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A Comment before starting:

Just a bit below, I'm going to tell you (several times) how to determine the limiting reagent in a chemistry
problem. I certainly hope it is something you pay attention to and remember. Figuring out which substance
is the limiting reagent is an area that many students struggle with.

You will see the word "excess" used in this section and in the problems. It is used several different ways:

a) Compound A reacts with an excess of compound B. In this case, mentally set compound B aside for the
moment. Since it is "in excess," this means there is more than enough of it. The other compound will run out
first.

b) 20 grams of A and 20 grams of B react. Which is in excess? What we will do below is find out which
substance runs out first (called the limiting reagent). Obviously (I hope), the other compound is seen to be in
excess.

c) After 20 gm. of A and 20 gm. of B react, how much of the excess compound remains. To answer this
problem, we would subtract the limiting reagent amount from the excess amount.

What is the Limiting Reagent?

It is simply the substance in a chemical reaction that runs out first. It seems to besimple, but it does cause
people problems. Let's try a simple example.

Reactant A is a test tube. I have 20 of them.


Reactant B is a stopper. I have 30 of them.

Product C is a stoppered test tube.

The reaction is:

A + B ---> C

test tube plus stopper gives stoppered test tube.

So now we let them "react." The first stopper goes in, the second goes in and so on. Step by step we use up
stoppers and test tubes (the amounts go down) and make stoppered test tubes (the amount goes up).

Suddently, we run out of one of the "reactants." Which one? That's right. We run out of test tubes first.
Seems obvious, doesn't it? We had 20 test tubes, but we had 30 stoppers. So when the test tubes are used up,
we have 10 stoppers sitting there unused. And we also have 20 test tubes with stoppers firmly inserted.

So, which "reactant" is limiting and which is in excess? The test tubes are limiting (they ran out first) and the
stoppers are in excess (we have some left over when the limiting reagent ran out).

There is a technique to determine the limiting reagent in chemical problems. It's discussed as part of the
solution to the first example. Make sure you take a close look at it.

Example #1: Here's a nice limiting reagent problem we will use for discussion. Consider the reaction:

2 Al + 3I2 ------> 2 AlI3


Determine the limiting reagent and the theoretical yield of the product if one starts with:

a) 1.20 mol Al and 2.40 mol iodine.


b) 1.20 g Al and 2.40 g iodine
c) How many grams of Al are left over in part b?

Solution for part a:

We already have moles as the unit, so we use those numbers directly.

Here is how to find out the limiting reagent:

take the moles of each substance and divide it by the coefficient of the balanced equation. The substance that
has the smallest answer is the limiting reagent.

Let's say that again:

to find the limiting reagent, take the moles of each substance and divide it by the coefficient of the
balanced equation. The substance that has the smallest answer is the limiting reagent.

You're going to need that technique, so remember it.

By the way, did you notice that I bolded the technique to find the limiting reagent? I did this so as to
emphasize its importance to you when learning how to do limiting reagent problems.

Resuming with the problem solution:

For aluminum: 1.20 / 2 = 0.60


For iodine: 2.40 / 3 = 0.80

The lowest number indicates the limiting reagent. Aluminum will run out first in part a.

Why? 1.20/2 means there are 0.60 "groupings" of 2 and 2.40/3 means there are 0.80 "groupings" of 3. If
they ran out at the same time, we'd need one "grouping" of each. Since there is less of the "grouping of 2," it
will run out first.

If you're not sure what I just said, that's OK. The technique works, so remember it and use it.

The second part of the question "theoretical yield" depends on finding out the limiting reagent. Once we do
that, it becomes a stoichiometric calculation.

Al and AlI3 stand in a one-to-one molar relationship, so 1.20 mol of Al produces 1.20 mol of AlI3. Notice
that the amount of I2 does not play a role, since it is in excess.

Solution for part b:

Since we have grams, we must first convert to moles. The we solve just as we did in part a just above.

For the mole calculation:

aluminum is 1.20 g / 26.98 g mol1 = 0.04477 mol


iodine is 2.4 g / 253.8 g mol1 = 0.009456 mol

To determine the limiting reagent:


aluminum is 0.04477 / 2 = 0.02238
iodine is 0.009456 / 3 = 0.003152

The lower number is iodine, so we have identified the limiting reagent.

Finally, we have to do a calculation and it will involve the iodine, NOT the aluminum.

I2 and AlI3 stand in a three-to-two molar relationship, so 0.009456 mol of I2 produces 0.006304 mol of AlI3.
Again, notice that the amount of Al does not play a role, since it is in excess.

From here figure out the grams of AlI3 and you have your answer.

Solution for part c:

Since we have moles, we calculate directly and then convert to grams.

Al and I2 stand in a two-to-three molar relationship, so 0.009456 mol of I2 uses 0.006304 mol of Al.

Convert this aluminum amount to grams and subtract it from 1.20 g and that's the answer.

Just above was some discussion on how to determine the limiting reagent in a chemistry problem. Through
experience, I have learned that this particular thing (determine the limiting reagent) is a real stumbling block
for students. You might have to resort to memorizing what to do without fully understanding the reasoning
behind it.

Example #2: 15.00 g aluminum sulfide and 10.00 g water react until the limiting reagent is used up. Here is
the balanced equation for the reaction:

Al2S3 + 6 H2O ---> 2Al(OH)3 + 3 H2S

(A) Which is the limiting reagent?


(B) What is the maximum mass of H2S which can be formed from these reagents?
(C) How much excess reagent remains after the reaction is complete?

Some comments first:

The key to this problem is the limiting reagent, part A. Once you know that, part B becomes "How much
H2S can be made from the limiting reagent?" Part C becomes two connected questions: first, "How much
Al2S3 is used up when reacting with the limiting reagent?" then second, "What is 15.00 minus the amount in
the first part?"

Make sure you note that second part. The calculation gives you the answer to "How much reacted?" but the
question is "How much remained?" Lots of students forget to do the second part (the 15 minus part) and so
get graded down.

Note: I'm carrying a guard digit or two through the calculations. The final answers will appear with the
proper number of significant figures.

(A) Solution for limiting reagent

1) Determine the moles of Al2S3 and H2O


aluminum sulfide: 15.00 g 150.158 g/mol = 0.099895 mol
water: 10.00 g 18.015 g/mol = 0.555093 mol

2) Divide each mole amount by equation coefficient

aluminum sulfide: 0.099895 mol 1 mol = 0.099895


water: 0.555093 mol 6 mol = 0.0925155

3) The water is the lesser amount; it is the limiting reagent.

(B) Solution for mass of H2S formed

Now that we know the limiting reagent is water, this problem becomes "How much H2S is produced from
10.00 g of H2O and excess aluminum sulfide?"

1) Determine moles of 10.00 g of H2O

water: 10.00 g 18.015 g/mol = 0.555093 mol

2) Use molar ratios to determine moles of H2S produced from above amount of water.

(a) the H2O/H2S ratio is 6/3, a 2/1 ratio.


(b) water is associated with the two. This means the H2S amount is one-half the water value = 0.2775465
mol.

3) Convert moles of H2S to grams.

0.2775465 mol x 34.0809 g/mol = 9.459 g

(C) Solution for excess reagent remaining

We will use the amount of water to calculate how much Al2S3 reacts, then subtract that amount from 15.00 g.

1) Determine moles of 10.00 g of H2O

water: 10.00 g 18.015 g/mol = 0.555093 mol

2) Use molar ratios to determine moles of Al2S3 that reacts with the above amount of water.

(a) the Al2S3/H2O ratio is 1/6


(b) water is associated with the 6. This means the Al2S3 amount is one-sixth the water value = 0.09251447
mol

3) Convert moles of Al2S3 to grams.

0.09251447 mol x 150.158 g/mol = 13.891943 g

4) However, we are not done. We were asked for the amount remaining and the answer just above is the
amount which was used up, so the final step is:

15.00 g - 13.891943 g = 1.108 g

Example #3: If there is 35.0 grams of C6H10 and 45.0 grams of O2, how many grams of the excess reagent
will remain after the reaction ceases?
2C6H10 + 17O2 ---> 12CO2 + 10H2O

Solution:

1) Convert each substance to moles:

C6H10: 35.0 g / 82.145 g/mol = 0.426 mol


O2: 45.0 g / 31.998 g/mol = 1.406 mol

2) Determine the limiting reagent:

C6H10: 0.426 mol / 2 = 0.213


O2: 1.406 mol / 17 = 0.083

O2 is the limiting reagent.

Comment: the units don't matter in this step. What we are looking for is the smallest number after carrying
out the divisions. The 0.083 is the important thing. Not if it has a unit attached to it or not.

3) Determine how many moles of the excess reagent is used up when the limiting reagent is fully consumed:

the mole ratio we desire is 2/17 (C6H10 to O2)

2/17 equals x / 1.406

x = 0.1654 mol of C6H10 consumed

4) Determine grams of C6H10 remaining:

0.426 mol minus 0.1654 mol = 0.2606 mol of C6H10 remaining

0.2606 mol times 58.123 g/mol = 15.1 g remaining (to three sig figs)

Example #4: (a) What mass of Al2O3 can be produced from the reaction of 10.0 g of Al and 19.0 g of O3?
(b) How much of the excess reagent remains unreacted?

Solution to a:

1) Write balanced chemical equation:

2Al + O3 ---> Al2O3

2) Convert grams to moles:

Al ---> 10.0 g / 26.982 g/mol = 0.37062 mol


O3 ---> 19.0 g / 47.997 g/mol = 0.39586 mol

3) Determine limiting reagent:

Al ---> 0.37062 / 2 = 0.18531


O3 ---> 0.39586 / 1 = 0.39586

Al is the limiting reagent


4) Determine moles of product formed:

Al to Al2O3 molar ratio is 2 to 1.

2 is to 1 as 0.37062 mol is to x

x = 0.18531 mol

5) Determine grams of product:

0.18531 mol times 101.961 g/mol = 18.8944 g

To three sig figs, 18.9 g

Solution to b:

1) Determine moles of ozone that reacted:

Al to O3 molar ratio is 2 to 1

2 is to 1 as 0.37062 mol is to x

x = 0.18531 mol

2) Determine moles of ozone remaining:

0.39586 mol - 0.18531 mol = 0.21055 mol

3) Determine grams of ozone remaining:

0.21055 mol times 47.997 g/mol = 10.1 g (to three sig figs)

Example #5: Based on the balanced equation:

C4H8 + 6O2 ---> 4CO2 + 4H2O

Calculate the number of excess reagent units remaining when 28 C4H8 molecules and 228 O2 molecules
react?

Solution:

Remember, numbers are just like moles, so treating the 28 and 228 as moles is perfectly acceptable.

1) Determine the limiting reagent:

butane: 28 / 1 = 28
oxygen: 228 / 6 = 38

Butane is the limiting reagent.

