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy
Elastic Recovery

MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy


Mechanical Behavior of Ceramics

MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy


MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy
Mechanical behavior of Polymer

Brittle Polymer

Plastics Polymer

Elastomer Polymer

MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy


Polymethyl methacrylate

MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy


MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy
MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy
Introduction

 Hardness : the Indentation methods :


resistance of material to  Rockwell
local plastic deformation  Brinell
 Vickers
 Knoop
 Testing procedures :
Scratch methods
[Mohs Hardness] :  Advantages :
Simple and inexpensive
 Talc : scale = 1
Non destructive
Can be related to strength
 Diamond : scale = 10
Small size specimen is possible

MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy


MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy
ASTM Testing Standards

 ASTM Standard E 18 : Standard test methods for Rockwell and


Rockwell Superficial Hardness of Metallic Materials
 ASTM Standard E 10 : Standard Test Methods for Brinell Hardness
of Metallic Materials
 ASTM Standard E 92 : Standard Test Methods for Vicker Hardness
of Metallic Materials
 ASTM Standard E 384 : Standard Test Method for Microhardnes
of Materials
 ASTM Standard D 785 : Rockwell hardness of Plastics and
Electrical Insulating Materials
 ASTM Standard D 2240 : Standard Test Methods for Rubber
Property Durometer hardness
 ASTM Standard D 2583 : Standard Test Methods for Indentation
of Rigid Plastics by means of Barcol Impressor

MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy


Brinell Hardness (BHN, HB)

 Indentor is steel ball


 Standard load : 500 to 3000 kg
 Standard ball diameter, D = 10.00 mm
 Hardness is defined as the load divided by the
projection area of the indentation
 Indentation diameter shall be measured by microscope
 Brinell hardness :

2P
BHN =
(
D D D2 d 2 )
MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy
Vickers Hardness (VHN, HV)

 Indentor is diamond pyramide, = 136o


 Hardness is defined as the load divided by the surface
area of the indentation
 Indentation diagonals shall be measured by
microscope
 Vickers hardness :

1.854 P
VHN =
d2

MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy


Knoop Hardness (KHN, HK)

 Indentor is diamond pyramide


 Hardness is defined as the load divided by the surface
area of the indentation
 Indentation diagonals shall be measured by
microscope
 Knoop hardness :

14.2 P
KHN = 2
l

MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy


Rockwell Hardness (HR)

 Indentor : diamond and


steel ball
 Scale : based on
combinations of load and
indentor type
 Minor load = 10 kg
 HRC : diamond, 150 kg
 HRB : 1/16 ball, 100 kg
 Hardness will be
displayed by the dial
indicator

MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy


UTS [ MPa ] = 3.45 BHN
UTS [ psi ] = 500 BHN

MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy


MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy
Introduction

 Testing at high loading


rate
 To determine the notch
toughness of material
 The transition of ductile
to brittle characteristics
as temperature decreases
 ASTM Standard E 23 :
Standard test methods
for Notch Bar Impact
Testing of Metallic
Materials

MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy


Spectrum of Strain Rate

Range of strain Type of test


rate
10-8 to 10-5 s-1 Creep test at constant load or stress

10-5 to 10-1 s-1 Static tension test

10-1 to 102 s-1 Fatigue test

102 to 104 s-1 Impact test

104 to 108 s-1 Explosive test (Hypervelocity impact)

MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy


MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy
 Ductile Brittle transition temperature (BCC and HCP alloys)
:
Temperature where CVN = 20 J or 15 ft-
ft-lb
Temperature where fibrous fracture = 50%
Temperature where fibrous fracture = 100 %

There is no transition temperature for FCC alloys


MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy
MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy
Introduction

 To obtain fatigue strength


of materials
Fatigue strength
Fatigue limit
Endurance limit
Endurance strength

 ASTM Standard E 466 :


Standard practice to
conducting Constant Amplitude
Axial Fatigue Test of Metallic
Materials

MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy


max + min
m =
2
max min
A =
2
min
R=
max
MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy
S N Curve

MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy


S N Curve for aluminum 7075 T-6

p : probability of failure

MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy


MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy
Introduction

 Testing at high temperature


 Time dependent deformation
 ASTM Standard E 139 :
Standard practice for
conducting creep, creep
rupture, and stress-
stress-rupture
test of metallic materials
 Creep region :
Primary creep
Secondary creep
Tertiary creep
 Steady state creep rate
 Long exposure time

MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy


Stress Rupture Test

 Higher testing load


 To determine the rupture
time
 Shorter testing time

Stress Rupture curve

MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy


MT 2101 Lecture Note by Husaini Ardy