Limiting Agent

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Limiting Agent

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Just a bit below, I'm going to tell you (several times) how to determine the limiting reagent in a chemistry

problem. I certainly hope it is something you pay attention to and remember. Figuring out which substance

is the limiting reagent is an area that many students struggle with.

You will see the word "excess" used in this section and in the problems. It is used several different ways:

a) Compound A reacts with an excess of compound B. In this case, mentally set compound B aside for the

moment. Since it is "in excess," this means there is more than enough of it. The other compound will run out

first.

b) 20 grams of A and 20 grams of B react. Which is in excess? What we will do below is find out which

substance runs out first (called the limiting reagent). Obviously (I hope), the other compound is seen to be in

excess.

c) After 20 gm. of A and 20 gm. of B react, how much of the excess compound remains. To answer this

problem, we would subtract the limiting reagent amount from the excess amount.

It is simply the substance in a chemical reaction that runs out first. It seems to besimple, but it does cause

people problems. Let's try a simple example.

Reactant B is a stopper. I have 30 of them.

A + B ---> C

So now we let them "react." The first stopper goes in, the second goes in and so on. Step by step we use up

stoppers and test tubes (the amounts go down) and make stoppered test tubes (the amount goes up).

Suddently, we run out of one of the "reactants." Which one? That's right. We run out of test tubes first.

Seems obvious, doesn't it? We had 20 test tubes, but we had 30 stoppers. So when the test tubes are used up,

we have 10 stoppers sitting there unused. And we also have 20 test tubes with stoppers firmly inserted.

So, which "reactant" is limiting and which is in excess? The test tubes are limiting (they ran out first) and the

stoppers are in excess (we have some left over when the limiting reagent ran out).

There is a technique to determine the limiting reagent in chemical problems. It's discussed as part of the

solution to the first example. Make sure you take a close look at it.

Example #1: Here's a nice limiting reagent problem we will use for discussion. Consider the reaction:

Determine the limiting reagent and the theoretical yield of the product if one starts with:

b) 1.20 g Al and 2.40 g iodine

c) How many grams of Al are left over in part b?

take the moles of each substance and divide it by the coefficient of the balanced equation. The substance that

has the smallest answer is the limiting reagent.

to find the limiting reagent, take the moles of each substance and divide it by the coefficient of the

balanced equation. The substance that has the smallest answer is the limiting reagent.

By the way, did you notice that I bolded the technique to find the limiting reagent? I did this so as to

emphasize its importance to you when learning how to do limiting reagent problems.

For iodine: 2.40 / 3 = 0.80

The lowest number indicates the limiting reagent. Aluminum will run out first in part a.

Why? 1.20/2 means there are 0.60 "groupings" of 2 and 2.40/3 means there are 0.80 "groupings" of 3. If

they ran out at the same time, we'd need one "grouping" of each. Since there is less of the "grouping of 2," it

will run out first.

If you're not sure what I just said, that's OK. The technique works, so remember it and use it.

The second part of the question "theoretical yield" depends on finding out the limiting reagent. Once we do

that, it becomes a stoichiometric calculation.

Al and AlI3 stand in a one-to-one molar relationship, so 1.20 mol of Al produces 1.20 mol of AlI3. Notice

that the amount of I2 does not play a role, since it is in excess.

Since we have grams, we must first convert to moles. The we solve just as we did in part a just above.

iodine is 2.4 g / 253.8 g mol1 = 0.009456 mol

aluminum is 0.04477 / 2 = 0.02238

iodine is 0.009456 / 3 = 0.003152

Finally, we have to do a calculation and it will involve the iodine, NOT the aluminum.

I2 and AlI3 stand in a three-to-two molar relationship, so 0.009456 mol of I2 produces 0.006304 mol of AlI3.

Again, notice that the amount of Al does not play a role, since it is in excess.

From here figure out the grams of AlI3 and you have your answer.

Al and I2 stand in a two-to-three molar relationship, so 0.009456 mol of I2 uses 0.006304 mol of Al.

Convert this aluminum amount to grams and subtract it from 1.20 g and that's the answer.

Just above was some discussion on how to determine the limiting reagent in a chemistry problem. Through

experience, I have learned that this particular thing (determine the limiting reagent) is a real stumbling block

for students. You might have to resort to memorizing what to do without fully understanding the reasoning

behind it.

Example #2: 15.00 g aluminum sulfide and 10.00 g water react until the limiting reagent is used up. Here is

the balanced equation for the reaction:

(B) What is the maximum mass of H2S which can be formed from these reagents?

(C) How much excess reagent remains after the reaction is complete?

The key to this problem is the limiting reagent, part A. Once you know that, part B becomes "How much

H2S can be made from the limiting reagent?" Part C becomes two connected questions: first, "How much

Al2S3 is used up when reacting with the limiting reagent?" then second, "What is 15.00 minus the amount in

the first part?"

Make sure you note that second part. The calculation gives you the answer to "How much reacted?" but the

question is "How much remained?" Lots of students forget to do the second part (the 15 minus part) and so

get graded down.

Note: I'm carrying a guard digit or two through the calculations. The final answers will appear with the

proper number of significant figures.

aluminum sulfide: 15.00 g 150.158 g/mol = 0.099895 mol

water: 10.00 g 18.015 g/mol = 0.555093 mol

water: 0.555093 mol 6 mol = 0.0925155

Now that we know the limiting reagent is water, this problem becomes "How much H2S is produced from

10.00 g of H2O and excess aluminum sulfide?"

2) Use molar ratios to determine moles of H2S produced from above amount of water.

(b) water is associated with the two. This means the H2S amount is one-half the water value = 0.2775465

mol.

We will use the amount of water to calculate how much Al2S3 reacts, then subtract that amount from 15.00 g.

2) Use molar ratios to determine moles of Al2S3 that reacts with the above amount of water.

(b) water is associated with the 6. This means the Al2S3 amount is one-sixth the water value = 0.09251447

mol

4) However, we are not done. We were asked for the amount remaining and the answer just above is the

amount which was used up, so the final step is:

Example #3: If there is 35.0 grams of C6H10 and 45.0 grams of O2, how many grams of the excess reagent

will remain after the reaction ceases?

2C6H10 + 17O2 ---> 12CO2 + 10H2O

Solution:

O2: 45.0 g / 31.998 g/mol = 1.406 mol

O2: 1.406 mol / 17 = 0.083

Comment: the units don't matter in this step. What we are looking for is the smallest number after carrying

out the divisions. The 0.083 is the important thing. Not if it has a unit attached to it or not.

3) Determine how many moles of the excess reagent is used up when the limiting reagent is fully consumed:

0.2606 mol times 58.123 g/mol = 15.1 g remaining (to three sig figs)

Example #4: (a) What mass of Al2O3 can be produced from the reaction of 10.0 g of Al and 19.0 g of O3?

(b) How much of the excess reagent remains unreacted?

