You are on page 1of 14

Evaluating the Work Preference Inventory and

its Measurement of Motivation in

Creative Advertising Professionals
Mark W. Stuhlfaut

The Work Process Inventory (WPI; Amabile, Hill, Hennessey & Tighe 1994) measures
motivation to work; but the instrument has not been used in the field of advertising. This study
evaluates the WPI by testing it with working creative advertising professionals. Generally, the
results were consistent with its developmental research, but reliability and validity measures
indicate that more work needs to be done to achieve a truly useful tool. Eighteen external
influencers of motivation, relevant to the creation of advertising, were also tested. Data analyses
determined that two factors showed promise, and a new set of scales is proposed.

The Work Preference Inventory (WPI) is a set of ternal influences to work that are more relevant to the
scales that measures motivation in people towards production of advertising.
work (Amabile, Hill, Hennessey, and Tighe 1994,
1995), and it has been used to evaluate the desire to The Study of Motivation
be creative (Amabile 1996). The WPI was devel-
oped originally through research conducted on When discussed in relation to work, intrinsic moti-
many different groups, including students, manag- vation refers to the causes that stimulate the desire to
ers, military personnel, railroad workers, hospital work primarily for its own value, such as when the
workers, and secretaries (Amabile 1996). Subse- task is viewed as interesting, challenging, or person-
quently, other researchers have used the WPI to evalu- ally satisfying (Loo 2001). Intrinsic motivation is evi-
ate motivation orientations among additional samples dent through a commitment to a meaningful purpose,
of students in the United States, Canada and the the choice of activities to accomplish the task, the per-
Peoples Republic of China. sonal sense of competence gained through performance,
Advertising is a business that thrives on creativity and the activity of monitoring progress toward the pur-
(Nixon 2006), and the absence in WPI research of pose (Thomas 2000). On the other hand, extrinsic moti-
samples comprised of advertising professionals is vation refers to those extra-personal stimuli that affect
conspicuous and concerning, particularly because the desire to work, such as money, rewards, and recog-
the field would seem to offer more face and exter- nition, or because of some external threat (Loo 2001).
nal validity to measuring motivations of creativity
than offered by the previous groups studied. Ad- Motivation and Creativity
vertising as a industry would benefit, because the
more that is known about what intrinsically and Motivation has been viewed as fundamental for cre-
extrinsically motivates creative professionals, the bet- ativity. Intrinsic motivation is conducive to creativity;
ter those in the field could promote conditions that controlling extrinsic motivation [defined as those extrin-
lead to positive outcomes. Those who study the cre- sic motivating factors that control or undermine cre-
ative process in advertising would also benefit from ativity, such as win-lose competitions, expected negative
having the valid and reliable measurement of motiva- evaluations, and concern for rewards] is detrimental to
tion. This paper reports the results of two applica- creativity, but informational or enabling extrinsic motiva-
tions of the WPI to advertising-professional samples; tion [defined as those extrinsic motivational factors that
and it compares these new results to those obtained enable creativity by providing information, such as es-
during the original development of the WPI. As a tablishing objectives, providing feedback, offering sup-
next step, the paper also evaluates 18 additional ex- port, or giving recognition] can be conducive,

Mark W. Stuhlfaut (Ph.D., Michigan State University) is an Assis- Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising,
tant Professor at the University of Kentucky. (email: Volume 32, Number 1 (Spring 2010).
82 Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising

