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IRC:112-2011

BSEC SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS BSEC

CONTENT OF PRESENTATION
NEW UNIFIED CONCRETE CODE
Limit State Version (IRC:112-2011) 1. Historical Perspective, Definitions
SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS
2 Deterioration
2. D t i ti Mechanism
M h i
ALOK BHOWMICK
MANAGING DIRECTOR,
B & S ENGINEERING CONSULTANTS PVT. LTD.
315-316, VISHAL CHAMBERS, SECTOR 18, NOIDA U.P 3. Design for Durability

4. Good Detailing practice from Durability
Considerations

IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011
SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS
SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS BSEC HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE BSEC

CONTENT OF PRESENTATION • Untill about 30 years ago, durability was
not seen as a serious issue for concrete.
1. Historical Perspective, Definitions

2 Deterioration
2. D t i ti Mechanism
M h i • Durability became an issue only when
following problems were noted all over
3. Design for Durability the world :

4. Good Detailing practice from Durability 1. Very serious deterioration of bridge decks in
Considerations USA, UK and all other countries due to corrosion
of reinforcement, due to use of de-icing salt in
bridge decks in winter.

IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011
SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS
HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE BSEC HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE BSEC

2. Major deterioration in problems in the Middle
East due to chloride induced corrosion in a
particularly aggressive environment.

3. Severe cracking in structures in many countries
resulting from alkali-silica reaction Deterioration
in Bridges
from
durability
reasons

1

DEEMED TO SATISFY CLAUSE SUFFERS FROM • The LS code has given more importance to durability. • Design Service life has been accounted for in the provisions of durability. The structure shall last also. maintenance and repair’. crack width control. • Has limited flexibility. 2. IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE BSEC HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE BSEC WHAT IS DURABILITY ? Durability of concrete is its ability to resist weathering action. The structure has to be designed for durability. which demands that structure must be designed for • Additional provisions for specific mechanism of durability. chemical attack. 2 .) IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE BSEC HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE BSEC 1. construction quality and methods. defined now as against Two earlier. IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE BSEC HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE BSEC Durability Requirements : WHY DURABILITY CONSIDERATIONS ARE IMPORTANT FOR CONCRETE ? ‘Fulfilment of the requirements of • Concrete property changes with time. The cause may reside inside the concrete itself.g. On minimum cover. deterioration added. minimum cement content. Durability is • Fails to acknowledge that structures deteriorate covered exclusively in a separate chapter now (section progressively. without • So far the practice had been to provide a few deemed unforeseen expenditure on to satisfy clauses in the code to ensure durability (e. i bilit • It is no longer sufficient for the structure to have only within the planned use and the “Strength”. in FOLLOWING : line with the present international practices. minimum concrete grade. structural t t l safety f t and d serviceability. maximum spacing of rebars. p g y 14). or be present in the service environment to which the concrete structure is exposed’. foreseeable actions. • Takes limited account of impact of conceptual & • Classification of Service Environment – Four classes detailed design. abrasion or any process of deterioration. maximum w/c ratio …etc. The new code has defined the end of service life.

Since the maximum damage caused in Mechanism RCC structures worldwide is primarily due to corrosion of reinforcement. Good Detailing practice from Durability • Cement Content & W/C ratio Considerations • Repair & Maintenance IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC Concrete Deterioration Most serious form of degradation of Concrete 1. • During the initiation phase no weakening of the concrete or of the function of the 4. which The deterioration process can be divided causes deterioration are expansion . important that ingress of moisture in concrete is restricted to the extent • During the propagation phase active possible. (Cover Shape & Size) 2 Deterioration 2. deteriorations proceeds rapidly and in many cases with acceleration. For ensuring durability.Aggregate Frost Abrasion Reaction Carbonation Chlorides Attack Erosion Impact Acid Sulphate 2. Historical Perspective. D t i ti Mechanism M h i • Construction Method (Workmanship) 3. the Mechanical & Physical Chemical / Reinforcement / environmental classification in IRC code Biological Prestressing Steel Deterioration Deterioration Corrosion is based on specific mechanism of duration (i. 3 . IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC 3. corrosion only). Definitions • Detailing (Cover. Design for Durability • Type & Quality of Materials used 4. into two phases : producing and presence of water or moisture is required required. Most of the reactions in concrete. It is therefore structure occurs. Alkali . However. IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE BSEC SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS BSEC Factors affecting Durability CONTENT OF PRESENTATION • Service Environment 1. relative importance of the Plastic Shrinkage Thermal Attack Attack Depassivation various mechanism of deterioration will Effects Chloride CO2 vary from region to region.e.

IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC Effects of Physical Deterioration : ABRASION / EROSION / CAVITATION : ABRASION / EROSION / CAVITATION : • RESISTANCE TO ABRASION CAN BE OBTAINED BY : • USING HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE • USING ABRASION RESISTANT AGGREGATES • GOOD CURING 4 . A durable Limitt of acceptable damage WHAT IS DESIGN SERVICE LIFE OF A STRUCTURE ? concrete structure has a The assumed period for which a structure is to be used for long initiation its intended purposes with anticipatory maintenance. phase.Aggregate There is need to precisely define Frost Abrasion Reaction Carbonation Chlorides the condition which can be treated Attack as “end of service life”. but phase and a slow DESIGN SERVICE LIFE propagation p p g without major repair being necessary. The ideal (Not defined properly in IRC:112-2011) situation by design of new structure is if the initiation phase goes upto say 50 years ! IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC Concrete Deterioration Mechanism Mechanical & Chemical Reinforcement / Physical Prestressing Steel Deterioration Deterioration Corrosion Alkali . Erosion Impact Acid Sulphate Plastic Thermal Depassivation This can be either in the form of % Shrinkage Attack Attack Effects depassivation or surface cracking Chloride CO2 or spalling of concrete cover. What is the end of Service Life ? 2. IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC 1.

it is not disruptive. Capillary p y p pore water in concrete expands p by y 9% concrete is highly resistant to after freezing. During freezing. IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC • GALVANISATION / EPOXY COATINGS IN REBARS SHALL BE ABRASION RESISTANT SO THAT THERE ARE NO DAMAGE CAUSED DURING HANDLING / PLACEMENT. Freeze & Thaw Effect 5 . 5. • ABRASION RESISTANCE IS ALSO A REQUIREMENT FOR THE SHEATHING DUCTS BEING USED. the water displaced by ice 2. causes failure. the microscopic air bubbles in the paste provide chambers for the water to 3. Abrasion Damage in Concrete IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC Effects of Physical Deterioration : FROST ATTACK …. 7. Air-entrained concrete with a low water- cement ratio and an air content of 5 to 8% will withstand a great number of cycles of freezing and thawing without distress. and produces strong pressure which freezing and thawing.contd. Saturation of water is formulated due to repeated freezing and thawing. Concrete with a low water-cement ratio (0. When it reaches the critical formation in the paste is accommodated so that saturation. IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC FROST ATTACK ….40 or lower) is more durable than concrete with a high water-cement ratio (0. generated.contd. 6. FROST ATTACK : 4. 1.50 or higher). concrete will be destroyed by freezing. The effective way to prevent freezing and thawing enter and thus relieve the hydraullic pressure destruction is to add chemical air-entraining agent. rupture and scaling. • COATINGS IN PRESTRESSING STEEL SHALL ALSO BE ABRASION RESISTANT. With the addition of an air entrainment admixture.