Solution to a:

O3 ---> 19.0 g / 47.997 g/mol = 0.39586 mol

O3 ---> 0.39586 / 1 = 0.39586

4) Determine moles of product formed:

2 is to 1 as 0.37062 mol is to x

x = 0.18531 mol

Solution to b:

Al to O3 molar ratio is 2 to 1

2 is to 1 as 0.37062 mol is to x

x = 0.18531 mol

0.21055 mol times 47.997 g/mol = 10.1 g (to three sig figs)

Calculate the number of excess reagent units remaining when 28 C4H8 molecules and 228 O2 molecules

react?

Solution:

Remember, numbers are just like moles, so treating the 28 and 228 as moles is perfectly acceptable.

butane: 28 / 1 = 28

oxygen: 228 / 6 = 38

28 x 6 = 168 oxygen molecules react

228 - 168 = 60

The 38 above means that there are 38 "groupings" of six oxygen molecules.

10 x 6 = 60

Bonus Example #1: Determine the starting mass of each reactant if 46.3 of K3PO4 is produced and 92.8 of

H3PO4 remains unreacted.

Solution:

1) The fact that some phosphoric acid remains tells us it is the excess reagent. Let us determine the amount

of KOH (the limiting reagent) required to produce the 46.3 g of K3PO4.

0.6543738 mol times 56.1049 g/mol = 36.7 g (to thee sig figs)

0.2181246 mol of K3PO4 requires 0.2181246 mol of H3PO4 based on the 1:1 molar ratio from the balanced

equation.

0.2181246 mol times 97.9937 g/mol = 21.4 g (to three sig figs)

Solution:

1) Convert everything into moles, by dividing each 5.00 g by their respective molar masses:

Na2B4O7 ---> 0.02485 M

H2SO4 ---> 0.05097 M

H2O ---> 0.2775 M

2) Note that there are three reactants. How is the limiting reagent determined when there are three reactants?

Answer: determine the limiting reagent between the first two:

H2SO4 ---> 0.05097 / 1 = 0.05097

H2O ---> 0.2775 / 5 = 0.0555

there are 10.0 g of sucrose and 10.0 g of oxygen reacting. Which is the limiting reagent?

From the coefficients, we see that 12 moles of oxygen are require for every one mole of sucrose. Therefore:

Since the oxygen required is greater than that on hand, it will run out before the sucrose. Oxygen is the

limiting reagent.

1) Calculate moles:

oxygen 0.3125 mol

sucrose 0.0292146 mol / 1 mol = 0.0292146

oxygen 0.3125 mol / 12 mol = 0.02604

The second method above will be the preferred method to determine the limiting reagent in the following

problems.

Problem #2: Calculate the number of NaBr formula units formed when 50 NBr3 molecules and 57 NaOH

formula units react?

Solution:

Comment: we can treat numbers of molecules or formula units in the exact same manner as we would use

moles. Keep in mind that the meaning of one mole is that 6.022 x 1023 of that entity (be it molecules or

formula units) is present.

NBr3 50 "moles" / 2 = 25

NaOH 57 "moles" / 3 = 19

Note that there need be no conversion from grams to moles. Discussions of numbers of molecules uses

numbers that are directly proportional to the number of moles and do not need to be converted.

3 is to 3 as 57 is to x

x = 57 "moles"

Comment: when I was in the classroom, teaching the technique for determining the limiting reagent, I would

warn against using the results of the division, in this case the 19 for the NaOH, in the next step of the

calculation. The 19 is good only for determining the limiting reagent. You need to use the 57 in the next step.

Yep, I used the 19 when I should have used the 57. It stayed that way for several years, undetected until

August 2013, when a student caught it. Thanks, T.

Problem #3: Aluminum reacts with chlorine gas to form aluminum chloride via the following reaction:

How many grams of aluminum chloride could be produced from 34.0 g of aluminum and 39.0 g of chlorine

gas?

Solution:

Cl2 39.0 g / 70.906 g/mol = 0.5500 mol

Al 1.2602 mol / 2 =

Cl2 0.5500 mol / 3 =

Seems pretty obvious that chlorine gas is the limiting reagent. In a situation like this, you don't have to finish

the problem unless it's on a test and the teachers wants it finished!

3 is to 2 as 0.5500 mol is to x

3) Convert to grams:

0.3667 mol times 133.341 g/mol = 48.9 g (to three sig fig)

Why don't you determine the mass of aluminum that remains after the reaction ceases by using the proper

molar ratio?

It only works this second way if you have mass data on every substance in the reaction. Look back at the

first problem in this file and you'll see you can't do it using this second way because you don't know

anything about the mass of carbon dioxide produced. In that problem, you have to use the molar ratio way.

Problem #4: Interpret reactions in terms of representative particles, then write balanced chemical equations

and compare with your results. Determine limiting and excess reagent and the amount of unreacted excess

reactant.

b) 7 molecules of hydrogen and 2 molecules of nitrogen gases react to produce ammonia

c) 4 molecules of hydrogen and 5 molecules of chlorine react.

Solution to a:

2) Write the carbon-hydrogen molar ratio:

1:2

Remember that this ratio can also be understood in terms of atoms and molecules. Thusly:

carbon 3/1 = 3

hydrogen 4/2 = 2

1 is to 2 as x is to 4

x=2

Answers to c:

Problem #5: Suppose 316.0 g aluminum sulfide reacts with 493.0 g of water. What mass of the excess

reactant remains?

Solution:

Al2S3 316.0 g / 150.159 g/mol = 2.104436 mol

H2O 493.0 g / 18.015 g/mol = 27.366 mol

H2O 27.366 / 6 = 4.561

1 is to 6 as 2.104436 mol is to x

4) Determine excess:

Notice how the question only asks about the excess reagent, but you have to go through the entire set of

steps (determine moles, determine limiting reagent, use molar ratio) to get to the answer. Tricky!

6.088 g CaCO3 reacted with 2.852 g HCl. What mass of CaCO3 remains unreacted?

Solution:

HCl 2.852 g / 36.461 g/mol = 0.0782206 mol

By inspection, we see that HCl is the limiting reagent. (Mentally divide both values by their respective

coefficient from the equation to see this.)

Wouldn't that have been cute if you just assumed the HCl was limiting and the question writer made it a bit

of a trick question by making the calcium carbonate limiting?

1 is to 2 as x is to 0.0782206 mol

x = 0.0391103 mol

6.088 g minus 3.914 g = 2.174 g

Problem #7: How many grams of PF5 can be formed from 9.46 g of PF3 and 9.42 g of XeF4 in the following

reaction?

Solution:

1) Determine moles:

XeF4 9.42 g / 207.282 g/mol = 0.045445 mol

XeF4 0.045445 / 1 = 0.045445

XeF4 is limiting

1 is to 2 as 0.045445 mol is to x

Problem #8: How many grams of IF5 would be produced using 44.01 grams of I2O5 and 101.0 grams of

BrF3?

Solution:

1) Determine moles:

BrF3 101.0 g / 136.898 g/mol = 0.7377756 mol

BrF3 0.7377756 / 20 = 0.03688878

I2O5 is limiting.