particularly if initial levels of intrinsic motivation are people assess their own motivations and then make
high (Amabile 1996, p. 119). Another set of five critical educational, job, and career choices that ensure a good
extrinsic detriments to creativity is: expected rewards, fit between their motivations and their life choices
expected evaluation, surveillance, deadlines, and com- (Loo 2001). Assessing motivational levels should help
petition (Hennessey 2003). researchers understand and predict behavior, includ-
The effects of motivation on creativity also have ing how people might be more creative, and working
been studied directly and indirectly in advertising. professionals might also be more productive if they
Advertising is an inherently extrinsically driven ac- became more conscious of positive and negative in-
tivity for people in the business who must respond to fluences on their psychological state (Amabile 1996).
pressures from clients, competitors, peers, and eco- The only measure of motivation, relevant to the
nomic factors (Moeran 2005). Professionals in com- desire to produce advertising, that was found through
mercial design have been analyzed to be more a literature review was a three-item scale: 1) the prod-
neurotic, more open to experience, somewhat extro- uct or service offered a number of creative directions; 2)
verted, and less conscientious than professionals and designing advertising for this product or service was
managers in occupations that are not evidently cre- fun; and 3) working with this product or service was
ative (Gelade 1997). The prospect of evaluation by interesting (Sasser 2006). This scale was subsequently
outside experts appeared to reduce self-perceptions refined to a two-item scale: designing advertising for
of creativity among advertising students (Klebba and this product or service was fun; and working with this
Tierney 1995). Top-level creative people in advertis- product or service was interesting (Sasser, Koslow, and
ing are exceedingly aware of the oversight pressure Riordan 2007). The question here is: Are there scales
they received from account management to produce from the broader study of creativity that can be applied
better creative ideas (Reid, King, and DeLorme 1998). to the creative production of advertising?
In contradiction to the idea that competition and dead- The Work Preference Inventory (WPI) is a set of
lines are detrimental to motivation and creativity scales that assesses the individual differences in the
(Hennessey 2003), senior creative directors at U.S. and degree to which adults perceive themselves to be in-
Canadian advertising agencies believe competition, trinsically and extrinsically motivated in work situa-
deadlines and awards have a positive effect (West tions (Amabile et al. 1994, p. 952). It was developed
1993). Perhaps the reason deadlines do not affect ad- initially by testing the scales on samples of students and
vertising creativity detrimentally is because, as Bur- working adults. Since its initial publication, researchers
gess, Enzle and Schmaltz (2004) suggest, subjects in have cited the WPI more than 80 times in academic
experiments with deadlines negate the extrinsic effect literature and have used it to analyze motivation ori-
of a deadline by imposing their own time constraint, entations of students (Brownlow, Gilbert, and Reasinger
which thereby increases their sense of self-determina- 1997; Conti 2001; Moneta 2004; Moneta and Siu 2002),
tion. The benefits of competition in producing more people in business (Malka and Chatman 2003), and pro-
effective advertisements have been corroborated by fessional artists (Amabile 1996). Variations of three items
Vanden Bergh, Reid and Schorin (1983), who gener- from the extrinsic scale of the WPI were used to evalu-
ally concluded on the basis of an experiment that the ate the effect of rewards on creativity using undergradu-
more alternatives generated, the better the chances of ate students (Cooper and Jayatilaka 2006).
obtaining more interesting creative ideas. The WPI consists of 30 statements (Table 1) admin-
istered with four-point scales (never or almost never
Measuring Motivation true, sometimes true, often true, or always or almost
always true) to force positive- or negative-valence re-
Many early studies of motivation in regards to work sponses. Fifteen statements comprise two subscales
typically measured the amount of free time that sub- for intrinsic motivation (IM), Challenge and Enjoy-
jects were willing to spend on an experiment and ment, and 15 statements comprise two sub-scales for
interpreted their response to a reward as evidence of extrinsic motivation (EM), Outwardness and Com-
an effect. A meta-analysis, however, found support pensation. These subscales were originally developed
only for the negative effect of extrinsic motivation on from a review of the literature about intrinsic and
intrinsic motivation in the free-time condition, thus extrinsic motivations, factor analysis, and retesting.
suggesting that the effect depends on how the inde- The IM scales were built on five underlying constructs:
pendent variable is measured (Wiersma 1992). self-determination, competence, task involvement,
A better measure of intrinsic and extrinsic motiva- curiosity, and interest; and the EM scales were built
tion would be useful at an individual level to help on five other constructs: evaluation, recognition, com-
Spring 2010 83

petition, rewards, and control. The authors of the WPI at least, professions with a lack of artistic production.
created the scales, based on the underlying assump- This is not to say that nurses, railroad workers and
tion that the extrinsic and intrinsic motives coexist, managers cannot be creative, but if the instrument is
with the intention that the bifurcated measures could going to be used to evaluate the motivation to be
be used independently. The authors also sought to creative, the developmental samples should have been
assess motivation directly, rather than through gen- designed to include people known to exhibit creativ-
eral causal orientations, the approach used by Deci ity. Only one adult sample from the original research
and Ryan (1985). The purpose of the subscales was to consisted of 34 employees from an advertising com-
determine if intrinsic and extrinsic motivations con- pany, and its report (Amabile et al. 1994) did not
tained any meaningful dimensions. specify if the company was an advertising agency or
The WPI was developed by surveying 2,418 respon- whether or not the participants were people directly
dents, comprised of 1,363 students and 1,055 working responsible for the creation of advertisements. This is
adults, such as research scientists, chief executive offic- problematic for the study of motivation and creativ-
ers, railway workers, hospital employees, and secretar- ity, because the advertising company could have been
ies (Amabile et al. 1994). As developed, the WPI primary a sign company, a media sales company, or an adver-
scales were essentially orthogonal with the scales corre- tising specialties firm, which all are not involved nec-
lated at -.08. Test-retesting showed generally very good essarily in the development of new creative ideas. For
stability as reliabilities with student and adult groups example, a sign company may be merely executing
were maintained over intervals of 6, 12, 24, 42 and 54 the ideas of others in making an advertisement. Fur-
months (Amabile et al. 1994). While the instrument was ther, the lack of specificity in the description of the
stated to be reliable in evaluating working adults with advertising company may be problematic because
Cronbachs alphas of .75 for the IM scale and .70 for the even if it was an advertising agency, the sample could
EM scale, its primary and secondary scales (see Table 2) have included account managers, media planners and
fell short of .80, the generally accepted standard for buyers, researchers and various staff personnel, who
basic research (Nunnally 1978). The primary scales also were not directly involved and not responsible for the
fell slightly short of the standards of .76, the mean alpha creation of advertising. This paper argues that, to prop-
for studies of motivation, and .77, the mean alpha for erly assess the motivation to be creative in advertis-
studies of businesspersons and for scale development ing, the testing of the WPI should focus on the
(Peterson 1994). Some problems also have been reported population of creative professionalssuch as art di-
using student samples in regards to a lack of fit with the rectors, copywriters, and creative directorswho are
two-factor intrinsic-extrinsic structure and weaker sup- primarily involved in the creative function. If the WPI
port for the extrinsic scale than the intrinsic scale; still, is generally valid and reliable for studying motiva-
other researchers have concluded that the WPI shows tion orientation to work, a representative sample of
promise as a useful tool in describing and understand- creative advertising professionals should extend the
ing work motivation in the field of education (Loo 2001). use of the WPI and corroborate the measurement of
As a possible indication of the WPIs usefulness for intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Therefore, the fol-
studying working adults in advertising, its IM scale lowing research question is warranted:
correlated positively in its developmental testing with a RQ1: How useful is the WPI for measuring
measure of creativity, the Kirton Adaption-Innovation the motivation of creative profession-
Inventory (Kirton 1976}, r =.41, p<.001, as predicted, als in advertising?
and EM scale correlated negatively: r=-.18, p<.01
(Amabile et al. 1994). Generally, WPI scores were re- Method
ported to be independent of response bias, based upon
a lack of correlation with Marlowe-Crowne social-de- A cross-sectional, quantitative study was conducted
sirability scores, except for the Extrinsic Outward (EO) using the WPI to evaluate the motivation of creative
scale, but the result was thought to be not problematic advertising professionals. The study was split into
due to the scales lower means and the possibility of two samples to test a possible effect of using six-point
some false negatives (Amabile et al. 1994). scales as opposed to the original four-point scales. In
There has been a long tradition of studying gifted hindsight, splitting the sample by scales was unpro-
people to understand what makes them more cre- ductive, and it complicated the analysis, but as will be
ative than the everyday person (e.g. Gardner 1993; explicated here, a transformational method was em-
Albert 1990; Stokes 2006). The WPI was developed ployed to combine the two sets of data to see if the
using samples of people in uncreative professions or, larger data set produced any increase in reliability.
84 Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising

Results are reported here for each sample, and then week and two weeks later to non-respondents. No
additional results are given for a combined data. incentive was offered, other than the offer to provide
participants with a copy of the general results.
Samples Semantically, there was one problem with the word-
ing of the WPI that was corrected prior to the fielding of
The sample consisted of copywriters and art direc- the survey. Items 17 and 20 in the original text of the
tors who work with in advertising agencies in the United scales used the word promotion to refer to the moti-
States. These individuals are the people in the business vation of improvements in a persons career, as in: I
who generate the initial advertising ideas and make the am keenly aware of the promotion goals I have for
initial judgments about which of these ideas are the myself. This word would be confusing to people in
most creative. The population of these creative profes- advertising, and it might lead to unreliable results with
sionals, from which the sample was drawn, is difficult samples in this field, because promotion is a word
to determine because there is no accurate census; there- that people in advertising use to refer to general marketing
fore, advertising agencies served as a sampling frame communication strategies or to specific advertising tactics
from which to select the desired participants. that reduce prices at the point of sale (see Engel, Warshaw,
There are approximately 5,000 advertising agencies Kinnear, and Reece 2000). To keep the integrity of the WPI
in the United States (LexisNexis 2006). Using a random and to make sure Items 17 and 20 related to career develop-
number to start, the name of a copywriter or an art ment, the words, advancement or careers were substi-
director was selected in an alternating manner from tuted for all uses of promotions.
every fourth listing. In most cases, however, the se- The returned responses were tabulated automati-
lected listing did not provide a name of the desired cally using the Web Surveyor software program, and
individuals. When this occurred, the name of the cre- the data was downloaded to the researchers com-
ative director was chosen, because this person typically puter for analysis. Reliability analyses were conducted
has an art or copy background, and many creative di- on the responses to the WPI scales using SPSS 15.0
rectors remain active in their craft, particularly in small software. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFIs) were
agencies. Creative directors also supervise art directors conducted on the combined data set using AMOS 7.0
and copywriters, so they could serve as excellent inter- software to examine the validity of the scales.
mediaries to recruit additional participants for the study.
In a small number of cases, the Red Book listing did not Responses
list any creative personnel. This was typical for small-
sized agencies, and in these cases, the name of the presi- Two hundred twenty-four completed surveys were
dent was chosen as the contact person who would be received: 90 for Sample 1 (with the original 4-point
asked to forward the survey to creative personnel. In WPI scales) and 134 for Sample 2 (with 6-point scales).
summary, this method produced a sample of 1,002 Cleaning the data and removing several participants who
names, comprised of 198 art directors, 115 copywriters, did not complete major portions of the survey or who
604 creative directors, and 85 presidents, at 971 agen- indicated a job function that was outside of the creative
cies. The number of names is larger than the number of department produced 89 participants for Sample 1 and
agencies because large agencies have multiple offices 130 participants for Sample 2 that were used for analy-
and multiple creative directors per office, and they were sis with a total number of 219 participants.
included to ensure adequate coverage of large agencies. Among the 219 responses, 103 were from art directors,
93 from copywriters, 2 were from people who performed
Procedure both functions, and 21 were from creative directors who
can be assumed to have either an art or copy back-
Due to the difficulty of contacting art directors and ground; thus the objective of reaching a nationwide
copywriters directly (Koslow, Sasser, and Riordan sample of copywriters and art directors was achieved.
2003, 2006), creative directors at the targeted agencies Response rates were difficult to calculate precisely, due
were sent either an email message or a letter, depend- to the design of the sample. As mentioned above, names
ing upon the availability of an email address, to re- and addresses could not be obtained directly for copy-
quest that they ask the copywriters and art directors writers and art directors from each selected agency,
at their agency to participate in the study. They were which necessitated requesting creative directors to pass
given an address of a site on the Internet to access for the survey to an indeterminate number of copywriters
completion of the studys test instrument. Follow-up and art directors. While this method did not produce
e-mails or post cards were sent approximately one specific response rates, its advantage was that it enabled
Spring 2010 85