• IF LOW ALKALI CEMENT IS NOT AVAILABLE. OR USE BLENDED CEMENT. • Concrete forms surface cracks called map cracking The reaction has great affinity for moisture • Deterioration is caused by spalling. aggregates process: • Alkali is sodium or potassium – Alkali hydroxide + reactive silica gel → alkali-silica gel • A gel is formed and expansion takes place in – Alkali-silica gel + moisture → expansion presence of moisture. DELAYED ENTRINGITE FORMATION (DEF) IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC Effects of Chemical Deterioration : AAR Mechanism : ALKALI SILICA REACTION (ASR): • ASR is chemical reaction between alkali in cement • The reaction can be visualized as a two-step and silica in aggregates.Aggregate Abrasion Frost Attack Reaction Carbonation Chlorides 1. IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC Concrete Deterioration Effects of Chemical Deterioration : Mechanism ALKALI AGGREGATE REACTION (AAR) : CERTAIN CONSTITUENTS IN AGGREGATES CAN Mechanical & Chemical Reinforcement / REACT HARMFULLY WITH ALKALI HYDROXIDES IN Physical Deterioration Deterioration Prestressing Steel Corrosion CONCRETE CAUSING SIGNIFICANT EXPANSIONS. which comes from rain water. ALKALI CARBONATE REACTION (ACR) Thermal Attack Attack Shrinkage Effects Chloride CO2 3. THE TOTAL ALKALI CONTENT CAN BE REDUCED BY REPLACING A PART OF HIGH ALKALI CEMENT WITH SUPPLEMENTARY CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS SUCH AS FLY ASH. IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC Effects of Chemical Deterioration : AAR CONTROL OF ASR: • USE OF LOW ALKALI PORTLAND CEMENT (LESS THAN 0. ALKALI SILICA REACTION (ASR) Erosion Impact Plastic Acid Sulphate Depassivation 2. Alkali Silica Reaction 6 . THERE ARE THREE FORMS OF THIS REACTION: Alkali . GROUND BLAST FURNACE SLAG AND SILICA FUME.6% EQUIVALENT Na2O) WHEN ALKALI SILICA REACTIVE CONSTITUENTS ARE SUSPECTED TO BE PRESENT IN THE AGGREGATE.

CALCIUM • ACR IS A CHEMICAL REACTION BETWEEN MAGNE-SIUM CARBONATE] HAVE SPECIFIC HYDROXYL IONS ASSOCIATED WITH THE ALKALIS. gypsum in the aggregate. fly ash. outside. The components of the cement in groundwater for example. and blast furnace slag as partial replacement of cement will reduce the expansion. its alkaline nature. 7 . Concrete is susceptible p to acid attack because of External: due to penetration of sulfates in solution. (ACR is not as widespread as ASR) IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC Effects of Chemical Deterioration : Effects of Chemical Deterioration : Sulphate Attack ACID ATTACK Sulfate attack can be ‘external’ or ‘internal’. SODIUM AND POTASSIUM IN THE CEMENT AND CERTAIN DOLOMITIC TEXTURES IN THE AGGREGATE RESULTING IN EXPANSION AND EVENTUALLY CRACKING OF THE HARDENED CONCRETE. combines an acid attack and a sulfate attack. for example).g. Internal: due to a soluble source being incorporated Sulphuric acid is very damaging to concrete as it into the concrete at the time of mixing. COMPOSITION THAT IS NOT VERY COMMON. into the concrete from paste breaks down during contact with acids. IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC • Utilization of silica fume. Photographs showing repair of Bridges affected by Alkali- Alkali- Silica Reactions IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC Effects of Chemical Deterioration : AAR Effects of Chemical Deterioration : AAR ALKALI CARBONATE REACTION (ACR): ALKALI CARBONATE REACTION (ACR): • THE AGGREGATES [DOLOMITE . (e.

In attack on concrete due to the crystallization of addition to physical deterioration. extensive cracking and spalling of the concrete may occur. • THE RELATED EXPANSION PRODUCES CRACKING. appearance.1% in soil. sulfate ions (aggressive substance) with the In case soluble sulphates is >0. elastic modulus). Regions also destroy the binding capability of the cement. of concrete structures experiencing sulfate thus affecting the mechanical properties of the attack normally display a characteristic whitish concrete (strength. crumbling and scaling of the concrete. it will have aluminate component of the hardened concrete detrimental affect on concrete concrete. • Damage caused by sulfate attack normally occurs as • Sulfate attack may also occur as a physical cracking.5% 5% is very (reactive substance). • ITS DAMAGING EFFECT IS RELATED TO INTERNAL SULPHATE SOURCE IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC Effects of Chemical Deterioration : Sulphate Attack Effects of Chemical Deterioration : Sulphate Attack • External Sulfate attack is possibly the most common • Sulfate attack occurs as a chemical reaction of and widespread form of chemical attack on concrete. SPALLING & STRENGTH LOSS. sulfate attack may sulfate salts within the cement matrix. As the attack progresses. dangerous. More than 00. 8 . IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC Effects of Chemical Deterioration : Sulphate Attack • Damage is usually initiated in areas most susceptible to the ingress of contaminants. such as corners and edges g of concrete elements. SINCE IT OCCURS IN HARDENED CONCRETE. IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC Effects of Chemical Deterioration : DELAYED ENTRINGITE FORMATION • SPECIAL TYPE OF INTERNAL SULPHATE ATTACK IS CALLED DELAYED ENTRINGITE FORMATION.