The ratio is 6 to 12, so I'll use 1 to 2

1 is to 2 as 0.1318474 mol is to x

Problem #9: 950.0 grams of copper(II) sulfate are reacted with 460.0 grams of zinc metal. (a) What is the

theoretical yield of Cu? (b) If 295.8 grams of copper are actually obtained from this reaction, what is the

percent yield?

Solution to a:

Zn 460.0 g / 65.38 g/mol = 7.03579 mol

CuSO4 is limiting.

The coefficients of Zn and CuSO4 are both one, so I just eliminted the whole 'divide by 1' thing.

Solution to b:

Problem #10: What weight of each substance is present after 0.4500 g of P4O10 and 1.5000 g of PCl5 are

reacted completely?

Solution:

1) Determine moles:

PCl5 1.5000 / 208.239 g/mol = 0.00720326 mol

2) Determine limiting reagent:

PCl5 0.00720326 / 6 = 0.00120054

PCl5 is limiting.

1 is to 6 as x is to 0.00720326 mol

3 is to 5 as 0.00720326 mol is to x

Problem #11: The equation for the reduction of iron ore in a blast furnace is given below. (a) How many

kilograms of iron can be produced by the reaction of 7.00 kg of Fe2O3 and 3.00 kg of CO? (b) How many

kilograms of the excess reagent remains after reaction has ceased?

Solution to a:

CO 3000 g / 28.01 g/mol = 107.105 mol

CO 107.105 mol / 3 mo = 35.702

3 is to 2 as 107.105 mol is to x

3) Convert to kilograms of Fe:

Solution to b:

1 is to 3 as x is to 107.105 mol

Problem #12: The reaction of 4.25 g of Cl2 with 2.20 g of P4 produces 4.28 g of PCl5. What is the percent

yield?

Solution:

Cl2 4.25 g / 70.906 g/mol = 0.0599385 mol

P4 0.0177568 / 1 = 0.0177568

Cl2 0.0599385 / 10 = 0.00599385

5 is to 2 as 0.0599385 is to x

(4.28 g / 4.99 g) x 100 = 85.8%

Notice how asking about percent yield (oh, so innocuous!) forces you to go through an entire limiting

reagent calculation first.

Problem #13: 35.5 g SiO2 and 66.5 g of HF react to yield 45.8 g H2SiF6 in the folowing equation:

a. How much mass of the excess reactant remains after reaction ceases?

b. What is the theoretical yield of H2SiF6 in grams?

c. What is the percent yield?

Solution to a:

1) Must determine limiting reagent first (even is it not asked for in the question):

HF 66.5 g / 20.0059 g/mol = 3.324 mol

HF 3.324 mol / 6 mol = 0.554

HF is limiting.

1 is to 6 as x is to 3.324 mol

0.03684 mol times 60.084 g/mol = 2.21 g (to three sig figs)

Solution to b:

0.59084 mol times 144.0898 g/mol = 85.1 g (to three sig figs)

Solution to c:

Problem #14: Gaseous ethane reacts with gaseous dioxygen to produce gaseous carbon dioxide and gaseous

water.

a) Suppose a chemist mixes 13.8 g of ethane and 45.8 g of dioxygen. Calculate the theoretical yield of water.

b) Suppose the reaction actually produces 14.2 grams of water . Calculate the percent yield of water.

Solution to a:

O2 45.8 g / 31.9988 g/mol = 1.4313 mol

O2 1.4313 / 7 = 0.20447

Oxygen is limiting.

7 is to 6 as 1.4313 mol is to x

1.2268286 mol times 18.015 g/mol = 22.1 g (to three sig figs)

Solution to b:

Problem #15: A 0.972-g sample of a CaCl2 2H2O and K2C2O4 H2O solid salt mixture is dissolved in 150

mL of deionized water, previously adjusted to a pH that is basic. The precipitate, after having been filtered

and air-dried, has a mass of 0.375 g. The limiting reactant in the salt mixture was later determined to be

CaCl2 2H2O

a. How many grams of the excess reactant, K2C2O4 H2O, reacted in the mixture?

c. How many grams of the K2C2O4 H2O in the salt mixture remain unaffected?

Solution to a:

CaCl2 + K2C2O4 ---> CaC2O4 + 2KCl

Solution to b:

Solution to c:

Problem #16: The reaction of 15.0 g C4H9OH, 22.4 g NaBr, and 32.7 g H2SO4 yields 17.1 g C4H9Br in the

reaction below:

Determine:

(b) the actual percent yield of C4H9Br

c) the masses of leftover reactants, if any

Solution to a:

1) Determine the limiting reagent bewteen the first two reagents (the third reagent will be dealt with in step

2):

NaBr 22.4 g / 102.894 g/mol = 0.217700 mol

C4H9OH 0.202369 /1 =

NaBr 0.217700 / 1 =

H2SO4 32.7 g / 98.0768 g/mol = 0.333412 mol

C4H9OH 0.202369 /1 =

H2SO4 0.333412 / 1 =

Overall, the above process shows that the limiting reagent for the entire reaction is C4H9OH.

0.202369 mol times 137.019 g/mol = 27.7 g (to three sig figs)

Solution to b:

Solution to c:

2) Therefore:

The solution for sulfuric acid follows the same path as for NaBr. Conversion to grams is left to the reader.

Problem #17: Ozone (O3) reacts with nitric oxide (NO) dishcarged from jet planes to form oxygen gas and

nitrogen dioxide. 0.740 g of ozone reacts with 0.670 g of nitric oxide. Determine the identity and quantity of

the reactant supplied in excess.

Solution:

1) Wrte the balanced chemical equation:

NO + O3 ---> NO2 + O2

2) Calculate moles:

O3 0.740 g / 47.997 g/mol = 0.0154176 mol

NO and O3 are in a 1:1 molar ratio. O3 is limiting, making NO the compound in excess

Based on the 1:1 ratio, we know 0.0154176 mol of NO is used up. Therefore:

0.0223289 mol minus 0.0154176 mol = 0.0069113 mol of NO remaining

0.0069113 mol times 30.006 g/mol = 0.207 g (to three significant figures)

Problem #18: If 1.24 g of P4 reacts with 0.12 g of H2, to give 1.25 g of PH3, determine percent yield.

Solution:

0.12 g / 2.016 g/mol = 0.059524 mol

0.059524 / 1.5 = 0.039683

H2, by a nose!

4) Determine moles of PH3 that can be made from 0.059524 mol of H2:

x = 0.039683 mol

0.039683 mol times 33.9977 g/mol = 1.35 g (to three sig figs)

6) Percent yield:

Moles-Moles

Example #1: if we have 2.00 mol of N2 reacting with sufficient H2, how many moles of NH3 will be

produced?

Solution Comments

1. The ratio from the problem will have N2 and NH3 in it.

2. How do you know which number goes on top or bottom in the ratios? Answer: it does not matter,

except that you observe the next point ALL THE TIME.