Table 1
Work Preference Inventory Items and Scales
(Amabile et al. 1994, p. 956)

Primary Scales Secondary Scales

Intrinsic Extrinsic Compen-
Item Motivation Motivation Enjoyment Challenge Outward sation

1. I enjoy tackling problems that are

completely new to me. X X
2. I enjoy trying to solve complex
problems. X X
3. The more difficult the problem is, the
more I enjoy trying to solve it. X X
4. I want my work to provide me with
opportunities for increasing my
knowledge and skills. X X3
5. Curiosity is the driving force behind
much of what I do. X X3
6. I want to find out how good I really
can be at my work. X X
7. I prefer to figure out things for myself. X X
8. What matters most to me is enjoying
what I do. X X
9. It is important for me to have an outlet
for self-expression X X
10. I prefer work I know I can do well over
work that stretches my abilities. R2 R2
11. No matter what the outcome of a
project, I am satisfied if I feel I gained
a new experience. X X
12. Im more comfortable when I can set
my own goals. X X
13. I enjoy doing work that is so absorbing
that I forget about everything else. X X
14. It is important to me to be able to do
what I most enjoy. X X
15. I enjoy relatively simple, straight
forward tasks. R2 R2
16. I am strongly motivated by the money
I can earn. X X
17. I am keenly aware of the career1 goals
I have for myself. X X
18. I am strongly motivated by recognition
I can earn from other people. X X
19. I want other people to find out how
good I really can be at my work. X X
20. I seldom think about salary and
advancement1. R2 R2
21. I am keenly aware of the income
goals I have for myself. X X

86 Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising

Table 1 (continued)
Work Preference Inventory Items and Scales
(Amabile et al. 1994, p. 956)

Primary Scales Secondary Scales

Intrinsic Extrinsic Compen-
Item Motivation Motivation Enjoyment Challenge Outward sation

22. To me, success means doing

better than other people. X X
23. I have to feel that Im earning
something for what I do. X X
24. As long as I can do what I enjoy,
Im not that concerned about
exactly what Im paid. R2 R2
25. I believe that there is no point
in doing a good job if nobody
else knows about it. X X
26. Im concerned about how other
people are going to react to
my ideas. X X
27. I prefer working on projects
with clearly specified procedures. X X
28. Im less concerned with what work
I do than what I get for it. X X
29. I am not that concerned about
what other people think of my work. R2 R2
30. I prefer to have someone set clear
goals for me in my work. X X
1. The word used in the original WPI for advancement or careers was promotions, and this word, meant to relate to career
development, would be confusing for people in advertising, who more likely use the word to describe an advertising strategy.
Therefore, the words, advancement and career, have been substituted to clarify Items 17 and 20.
2. Reverse coded
3. As corrected in Amabile, Hill, Hennessey, and Tighe (1995).

the study to survey a difficult-to-reach population, and it 2 along with the results reported for the working-
increased the total number of participants. adult sample by Amabile et al. (1994) to facilitate a
Demographically, respondents were primarily men comparison. To build the combined set, the four-point
(72.6%) and tended to be experienced with 56% hav- scale items of Sample 1 were converted into six-point
ing spent more than 10 years in advertising. All age values by subtracting one from each data point, mul-
groups were represented from 21-24 to more than 50; tiplying the result by 1.667, and then adding back
however, 38% were in the 30- to 39-year category. one. The converted four-point data set then was
Agencies of all sizes were represented, but the largest merged with the six-point data set of Sample 2 into
number of respondents (32.4%) described their agency one data file. Across the obtained samples, all levels
as having 21- to 50-employees, and 23% from agen- of Cronbachs Alpha were below the standard of .80
cies with more than 200 employees. (Peterson 1994) and most were below .70, the accepted
standard for advertising and marketing (Hair, Black,
Results Babin, and Anderson 2006); however, the obtained
alphas were similar to the previous reported levels
Reliability Analyses for working adults in Amabile et al. (1994) that were
deemed then to be satisfactory. As shown in Table 2,
The results for reliability of the two samples and a combining the data did not increase the reliabilities of
combination of the two samples are reported in Table the scales; the Cronbach-Alpha values fell between
Spring 2010 87

Table 2
Reliability Analyses of WPI Scales with Creative Advertising Professionals
(Cronbachs Alpha)

Amabile et al.1994 Sample 1 Sample 2 Combined

n=1,055 n=89 n=130 n=219
Scale 4-pt. scales 4-pt. scales 6-pt. scales 6-pt. scale