2) Determine how much oxygen reacts with 28 C4H8 molecules:

the butane:oxygen molar ratio is 1:6


28 x 6 = 168 oxygen molecules react

3) Determine excess oxygen:

228 - 168 = 60

Here's aother way to consider this:

The 38 above means that there are 38 "groupings" of six oxygen molecules.

38 minus 28 = 10 oxygen "groupings" remain after the butane is used up

10 x 6 = 60

Bonus Example #1: Determine the starting mass of each reactant if 46.3 of K3PO4 is produced and 92.8 of
H3PO4 remains unreacted.

3KOH(aq) + H3PO4(aq) ---> K3PO4(aq) + 3H2O()

Solution:

1) The fact that some phosphoric acid remains tells us it is the excess reagent. Let us determine the amount
of KOH (the limiting reagent) required to produce the 46.3 g of K3PO4.

46.3 g / 212.264 g/mol = 0.2181246 mol of K3PO4

Three moles of KOH are required to produce one mole of K3PO4

0.2181246 mol times 3 = 0.6543738 mol of KOH required

0.6543738 mol times 56.1049 g/mol = 36.7 g (to thee sig figs)

2) Determine the starting mass of H3PO4

0.2181246 mol of K3PO4 requires 0.2181246 mol of H3PO4 based on the 1:1 molar ratio from the balanced
equation.

0.2181246 mol times 97.9937 g/mol = 21.4 g (to three sig figs)

21.4 + 92.8 = 114.2 g

Bonus Example #2: Determine the limiting reagent of this reaction:

Na2B4O7 + H2SO4 + 5H2O ---> 4H3BO3 + Na2SO4

There are 5.00 g of each reactant.

Solution:

1) Convert everything into moles, by dividing each 5.00 g by their respective molar masses:
Na2B4O7 ---> 0.02485 M
H2SO4 ---> 0.05097 M
H2O ---> 0.2775 M

2) Note that there are three reactants. How is the limiting reagent determined when there are three reactants?
Answer: determine the limiting reagent between the first two:

Na2B4O7 ---> 0.02485 / 1 = 0.02485


H2SO4 ---> 0.05097 / 1 = 0.05097

Na2B4O7 is the limiting reagent when compared to H2SO4

3) Now, compare the "winner" to the third reagent:

Na2B4O7 ---> 0.02485 / 1 = 0.02485


H2O ---> 0.2775 / 5 = 0.0555

Na2B4O7 is the limiting reagent between itself and H2O.

Na2B4O7 is the overall limiting reagent in this problem.

Problem #1: For the combustion of sucrose:

C12H22O11 + 12O2 ---> 12CO2 + 11H2O

there are 10.0 g of sucrose and 10.0 g of oxygen reacting. Which is the limiting reagent?

Solution path #1:

1) Calculate moles of sucrose:

10.0 g / 342.2948 g/mol = 0.0292146 mol

2) Calculate moles of oxygen required to react with moles of sucrose:

From the coefficients, we see that 12 moles of oxygen are require for every one mole of sucrose. Therefore:

0.0292146 mol times 12 = 0.3505752 mole of oxygen required

3) Determine limiting reagent:

Oxygen on hand 10.0 g / 31.9988 g/mol = 0.3125 mol

Since the oxygen required is greater than that on hand, it will run out before the sucrose. Oxygen is the
limiting reagent.

Solution path #2:

1) Calculate moles:

sucrose 0.0292146 mol


oxygen 0.3125 mol

2) Divide by coefficients of balanced equation:


sucrose 0.0292146 mol / 1 mol = 0.0292146
oxygen 0.3125 mol / 12 mol = 0.02604

Oxygen is the lower value. It is the limiting reagent.

The second method above will be the preferred method to determine the limiting reagent in the following
problems.

Problem #2: Calculate the number of NaBr formula units formed when 50 NBr3 molecules and 57 NaOH
formula units react?

2NBr3 + 3NaOH ---> N2 + 3NaBr + 3HOBr

Solution:

Comment: we can treat numbers of molecules or formula units in the exact same manner as we would use
moles. Keep in mind that the meaning of one mole is that 6.022 x 1023 of that entity (be it molecules or
formula units) is present.

1) Determine limiting reagent:

NBr3 50 "moles" / 2 = 25
NaOH 57 "moles" / 3 = 19

NaOH is the lmiting reagent.

Note that there need be no conversion from grams to moles. Discussions of numbers of molecules uses
numbers that are directly proportional to the number of moles and do not need to be converted.

2) Use NaOH : NaBr molar ratio:

3 is to 3 as 57 is to x

x = 57 "moles"

Correctly phrased, the answer is 57 formula units.

Comment: when I was in the classroom, teaching the technique for determining the limiting reagent, I would
warn against using the results of the division, in this case the 19 for the NaOH, in the next step of the
calculation. The 19 is good only for determining the limiting reagent. You need to use the 57 in the next step.

Well, what did I do? You know it's coming . . . .

Yep, I used the 19 when I should have used the 57. It stayed that way for several years, undetected until
August 2013, when a student caught it. Thanks, T.

Problem #3: Aluminum reacts with chlorine gas to form aluminum chloride via the following reaction:

2Al + 3Cl2 ---> 2AlCl3


How many grams of aluminum chloride could be produced from 34.0 g of aluminum and 39.0 g of chlorine
gas?

Solution:

1) Determine the limiting reagent:

Al 34.0 g / 26.98 g/mol = 1.2602 mol


Cl2 39.0 g / 70.906 g/mol = 0.5500 mol

Al 1.2602 mol / 2 =
Cl2 0.5500 mol / 3 =

Seems pretty obvious that chlorine gas is the limiting reagent. In a situation like this, you don't have to finish
the problem unless it's on a test and the teachers wants it finished!

2) Use Cl2 : AlCl3 molar ratio:

3 is to 2 as 0.5500 mol is to x

x = 0.3667 mol of AlCl3 produced

3) Convert to grams:

0.3667 mol times 133.341 g/mol = 48.9 g (to three sig fig)

Why don't you determine the mass of aluminum that remains after the reaction ceases by using the proper
molar ratio?

By the way, you could have done it this way:

48.9 g minus 39.0 g = 9.9 g of Al reacted

34.0 g minus 9.9 g = 24.1 g

It only works this second way if you have mass data on every substance in the reaction. Look back at the
first problem in this file and you'll see you can't do it using this second way because you don't know
anything about the mass of carbon dioxide produced. In that problem, you have to use the molar ratio way.

Problem #4: Interpret reactions in terms of representative particles, then write balanced chemical equations
and compare with your results. Determine limiting and excess reagent and the amount of unreacted excess
reactant.

a) 3 atoms of carbon combine with 4 molecules of hydrogen to produce methane (CH4)


b) 7 molecules of hydrogen and 2 molecules of nitrogen gases react to produce ammonia
c) 4 molecules of hydrogen and 5 molecules of chlorine react.

Solution to a:

1) The balanced equation:

C + 2H2 ---> CH4


2) Write the carbon-hydrogen molar ratio:

1:2

Remember that this ratio can also be understood in terms of atoms and molecules. Thusly:

one atoms of carbon reacts with two molecules of hydrogen

3) Determine limiting reagent:

carbon 3/1 = 3
hydrogen 4/2 = 2

Hydrogen is the limiting reagent.

4) Determine amount of carbon consumed:

1 is to 2 as x is to 4

x=2

5) Determine remaining amount of carbon, the excess reagent:

3 minus 2 = 1 atom of carbon remaining

Answers to b: N2 + 3H2 ---> 2NH3

The molar ratio of importance is nitrogen to hydrogen. It is 1 : 3.

Nitrogen is the limiting reagent.

One molecule of hydrogen remains.

Answers to c:

H2 + Cl2 ---> 2HCl

1 : 1. Chlorine in excess by one molecule.

Problem #5: Suppose 316.0 g aluminum sulfide reacts with 493.0 g of water. What mass of the excess
reactant remains?

The unbalanced equation is:

Al2S3 + H2O ---> Al(OH)3 + H2S

Solution:

1) Balance the equation:

Al2S3 + 6H2O ---> 2Al(OH)3 + 3H2S

2) Determine moles, then limiting reagent:


Al2S3 316.0 g / 150.159 g/mol = 2.104436 mol
H2O 493.0 g / 18.015 g/mol = 27.366 mol

Al2S3 2.104436 / 1 = 2.104436


H2O 27.366 / 6 = 4.561

Al2S3 is the limiting reagent.

3) Determine grams of water that react:

The molar ratio to use is 1:6

1 is to 6 as 2.104436 mol is to x

x = 12.626616 mol of water used

12.626616 mol times 18.105 g/mol = 227.4685 g

4) Determine excess:

493.0 g minus 227.46848724 = 265.5 g (to 4 sig figs)

Notice how the question only asks about the excess reagent, but you have to go through the entire set of
steps (determine moles, determine limiting reagent, use molar ratio) to get to the answer. Tricky!

Problem #6: In this reaction:

CaCO3 + 2HCl ---> CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O

6.088 g CaCO3 reacted with 2.852 g HCl. What mass of CaCO3 remains unreacted?

Solution:

1) Let's verify that the HCl is limiting:

CaCO3 6.088 g / 100.086 g/mol = 0.0608277 mol


HCl 2.852 g / 36.461 g/mol = 0.0782206 mol

By inspection, we see that HCl is the limiting reagent. (Mentally divide both values by their respective
coefficient from the equation to see this.)

Wouldn't that have been cute if you just assumed the HCl was limiting and the question writer made it a bit
of a trick question by making the calcium carbonate limiting?

2) Determine moles, then grams of calcium carbonate used:

1 is to 2 as x is to 0.0782206 mol

x = 0.0391103 mol

0.0391103 mol times 100.086 g/mol = 3.914 g

3) Determine grams of CaCO3 remaining:


6.088 g minus 3.914 g = 2.174 g

Problem #7: How many grams of PF5 can be formed from 9.46 g of PF3 and 9.42 g of XeF4 in the following
reaction?

2PF3 + XeF4 ---> 2PF5 + Xe

Solution:

1) Determine moles:

PF3 9.46 g / 87.968 g/mol = 0.10754 mol


XeF4 9.42 g / 207.282 g/mol = 0.045445 mol

2) Determine limiting reagent:

PF3 0.10754 / 2 = 0.05377


XeF4 0.045445 / 1 = 0.045445

XeF4 is limiting

2) Use XeF4 : PF5 molar ratio:

1 is to 2 as 0.045445 mol is to x

x = 0.090890 mol of PF5 produced

3) Determine grams of PF5:

0.090890 mol times 125.964 g/mol = 11.45 g

Problem #8: How many grams of IF5 would be produced using 44.01 grams of I2O5 and 101.0 grams of
BrF3?

6I2O5 + 20BrF3 ---> 12IF5 + 15O2 + 10Br2

Solution:

1) Determine moles:

I2O5 44.01 g / 333.795 g/mol = 0.1318474 mol


BrF3 101.0 g / 136.898 g/mol = 0.7377756 mol

2) Determine limiting reagent:

I2O5 0.1318474 / 6 = 0.02197457


BrF3 0.7377756 / 20 = 0.03688878

I2O5 is limiting.