3. When making the two ratios, be 100% certain that numbers are in the same relative positions. For

example, if the value associated with NH3 is in the numerator, then MAKE SURE it is in both

numerators.

4. Use the coefficients of the two substances to make the ratio from the equation.

5. Why isn't H2 involved in the problem? Answer: The word "sufficient" removes it from consideration.

Example #2: Suppose 6.00 mol of H2 reacted with sufficient nitrogen. How many moles of ammonia would

be produced?

That means the ratio from the equation is:

Example #3: We want to produce 2.75 mol of NH3. How many moles of nitrogen would be required?

Before the solution, a brief comment: notice that hydrogen IS NOT mentioned in this problem. If any

substance ISN'T mentioned in the problem, then assume there is a sufficient quantity of it on hand. Since

that substance isn't part of the problem, then it's not part of the solution.

Solving by cross-multiplying and dividing (plus rounding off to three significant figures) gives x = 1.38 mol

of N2 needed.

Example #4: How many moles of H2O are produced when 5.00 moles of oxygen are used?

Example #5: If 3.00 moles of H2O are produced, how many moles of oxygen must be consumed?

Example #6: How many moles of hydrogen gas must be used, given the data in example #5?

Example #4: How many moles of H2O are produced when 5.00 moles of oxygen are used?

The molar ratio from the problem data is:

Example #5: If 3.00 moles of H2O are produced, how many moles of oxygen must be consumed?

Example #6: How many moles of hydrogen gas must be used, given the data in example #5?

Solution #1: Here are the two substances in the molar ratio I used:

Notice that the above solution used the answer from example #5. The solution below uses the information

given in the original problem:

Solution #2: The H2 / H2O ratio of 2/2 could have been used also. In that case, the ratio from the problem

would have been 3.00 over x, since you were now using the water data and not the oxygen data.

Example #1: 1.50 mol of KClO3 decomposes. How many grams of O2 will be produced?

That means the ratio from the equation is:

2.25 mol x 32.0 g/mol = 72.0 grams. The 32.0 g/mol is the molar mass of O2.

Example #2: If 80.0 grams of O2 was produced, how many moles of KClO3 decomposed?

The 2.50 mole came from 80.0 g 32.0 g/mol. The 32.0 g/mol is the molar mass of O2. Be careful to keep in

mind that oxygen is O2, not just O.

Example #3: We want to produce 2.75 mol of KCl. How many grams of KClO3 would be required?

Hopefully, it's pretty easy to see that 2.75 mol of KClO3 are needed. However, the question wants grams for

an answer.

2.75 mol times 122.55 g/mol = 337 grams completes the task. The 122.55 g/mol is the molar mass of KClO3.

Example #4: How many grams of H2O are produced when 2.50 moles of oxygen are used?

5.00 mol of water is produced, but since the problem asks for grams, we multiply by 18.0 g/mol (the molar

mass of water) to get the final answer of 90.0 g.

Example #5: If 3.00 moles of H2O are produced, how many grams of oxygen must be consumed?

We know that 1.50 mol of O2 was consumed, so multiplying that by 32.0 g/mol gives 48.0 g.

Example #6: How many grams of hydrogen gas must be used, given the data in example #5?

The H2 / H2O ratio of 2/2 could have been used also. In that case, the ratio from the problem would have

been 3.00 over x, since you were now using the water data and not the oxygen data.

3.00 mol times 2.02 g/mol (the molar mass of hydrogen) gives 6.06 g.

1. Make sure you are working with a properly balanced chemical equation.

3. Construct two ratios - one from the problem and one from the chemical equation and set them equal.

The ratio from the problem will have an unknown, 'x.' Solve for "x."

Comments

1. Double check the equation. The ChemTeam has seen lots of students go right ahead and solve using

the unbalanced equation supplied in the problem (or test question for that matter).

2. DON'T use the same molar mass in steps two and four. Your teacher is aware of this and, on a

multiple choice test, will provide the answer arrived at by making this mistake. You have been

warned!

3. Don't multiply the molar mass of a substance by the coefficient in the problem BEFORE using it in

one of the steps above. For example, if the formula says 2H2O in the chemical equation, DON'T use

36.0 g/mol, use 18.0 g/mol.

4. Don't round off until the very last answer. In other words, don't clear your calculator after step two

and write down a value of 3 or 4 significant figures to use in the next step. Round off only once after

all calculations are done.

STOP!!!

Go back to the start of this file and re-read it. Notice that I give four steps (and some advice) in how to solve

the example problems just below. My advice is to keep going back to those steps as you examine the

samples below.

Here is an image of the steps involved in solving mass-mass problems. It is offered without comment.

As you can see, the bottom portion includes mass-volume problems. These type problems are not discussed

in this file, but in another.

Example #1: How many grams of chlorine can be liberated from the decomposition of 64.0 g. of AuCl3 by

this reaction:

Solution:

I picked AuCl3 to convert from grams to moles because a gram amount of AuCl3 was provided in the

problem. The ChemTeam has heard many variations of this:

AuCl3Cl2

23 = 0.210998 molx <--- the 2/3 comes from the coefficients of the balanced equation

This is the hardest step. Constructing the proper ratio and proportion appears to be hard to understand.

One question I often get is "Where did the value of 303.32 come from?" Answer - it's the molar mass of

AuCl3. Keep this answer in mind as you wonder about where other numbers come from in a given solution.

You might also want to consider looking at the solution to the problem and try to fit it to the list of steps

given above. I know what I am suggesting is horrible and very mean, but then, I'm a teacher. What the heck

do I know?

Example #2: Calculate the mass of AgCl that can be prepared from 200. g of AlCl3 and sufficient AgNO3,

using this equation:

Solution:

200. g133.341 g/mol = 1.499914 mol of AlCl3 <--- look for the substance has a gram amount associated

with it

AgClAlCl3

31 = x1.499914 mol

The 'x' in the right-hand ratio comes from the substance we are trying to calculate an amount for. Look for

phrases like "Calculate the mass of . . ." or "Determine the mass of . . . "above

By the way, what if you had used the ratio of 1 over 3, with the AlCl3 value in the numerator? Then, the

other ratio would have been reversed and the answer would have been the same. The ratio and proportion

would have looked like this:

13 = 1.499914 molx

Solution:

3) Construct a ratio and proportion:

This ratio:

21

0.180725 molx

comes from a consideration of the data in the problem. The ratio and proportion to solve is this:

21 = 0.180725 molx

The substance associated with the 'x' is not the one for which the grams are given.

Example #4: If 92.0 g of aluminum is produced, how many grams of aluminum nitrate reacted?

Solution:

AlAl(NO3)3

22 = 3.4099 molx

There will be a real temptation in the next step to use the wrong molar mass

It is quite common in a problem like this for the student to use the molar mass of Al in this step. I think it is

because they see the same value (the 3.4099 mol) in this step as in the second step. The conclusion is that it

must be the same substance. And that is in error.