Extrinsic-Outward .63 .53 .58 .54

Extrinsic-Compensation .62 .74 .70 .70
Primary Extrinsic Motivation .70 .66 .68 .66
Intrinsic-Challenge .73 .68 .73 .67
Intrinsic-Enjoyment .67 .75 .56 .69
Primary Intrinsic Motivation .75 .79 .70 .76

Table 3
Confirmatory Factor Analyses


Extrinsic Compensation 66.941 5 .000 .883 .648 .238

Extrinsic Outward 71.704 35 .000 .943 .910 .069
Primary EM CFA not conducted
Intrinsic Challenge .586 2 .746 .999 .993 .000
Intrinsic Enjoyment 65.398 35 .001 .942 .909 .063
Primary IM 175.446 89 .000 .900 .865 .067

those obtained for the two subsidiary samples. The df=.293, RMSEA=.000). Second, although the chi-
results reinforced one conclusion by Amabile et al. square tests for the Extrinsic-Outward, Intrinsic-En-
(1994) that further development of the secondary Ex- joyment, and primary Intrinsic-Motivation scales were
trinsic-Outward scale would be useful. A weakness significant, which may be the result of a bias of sample
in the reliability of the Intrinsic-Enjoyment (IE) scale size (Byrne 2001), the rest of the indicators for fit with
was also evident. these scales appeared to be adequate (Table 3). Third,
fit of the model and the data were not acceptable for
Validity Analyses the Extrinsic-Compensation (EC) scale, primarily due
to the large approximation of the root-mean-square
Despite the finding that no scale reached the .80 error, and, because of this finding, a CFI was not con-
threshold of reliability, CFAs were conducted to ex- ducted for the primary Extrinsic-Motivation scale.
amine the structure of the secondary and primary
WPI scales (Table 3). In doing so, it is noted that the Discussion
WPIs authors stated that the actual structure was
probably more complex than the simple intrinsic- The Work Process Inventory (WPI) measure of mo-
extrinsic distinction suggested by the literature tivation, which has been used extensively elsewhere,
(Amabile et al. 1994, p. 957); but the WPIs authors had not been used in field of research on advertising
accepted the scales basic structure for three reasons: creativity before this study, and other scales used in
the items groupings were conceptually meaningful, this field seemed to be inadequate. This research tested
the fit was generally considered satisfactory, and each the WPI instrument with people who directly are re-
item correlated highest with its own scale (Amabile et sponsible for the creation of advertising. Valid and
al. 1994). That being noted, confirmatory factor analy- reliable results would have extended the application
ses for this study first showed excellent fit with the of the scales and given this field a credible tool to
Intrinsic-Challenge (IC) scale (2=.586, df=2, p>.05, 2/ measure motivation in creative work environments.
88 Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising

Table 4
Extrinsic MotivationOutward Secondary Scale
Rotated Component Matrix

Item* Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3 Factor 4

19 .772 .169 .007 .022
18 .749 .144 .024 .195
22 .716 -.014 .110 -.193
26 .464 -.128 .316 .035
30 -.021 .792 .066 .058
27 .178 .765 -.006 -.094
25 .119 -.014 .714 .113
28 .083 .077 .646 -.385
29 .037 -.093 -.064 .830
23 .016 .252 .470 .494

Eigen Value 2.249 1.235 1.181 1.080

% of Variance 19.38 13.57 12.68 11.82
*See Table 1
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.

Table 5
External Motivators Affecting the Creation of Advertising

How do the following factors influence your desire to be creative?

The objective of the project
The profit of the agency
The type of product or service
Competition with other creative teams
Going along with your team
Your desire to get the job done
The possibility of a salary increase
Gaining your supervisors approval of your work
The possibility of a monetary bonus
Getting feedback from your supervisor while you work on an assignment
Budget of the project
Advancing your career by getting another job
Deadline of the project
Entering your work in award competitions
Building your creative reputation as a creative talent
Getting the clients approval
Building your portfolio
Getting a promotion to a new position within the agency
1. Strong negative influence
2. Moderate negative influence
3. Mild negative influence
4. Weak positive influence
5. Moderate positive influence
6. Strong positive influence
Spring 2010 89

Table 6
External MotivatorsDescriptive Statistics

Item Mean SD

Objectives 5.14 1.000

Profit 4.15 1.313
Product type 4.95 .996
Internal competition 4.55 1.242
Going along with team 4.14 1.126
Job completion 4.87 1.122
Salary increase 4.47 1.068
Supervisor approval 4.93 .967
Bonus 4.50 1.085
Supervisor feedback 4.67 1.014
Budget of project 3.83 1.237
Career advancement 4.04 1.256
Deadline of job 3.95 1.453
Award competitions 4.37 1.180
Reputation 5.24 .861
Client approval 4.84 1.105
Build portfolio 4.96 1.006
Get promotion 4.52 1.001

The results showed, however, that, while the reliabil- Intrinsic-Enjoyment secondary scale could only be
ity scores for the scales were near those obtained dur- negligibly improved to .70 from .69 by dropping Item
ing the development of the scales, the alpha levels 13. In regards to the Extrinsic-Compensation scale, an
were not as high as accepted standards. This prob- analysis of reliability demonstrated that the maximum
lematic finding is just as useful as a finding that con- possible Cronbachs-Alpha level of .70 could only be
firms the scales, and perhaps more so, because it serves maintained by keeping all five items (Table 1items
to caution future researchers in the use of the WPI, 16, 17, 20, 21, and 24). More encouragingly, however,
and it should stimulate the field to find improved a reliability analysis of the five items of the Intrinsic-
measures of motivation. Challenge secondary scale showed that Cronbachs
Alpha could be improved to .79 from .67 by reducing
Possible Refinements the factor to Items 1, 2, and 3 (Table 1).