2) Use I2O5 : IF5 molar ratio:


The ratio is 6 to 12, so I'll use 1 to 2

1 is to 2 as 0.1318474 mol is to x

x = 0.2636948 mol of IF5 produced

3) Convert moles to grams:

0.2636948 mol times 221.89 g/mol = 58.51 g (to 4 sig figs)

Problem #9: 950.0 grams of copper(II) sulfate are reacted with 460.0 grams of zinc metal. (a) What is the
theoretical yield of Cu? (b) If 295.8 grams of copper are actually obtained from this reaction, what is the
percent yield?

Solution to a:

1) The balanced chemical equation is:

CuSO4 + Zn ---> ZnSO4 + Cu

2) Determine limiting reagent:

CuSO4 950.0 g / 159.607 g/mol = 5.95212 mol


Zn 460.0 g / 65.38 g/mol = 7.03579 mol

CuSO4 is limiting.

The coefficients of Zn and CuSO4 are both one, so I just eliminted the whole 'divide by 1' thing.

3) Determine moles, then grams of Cu:

5.95212 mol of Cu is produced (due to the 1 : 1 molar ratio involved)

5.95212 mol times 63.546 g/mol = 378.2 g

Solution to b:

Percent yield is:

295.8 g / 378.2 g = 78.21 %

Problem #10: What weight of each substance is present after 0.4500 g of P4O10 and 1.5000 g of PCl5 are
reacted completely?

P4O10 + 6PCl5 ---> 10POCl3

Solution:

1) Determine moles:

P4O10 0.4500 g / 283.886 g/mol = 0.00158514 mol


PCl5 1.5000 / 208.239 g/mol = 0.00720326 mol
2) Determine limiting reagent:

P4O10 0.00158514 / 1 = 0.00158514


PCl5 0.00720326 / 6 = 0.00120054

PCl5 is limiting.

2) Determine mass of P4O10 remaining:

Use 1 : 6 molar ratio.

1 is to 6 as x is to 0.00720326 mol

x = 0.00120054 mol of P4O10 remaining

0.00158514 mol minus 0.00120054 mol = 0.0003846 mol

0.0003846 mol times 283.886 g/mol = 0.1092 g

3) Determine mass of POCl3 produced:

Use 6 : 10 molar ratio (or, if you prefer, use 3 : 5).

3 is to 5 as 0.00720326 mol is to x

x = 0.01200543 mol of POCl3 produced

0.01200543 mol times 153.332 g/mol = 1.8408 g

Since PCl5 is limiting, zero grams of it will remain.

Problem #11: The equation for the reduction of iron ore in a blast furnace is given below. (a) How many
kilograms of iron can be produced by the reaction of 7.00 kg of Fe2O3 and 3.00 kg of CO? (b) How many
kilograms of the excess reagent remains after reaction has ceased?

Fe2O3 + 3 CO ---> 2 Fe + 3 CO2

Solution to a:

1) Determine the limiting reagent:

Fe2O3 7000 g / 159.687 g/mol = 43.836 mol


CO 3000 g / 28.01 g/mol = 107.105 mol

Fe2O3 43.836 mol / 1 mol = 43.836


CO 107.105 mol / 3 mo = 35.702

CO is the limiting reagent.

2) Use the CO : Fe molar ratio:

3 is to 2 as 107.105 mol is to x

x = 71.403 mol of Fe produced


3) Convert to kilograms of Fe:

71.403 mol times 55.845 g/mol = 3987.52 g

to three sig figs this is 3.99 kg of iron

Solution to b:

1) Use Fe2O3 : CO molar ratio

1 is to 3 as x is to 107.105 mol

x = 35.702 mol of Fe2O3 consumed

2) Determine mass remaining:

35.703 mol times 159.687 g/mol = 5701 g consumed

7000 g minus 5701 g = 1299 g

to three sig figs, this is 1.3 kg

Problem #12: The reaction of 4.25 g of Cl2 with 2.20 g of P4 produces 4.28 g of PCl5. What is the percent
yield?

Solution:

1) First, a balanced chemical equation:

P4 + 10Cl2 ---> 4PCl5

2) Get moles, then limiting reagent:

P4 2.20 g / 123.896 g/mol = 0.0177568 mol


Cl2 4.25 g / 70.906 g/mol = 0.0599385 mol

P4 0.0177568 / 1 = 0.0177568
Cl2 0.0599385 / 10 = 0.00599385

Cl2 is the limiting reagent.

3) How many grams of PCl5 are produced?

Use Cl2 : PCl5 molar ratio of 10 : 4 (or 5 : 2, if you prefer)

5 is to 2 as 0.0599385 is to x

x = 0.0239754 mol of PCl5 produced

0.0239754 mol times 208.239 g/mol = 4.99 g ( to three sig figs)

4) Determine percent yield:


(4.28 g / 4.99 g) x 100 = 85.8%

Notice how asking about percent yield (oh, so innocuous!) forces you to go through an entire limiting
reagent calculation first.

Problem #13: 35.5 g SiO2 and 66.5 g of HF react to yield 45.8 g H2SiF6 in the folowing equation:

SiO2(s) + 6 HF(aq) ---> H2SiF6(aq) + 2 H2O(l)

a. How much mass of the excess reactant remains after reaction ceases?
b. What is the theoretical yield of H2SiF6 in grams?
c. What is the percent yield?

Solution to a:

1) Must determine limiting reagent first (even is it not asked for in the question):

SiO2 35.5 g / 60.084 g/mol = 0.59084 mol


HF 66.5 g / 20.0059 g/mol = 3.324 mol

SiO2 0.59084 mol / 1 mol = 0.59


HF 3.324 mol / 6 mol = 0.554

HF is limiting.

2) Determine how much SiO2 remains:

The SiO2 : HF molar ratio is 1 : 6

1 is to 6 as x is to 3.324 mol

x = 0.554 mol of SiO2 used up

0.59084 mol minus 0.554 mol = 0.03684 mol of SiO2 remains

0.03684 mol times 60.084 g/mol = 2.21 g (to three sig figs)

Solution to b:

There are 0.59084 mol of SiO2

SiO2 : H2SiF6 molar ratio is 1 : 1

therefore, 0.59084 mol of H2SiF6 produced

0.59084 mol times 144.0898 g/mol = 85.1 g (to three sig figs)

Solution to c:

(45.8 g / 85.1 g) times 100 = 53.8%


Problem #14: Gaseous ethane reacts with gaseous dioxygen to produce gaseous carbon dioxide and gaseous
water.

a) Suppose a chemist mixes 13.8 g of ethane and 45.8 g of dioxygen. Calculate the theoretical yield of water.

b) Suppose the reaction actually produces 14.2 grams of water . Calculate the percent yield of water.

Solution to a:

1) Write the balanced equation:

2C2H6 + 7O2 ---> 4CO2 + 6H2O

2) Determine limiting reagent:

C2H6 13.8 g / 30.0694 g/mol = 0.45894 mol


O2 45.8 g / 31.9988 g/mol = 1.4313 mol

C2H6 0.45894 / 2 = 0.22947


O2 1.4313 / 7 = 0.20447

Oxygen is limiting.

3) Determine theoretical yield of water:

The oxygen : water molar ratio is 7 : 6

7 is to 6 as 1.4313 mol is to x

x = 1.2268286 mol of water

4) Convert moles of water to grams:

1.2268286 mol times 18.015 g/mol = 22.1 g (to three sig figs)

Solution to b:

14.2 g / 22.1 g = 64.2%

Problem #15: A 0.972-g sample of a CaCl2 2H2O and K2C2O4 H2O solid salt mixture is dissolved in 150
mL of deionized water, previously adjusted to a pH that is basic. The precipitate, after having been filtered
and air-dried, has a mass of 0.375 g. The limiting reactant in the salt mixture was later determined to be
CaCl2 2H2O

a. How many grams of the excess reactant, K2C2O4 H2O, reacted in the mixture?

b. What is the percent by mass of CaCl2 2H2O?

c. How many grams of the K2C2O4 H2O in the salt mixture remain unaffected?

Solution to a:

1) Write the balanced chemical reaction:


CaCl2 + K2C2O4 ---> CaC2O4 + 2KCl

2) Determine moles of calcium oxalate that precipitated:

0.375 g / 128.096 g/mol = 0.0029275 mol

3) Determine moles, then grams of potassium oxalate:

The K2C2O4 : CaC2O4 mole ratio is 1:1

0.0029275 mol of potassium oxalate monohydrate reacted

0.0029275 mol times 184.229 g/mol = 0.53933 g

To three sig figs, 0.539 g

Solution to b:

1) Determine moles, then grams of calcium chloride that reacted:

The CaCl2 : CaC2O4 mole ratio is 1:1

0.0029275 mol of calcium chloride dihydrate reacted

0.0029275 mol times 147.0136 g/mol = 0.43038 g

To three sig figs, 0.430 g

2) Determine mass percent of calcium chloride:

0.430 g / 0.972 g = 44.24%

Solution to c:

1) Determine total mass that reacted:

0.430 g + 0.539 g = 0.969 g

2) Determine mass of excess reactant that remains:

0.972 g minus 0.969 g = 0.003 g

Problem #16: The reaction of 15.0 g C4H9OH, 22.4 g NaBr, and 32.7 g H2SO4 yields 17.1 g C4H9Br in the
reaction below:

C4H9OH + NaBr + H2SO4 ---> C4H9Br + NaHSO4 + H2O

Determine:

(a) the theoretical yield of C4H9Br


(b) the actual percent yield of C4H9Br
c) the masses of leftover reactants, if any

Solution to a:
1) Determine the limiting reagent bewteen the first two reagents (the third reagent will be dealt with in step
2):

C4H9OH 15.0 g / 74.122 g/mol = 0.202369 mol


NaBr 22.4 g / 102.894 g/mol = 0.217700 mol

C4H9OH 0.202369 /1 =
NaBr 0.217700 / 1 =

Between these two reactants, C4H9OH is limiting.

2) Compare C4H9OH to H2SO4 to determine which is limiting:

C4H9OH 0.202369 mol


H2SO4 32.7 g / 98.0768 g/mol = 0.333412 mol

C4H9OH 0.202369 /1 =
H2SO4 0.333412 / 1 =

Between these two reactants, C4H9OH is limiting.

Overall, the above process shows that the limiting reagent for the entire reaction is C4H9OH.

3) Determine theoretical yield of C4H9Br:

There is a 1:1 molar ratio between C4H9OH and C4H9Br.

This means 0.202369 mol of C4H9Br is produced.

0.202369 mol times 137.019 g/mol = 27.7 g (to three sig figs)

Solution to b:

17.1 g / 27.7 g = 61.7%

Solution to c:

1) Due to the 1:1 molar ratio:

0.202369 mol of NaBr is used up.

2) Therefore:

0.217700 minus 0.202369 = 0.015331 mol of NaBr remains.