where oxygen levels are sufficient. and change bars from passive state into active state. Corrosion requires both water and oxygen. Once the passivity of steel has been eroded. corrosion yg will continue if there is sufficient moisture and oxygen present at the reinforcement. 4. oxygen penetration is inhibited In very dry conditions. The greatest risk of corrosion is therefore in members subjected to cyclic wetting and drying. IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC Concrete Deterioration Corrosion Mechanism occurs due to de-passivation Mechanical & Chemical Reinforcement / of iron-oxide Physical Deterioration Deterioration Prestressing Steel Corrosion layer – alkaline environment Frost Alkali . 2. 3.destroy passive film. from the protective layer. moisture levels are low. When concrete is wet. 9 .Aggregate surrounding the Abrasion Reaction Carbonation Chlorides Attack reinforcement. Erosion Impact Acid Sulphate Depassivation Plastic Thermal Attack Attack Shrinkage Effects Chloride CO2 Corrosion – Most serious form of deterioration in Concrete IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC BSEC DETERIORATION MECHANISM 1. Passivity can be destroyed by chlorides and Chlorine ions penetrate to the surface of reinforcing bars carbonation.

which attacks hydrated cement paste. Graph showing variation control corrosion of Carbonation Depth Best is to avoid reactive substance with Time itself ! 10 . t this thi is i called ll d carbonation. If penetrates concrete surface. prevent reaching the reinforcement If reaches reinft. IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC Carbonation : 1. Carbonation lowers the pH value of concrete and reduces the protection to steel by the alkalinity of the surrounding • Cracking medium.. b ti 2. • De-lamination • Spalling of cover 3. relative humidity & integration of concrete in cover zone IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC DETERIORATION MECHANISM BSEC CORROSION PROTECTION MECHANISM & METHODS Prevent entry at concrete surface. Rate of Carbonation depends upon the concrete grade. Atmospheric CO2 is converted to carbonic acid (H2CO3) in the presence of moisture.

2009): 4. The specific location and orientation of the 2. 11 . 2 D 2. Definitions (exposure conditions).. detailing. rainfall etc.induced corrosion. design and spray. Deterioration t i ti Mechanism M h i and d Factors F t In deciding the appropriate class of service influencing Durability environment. There are four categories : • Moderate. • Severe. Historical Perspective. aggressive agents. regular wetting. the following factors are to be 3. including minimum cover to steel condensation etc. workmanship. Design for Durability taken into account (fib. IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS DESIGN FOR DURABILITY BSEC DESIGN FOR DURABILITY BSEC 4. mix ponding. This is in increasing order of likelihood of chloride-induced corrosion and carbonation . The general environmental conditions of the Considerations area in which the structure is situated. The first step is to establish the aggressiveness of the service environment 1. Localised conditions such as surface 3. exposure to prevailing winds. c. Good Detailing practice from Durability a. To select the type of structure suitable for the concrete surface being considered and its chosen service environment. • Very y Severe and • Extreme. depending on the chances of carbonation and ingress of chloride ions from outside. exposure to surface runoff and proportions. To select the appropriate materials. IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS BSEC BSEC DESIGN FOR DURABILITY CONTENT OF PRESENTATION 1. IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS DESIGN FOR DURABILITY BSEC DESIGN FOR DURABILITY BSEC b.

IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS DESIGN FOR DURABILITY BSEC DESIGN FOR DURABILITY BSEC 1. country. risk of corrosion in thawing is prone to effects of expansion due to concrete completely submerged in sea water formation of ice. are discharged into the water body. it poses serious threat to the durability of concrete. where the risk soil/ground water can lead to severe attack to of corrosion of steel and sulphate attack are the concrete in foundations. Such exposure conditions are termed ‘very severe’. Concrete in direct contact with aggressive sub- 1 Extreme’ 1. rarely dry includes concrete surfaces subject corrosion of steel. Cyclic wet and dry conditions allow accumulation and build up of deleterious agencies. Provision is also made against to long term water contact and many foundations. IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS DESIGN FOR DURABILITY BSEC DESIGN FOR DURABILITY BSEC Not Sea Water !! 1. attack by other deleterious chemical agents. When the relative humidity is between 50 to 70 percent. Exposure to waters t containing t i i chloride hl id will ill be b included i l d d in i this thi air-borne chloride ions in marine environment add category. Such conditions below mid-tide level is comparatively less are anticipated in few areas in the colder regions of the because of paucity of oxygen. Extreme category is for conditions conditions. Inadequate workmanship can lead to 2. 3. Wet. without being accessible to highest in concrete exposed to tidal. IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS DESIGN FOR DURABILITY BSEC DESIGN FOR DURABILITY BSEC 2. If harmful effluents from nearby chemical industries to wave action. where the bridge is situated. Concrete components exposed to industrial the chances of carbonation are very high. 4. Concrete exposed to coastal environment can have access to chloride ions increasing the risk of which are facilitated by the presence of moisture. 12 . No ingress of chloride from external sources is anticipated. spray zones in sea. steel. leading to spalling. Saturated concrete subjected to cyclic freezing and chloride ions in sea water. where presence ‘Moderate’ category g y is for situations where the of moisture (wet. ‘Severe’ category is for situations. because of accumulation of salts in the pores and accompanied by damage due 3. significantly to the risk of chloride-induced corrosion. rarely dry) and some carbonation chances of carbonation are insignificant because under humid conditions can lead to corrosion of the pores of concrete are either saturated or dry. splash and periodic inspection and maintenance. chloride-induced corrosion. In spite of presence of significant amount of 2.

has India.2 are those which can be (M30 to M90) generally expected with the In case of corresponding water cement ratio and blended cement. IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS DESIGN FOR DURABILITY BSEC DESIGN FOR DURABILITY BSEC Adjustment for other Aggregate size 13 . So. with the cements or binders available in Reinft. IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS DESIGN FOR DURABILITY BSEC DESIGN FOR DURABILITY BSEC Clear cover to any reinft. Example of a structure in “Extreme” climatic condition IRC:112-2011 IRC:112-2011 SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS DESIGN FOR DURABILITY BSEC DESIGN FOR DURABILITY BSEC Cover can be 1. secondary role in PCC 2. The values of minimum strength grade in reduced by opting for HPC Table 14. the minimum strength grade specified is an indirect control on the durability parameters.

Size & Shape of Structure (to promote good drainage) 3. Design for Durability 4.g. Geometry. Structural Scheme 2. Reinforcement Detailing 5. e. Historical Perspective. Corrosion protection of Prestressing Steel UNIFIED CONCRETE CODE UNIFIED CONCRETE CODE PART 4 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS PART 4 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS GOOD DETAILING PRACTICE BSEC GOOD DETAILING PRACTICE BSEC Geometry. Protective Coatings in Concrete 7. Use of Controlled Permeability Formwork (CPF) 6. IRC:112-2011 UNIFIED CONCRETE CODE SECTION 14 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS DESIGN FOR DURABILITY BSEC PART 4 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS BSEC CONTENT OF PRESENTATION 1. Drainage. Size & Shape effects Durability : Drainage : Most Important for Durability Pier with lesser surface area / volume ratio is preferred 14 . Deterioration t i ti Mechanism M h i and d Factors F t influencing Durability 3. Detailing for better Drainage 4. Choice of Rebar Coating 8. Definitions 2 D 2. Good Detailing practice from Durability Considerations UNIFIED CONCRETE CODE UNIFIED CONCRETE CODE PART 4 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS PART 4 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS GOOD DETAILING PRACTICE BSEC GOOD DETAILING PRACTICE BSEC Detailing to improve Durability : Structural Scheme : Example: Avoid Permanent Joints and Bearings. Integral Bridges 1.