In the second step, we had 3.4099 mol of aluminum, but after solving the ratio and proportion, we now have

3.4099 mol of aluminum nitrate.

Be careful on the point, especially if the amount you got at the end equals the amount you had at the

beginning (the 92 grams).

Example #5: How many grams of AuCl3 can be made from 100.0 grams of chlorine by this reaction:

Solution:

Notice that the element chlorine is diatomic. Students sometimes forget to write the seven diatomics with the

subscripted two: H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2

32 = 1.41032 molx

x = 0.940213 mol

Notice that the values associated with chlorine (3 and 1.41032) are in the numerator and the values

associated with gold(III) chloride (2 and x) are in the denominator. If you were to flip one ratio, you'd have

to flip the other.

1. Given the following equation: 2 C4H10 + 13 O2 ---> 8 CO2 + 10 H2O, show what the following molar

ratios should be.

a. C4H10 / O2

b. O2 / CO2

c. O2 / H2O

d. C4H10 / CO2

e. C4H10 / H2O

How many moles of O2 can be produced by letting 12.00 moles of KClO3 react?

How many grams of KCl is produced from 2.50 g of K and excess Cl2. From 1.00 g of Cl2 and excess K?

How many grams of NaOH is produced from 1.20 x 102 grams of Na2O? How many grams of Na2O are

required to produce 1.60 x 102 grams of NaOH?

What mass of iron is needed to react with 16.0 grams of sulfur? How many grams of FeS are produced?

12.00 moles of NaClO3 will produce how many grams of O2? How many grams of NaCl are produced when

80.0 grams of O2 are produced?

How many moles of Cu are needed to react with 3.50 moles of AgNO3? If 89.5 grams of Ag were produced,

how many grams of Cu reacted?

8. Molten iron and carbon monoxide are produced in a blast furnace by the reaction of iron(III) oxide and

coke (pure carbon). If 25.0 kilograms of pure Fe2O3 is used, how many kilograms of iron can be produced?

The reaction is: Fe2O3 + 3 C ---> 2 Fe + 3 CO

9. The average human requires 120.0 grams of glucose (C6H12O6) per day. How many grams of CO2 (in the

photosynthesis reaction) are required for this amount of glucose? The photosynthetic reaction is: 6 CO2 + 6

H2O ---> C6H12O6 + 6 O2

10. Given the reaction: 4 NH3 (g) + 5 O2 (g) ---> 4 NO (g) + 6 H2O (l)

When 1.20 mole of ammonia reacts, the total number of moles of products formed is:

1.

a. 2 / 13

b. 13 / 8

c. 13 / 10

d. 2 / 8 (or 1 / 4)

e. 2 / 10 (or 1 / 5)

x = 18.00 mol of O2

How many grams of KCl is produced from 2.50 g of K and excess Cl2.

From 1.00 g of Cl2 and excess K?

How many grams of NaOH is produced from 1.20 x 102 grams of Na2O?

How many grams of Na2O are required to produce 1.60 x 102 grams of NaOH?

5. Given the following equation: 8 Fe + S8 ---> 8 FeS

How many grams of NaCl are produced when 80.0 grams of O2 are produced?

How many moles of Cu are needed to react with 3.50 moles of AgNO3?

8. Molten iron and carbon monoxide are produced in a blast furnace by the reaction of iron(III) oxide and

coke (pure carbon). If 25.0 kilograms of pure Fe2O3 is used, how many kilograms of iron can be produced?

The reaction is: Fe2O3 + 3 C ---> 2 Fe + 3 CO

9. The average human requires 120.0 grams of glucose (C6H12O6) per day. How many grams of CO2 (in the

photosynthesis reaction) are required for this amount of glucose? The photosynthetic reaction is: 6 CO2 + 6

H2O ---> C6H12O6 + 6 O2

This problem is slightly different from those above.

10. Given the reaction: 4 NH3 (g) + 5 O2 (g) ---> 4 NO (g) + 6 H2O (l)

When 1.20 mole of ammonia reacts, the total number of moles of products formed is:

4 / 10 = 1.20 / x

x = 3.00 mol

Brief Introduction: The key point to look for are the conditions of temperature and pressure. If they remain

constant, you may treat the volumes in the same manner you treat moles. This is because, under conditions

of constant T and P, the volumes are directly proportional to the moles. This is discussed in several of the

problem solutions below.

While the great majority of volume-based stoichiometry problems are phrased in terms of constant T and P,

they do not have to be. You can see this in problems 1b and 9, just below. If you have changing conditions of

T and P, you, in general, will do this:

(1) Convert volme to moles using PV = nRT and the initial set of T and P

(2) Use a ratio and proportion to determine moles of other substance involved in problem

(3) Use PV = nRT with new T and P as well as moles of substance from step 2. You will calculate a new

volume.

Be prepared! Your teacher could teach the situation where T and P do not change, then test on the situation

where T and P do change.

Problem #1: The equation for the combustion of methane is: CH4 + 2O2 ---> 2H2O + CO2

a) If 50.0 L of methane at STP are burned, what volume of carbon dioxide will be produced at STP?

b) If 50.0 L of methane at RTP are burned, what volume of gaseous water at STP is produced?

Solution to a:

Because everything occurs at STP, the volumes are directly proportional to the moles of reactant used and

product produced. Why?

n / V = P/RT

Everything on the right side is constant, so the n:V ratio must also be constant. That means that volume is

directly proportional to the number of moles of gas.

Since there is a 1:1 molar ratio between CH4 and CO2, the answer is 50.0 L

Solution to b:

n = 2.044665 mol

Note: in this problem, I am taking room temperature to be 25.0 C since RTP means room temperature and

pressure.

1 is to 2 as 2.044665 mol is to x

(1.00 atm) (V) = (4.08933 mol) (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (273 K)

V = 91.61 L

BTW, I know liquid water is produced in the reaction. I am pretending it is gaseous water simply for

calculational purposes.

Problem #2: Given the following equation: C(s) + 2H2(g) ---> CH4(g)

Solution:

Equal volumes of gas at equal temperature and pressure contain equal moles

2:1

x = 40.0 L of hydrogen

Problem #3: 2.35 L of oxygen gas reacts with 3.72 L of hydrogen gas, forming water. How many liters of

the excess reactant will remain? If 2.50 L of water were actually produced, what would be the percent yield?

Solution:

hydrogen: 3.72 / 2 = 1.86

Please note that no mention of temperature or pressue is made in the problem. This means that everything

takes place at an unchanged temperature and pressure. Consequently, those two values remain constant and

drop out of consideration. We do not need moles because, in a situation of constant temperature and

pressure, the volumes are directly proportional to the number of moles.

Besides which, we cannot even calculate moles since we do not know the temperature or the pressure.

2 is to 1 as 3.72 is to x

4) Percent yield:

Problem #4: How much air is needed (in m3, at 25.0 C, 1.00 atm) to completely burn 10.0 moles of

propane (C3H8). Assume that the air is composed of 21.0% O2.