The solution for sulfuric acid follows the same path as for NaBr. Conversion to grams is left to the reader.

Problem #17: Ozone (O3) reacts with nitric oxide (NO) dishcarged from jet planes to form oxygen gas and
nitrogen dioxide. 0.740 g of ozone reacts with 0.670 g of nitric oxide. Determine the identity and quantity of
the reactant supplied in excess.

Solution:
1) Wrte the balanced chemical equation:

NO + O3 ---> NO2 + O2

2) Calculate moles:

NO 0.670 g / 30.006 g/mol = 0.0223289 mol


O3 0.740 g / 47.997 g/mol = 0.0154176 mol

3) Determine limitng reagent:

NO and O3 are in a 1:1 molar ratio. O3 is limiting, making NO the compound in excess

4) Determine quantity of excess reagent:

Based on the 1:1 ratio, we know 0.0154176 mol of NO is used up. Therefore:
0.0223289 mol minus 0.0154176 mol = 0.0069113 mol of NO remaining

Quantity means grams:

0.0069113 mol times 30.006 g/mol = 0.207 g (to three significant figures)

Problem #18: If 1.24 g of P4 reacts with 0.12 g of H2, to give 1.25 g of PH3, determine percent yield.

Solution:

1) First, the balanced equation:

(1/4)P4 + (3/2)H2 ---> PH3

Decided to do it with fractions.

2) Determine moles of P4 and H2:

1.24 g / 123.896 g/mol = 0.01001 mol


0.12 g / 2.016 g/mol = 0.059524 mol

3) Determine the limiting reagent:

0.01001 / 0.25 = 0.04004


0.059524 / 1.5 = 0.039683

H2, by a nose!

4) Determine moles of PH3 that can be made from 0.059524 mol of H2:

The molar ratio is 1.5 to 1

1.5 is to 1 as 0.059524 mol is to x

x = 0.039683 mol

5) Determine mass of PH3 (this would be the 100% yield amount):


0.039683 mol times 33.9977 g/mol = 1.35 g (to three sig figs)

6) Percent yield:

(1.25 / 1.35) * 100 = 92.6%

Moles-Moles

Here is the first equation we'll use:

N2 + 3H2 ---> 2NH3

Example #1: if we have 2.00 mol of N2 reacting with sufficient H2, how many moles of NH3 will be
produced?

Solution Comments

1. The ratio from the problem will have N2 and NH3 in it.

2. How do you know which number goes on top or bottom in the ratios? Answer: it does not matter,
except that you observe the next point ALL THE TIME.

3. When making the two ratios, be 100% certain that numbers are in the same relative positions. For
example, if the value associated with NH3 is in the numerator, then MAKE SURE it is in both
numerators.

4. Use the coefficients of the two substances to make the ratio from the equation.

5. Why isn't H2 involved in the problem? Answer: The word "sufficient" removes it from consideration.

Let's use this ratio to set up the proportion:

That means the ratio from the equation is:

The ratio from the data in the problem will be:

The proportion (setting the two ratios equal) is:

Solving by cross-multiplying gives x = 4.00 mol of NH3 produced.

Example #2: Suppose 6.00 mol of H2 reacted with sufficient nitrogen. How many moles of ammonia would
be produced?

Let's use this ratio to set up the proportion:


That means the ratio from the equation is:

The ratio from the data in the problem will be:

The proportion (setting the two ratios equal) is:

Solving by cross-multiplying and dividing gives x = 4.00 mol of NH3 produced.

Example #3: We want to produce 2.75 mol of NH3. How many moles of nitrogen would be required?

Before the solution, a brief comment: notice that hydrogen IS NOT mentioned in this problem. If any
substance ISN'T mentioned in the problem, then assume there is a sufficient quantity of it on hand. Since
that substance isn't part of the problem, then it's not part of the solution.

Let's use this ratio to set up the proportion:

That means the ratio from the equation is:

The ratio from the data in the problem will be:

The proportion (setting the two ratios equal) is:

Solving by cross-multiplying and dividing (plus rounding off to three significant figures) gives x = 1.38 mol
of N2 needed.

Here's the equation to use for the next three examples:

2H2 + O2 ---> 2H2O

Example #4: How many moles of H2O are produced when 5.00 moles of oxygen are used?

Example #5: If 3.00 moles of H2O are produced, how many moles of oxygen must be consumed?

Example #6: How many moles of hydrogen gas must be used, given the data in example #5?

Example #4: How many moles of H2O are produced when 5.00 moles of oxygen are used?

Here are the two substances in the molar ratio I used:


The molar ratio from the problem data is:

The proportion to use is:

Example #5: If 3.00 moles of H2O are produced, how many moles of oxygen must be consumed?

Here are the two substances in the molar ratio I used:

The molar ratio from the problem data is:

The proportion to use is:

Example #6: How many moles of hydrogen gas must be used, given the data in example #5?

There are two ways to solve this problem:

Solution #1: Here are the two substances in the molar ratio I used:

The molar ratio from the problem data is:

The proportion to use is:

Notice that the above solution used the answer from example #5. The solution below uses the information
given in the original problem:

Solution #2: The H2 / H2O ratio of 2/2 could have been used also. In that case, the ratio from the problem
would have been 3.00 over x, since you were now using the water data and not the oxygen data.

Here is the first equation we'll use:

2KClO3 ---> 2KCl + 3O2

Example #1: 1.50 mol of KClO3 decomposes. How many grams of O2 will be produced?

Let's use this ratio to set up the proportion:


That means the ratio from the equation is:

The ratio from the data in the problem will be:

The proportion (setting the two ratios equal) is:

Cross-multiplying and dividing gives x = 2.25 mol of O2 produced.

2.25 mol x 32.0 g/mol = 72.0 grams. The 32.0 g/mol is the molar mass of O2.

Example #2: If 80.0 grams of O2 was produced, how many moles of KClO3 decomposed?

Let's use this ratio to set up the proportion:

That means the ratio from the equation is:

The ratio from the data in the problem will be:

The 2.50 mole came from 80.0 g 32.0 g/mol. The 32.0 g/mol is the molar mass of O2. Be careful to keep in
mind that oxygen is O2, not just O.

The proportion (setting the two ratios equal) is:

Solving by cross-multiplying and dividing gives x = 1.67 mol of KClO3 decomposed.

Example #3: We want to produce 2.75 mol of KCl. How many grams of KClO3 would be required?

Let's use this ratio to set up the proportion:

That means the ratio from the equation is:

The ratio from the data in the problem will be:

The proportion (setting the two ratios equal) is:


Hopefully, it's pretty easy to see that 2.75 mol of KClO3 are needed. However, the question wants grams for
an answer.

2.75 mol times 122.55 g/mol = 337 grams completes the task. The 122.55 g/mol is the molar mass of KClO3.

Here's the equation to use for all three exampless:

2H2 + O2 ---> 2H2O

Example #4: How many grams of H2O are produced when 2.50 moles of oxygen are used?

Here are the two substances in the molar ratio I used:

The molar ratio from the problem data is:

The proportion to use is:

5.00 mol of water is produced, but since the problem asks for grams, we multiply by 18.0 g/mol (the molar
mass of water) to get the final answer of 90.0 g.

Example #5: If 3.00 moles of H2O are produced, how many grams of oxygen must be consumed?

Here are the two substances in the molar ratio I used:

The molar ratio from the problem data is:

The proportion to use is:

We know that 1.50 mol of O2 was consumed, so multiplying that by 32.0 g/mol gives 48.0 g.

Example #6: How many grams of hydrogen gas must be used, given the data in example #5?

Here are the two substances in the molar ratio I used:

The molar ratio from the problem data is:

The proportion to use is:


The H2 / H2O ratio of 2/2 could have been used also. In that case, the ratio from the problem would have
been 3.00 over x, since you were now using the water data and not the oxygen data.

3.00 mol times 2.02 g/mol (the molar mass of hydrogen) gives 6.06 g.

This is the most common type of stoichiometric problem in high school.

There are four steps involved in solving these problems:

1. Make sure you are working with a properly balanced chemical equation.

2. Convert grams of the substance given in the problem to moles.

3. Construct two ratios - one from the problem and one from the chemical equation and set them equal.
The ratio from the problem will have an unknown, 'x.' Solve for "x."

4. Convert moles of the substance just solved for into grams.

Comments

1. Double check the equation. The ChemTeam has seen lots of students go right ahead and solve using
the unbalanced equation supplied in the problem (or test question for that matter).

2. DON'T use the same molar mass in steps two and four. Your teacher is aware of this and, on a
multiple choice test, will provide the answer arrived at by making this mistake. You have been
warned!

3. Don't multiply the molar mass of a substance by the coefficient in the problem BEFORE using it in
one of the steps above. For example, if the formula says 2H2O in the chemical equation, DON'T use
36.0 g/mol, use 18.0 g/mol.

4. Don't round off until the very last answer. In other words, don't clear your calculator after step two
and write down a value of 3 or 4 significant figures to use in the next step. Round off only once after
all calculations are done.

STOP!!!
Go back to the start of this file and re-read it. Notice that I give four steps (and some advice) in how to solve
the example problems just below. My advice is to keep going back to those steps as you examine the
samples below.

Here is an image of the steps involved in solving mass-mass problems. It is offered without comment.
As you can see, the bottom portion includes mass-volume problems. These type problems are not discussed
in this file, but in another.

Example #1: How many grams of chlorine can be liberated from the decomposition of 64.0 g. of AuCl3 by
this reaction:

2AuCl3 ---> 2Au + 3Cl2

Solution:

1) The provided equation is balanced correctly.

2) The conversion of moles of AuCl3 to grams:

64.0 g303.32 g/mol = 0.210998 mol of AuCl3

I picked AuCl3 to convert from grams to moles because a gram amount of AuCl3 was provided in the
problem. The ChemTeam has heard many variations of this:

"But how did you know to convert grams of AuCl3 to moles?"

3) Use a molar ratio involving AuCl3 and Cl2:

AuCl3Cl2

23 = 0.210998 molx <--- the 2/3 comes from the coefficients of the balanced equation

x = 0.316497 mol of Cl2

This is the hardest step. Constructing the proper ratio and proportion appears to be hard to understand.

4) Convert moles to grams:

(0.316497 mol) (70.906 g/mol) = 22.4 g (to three sig figs)

One question I often get is "Where did the value of 303.32 come from?" Answer - it's the molar mass of
AuCl3. Keep this answer in mind as you wonder about where other numbers come from in a given solution.
You might also want to consider looking at the solution to the problem and try to fit it to the list of steps
given above. I know what I am suggesting is horrible and very mean, but then, I'm a teacher. What the heck
do I know?