Exploratory factor analyses (EFAs) were conducted More Relevant Indicators

to determine if higher Cronbachs Alpha values could
be produced from these data sets by reducing the While the WPI was designed to tap motivation at
number of items. The Intrinsic-Enjoyment and Extrin- work, its items are general and miss potential exter-
sic-Outward scales were excellent candidates because nal indicators that would be relevant specifically to
ten items in each scale seemed to be cumbersome. An the creation of advertising, as mentioned earlier in the
initial EFA of the ten items that comprised the origi- literature review. A few studies in the field of adver-
nal Extrinsic-Outward secondary scale, however, ex- tising have already examined the influence of a lim-
tracted four factors through principal component ited number of extrinsic or external motivators on the
analysis (PCA) using a Varimax rotation with Kaiser creative process (e.g. Ensor, Cottam and Band 2001;
normalization (Table 4). Items 19, 18, and 22 (Table 1) OConnor, Willemain and MacLachlan 1996; and West
were the only items in the first factor that loaded 1993); but no formalized scale has been advanced here-
above .600, and a subsequent reliability analysis with tofore. This research, in addition to testing the WPI,
these three items only produced the Cronbachs Al- measured influences of external motivation by includ-
pha, .66, which was the highest reliability value at- ing an aggregated list of 18 indicators from the litera-
tained with this set of ten items. Similarly, the ture: the objective of the project, agency profit, product
Table 7 90
Correlations of External Motivators

Go Com- Sup Feed- Bud- Car- Dead- Port-

Obj Profit Type Compet Along plete Salary App Bonus back get eer line Awards Rep Client folio

Profit .30**
Type .36** .20**
Competition -.03 .02 .10
Go along .00 .13 .13 .05
Completion .11 .22** .13 -.06 .31**
Salary -.06 .29 .03 .04 .02 .19**
Super Approval -.06 .02 .07 .12 .22** .15* .34**
Bonus -.08 .30** -.02 .02 .04 .19** .83** .25**
Feedback .07 .10 .03 .13* .24** .20** .24** .33** .30**
Budget .13* .31** .08 -.01 .16* .14* .11 -.04 .12 .08
Career .03 .01 .13* .28** -.01 .06 .26** .13* .21 .13 .18**
Deadline .19** .23** .20** .06 .23** .17* -.02 -.03 -.01 .15* .33* .03
Awards .07 .01 .08 .13 .03 .11 .24** .15* .17* .08 .13 .29** .08
Reputation .15* .07 .23** .17* .04 .21** .17* .26** .11 .14* .07 .29** .09 .45**
Client .31** .36** .28** .00 .13 .22** .01 .01 .04 .05 .22 .01 .17* .02 .14*
Portfolio -.03 .08 .17* .16* .09 .19** .21** .26** .13 .19** .08 .39** .08 .43** .45** .08
Promotion -.04 .10 .09 .09 .11 .13 .54** .35** .44** .24** .07 .33** .02 .28** .32** .14* .477

**Significant at the 0.01 level, two-tailed.

* Significant at the 0.05 level, two-tailed.
Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising
Spring 2010 91

Table 8
EFA Rotated Component Matrix for External Motivation Indicators

Item F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6

Portfolio .764 .098 .031 .170 .015 .075

Awards .748 .092 -.036 -.055 .132 -.015
Reputation .739 .018 .245 .110 -.068 .026
Career .522 .216 -.022 -.079 .174 .458
Bonus .064 .907 -.029 .103 .057 -.011
Salary .183 .906 -.014 .088 .002 .009
Promo .493 .536 .021 .198 -.074 .050
Objectives .009 -.071 .762 -.071 .075 .005
Type .177 -.074 .696 .100 -.035 .168
Client .045 .064 .660 .082 .168 -.148
Profit -.116 .417 .527 .030 .378 -.071
Go Along -.002 -.101 .020 .744 .277 -.083
Feedback .023 .273 .032 .626 .032 .229
Super Approval .235 .285 -.007 .587 -.307 .115
Job done .219 .106 .194 .481 .191 -.416
Budget .097 .135 .081 -.018 .808 -.012
Deadline .043 -.120 .198 .253 .654 .083
Competition .117 -.019 .038 .137 .030 .828
Eigenvalue 2.42 2.40 1.92 1.73 1.53 1.21
% of variance 13.43 13.30 10.71 9.64 8.49 6.74
Cronbachs .69 .91 .58 .39 .49 .69
(italicized items)
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization. Rotation converged in 6 iterations.