Solution:

C3H8 + 5O2 ---> 3CO2 + 4H2O

1 is to 5 as 10.0 is to x

3) Use PV = nRT to convert mol of oxygen to liters of oxygen at the conditions stated in the problem:

(1.00 atm) (V) = (50.0 mol) (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (298 K)

V = 1222.694 L

1 m3 = 1000 dm3

Problem #5: Propane (C3H8) burns in oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water vapor. What volume of

carbon dioxide is produced when 2.80 liters of oxygen are consumed.

Solution:

Since no T or P is given, we assume the reaction happens at constant temp and press.

That means that the coefficients of the balanced equation represent the volumetric ratio that the substances

react in.

x = 1.68 L

If we assumed the T and P changed in the reaction, we would not be able to solve the problem. However, do

not make this assumption. Your teacher would be displeased.

Calculate the volume of air that is required to burn 10.0 L of methane when both are at the same temperature

and pressure. Assume that air is 20.0 percent oxygen by volume.

Solution:

The coefficients give the molar ratio that methane and oxygen react in when at the same T and P.

1 is to 2 as 10.0 is to x

Problem #7: Nitrogen monoxide reacts with oxygen according to the equation below:

How many liters of NO (reacting with excess oxygen) are required to produce 3.0 liters of NO2?

Solution:

2:1

2 is to 1 as x is to 3.0 L

x = 6.0 L of NO required

By now, you should know what no mention of temperature or pressure means for solving the problem.

Problem #8: If stoichiometric quantities of X and Y are placed in a sealed flexible container with an initial

volume of 30.0 L at STP, what volume of Z will be produced? (X, Y, and Z, are all present in the gaseous

state)

2X + Y ---> Z

Solution:

Seeing as they are all gases, a mole ratio is equal to the volume ratio:

2X + Y = 30.0 L

X : Y = 2 : 1 = 20L : 10L

n(Y) = n(Z)

I copied this answer from Yahoo Answers, so it might read in a slightly different style from my own.

Problem #9: 200.0 liters of H2 reacting at 25.0 C and 751.0 torr will require how many liters of O2 at STP?

Solution:

(751.0 torr / 760.0 torr/atm) (200.0 L = (n) (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (298 K)

n = 8.0818 mol

2 is to 1 as 8.0818 ml is to x

(1.00 atm) (V) = (4.0409 mol) (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (273 K)

V = 90.52 L

Problem #10: A mixture is prepared using 12.0 L of NH3 and 12.0 L of Cl2, both measured at the same

conditions. These substances react according to the following equation:

When the reaction is completed, what is the volume of each gas (NH3, Cl2, N2 and HCl, respectively)?

Assume the final volumes are measured under identical conditions.

Solution:

ammonia: 12 / 2 = 6

chlorine: 12 / 3 = 4

Remember, I can treat the volumes in the same way I would moles. This is because, at constant T and P, the

volumes are directly proportional to the number of moles.

2 is to 3 as x is to 12

x = 8.0 L of ammonia used

Zero!

3 is to 1 as 12 is to x

x = 4.0 L

3 is to 6 as 12 is to x

x = 24.0 L

Problem #1: How many liters of O2 gas measured at 782.0 mmHg at 25.0 C are required to completely

react with 2.40 mol Al?

4 Al + 3 O2 ---> 2 Al2O3

Solution:

the molar ratio for Al and O2 is 4 to 3, so we set up the following ratio and proportion:

PV = nRT V = nRT / P

x = 42.8 L

Problem #2: What volume of carbon dioxide, at 1.00 atm and 112.0 C, will be produced when 80.0 grams

of methane (CH4) is burned?

If we wished to determine the volume of O2 required, we would use 9.9732 mol. This is because of the 1:2

molar ratio between methane and oxygen. To burn 4.9866 mol of methane requires 9.9732 mol of oxygen.

Using PV = nRT, this is 315 L (I doubled the 157.5 figure from the video, not the 158.)

Problem #3: Propane, C3H8 reacts completely with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water vapor. If 1.50

mole of propane is reacted with an excess of oxygen and the water vapor is collected and measured at 546 K

and 1.00 atm, what volume of water vapor will be collected?

Solution:

the molar ratio between propane used and water vapor produced is 1 to 4

therefore, water vapor will be produced in the following ratio and proportion:

1 is to 4 as 1.50 is to x

3) Determine the volume of water vapor at the given temperature and pressure:

PV = nRT V = nRT / P

Problem #4: Oxygen gas is sometimes prepared in labs by the thermal decomposition of potassium chlorate

(KClO3). The balanced chemical equation is as follows:

2 is to 3 as 0.042006525 is to x

x = 0.063009788 moles of O2 produced

PV = nRT V = nRT / P

Problem #5: When heated to high temperatures, silver oxide (Ag2O) decomposes to form solid silver and

oxygen gas. Calculate the volume of oxygen produced at STP by the decomposition of 7.44 g of Ag2O.

Problem #1: A 4.000 g sample of M2S3 is converted to MO2 and loses 0.277 g. What is the atomic weight of

M?

Here is an alternate solution to the problem above which is a bit more compact. It might be clearer to you.

Solution:

a) The grams of M in M2S3 equals the grams of M in 2MO2. (Notice the inclusion of the coefficient.)

(4.000 g) times [2x / (2x + 96)] = (3.723 g) times [2x / (2x + 64)]

x = 183

Here is an alternate solution to the problem above which is a bit more compact. It might be clearer to you.

In addition to the alternate solution, there are three additional forms of this problem, two which have

solutions appended.

Problem #2: A salt contains only barium and one of the halide ions. A 0.1480 g sample of the salt was

dissolved in water and an excess of sulfuric acid was added to form barium sulfate, which was filtered, dried

and weighed. Its mass was found to be 0.1660 g. What is the formula for the barium halide?

Solution:

4) Barium halide compounds are known to take the formula BaX2. How many moles of halide were present

in the dissolved sample?

6) BaCl2

Problem #3a: A 5.000 gram sample of a dry mixture of potassium hydroxide, potassium carbonate and

potassium chloride is reacted with 0.100 L of 2.00-molar HCl solution. A 249.0 mL sample of dry carbon

dioxide gas, measured at 22.0 C and 740.0 torr, is obtained from this reaction. What was the percentage of

potassium carbonate in the mixture?

Solution to 3a:

2) Recall the reaction between K2CO3 and HCl:

3) Note the 1:1 molar ratio between K2CO3 and CO2. From this we conclude:

Problem #3b: The excess HCl in problem 3a was found by titration to be chemically equivalent to 86.60

mL of 1.50-molar sodium hydroxide. What was the percentage of KOH and of KCl in the original mixture?

Solution to 3b:

However, this is the combined amount of HCl used to titrate K2CO3 AND KOH

4) Calculate HCl used to titrate KOH by subtracting the HCl used to titrate K2CO3:

The 0.02 comes from the fact that 2 HCl were required to neutralize one K2CO3. See step 2 in problem 3a.