Example #2: Calculate the mass of AgCl that can be prepared from 200. g of AlCl3 and sufficient AgNO3,
using this equation:

3AgNO3 + AlCl3 ---> 3AgCl + Al(NO3)3

Solution:

1) Let us convert grams of AlCl3 to moles:

200. g133.341 g/mol = 1.499914 mol of AlCl3 <--- look for the substance has a gram amount associated
with it

2) Use a molar ratio involving AgCl and AlCl3:

AgClAlCl3

31 = x1.499914 mol

x = 4.499742 mol of AgCl

The 'x' in the right-hand ratio comes from the substance we are trying to calculate an amount for. Look for
phrases like "Calculate the mass of . . ." or "Determine the mass of . . . "above

3) Convert moles to grams:

(4.499742 mol) (143.323 g/mol) = 645 g (to three sig figs)

By the way, what if you had used the ratio of 1 over 3, with the AlCl3 value in the numerator? Then, the
other ratio would have been reversed and the answer would have been the same. The ratio and proportion
would have looked like this:

13 = 1.499914 molx

Example #3: Given this equation:

2KI + Pb(NO3)2 ---> PbI2 + 2KNO3

calculate mass of PbI2 produced by reacting of 30.0 g KI with excess Pb(NO3)2

Solution:

1) The equation is balanced. You'll get unbalanced equations soon enough.

2) We are given 30.0 g of KI. Change it to moles:

30.0 g165.998 g/mol = 0.180725 mol


3) Construct a ratio and proportion:

This ratio:
21

comes from the coefficients of the balanced equation. This ratio:

0.180725 molx

comes from a consideration of the data in the problem. The ratio and proportion to solve is this:

21 = 0.180725 molx

x = 0.0903625 mol <--- this is moles of PbI2

The substance associated with the 'x' is not the one for which the grams are given.

4) Convert moles to grams:

(0.0903625 mol) (461.01 g/mol) = 41.6 g (to three sig figs)

Example #4: If 92.0 g of aluminum is produced, how many grams of aluminum nitrate reacted?

Al(NO3)3 + Mg ---> Mg(NO3)2 + Al

Solution:

1) An unbalanced equation was given in the problem. It needs to be balanced:

2Al(NO3)3 + 3Mg ---> 3Mg(NO3)2 + 2Al

2) Grams of aluminum is given. Convert it to moles:

92.0 g26.98 g/mol = 3.4099 mol

3) Use a ratio and proportion involving aluminum and aluminum nitrate:

AlAl(NO3)3

22 = 3.4099 molx

x = 3.4099 mol <--- this is moles of Al(NO3)3, NOT moles of Al

There will be a real temptation in the next step to use the wrong molar mass

4) Determine grams of the unknown, the aluminum nitrate:

(3.4099 mol) (212.994 g/mol) = 726 g (to three sig figs)

Comments about the ending step of Example #4:


It is quite common in a problem like this for the student to use the molar mass of Al in this step. I think it is
because they see the same value (the 3.4099 mol) in this step as in the second step. The conclusion is that it
must be the same substance. And that is in error.

In the second step, we had 3.4099 mol of aluminum, but after solving the ratio and proportion, we now have
3.4099 mol of aluminum nitrate.

Be careful on the point, especially if the amount you got at the end equals the amount you had at the
beginning (the 92 grams).

Example #5: How many grams of AuCl3 can be made from 100.0 grams of chlorine by this reaction:

2Au + 3Cl2 ---> 2AuCl3

Solution:

1) The equation is balanced. Yay!

2) 100.0 g of chlorine is given in the problem. Convert it to moles:

100.0 g70.906 g/mol = 1.41032 mol

Notice that the element chlorine is diatomic. Students sometimes forget to write the seven diatomics with the
subscripted two: H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2

3) The ratio and proportion will involve Cl2 and AuCl3:

32 = 1.41032 molx

x = 0.940213 mol

Notice that the values associated with chlorine (3 and 1.41032) are in the numerator and the values
associated with gold(III) chloride (2 and x) are in the denominator. If you were to flip one ratio, you'd have
to flip the other.

4) Convert moles of AuCl3 to grams:

(0.940213 mol) (303.329 g/mol) = 285 g

1. Given the following equation: 2 C4H10 + 13 O2 ---> 8 CO2 + 10 H2O, show what the following molar
ratios should be.

a. C4H10 / O2
b. O2 / CO2
c. O2 / H2O
d. C4H10 / CO2
e. C4H10 / H2O

2. Given the following equation: 2 KClO3 ---> 2 KCl + 3 O2

How many moles of O2 can be produced by letting 12.00 moles of KClO3 react?

3. Given the following equation: 2 K + Cl2 ---> 2 KCl


How many grams of KCl is produced from 2.50 g of K and excess Cl2. From 1.00 g of Cl2 and excess K?

4. Given the following equation: Na2O + H2O ---> 2 NaOH

How many grams of NaOH is produced from 1.20 x 102 grams of Na2O? How many grams of Na2O are
required to produce 1.60 x 102 grams of NaOH?

5. Given the following equation: 8 Fe + S8 ---> 8 FeS

What mass of iron is needed to react with 16.0 grams of sulfur? How many grams of FeS are produced?

6. Given the following equation: 2 NaClO3 ---> 2 NaCl + 3 O2

12.00 moles of NaClO3 will produce how many grams of O2? How many grams of NaCl are produced when
80.0 grams of O2 are produced?

7. Given the following equation: Cu + 2 AgNO3 ---> Cu(NO3)2 + 2 Ag

How many moles of Cu are needed to react with 3.50 moles of AgNO3? If 89.5 grams of Ag were produced,
how many grams of Cu reacted?

8. Molten iron and carbon monoxide are produced in a blast furnace by the reaction of iron(III) oxide and
coke (pure carbon). If 25.0 kilograms of pure Fe2O3 is used, how many kilograms of iron can be produced?
The reaction is: Fe2O3 + 3 C ---> 2 Fe + 3 CO

9. The average human requires 120.0 grams of glucose (C6H12O6) per day. How many grams of CO2 (in the
photosynthesis reaction) are required for this amount of glucose? The photosynthetic reaction is: 6 CO2 + 6
H2O ---> C6H12O6 + 6 O2

This problem is slightly different from those above.

10. Given the reaction: 4 NH3 (g) + 5 O2 (g) ---> 4 NO (g) + 6 H2O (l)

When 1.20 mole of ammonia reacts, the total number of moles of products formed is:

a. 1.20 b. 1.50 c. 1.80 d. 3.00 e. 12.0

1.

a. 2 / 13
b. 13 / 8
c. 13 / 10
d. 2 / 8 (or 1 / 4)
e. 2 / 10 (or 1 / 5)

2. The KClO3 / O2 molar ratio is 2/3.

2 mol KClO3 / 3 mol. O2 = 12.00 mol KClO3 / x = 18.00 mol.

x = 18.00 mol of O2

3. Given the following equation: 2 K + Cl2 ---> 2 KCl

How many grams of KCl is produced from 2.50 g of K and excess Cl2.
From 1.00 g of Cl2 and excess K?

4. Given the following equation: Na2O + H2O ---> 2 NaOH

How many grams of NaOH is produced from 1.20 x 102 grams of Na2O?

How many grams of Na2O are required to produce 1.60 x 102 grams of NaOH?
5. Given the following equation: 8 Fe + S8 ---> 8 FeS

What mass of iron is needed to react with 16.0 grams of sulfur?

How many grams of FeS are produced?

6. Given the following equation: 2 NaClO3 ---> 2 NaCl + 3 O2

12.00 moles of NaClO3 will produce how many grams of O2?

How many grams of NaCl are produced when 80.0 grams of O2 are produced?

7. Given the following equation: Cu + 2 AgNO3 ---> Cu(NO3)2 + 2 Ag


How many moles of Cu are needed to react with 3.50 moles of AgNO3?

If 89.5 grams of Ag were produced, how many grams of Cu reacted?

8. Molten iron and carbon monoxide are produced in a blast furnace by the reaction of iron(III) oxide and
coke (pure carbon). If 25.0 kilograms of pure Fe2O3 is used, how many kilograms of iron can be produced?
The reaction is: Fe2O3 + 3 C ---> 2 Fe + 3 CO

9. The average human requires 120.0 grams of glucose (C6H12O6) per day. How many grams of CO2 (in the
photosynthesis reaction) are required for this amount of glucose? The photosynthetic reaction is: 6 CO2 + 6
H2O ---> C6H12O6 + 6 O2
This problem is slightly different from those above.

10. Given the reaction: 4 NH3 (g) + 5 O2 (g) ---> 4 NO (g) + 6 H2O (l)

When 1.20 mole of ammonia reacts, the total number of moles of products formed is:

a. 1.20 b. 1.50 c. 1.80 d. 3.00 e. 12.0

The correct answer is d.

NH3 / (NO + H2O) = 4 / 10

4 / 10 = 1.20 / x

x = 3.00 mol

Brief Introduction: The key point to look for are the conditions of temperature and pressure. If they remain
constant, you may treat the volumes in the same manner you treat moles. This is because, under conditions
of constant T and P, the volumes are directly proportional to the moles. This is discussed in several of the
problem solutions below.

While the great majority of volume-based stoichiometry problems are phrased in terms of constant T and P,
they do not have to be. You can see this in problems 1b and 9, just below. If you have changing conditions of
T and P, you, in general, will do this:

(1) Convert volme to moles using PV = nRT and the initial set of T and P
(2) Use a ratio and proportion to determine moles of other substance involved in problem
(3) Use PV = nRT with new T and P as well as moles of substance from step 2. You will calculate a new
volume.

Be prepared! Your teacher could teach the situation where T and P do not change, then test on the situation
where T and P do change.

Problem #1: The equation for the combustion of methane is: CH4 + 2O2 ---> 2H2O + CO2

a) If 50.0 L of methane at STP are burned, what volume of carbon dioxide will be produced at STP?
b) If 50.0 L of methane at RTP are burned, what volume of gaseous water at STP is produced?

Solution to a:
Because everything occurs at STP, the volumes are directly proportional to the moles of reactant used and
product produced. Why?

Consider PV = nRT. Rewrite it as:

n / V = P/RT

Everything on the right side is constant, so the n:V ratio must also be constant. That means that volume is
directly proportional to the number of moles of gas.

Since there is a 1:1 molar ratio between CH4 and CO2, the answer is 50.0 L

Solution to b:

1) Use PV = nRT to determine moles of methane:

(1.00 atm) (50.0 L) = (n) (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (298 K)

n = 2.044665 mol

Note: in this problem, I am taking room temperature to be 25.0 C since RTP means room temperature and
pressure.

2) Use methane:water molar ratio:

1 is to 2 as 2.044665 mol is to x

x = 4.08933 mol of water produced

3) Use PV = nRT to calculate volume of water vapor at STP:

(1.00 atm) (V) = (4.08933 mol) (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (273 K)

V = 91.61 L

BTW, I know liquid water is produced in the reaction. I am pretending it is gaseous water simply for
calculational purposes.

Problem #2: Given the following equation: C(s) + 2H2(g) ---> CH4(g)

How many liters of hydrogen are needed to produce 20.0 L of methane?