type, inter-team competition, conformity, task comple- Cronbachs Alpha that comes very close to the .70
tion, salary, supervisory approval, bonuses, supervi- standard. Factor 2, with only 2 itemsbonus and sal-
sory feedback, budgets, career advancement, deadlines, arydue to the eliminating of the promotion item
award competitions, creative reputation, client approval, that cross-loaded on Factor 1, has an excellent
portfolio building, and promotion to a new position. Cronbachs Alpha of .91. Further, a CFA with the items
Participants were asked to evaluate these constructs in Factor 1 produced a chi-square of .06, df=2, p>.05,
by their relative effect on creative motivation with 2/df=.03, and a RMSE of .014, so it may be concluded
six-point scales: strong negative influence, moderate that Factor 1 is a valid measure of a construct.
negative influence, mild negative influence, weak posi- When these more relevant items are considered in
tive influence, moderate positive influence and combination with the items from the WPI Intrinsic-
strong positive influence (Table 5). The descriptive Challenge scale, it appears that the full spectrum of
statistics are reported in Table 6, and the correla- intrinsic and extrinsic motivation could be measured
tions in Table 7. Most notable are the correlations adequately. Therefore, a new, proposed scale of moti-
between award competitions, creative reputation vation to create advertising might be as follows:
and portfolio building, and between bonuses, sal- Intrinsic Motivation
ary, and a promotion. An exploratory factor analy- 1. The more difficult the problem, the more I
sis produced six factors (Table 8). Factor 1, enjoy trying to solve it.
eliminating career advancement that cross-loads on 2. I enjoy tackling problems that are completely
Factor 6, is composed of three itemsportfolio, new to me.
awards, and reputationand the factor has a
92 Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising

3. I enjoy trying to solve complex problems. Brownlow, Sheila, Natalie M. Gilbert, and Renee D. Reasinger (1997),
Motivation, Personality Preferences, and Interests in College
Extrinsic Motivation Students, Journal of Psychological Practice, 3 (April), 128-140.
1. I work hard to create advertising so I can Burgess, Mark, Michael E. Enzle, and Rodney Schmaltz (2004),
enter award competitions. Defeating the Potentially Deleterious Effects of Externally
Imposed Deadlines: Practitioners Rules of Thumb, Journal of
2. Building my portfolio is important to me. Personality and Social Psychology, 30 (July), 868-877.
3. I value what my peers think about my repu- Byrne, Barbara M. (2001), Structural Equation Modeling with AMOS:
tation as a creative talent. Basic Concepts, Applications, and Programming, Mahwah, NJ:
4. Its worth the effort if I get a bonus at the end Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Conti, Regina (2001), Time Flies: Investigating the Connection
of the year. between Intrinsic Motivation and the Experience of Time,
5. I am strongly motivated to earn more money. Journal of Personality, 69 (February), 1-26.
The three intrinsic-motivation items were taken di- Cooper, Randolph and Bandula Jayatilaka (2006), Group Creativ-
ity: The Effects of Extrinsic, Intrinsic, and Obligation Motiva-
rectly from the WPI. The extrinsic-motivation items tions, Creativity Research Journal, 18 (2), 153-172.
are newly written, based on the constructs tested here: Deci, Edward L. and Richard M. Ryan (1985), The General Causal-
award competitions, portfolio building, creative repu- ity Orientations Scale: Self-Determination in Personality,
tation, bonuses, and salary. The salary item is a sim- Journal of Research in Personality, 19 (June), 109-134.
Engel, James F., Martin R. Warshaw, Thomas C. Kinnear, and Bonnie B.
plification of Item 16 in the WPI. Reece (2000), Promotional Strategy: An Integrated Marketing Commu-
nication Approach, Cincinnati, OH: Pinnaflex Educational Resources.
Ensor, John, Angela Cottam, and Christine Band (2001), Fostering
Conclusion Knowledge Management through the Creative Work Envi-
ronment: A Portable Model from the Advertising Industry,
While reliability levels for the WPI were found to be Journal of Information Science, 27 (3), 147-155.
similar to the original research, this study indicated Gardner, Howard (1993), Creating Minds, New York: Basic Books.
that more development is needed, if the WPI is to be a Gelade, Gary A. (1997), Creativity in Conflict: The Personality of
reliable measure of motivation towards creativity in the Commercial Creative, Journal of Genetic Psychology, 158
(March), 67-79.
advertising. Additional evaluation of indicators more Hackman, Richard and Greg R. Oldham (1980), Work Redesign,
relevant to the creative production of advertising Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
showed promise for better results, and a new scale Hair, Joseph F., Bill Black, Barry Babin, Rolph E. Anderson, and
was proposed. More research is needed to test and Ronald L. Tatham (2006), Multivariate Data Analysis, 6th ed.,
London: Collier MacMillan.
confirm these scales. The importance of this study is Hennessey, Beth (2003), Is the Social Psychology of Creativity
that it examined the measurement of motivation to- Really Social? Moving Beyond the Focus of the Individual, in
wards creativity in the field of advertising for the first Group Creativity, Paul B. Paulus and Bernard A. Nijstad, eds.,
time. Its implication is that the more we know more New York: Oxford University Press,181-201.
Kirton, Michael (1976), Adaptors and Innovators: A Description
about what intrinsically and extrinsically motivates and Measure, Journal of Applied Psychology, 61, 622-629.
creative people in advertisingand the better tools Klebba, Joanne M. and Pamela Tierney (1995), Advertising Cre-
we have to evaluate these influencesthe better re- ativity: A Review and Empirical Investigation of External
searchers may study the effects of motivation and the Evaluation, Cognitive Style and Self-Perceptions of Creativ-
ity, Journal of Current Issues and Research, 17 (Fall), 33-52.
better the industry may promote conditions that en- Koslow, Scott, Sheila L. Sasser, and Edward A. Riordan (2003), What
hance positive outcomes. Is Creative to Whom and Why? Perceptions in Advertising
Agencies, Journal of Advertising Research, 43 (March), 96.
, , and (2006), Do Market-
References ers Get the Advertising They Need or the Advertising They
Deserve? Agency Views of how Clients Influence Creativity,
Albert, Robert S. (1990), Identity, Experience, and Career Choice Journal of Advertising, 35 (Fall), 81-102.
Among the Exceptionally Gifted and Eminent, in Theories of LexisNexis (2006), Advertising Red Books: Agencies, (January), New
Creativity, Mark A. Runco and Robert S. Albert, eds., Newbury Providence, NJ.
Park, CA: Sage Publications. Loo, Robert (2001), Motivational Orientations toward Work: An
Amabile, Teresa M. (1996), Creativity in Context, Boulder, CO: Evaluation of the Work Preference Inventory (Student Form),
Westview Press. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 33
Amabile, Teresa M., Karl G. Hill, Beth A. Hennessey, and Elizabeth (January), 222-233.
M. Tighe (1994), The Work Preference Inventory: Assessing Malka, Ariel and Jennifer A. Chatman (2003), Intrinsic and Extrin-
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivational Orientations, Journal of sic Work Orientations as Moderators of the Effect of Annual
Personality and Social Psychology, 66 (November), 950-967. Income on Subjective Well-Being: A Longitudinal Study,
, , , and Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29 (June), 737-746.
(1995), The Work Preference Inventory: Assessing Intrinsic Moeran, Brian (2005), Tricks of the Trade: The Performance and
and Extrinsic Motivational Orientations: Correction, Journal Interpretation of Authority, Journal of Management Studies, 42
of Personality and Social Psychology, 68 (April), 580. (July), 901-922.
Spring 2010 93