The properties of ‘surface skin’ (the cover). UNIFIED CONCRETE CODE UNIFIED CONCRETE CODE PART 4 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS PART 4 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS GOOD DETAILING PRACTICE BSEC GOOD DETAILING PRACTICE BSEC Drainage : Avoid Horizontal Surface in Substructure Detail to promote quick run-off (e. which is the “first line of defence” to protect reinforcement. remain poorer. Use of CPF helps to improve durability. 4. from the service environment.50 bulk. UNIFIED CONCRETE CODE UNIFIED CONCRETE CODE PART 4 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS PART 4 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS GOOD DETAILING PRACTICE BSEC GOOD DETAILING PRACTICE BSEC Controlled Permeability Formwork : Concrete Formwork: With Zemdrain® Vs Conventional 3.20 .40 / 0. having lower resistance to the ingress of air. water and CO2 etc.35 from 0.0. 2. The resultant water/cement ratio in the cover zone is higher than in the bulk.0. Conventional steel or timber formwork is essentially impermeable and traps the entrapped air and water that migrate towards the formwork during compaction.25 from Bulk W/C of 0.g top of pier cap to be sloped outside) Poor Drainage : Severe distress due to corrosion induced by defective expansion joint detail UNIFIED CONCRETE CODE UNIFIED CONCRETE CODE PART 4 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS PART 4 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS GOOD DETAILING PRACTICE BSEC GOOD DETAILING PRACTICE BSEC Reinforcement Detailing : Controlled Permeability Formwork : 1. In another case. and forms a weak link. Reduced W/C of 0.35. reduced w/c to. 15 .

case of maintenance. Rebar with Hot-dip 1. materials are available which can be used as protective • To protect it from chemical and physical attack. contact with the concrete from contamination caused Polyurethane resin. silane / siloxane acrylic blend primer with a pigmented acrylic top coat.3 Bridges. Acrylic resin. Polyester resin.. coatings in concrete. Some of the polymers available are Epoxy resin. silicone resin. • To improve its appearance. • To protect products stored or processed indirect 3. UNIFIED CONCRETE CODE UNIFIED CONCRETE CODE PART 4 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS PART 4 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS GOOD DETAILING PRACTICE BSEC GOOD DETAILING PRACTICE BSEC COATING ON REBAR : As per MORTH COST COMPARISON ON REBAR COATING Guideline issued in Jan-2000. by dust from the substrate.0 shall be used for Rebar with FBEC 1. UNIFIED CONCRETE CODE UNIFIED CONCRETE CODE PART 4 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS PART 4 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS GOOD DETAILING PRACTICE BSEC GOOD DETAILING PRACTICE BSEC Coatings in Concrete : Coatings in Concrete : 1. for regions Material Cost Ratio within 15 Km radius of the coast.0 Map of India UNIFIED CONCRETE CODE UNIFIED CONCRETE CODE PART 4 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS PART 4 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS GOOD DETAILING PRACTICE BSEC GOOD DETAILING PRACTICE BSEC Protection Levels for pt-tendons based on aggressivity / exposure vs. Suitability of the coating system and cost are important factors in deciding about coatings. FBEC bars Rebar without Coating 1. structural protection layers Source: fib bulletin 33 16 . With the advancement in the polymer technology. Coatings are sometimes given : 2. 4.5 Galvanized Coating Solid Stainless Steel Corrossivity Rebar(316) 5.

UNIFIED CONCRETE CODE UNIFIED CONCRETE CODE PART 4 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS PART 4 : DURABILITY PROVISIONS GOOD DETAILING PRACTICE BSEC GOOD DETAILING PRACTICE BSEC BSEC THANK YOU 17 .