Solution:

1) P and T are not part of this problem:

This is because there is no mention whatsoever of T or P in the problem.

2) State Avogadro's Hypothesis (using moles rather than molecules):

Equal volumes of gas at equal temperature and pressure contain equal moles

3) State the hydrogen-methane molar ratio:


2:1

4) Use a ratio and proportion:

2 moles hydrogen is to 1 mole methane as x liters of hydrogen is to 20.0 L of methane

x = 40.0 L of hydrogen

Problem #3: 2.35 L of oxygen gas reacts with 3.72 L of hydrogen gas, forming water. How many liters of
the excess reactant will remain? If 2.50 L of water were actually produced, what would be the percent yield?

Solution:

1) The balanced chemical equation is:

2H2 + O2 ---> 2H2O

2) Determine the limiting reagent:

oxygen: 2.35 / 1 = 2.35


hydrogen: 3.72 / 2 = 1.86

Hydrogen is the limiting reagent.

Please note that no mention of temperature or pressue is made in the problem. This means that everything
takes place at an unchanged temperature and pressure. Consequently, those two values remain constant and
drop out of consideration. We do not need moles because, in a situation of constant temperature and
pressure, the volumes are directly proportional to the number of moles.

Besides which, we cannot even calculate moles since we do not know the temperature or the pressure.

3) Use H2:O2 molar ratio:

2 is to 1 as 3.72 is to x

1.86 L of oxygen are used.

2.35 minus 1.86 = 0.49 L of unreacted oxygen remain

4) Percent yield:

3.72 L of water are produced.

2.50 / 3.72 = 67.2%

Problem #4: How much air is needed (in m3, at 25.0 C, 1.00 atm) to completely burn 10.0 moles of
propane (C3H8). Assume that the air is composed of 21.0% O2.

Solution:

1) The combustion of propane:


C3H8 + 5O2 ---> 3CO2 + 4H2O

2) Determine moles of pure oxygen needed to burn 10.0 mol of propane:

1 is to 5 as 10.0 is to x

x = 50.0 mol of oxygen required

3) Use PV = nRT to convert mol of oxygen to liters of oxygen at the conditions stated in the problem:

(1.00 atm) (V) = (50.0 mol) (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (298 K)

V = 1222.694 L

4) Convert to volume of air required:

1222.694 L / 0.21 = 5822.35 L

5) Convert to cubic meters:

5822.35 L = 5822.35 dm3

1 m3 = 1000 dm3

the answer is 5.82 m3

Problem #5: Propane (C3H8) burns in oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water vapor. What volume of
carbon dioxide is produced when 2.80 liters of oxygen are consumed.

Solution:

Since no T or P is given, we assume the reaction happens at constant temp and press.

That means that the coefficients of the balanced equation represent the volumetric ratio that the substances
react in.

5 volumes of O2 will produce 3 volumes of CO2

From that, we find:

5/3 equals 2.8/x

x = 1.68 L

If we assumed the T and P changed in the reaction, we would not be able to solve the problem. However, do
not make this assumption. Your teacher would be displeased.

Problem #6: Methane burns according to the following equation:

CH4 + 2O2 ---> CO2 + 2H2O


Calculate the volume of air that is required to burn 10.0 L of methane when both are at the same temperature
and pressure. Assume that air is 20.0 percent oxygen by volume.

Solution:

The coefficients give the molar ratio that methane and oxygen react in when at the same T and P.

1 is to 2 as 10.0 is to x

x = 20.0 L of pure oxygen required.

20.0 L / 0.20 = 100.0 L of air is required.

Problem #7: Nitrogen monoxide reacts with oxygen according to the equation below:

2NO(g) + O2(g) ---> NO2(g)

How many liters of NO (reacting with excess oxygen) are required to produce 3.0 liters of NO2?

Solution:

1) State pertinent ratio of volumes:

2:1

2) Write a ratio and proportion:

2 is to 1 as x is to 3.0 L

x = 6.0 L of NO required

By now, you should know what no mention of temperature or pressure means for solving the problem.

Problem #8: If stoichiometric quantities of X and Y are placed in a sealed flexible container with an initial
volume of 30.0 L at STP, what volume of Z will be produced? (X, Y, and Z, are all present in the gaseous
state)

2X + Y ---> Z

Solution:

Seeing as they are all gases, a mole ratio is equal to the volume ratio:

2X + Y = 30.0 L

X : Y = 2 : 1 = 20L : 10L

n(Y) = n(Z)

therefore, v(Y) = v(Z) = 10.0 L of Z produced.


I copied this answer from Yahoo Answers, so it might read in a slightly different style from my own.

Problem #9: 200.0 liters of H2 reacting at 25.0 C and 751.0 torr will require how many liters of O2 at STP?

Solution:

1) The equation is:

2H2(g) + O2(g) ---> 2H2O(l)

2) Use PV = nRT to calculate moles of hydrogen:

(751.0 torr / 760.0 torr/atm) (200.0 L = (n) (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (298 K)

n = 8.0818 mol

3) Use H2 : O2 molar ratio:

2 is to 1 as 8.0818 ml is to x

x = 4.0409 mol of O2 required

4) Use PV = nRT to calculate volume of O2 at SPT that is required:

(1.00 atm) (V) = (4.0409 mol) (0.08206 L atm mol1 K1) (273 K)

V = 90.52 L

Problem #10: A mixture is prepared using 12.0 L of NH3 and 12.0 L of Cl2, both measured at the same
conditions. These substances react according to the following equation:

2 NH3(g) + 3 Cl2(g) ---> N2(g) + 6 HCl(g)

When the reaction is completed, what is the volume of each gas (NH3, Cl2, N2 and HCl, respectively)?
Assume the final volumes are measured under identical conditions.

Solution:

1) We need a limiting reagent:

ammonia: 12 / 2 = 6
chlorine: 12 / 3 = 4

We have a winner! Chlorine.

Remember, I can treat the volumes in the same way I would moles. This is because, at constant T and P, the
volumes are directly proportional to the number of moles.

2) Final volume of the ammonia:

2 is to 3 as x is to 12
x = 8.0 L of ammonia used

volume remaining is 12.0 L - 8.0 L = 4.0 L

3) Final volume of chlorine:

Zero!

4) Final volume of nitrogen:

3 is to 1 as 12 is to x

x = 4.0 L

5) Final volume of HCl:

3 is to 6 as 12 is to x

x = 24.0 L

Problem #1: How many liters of O2 gas measured at 782.0 mmHg at 25.0 C are required to completely
react with 2.40 mol Al?
4 Al + 3 O2 ---> 2 Al2O3

Solution:

1) Determine the moles of O2 required to react with 2.40 mol of Al:

the molar ratio for Al and O2 is 4 to 3, so we set up the following ratio and proportion:

x = 1.80 moles of O2 required

2) Determine volume of O2 at stated P and T:

PV = nRT V = nRT / P

x = [ (1.80 mol) (0.08206) (298 K) ] / 1.029 atm

x = 42.8 L

Comment: I converted 782.0 mmHg to atm.

Problem #2: What volume of carbon dioxide, at 1.00 atm and 112.0 C, will be produced when 80.0 grams
of methane (CH4) is burned?

Video: the solution to the above problem


If we wished to determine the volume of O2 required, we would use 9.9732 mol. This is because of the 1:2
molar ratio between methane and oxygen. To burn 4.9866 mol of methane requires 9.9732 mol of oxygen.
Using PV = nRT, this is 315 L (I doubled the 157.5 figure from the video, not the 158.)

Problem #3: Propane, C3H8 reacts completely with oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water vapor. If 1.50
mole of propane is reacted with an excess of oxygen and the water vapor is collected and measured at 546 K
and 1.00 atm, what volume of water vapor will be collected?

Solution:

1) Write a balanced chemical equation:

C3H8 + 5 O2 ---> 3 CO2 + 4 H2O

2) Determine moles of water vapor produced:

the molar ratio between propane used and water vapor produced is 1 to 4

therefore, water vapor will be produced in the following ratio and proportion:

1 is to 4 as 1.50 is to x

x = 6.00 moles of water vapor produced

3) Determine the volume of water vapor at the given temperature and pressure:

PV = nRT V = nRT / P

x = [ (6.00 mol) (0.08206 L atm mol-1 K-1) (546 K) ] / 1.00 atm

x = 269 L (to 3 sig. fig.)

Problem #4: Oxygen gas is sometimes prepared in labs by the thermal decomposition of potassium chlorate
(KClO3). The balanced chemical equation is as follows:

2 KClO3(s) ---> 2 KCl(s) + 3 O2(g)

If 5.150 grams decompose, what volume of O2 would be obtained at STP?

Solution: 1) Determine moles of KClO3:

5.150 g / 122.6 g mol-1 = 0.042006525 mol (I kept some guard digits.)

2) Determine moles of O2 produced:

the molar ratio of KClO3 used to O2 produced is 2 to 3

therefore, oxygen will be produced in the following ratio and proportion:

2 is to 3 as 0.042006525 is to x
x = 0.063009788 moles of O2 produced

3) Determine the volume of O2 produced at STP:

PV = nRT V = nRT / P

x = [ (0.063009788 mol) (0.08206 L atm mol-1 K-1) (273 K) ] / 1.000 atm

x = 1.412 L (to 4 sig. fig.)

Problem #5: When heated to high temperatures, silver oxide (Ag2O) decomposes to form solid silver and
oxygen gas. Calculate the volume of oxygen produced at STP by the decomposition of 7.44 g of Ag2O.

Video: the solution to the above problem

Problem #1: A 4.000 g sample of M2S3 is converted to MO2 and loses 0.277 g. What is the atomic weight of
M?

Here is an alternate solution to the problem above which is a bit more compact. It might be clearer to you.

Solution:

1) Write the chemical equation:

M2S3 + 5O2 ---> 2MO2 + 3SO2

2) Some facts that I can't think of a good title for:

a) The grams of M in M2S3 equals the grams of M in 2MO2. (Notice the inclusion of the coefficient.)

b) Let x = the atomic weight of M.

3) Construct gravimetric factors for M:

M2S3 2x / (2x + 96)

2MO2 2x / (2x + 64)

Comment: there are 2 M and 4 O in 2MO2.

4) Calculate grams of M2O3 and 2MO2:

M2S3 (4.000 g) times [2x / (2x + 96)]

2MO2 (3.723 g) times [2x / (2x + 64)]

5) Set them equal to each other and solve:

(4.000 g) times [2x / (2x + 96)] = (3.723 g) times [2x / (2x + 64)]

You do the math.

x = 183
Here is an alternate solution to the problem above which is a bit more compact. It might be clearer to you.

In addition to the alternate solution, there are three additional forms of this problem, two which have
solutions appended.

Problem #2: A salt contains only barium and one of the halide ions. A 0.1480 g sample of the salt was
dissolved in water and an excess of sulfuric acid was added to form barium sulfate, which was filtered, dried
and weighed. Its mass was found to be 0.1660 g. What is the formula for the barium halide?