From the 1:1 ratio between the reactants, we know there are 0.0501 mol of KOH in the original sample.

7) You may do the weight percentages for KOH and KCl on your own.

Problem #4a: For the reaction below, when 0.5000 g of XI3 reacts completely, 0.2360 g of XCl3 is obtained.

Calculate the atomic weight of element X and identify it.

Solution:

1) From the balanced equation, we know that the moles XI3 used equals moles XCl3 produced. Therefore:

The 381 is the weight of three iodines and the 106.5 is the weight of three chlorines.

2) Solving for x, we find it equal to 138.9. This is the atomic weight of lanthanum.

Problem #4b: If 0.520 grams of XCl3 are treated with iodine, 0.979 g of XI3 are produced. What is the

chemical symbol for this element?

Solution:

1) From the balanced equation, we know that the moles XCl3 used equals moles XI3 produced. Therefore:

The 106.5 is the weight of three chlorines and the 381 is the weight of three iodines.

2) Solving for x, we find it equal to 204.5. This is the atomic weight of thallium and its symbol is Tl.

Problem #5: A 2.077 g sample of an element, which has an atomic mass between 40 and 55, reacts with

oxygen to form 3.708 g of an oxide. Determine the formula mass of the oxide (and identify the element).

Solution:

1.631 g divided by 15.9994 g/mol = 0.10194 mol of oxygen in MxOy.

The formula of MxOy is not MO since the atomic weight of M is known to be between 40 and 55.

Before going on, I would like to point out that a M2O3 formula leads to an atomic weight of approximately

34 and a M2O formula leads to approxmately 10.2. You may do the math on those two possibilities.

4) The closest value to our desired range is potassium and yes, it does form the compound KO2, known as

potassium superoxide.

If we were to look for a +4 forming ion (in other words, something to satisfy the MO2 requirement) in the

40-55 range, we find titanium. However, its atomic weight is about 48, which is too high a value predicted

by the MO2 formula.

Only KO2 provides an atomic weight within the parameters specified by the problem.

Problem #6: A 12.5843 g sample of ZrBr4 was dissolved and, after several steps, all of the combined

bromine was precipitated as AgBr. The silver content of AgBr was found to be 13.2160 g. Assume the

atomic masses of silver and bromine to be 107.868 and 79.904. What value was obtained for the atomic

mass of Zr from this experiment?

Solution:

2) Since AgBr has a 1:1 molar ratio of silver to bromine, Br in sample is 0.12252 mole. Calculate the grams

Br in the sample:

3) calculate Zr in sample:

5) Determine molecular weight of Zr:

Problem #7: Two different chloride compounds of platinum are known, compound X and Y. When 3.45 g of

compound X is heated, 2.72 g of compound Y is formed along with some chlorine gas. Upon further heating,

the 2.72 g of compound Y is decomposed to 1.99 g of platinum metal and some more chlorine gas.

Determine the formulas of compounds X and Y.

Solution:

Mass of Cl2 gas is 3.45 - 2.72 = 0.73 g

Mass of Cl2 gas in compound Y is 2.72 - 1.99 = 0.73 g

moles of Cl atom (not chlorine molecules!) = 0.73 g / 35.45 g/mol = 0.02 mol

Pt = 0.01 / 0.01 = 1

Cl = 0.02 / 0.01 = 2

formula of Y = PtCl2

mass of Pt = 1.99 g

mass of Cl2 = 0.73 g from 1st decomposition + 0.73 g from 2nd decomposition = 1.46 g total in X

mole of Cl atom (not chlorine molecules!) = 1.46 g / 35.45 g/mol = 0.04 mol

Pt = 0.01 / 0.01 = 1

Cl = 0.04 / 0.01 = 4

Formula of X = PtCl4

Problem #8: The active ingredients of an antacid tablet contained only magnesium hydroxide and aluminum

hydroxide. Complete neutralization of a sample of the active ingredients required 48.5 mL of 0.187 M

hydrochloric acid. The chloride salts from this neutralization were obtained by evaporation of the filtrate

from the titration; they weighed 0.4200 g. What was the percentage by mass of magnesium hydroxide in the

active ingredients of the antacid tablet?

Solution:

1) Determine moles of chloride ion used:

Out of every 5 Cl used, three go to make one AlCl3 and two go to make one MgCl2

2 out of 5 is 40%.

5) Repeating (2), (3) and (4) with appropriate modifications yields 1.8137 x 103 mol for AlCl3. (Use 0.60,

not 0.40 and divide by 3, not 2.)

Mg(OH)2 + 2HCl ---> MgCl2 + 2H2O

Mg(OH)2 : MgCl2 is 1 : 1

Al(OH)3 : AlCl3 is 1 : 1

This means we have the following molar amounts in the original sample:

Problem #9: When the supply of oxygen is limited, iron metal reacts with oxygen to produce a mixture of

FeO and Fe2O3. In a certain experiment, 20.00 g of iron metal was reacted with 11.20 g of oxygen gas. After

the experiment the iron was totally consumed and 3.56 g oxygen gas remained. Calculate the amounts of

FeO and Fe2O3 formed in this experiment.

Solution:

1) Determine the amount of oxygen gas (in grams, then moles) consumed:

2) Determine how many moles of O2 goes to form FeO and how many moles goes to form Fe2O3:

4Fe + 3O2 ---> 2Fe2O3

75% goes to form Fe2O3

0.238759 x 0.75 = 0.17906922 mol of O2 used to form Fe2O3

FeO the O2 to FeO ratio is 1:2, therefore double the amount of O2 used to get FeO produced:

0.1193795 mol of FeO produced.

Fe2O3 the O2 to Fe2O3 ratio is 3:2, therefore double the amount of O2 used to get Fe2O3 produced and then

divide that value by three:

Fe2O3 0.1193795 mol x 159.687 g mol-1 = 19.06335 g

The above values (you may round them off on your own) are the answer to the problem, but I thought one

more step would be fun.

Fe2O3 19.06335 g x (111.69 / 159.687) = 13.33

This, within rounding errors, totals to the 20.00 g of Fe mentioned in the problem.

However, some of the magnesium reacts with nitrogen in the air to form magnesium nitride instead:

So you have a mixture of MgO and Mg3N2 weighing 0.315 g. Determine what percentage of the Mg formed

the nitride in the initial reaction.

Solution:

Explanation:

y = the mass of Mg3N2 in the mixture of MgO and Mg3N2

(72.915 / 100.929) is the percentage of Mg in Mg3N2

3) Solve:

0.1194y = 0.007042

y = 0.058978 g

Problem #11: Hydroxylammonium chloride reacts with iron(III) chloride, FeCl3, in solution to produce

iron(II) chloride, HCl, H2O and a compound of nitrogen. It was found that 2.00 g of iron(III) chloride

reacted in this way with 31.0 mL of 0.200 M hydroxylammonium chloride. Suggest a possible formula for

the compound of nitrogen so produced.