Moneta, Giovanni B. (2004), The Flow Model of Intrinsic Motiva- Sasser, Sheila L. (2006), Creativity, Innovation, and Integration in
tion in Chinese: Cultural and Personal Moderators, Journal of Global Advertising Agency Channel Relationships: Creativ-
Happiness Studies, 5 (June), 181-217. ity in the Real World, unpublished dissertation, Wayne State
Moneta, Giovanni B. and Christy M. Y. Siu (2002), Trait Intrinsic University, Detroit, Michigan, retrieved May 22, 2008, from
and Extrinsic Motivations, Academic Performance, and Cre- Dissertations and Theses full-text database (Publication No.
ativity in Hong Kong College Students, Journal of College AAT 3218294).
Student Development, 43 (Sept-Oct), 664-683. Sasser, Sheila L., Scott Koslow, and Edward A. Riordan (2007), Cre-
Nixon, Sean (2006), The Pursuit of Newness: Advertising, Cre- ative and Interactive Media Use by Agencies: Engaging an
ativity and the Narcissism of Minor Differences, Cultural Stud- IMC Media Palette for Implementing Advertising Campaigns,
ies, 20 (January), 89-106. Journal of Advertising Research, 47 (September), 237-255.
Nunnally, Jum C. (1978), Psychometric Theory, 2nd ed., New York: Stokes, Patricia D. (2006), Creativity from Constraints: The Psychology
McGraw-Hill. of Breakthrough, New York: Springer Publishing Company.
OConnor, Gina, Thomas. R. Willemain, and James MacLachlan Thomas, Kenneth. W. (2000), Intrinsic Motivation at Work, San Fran-
(1996), The Value of Competition among Agencies in Devel- cisco: Berrett-Koehler.
oping Ad Campaigns, Journal of Advertising, 25 (Spring), 51-63. Vanden Bergh, Bruce, Leonard N. Reid, and Gerald A. Schorin
Peterson, Robert A. (1994), A Meta-analysis of Cronbachs Coefficient (1983), How Many Creative Alternatives to Generate? Jour-
Alpha, Journal of Consumer Research, 21 (September), 381-391. nal of Advertising, 12 (4), 46-49.
Reid, Leonard N., Karen W. King, and Denise E. DeLorme (1998), West, Douglas C. (1993), Restricted Creativity: Advertising Agency
Top-level Agency Creatives Look at Advertising Creativity Work Practices in the U.S., Canada, and the U.K. Journal of
Then and Now, Journal of Advertising, 27 (Spring), 1-16. Creative Behavior, 27 (Third Quarter), 200-213.
Ryan, Richard M. and Edward L. Deci (2000), When Rewards Wiersma, Uco J. (1992), The Effects of Extrinsic Rewards in Intrin-
Compete with Nature: The Undermining of Intrinsic Motiva- sic Motivation: A Meta-analysis, Journal of Occupational and
tion and Self-regulation, in Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation, Organizational Psychology, 65 (June), 101-114.
Carol Sansone and Judith M. Harackiewicz, eds., San Diego:
Academic Press, 14-56.
Copyright of Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising is the property of CTC Press and its content
may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express
written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.