Solution:

1) Calculate mass of barium ion in precipitate:

0.166 g x (137.33 / 233.395) = 0.097674672 g

2) Determine mass of halide ion in dissolved sample:

0.1480 g - 0.097674672 g = 0.050325328 g

3) How many moles of barium ion were present in dissolved sample?

0.097674672 g / 137.33 g mol1 = 0.000711241 mol

4) Barium halide compounds are known to take the formula BaX2. How many moles of halide were present
in the dissolved sample?

0.000711241 mol x 2 = 0.001422481 mol

5) Which halide has 0.001422 mole of it weigh 0.05032 grams?

F: 0.001422481 mol times 18.9984 g mol1

Cl: 0.001422481 mol times 35.453 g mol1

Br: 0.001422481 mol times 79.904 g mol1

I: 0.001422481 mol times 126.90447 g mol1

6) BaCl2

Problem #3a: A 5.000 gram sample of a dry mixture of potassium hydroxide, potassium carbonate and
potassium chloride is reacted with 0.100 L of 2.00-molar HCl solution. A 249.0 mL sample of dry carbon
dioxide gas, measured at 22.0 C and 740.0 torr, is obtained from this reaction. What was the percentage of
potassium carbonate in the mixture?

Solution to 3a:

1) Calculate moles of CO2 using PV = nRT:


2) Recall the reaction between K2CO3 and HCl:

K2CO3 + 2HCl ---> 2KCl + CO2 + H2O

3) Note the 1:1 molar ratio between K2CO3 and CO2. From this we conclude:

0.0100153 mol K2CO3 present in the dry mixture

4) Calculate grams K2CO3, then its mass percentage:

0.0100153 mol x 138.2057 g/mol = 1.384 g

(1.384 g / 5.000 g) x 100 = 27.68%

Problem #3b: The excess HCl in problem 3a was found by titration to be chemically equivalent to 86.60
mL of 1.50-molar sodium hydroxide. What was the percentage of KOH and of KCl in the original mixture?

Solution to 3b:

1) Calculate excess HCl:

We know this: HCl + NaOH ---> NaCl + H2O

There is a 1:1 molar ratio between NaOH and HCl

Use NaOH data to determine moles of excess HCl:

(0.08660 L) (1.50 mol L1) = 0.1299 mol

2) Calculate total moles of HCl in the 0.100 L of 2.00-molar HCl solution:

(0.100 L) (2.00 mol L1) = 0.200 mol

3) Calculate amount of HCl used:

0.200 mol - 0.1299 mol = 0.0701 mol

However, this is the combined amount of HCl used to titrate K2CO3 AND KOH

4) Calculate HCl used to titrate KOH by subtracting the HCl used to titrate K2CO3:

0.0701 mol - 0.0200 mol = 0.0501 mol

The 0.02 comes from the fact that 2 HCl were required to neutralize one K2CO3. See step 2 in problem 3a.

5) Calculate grams of KOH

KOH + HCl ---> KCl + H2O


From the 1:1 ratio between the reactants, we know there are 0.0501 mol of KOH in the original sample.

0.0501 mol x 56.1057 g mol1 = 2.811 g

6) Determine KCl by subtraction:

1.384 g + 2.811 g = 4.195 g

5.000 g - 4.756 g = 0.805 g

7) You may do the weight percentages for KOH and KCl on your own.

Problem #4a: For the reaction below, when 0.5000 g of XI3 reacts completely, 0.2360 g of XCl3 is obtained.
Calculate the atomic weight of element X and identify it.

2XI3 + 3Cl2 ---> 2XCl3 + 3I2

Solution:

1) From the balanced equation, we know that the moles XI3 used equals moles XCl3 produced. Therefore:

0.5000 g / (x + 381 g/mol) = 0.2360 g / (x + 106.5 g/mol)

The 381 is the weight of three iodines and the 106.5 is the weight of three chlorines.

2) Solving for x, we find it equal to 138.9. This is the atomic weight of lanthanum.

Problem #4b: If 0.520 grams of XCl3 are treated with iodine, 0.979 g of XI3 are produced. What is the
chemical symbol for this element?

2XCl3 + 3I2 ---> 2XI3 + 3Cl2

Solution:

1) From the balanced equation, we know that the moles XCl3 used equals moles XI3 produced. Therefore:

0.520 g / (x + 106.5 g/mol) = 0.979 g / (x + 381 g/mol)

The 106.5 is the weight of three chlorines and the 381 is the weight of three iodines.

2) Solving for x, we find it equal to 204.5. This is the atomic weight of thallium and its symbol is Tl.

Problem #5: A 2.077 g sample of an element, which has an atomic mass between 40 and 55, reacts with
oxygen to form 3.708 g of an oxide. Determine the formula mass of the oxide (and identify the element).

Solution:

1) Determine moles of oxygen involved:

3.708 g minus 2.077 g = 1.631 g


1.631 g divided by 15.9994 g/mol = 0.10194 mol of oxygen in MxOy.

2) Determine the atomic weight of M, if the formula is MO:

2.077 g / 0.10194 mol = 20.37 g/mol

The formula of MxOy is not MO since the atomic weight of M is known to be between 40 and 55.

3) Determine the atomic weight of M, if the formula is MO2:

2.077 g / 0.05097 mol = 40.75 g/mol

This is within the acceptable range.

Before going on, I would like to point out that a M2O3 formula leads to an atomic weight of approximately
34 and a M2O formula leads to approxmately 10.2. You may do the math on those two possibilities.

4) The closest value to our desired range is potassium and yes, it does form the compound KO2, known as
potassium superoxide.

If we were to look for a +4 forming ion (in other words, something to satisfy the MO2 requirement) in the
40-55 range, we find titanium. However, its atomic weight is about 48, which is too high a value predicted
by the MO2 formula.

Only KO2 provides an atomic weight within the parameters specified by the problem.

Problem #6: A 12.5843 g sample of ZrBr4 was dissolved and, after several steps, all of the combined
bromine was precipitated as AgBr. The silver content of AgBr was found to be 13.2160 g. Assume the
atomic masses of silver and bromine to be 107.868 and 79.904. What value was obtained for the atomic
mass of Zr from this experiment?

Solution:

1) calculate the moles Ag in the AgBr:

13.2160 g / 107.868 g/mol = 0.12252 mole of Ag in the AgBr

2) Since AgBr has a 1:1 molar ratio of silver to bromine, Br in sample is 0.12252 mole. Calculate the grams
Br in the sample:

0.12252 g times 79.904 g/mol = 9.78985 g of Br

3) calculate Zr in sample:

12.5843 - 9.78985 = 2.79445 g of Zr

4) determine moles of Zr present:

The 0.12252 mol of Br represents the 4 moles of Br in the formula ZrBr4.

Therefore, 0.12252 / 4 equals the moles of Zr present.

moles Zr = 0.030635 mol


5) Determine molecular weight of Zr:

2.79445 g / 0.030635 mol = 91.2 g/mole

Problem #7: Two different chloride compounds of platinum are known, compound X and Y. When 3.45 g of
compound X is heated, 2.72 g of compound Y is formed along with some chlorine gas. Upon further heating,
the 2.72 g of compound Y is decomposed to 1.99 g of platinum metal and some more chlorine gas.
Determine the formulas of compounds X and Y.

Solution:

1) Determine how much Cl2 is produced in each reaction:

Heat 3.45 g X to get 2.72 g Y and Cl2 gas


Mass of Cl2 gas is 3.45 - 2.72 = 0.73 g

Heat 2.72 g Y to get 1.99 g Pt and Cl2 gas


Mass of Cl2 gas in compound Y is 2.72 - 1.99 = 0.73 g

2) Determine formula for compound Y:

moles of Pt atom = 1.99 g / 195.1 g/mol = 0.01 mol


moles of Cl atom (not chlorine molecules!) = 0.73 g / 35.45 g/mol = 0.02 mol

simplest mole ratio:


Pt = 0.01 / 0.01 = 1
Cl = 0.02 / 0.01 = 2

formula of Y = PtCl2

3) Determine formula for compound X:

mass of Pt = 1.99 g
mass of Cl2 = 0.73 g from 1st decomposition + 0.73 g from 2nd decomposition = 1.46 g total in X

mole of Pt atom = 1.99 g / 195.1 g/mol = 0.01 mol


mole of Cl atom (not chlorine molecules!) = 1.46 g / 35.45 g/mol = 0.04 mol

simplest mole ratio:


Pt = 0.01 / 0.01 = 1
Cl = 0.04 / 0.01 = 4

Formula of X = PtCl4

Problem #8: The active ingredients of an antacid tablet contained only magnesium hydroxide and aluminum
hydroxide. Complete neutralization of a sample of the active ingredients required 48.5 mL of 0.187 M
hydrochloric acid. The chloride salts from this neutralization were obtained by evaporation of the filtrate
from the titration; they weighed 0.4200 g. What was the percentage by mass of magnesium hydroxide in the
active ingredients of the antacid tablet?

Solution:
1) Determine moles of chloride ion used:

(0.187 mol L1) (0.0485 L) = 9.0685 x 103 mol

2) Detemine moles of chloride ion used to make the MgCl2:

9.0685 x 103 mol x 0.40 = 3.6274 x 103 mol

3) Explanation of the 0.40:

Out of every 5 Cl used, three go to make one AlCl3 and two go to make one MgCl2

2 out of 5 is 40%.

4) Determine moles of MgCl2 that are present:

3.6274 x 103 mol divided by 2 = 1.8137 x 103 mol

Remember, one MgCl2 is present for every two Cl

5) Repeating (2), (3) and (4) with appropriate modifications yields 1.8137 x 103 mol for AlCl3. (Use 0.60,
not 0.40 and divide by 3, not 2.)

6) Determine moles of Mg(OH)2 and Al(OH)3 in original mixture:

First, write the equations which produce MgCl2 and AlCl3


Mg(OH)2 + 2HCl ---> MgCl2 + 2H2O

Al(OH)3 + 3HCl ---> AlCl3 + 3H2O

Second, note the following molar ratios:

Mg(OH)2 : MgCl2 is 1 : 1

Al(OH)3 : AlCl3 is 1 : 1

This means we have the following molar amounts in the original sample:

Mg(OH)2 = 1.8137 x 103 mol

Al(OH)3 = 1.8137 x 103 mol

7) Determine grams of Mg(OH)2 and Al(OH)3:

This is left to the reader.

8) Determine percent by mass of Mg(OH)2 in the original sample.

This is left to the reader.

Problem #9: When the supply of oxygen is limited, iron metal reacts with oxygen to produce a mixture of
FeO and Fe2O3. In a certain experiment, 20.00 g of iron metal was reacted with 11.20 g of oxygen gas. After
the experiment the iron was totally consumed and 3.56 g oxygen gas remained. Calculate the amounts of
FeO and Fe2O3 formed in this experiment.
Solution:

1) Determine the amount of oxygen gas (in grams, then moles) consumed:

11.20 g - 3.56 g = 7.64 g of O2

7.64 g / 31.9988 g mol1 = 0.238759 mol (I kept several guard digits.)