Solution:

The key is to see that the moles of FeCl3 are double that of the hydroxylammonium chloride.

N = -1

By the way, we know that iron is reduced, so the nitrogen MUST be oxidized.

3) Allow the 0.0062 moles of nitrogen atoms to move from -1 oxidation state to zero:

this liberates 0.0062 mol of electrons, which go to reduce 0.0062 mol of Fe3+ ions (which is only half of the

ions available)

4) Allow the 0.0062 mole of N atoms (because of step 3 just above, now at an oxidation state of zero) to

move from zero to an oxidation state of +1:

this liberates another 0.0062 mol of electrons, which go to reduce 0.0062 mol of Fe3+ ions (which is the other

half of the ions available)

N2O

Problem #12: How many phosphate ions are in a sample of hydroxyapatite [Ca5(PO4)3OH] that contains

5.50 x 10-3 grams of oxygen?

Solution:

Problem #13: A mixture consisting of only sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) weighs

1.0000 g. When the mixture is dissolved in water and an excess of silver nitrate is added, all the chloride

ions associated with the original mixture are precipitated as insoluble silver chloride (AgCl). The mass of the

silver chloride is found to be 2.1476 g. Calculate the mass percentages of sodium chloride and potassium

chloride in the original mixture.

Solution #1:

(x) (grams Cl from NaCl) + (1-x) (grams Cl from KCl) = total grams chloride

1-x = grams of KCl in original mixture

grams Cl from KCl = 35.5/74.6

total grams chloride = (2.1476 g) (35.5/143.3)

The numbers in the denominators are the molar masses of NaCl, KCl and AgCl. The three ratios are called

"gravimetric factors."

2) Solve:

0.132x = 0.0561

x = 0.425 g

This is the mass of NaCl in the original mixture. This computes to 43% of the original mixture.

Solution #2:

1-x = grams of KCl in original mixture

Therefore:

b) Since there is a 1:1 molar ratio between NCl and AgCl, this is also the number of moles of AgCl

produced.

c) Multiply by the molar mass of AgCl to get the grams of AgCl produced from x grams of NaCl.

2.452x + 1.922 - 1.922x = 2.1476

0.53x = 0.2256

x = 0.426 g

Solution #3:

Graph the theoretical AgCl yield from one gram of 100% KCl through one gram of 100% NaCl with a few

mixtures in-between to demonstrate linearity (or not) and interpolate your answer.

Assuming 100% yield, what mass of ammonia will be produced from a 1:1 molar ratio mixture in a reactor

that has a volume of 8.75 x 103 L under a total pressure of 2.75 x 107 Pa at 455 C.

Solution:

1) A 1:1 molar ratio means hydrogen is the limiting reagent. This is because a 1:3 ratio of nitrogen to

hydrogen is required to fully react all the nitrogen.

The divide by two is done because hydrogen makes up 50% of the reacting mixture.

3) Use PV = nRT:

Problem #15: Upon heating, a 4.250 g sample loses 0.314 grams. Assuming the sample is BaCl2 2H2O and

NaCl, calculate the mass percent of BaCl2 2H2O.

Solution:

1) Upon heating, only water is lost. Determine the moles of water lost:

Problem #16: A 0.6118 g sample containing only MgCl2 and NaCl was analyzed by adding 145.0 mL of

0.1006 M AgNO3. The precipitate of AgCl(s) formed had a mass of 1.7272 g. Calculate the mass of each

component (MgCl2 and NaCl) in the original sample.

Solution:

1) Using a gravimetric factor, determine the amount of chloride ion that preciptated:

two come from MgCl2

one comes from NaCl

Therefore:

magnesium chloride's contribution is 2/3

sodium chloride's contribution is 1/3

Please realize, this contribution is in terms of moles. So . . . .

Problem #17: Ammonium nitrate and potassium chlorate both produce oxygen gas when decomposed by

heating. Without doing detailed calculations, determine which of the two yields the greater

(b) number of grams of O2 per gram of solid.

KClO3(s) ---> KCl(s) + O2(g)

Solution:

2KClO3(s) ---> 2KCl(s) + 3O2(g)

NH4NO3 to O2 is 2:1

KClO3 to O2 is 2:3

NH4NO3 to O2 is 1:0.5

KClO3 to O2 is 1:1.5

4) Answer to (a):

In terms of moles, KClO3 produces more O2 than NH4NO3. In fact, KClO3 produces three times as much

oxygen (compare 1.5 to 0.5).

KClO3 to O2 is 122.55 to 48.0

NH4NO3 to O2 is 1 to 0.20

KClO3 to O2 is 1 to 0.39

4) Answer to (b):

In terms of grams, KClO3 produces oxygen approximately twice as fast (0.30 to 0.20) as NH4NO3.

Problem #18: An element X forms both a dichloride (XCl2) and a tetrachloride (XCl4), Treatment of 10.00 g

XCl2 with excess chlorine forms 12.55 g XCl4. Calculate the atomic mass of X, and identify X.

Solution:

1) Write a balanced equation for the reaction:

Due to 1:1 molar ratio between XCl2 and Cl2, the moles of XCl2 equals 0.035963 mol

278.06 g/mol minus 70.906 g/mol = 207.2 g/mol (rounded off to the 0.1 place)

X is lead.

Problem #19: Water is added to 4.267 g of UF6. The only products of the reaction are 3.730 g of a solid

containg only uranium, oxygen, and fluorine and 0.970 g of a gas. The gas is 95.0% fluorine and the

remainder is hydrogen.

a) What fraction of the fluorine of the orginal is in the solid and what fraction in the gas after the reaction?

Solution to a:

0.46021 g/ 1.38171 g = 33.307%

Solution to b:

5) To more clearly see the 1:2:2 ratio, simply divide by the smallest number:

U: 0.01212/0.01212 = 1

F: 0.02423/0.01212 = 1.999

O: 0.02403/0.01212 = 1.98

The formula of the unknown is UF2O2 and the overall reaction is:

Problem #20: A compound containing titanium and chlorine is analyzed by converting all the titanium into

1.20 g of titanium dioxide and all the chlorine into 6.45 g of AgCl. What is the simplest (empirical) formula

for the original compound?

Solution:

By the way, note the use of millimoles rather than moles. Remember 1 mole equals 1000 millimoles.

3) Determine moles of AgCl formed:

The Cl : AgCl molar ratio is 1:1, therefore 45.00 mmol of Cl

Problem #21: An unknown element X is found in two compounds, XCl2 and XBr2. In the following

reaction:

when 1.5000 g XBr2 is used, 0.8897 g XCl2 is formed. Identify the element X.

Solution:

0.6103x = 35.8221776

x = 58.70

Element X is Ni.

By the way, be careful. Take a look at Co and you'll see 58.93 and think that that is close enough. Nickel is

58.69. The Co/Ni pairing is one of three with the atomic weight goes down as you proceed from element to

element. Ar/K and Te/I are the other two.

Go to problems #1 - 10

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