2) Determine how many moles of O2 goes to form FeO and how many moles goes to form Fe2O3:

2Fe + O2 ---> 2FeO


4Fe + 3O2 ---> 2Fe2O3

25% goes to form FeO


75% goes to form Fe2O3

0.238759 mol x 0.25 = 0.05968974 mol of O2 used to form FeO


0.238759 x 0.75 = 0.17906922 mol of O2 used to form Fe2O3

3) Determine moles of FeO and moles of Fe2O3 formed:

FeO the O2 to FeO ratio is 1:2, therefore double the amount of O2 used to get FeO produced:
0.1193795 mol of FeO produced.

Fe2O3 the O2 to Fe2O3 ratio is 3:2, therefore double the amount of O2 used to get Fe2O3 produced and then
divide that value by three:

0.1193795 mol of Fe2O3 produced.

4) Determine grams of FeO and grams of Fe2O3 formed:

FeO 0.1193795 mol x 71.844 g mol-1 = 8.5767 g


Fe2O3 0.1193795 mol x 159.687 g mol-1 = 19.06335 g

The above values (you may round them off on your own) are the answer to the problem, but I thought one
more step would be fun.

5) Determine grams of Fe in FeO and grams of Fe in Fe2O3:

FeO 8.5767 g x (55.845 / 71.844) = 6.667 g of Fe in FeO


Fe2O3 19.06335 g x (111.69 / 159.687) = 13.33

This, within rounding errors, totals to the 20.00 g of Fe mentioned in the problem.

Problem #10: 0.197 g of magnesium is burned in air:

2Mg + O2 ---> 2MgO

However, some of the magnesium reacts with nitrogen in the air to form magnesium nitride instead:

3Mg + N2 ---> Mg3N2


So you have a mixture of MgO and Mg3N2 weighing 0.315 g. Determine what percentage of the Mg formed
the nitride in the initial reaction.

Solution:

1) This problem is solved with two simultaneous equations in two unknowns:

First equation: x + y = 0.315 g

Second equation: (24.305 / 40.304) x + (72.915 / 100.929) y = 0.197 g

Explanation:

x = the mass of MgO in the mixture of MgO and Mg3N2


y = the mass of Mg3N2 in the mixture of MgO and Mg3N2

(24.305 / 40.304) is the percentage of Mg in MgO


(72.915 / 100.929) is the percentage of Mg in Mg3N2

2) Substitute x = 0.315 - y into the second equation:

(24.305 / 40.304) (0.315 - y) + (72.915 / 100.929) y = 0.197

3) Solve:

0.189958 - 0.60304y + 0.72244y = 0.197

0.1194y = 0.007042

y = 0.058978 g

4) Percent of Mg3N2 in original sample:

(0.058978 g / 0.315 g) x 100 = 18.7% (to three sf)

Problem #11: Hydroxylammonium chloride reacts with iron(III) chloride, FeCl3, in solution to produce
iron(II) chloride, HCl, H2O and a compound of nitrogen. It was found that 2.00 g of iron(III) chloride
reacted in this way with 31.0 mL of 0.200 M hydroxylammonium chloride. Suggest a possible formula for
the compound of nitrogen so produced.

Solution:

1) Determine moles of hydroxylammonium chloride (NH3OH+Cl) and iron(III) chloride:

(0.0310 L) (0.200 mol/L) = 0.0062 mol NH3OH+Cl

2.00 g / 162.204 g/mol = 0.01233 mol FeCl3

The key is to see that the moles of FeCl3 are double that of the hydroxylammonium chloride.

2) Determine the oxidation number of N in hydroxylammonium chloride:

N = -1

The determination of this is left to the reader.


By the way, we know that iron is reduced, so the nitrogen MUST be oxidized.

3) Allow the 0.0062 moles of nitrogen atoms to move from -1 oxidation state to zero:

this liberates 0.0062 mol of electrons, which go to reduce 0.0062 mol of Fe3+ ions (which is only half of the
ions available)

4) Allow the 0.0062 mole of N atoms (because of step 3 just above, now at an oxidation state of zero) to
move from zero to an oxidation state of +1:

this liberates another 0.0062 mol of electrons, which go to reduce 0.0062 mol of Fe3+ ions (which is the other
half of the ions available)

5) We need nitrogen in the +1 oxidation state in our compound:

N2O

Problem #12: How many phosphate ions are in a sample of hydroxyapatite [Ca5(PO4)3OH] that contains
5.50 x 10-3 grams of oxygen?

Solution:

1) Determine moles of oxygen:

5.50 x 10-3 g divided by 16.00 g/mol = 3.4375 x 10-4 mol

2) Determine moles of hydroxyapatite:

the molar ratio between hydroxyapatite and oxygen is 1:13

3.4375 x 10-4 mol divided by 13 = 2.64423 x 10-5 mol of hydroxyapatite

3) Determine moles of phosphate ions:

the molar ratio between hydroxyapatite and phosphate is 1:3

2.64423 x 10-5 mol times 3 = 7.9326923 x 10-5 mol of phosphate ions

4) Determine number of ions:

7.9326923 x 10-5 mol times 6.022 x 1023 mol1 = 4.78 x 1019

Problem #13: A mixture consisting of only sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) weighs
1.0000 g. When the mixture is dissolved in water and an excess of silver nitrate is added, all the chloride
ions associated with the original mixture are precipitated as insoluble silver chloride (AgCl). The mass of the
silver chloride is found to be 2.1476 g. Calculate the mass percentages of sodium chloride and potassium
chloride in the original mixture.

Solution #1:

1) Set up this equation:


(x) (grams Cl from NaCl) + (1-x) (grams Cl from KCl) = total grams chloride

x = grams of NaCl in original mixture


1-x = grams of KCl in original mixture

grams Cl from NaCl = 35.5/58.4


grams Cl from KCl = 35.5/74.6
total grams chloride = (2.1476 g) (35.5/143.3)

The numbers in the denominators are the molar masses of NaCl, KCl and AgCl. The three ratios are called
"gravimetric factors."

(x) (35.5/58.4) + (1-x) (35.5/74.6) = (2.1476 g) (35.5/143.3)

2) Solve:

(x) (35.5/58.4) + (1-x) (35.5/74.6) = (2.1476 g) (35.5/143.3)

0.6079x + 0.4759 - 0.4759x = 0.532

0.132x = 0.0561

x = 0.425 g

This is the mass of NaCl in the original mixture. This computes to 43% of the original mixture.

Solution #2:

1) Set up this equation:

mass of NaCl + mass of KCl = 1.000 g

x = grams of NaCl in original mixture


1-x = grams of KCl in original mixture

Therefore:

(x) + (1-x) = 1.000 g

2) Transform x and 1-x as follows:

(x divided by 58.442 g/mol) times (143.321 g/mol) = 2.452x

((1-x) divided by 74.551 g/mol) times (143.321 g/mol) = 1.992(1-x)

Comment: using NaCl as an example, the transformation does this:

a) First, we calculate the moles of NaCl.


b) Since there is a 1:1 molar ratio between NCl and AgCl, this is also the number of moles of AgCl
produced.
c) Multiply by the molar mass of AgCl to get the grams of AgCl produced from x grams of NaCl.

3) Write (then solve) this equation:

2.452x + 1.992(1-x) = 2.1476


2.452x + 1.922 - 1.922x = 2.1476

0.53x = 0.2256

x = 0.426 g

Solution #3:

Graph the theoretical AgCl yield from one gram of 100% KCl through one gram of 100% NaCl with a few
mixtures in-between to demonstrate linearity (or not) and interpolate your answer.

Comment: This would be fun to do on a spreadsheet someday.

Problem #14: Ammonia is produce industrially by reacting:

N2 + 3H2 ---> 2NH3

Assuming 100% yield, what mass of ammonia will be produced from a 1:1 molar ratio mixture in a reactor
that has a volume of 8.75 x 103 L under a total pressure of 2.75 x 107 Pa at 455 C.

Solution:

1) A 1:1 molar ratio means hydrogen is the limiting reagent. This is because a 1:3 ratio of nitrogen to
hydrogen is required to fully react all the nitrogen.

2) Determine the initial pressure of hydrogen:

2.75 x 107 Pa = 2.75 x 104 kPa

2.75 x 104 kPa / 101.325 kPa/atm = 271.404 atm

271.404 atm / 2 = 135.702 atm

The divide by two is done because hydrogen makes up 50% of the reacting mixture.

3) Use PV = nRT:

(135.702 atm) (8.75 x 103 L) = (x) (0.08206) (728 K)

x = 19876.111 mol of hydrogen

4) Convert to amount of ammonia:

3:2 molar ratio for H2 : NH3

moles of NH3 = (19876.111 x 2) / 3 = 13250.74 mol

13250.74 mol x 17.0307 g/mol = 225669.4 g = 2.26 x 105 g

Problem #15: Upon heating, a 4.250 g sample loses 0.314 grams. Assuming the sample is BaCl2 2H2O and
NaCl, calculate the mass percent of BaCl2 2H2O.
Solution:

1) Upon heating, only water is lost. Determine the moles of water lost:

0.314 g / 18.015 g/mol = 0.01743 mol of water

2) From the formula BaCl2 2H2O, we know:

2 moles of water per one mole of BaCl2

therefore 0.008715 mole of BaCl2

3) Determine grams, then percentage of barium chloride:

0.008715 mol x 244.2656 g/mol = 2.128775 g of BaCl2 2H2O

2.128775 / 4.250 = 50.09%

Problem #16: A 0.6118 g sample containing only MgCl2 and NaCl was analyzed by adding 145.0 mL of
0.1006 M AgNO3. The precipitate of AgCl(s) formed had a mass of 1.7272 g. Calculate the mass of each
component (MgCl2 and NaCl) in the original sample.

Solution:

1) Using a gravimetric factor, determine the amount of chloride ion that preciptated:

1.7272 g times (35.453 / 143.321) = 0.42725366 g

2) Determine relative contribution of chloride by MgCl2 and NaCl:

for every three Cl that react with Ag+:


two come from MgCl2
one comes from NaCl
Therefore:
magnesium chloride's contribution is 2/3
sodium chloride's contribution is 1/3
Please realize, this contribution is in terms of moles. So . . . .

3) Convert grams of chloride to moles:

0.42725366 g / 35.453 g/mol = 0.01205127 mol

4) Determine moles of NaCl in sample:

0.01205127 mol times one-third = 0.00401709 mol

5) Determine grams of NaCl in sample:

0.00401709 mol times 58.443 g/mol = 0.23477 g

to four sig figs: 0.2348 g

The mass of MgCl2 may be obtained by subtraction.


Problem #17: Ammonium nitrate and potassium chlorate both produce oxygen gas when decomposed by
heating. Without doing detailed calculations, determine which of the two yields the greater

(a) number of moles of O2 per mole of solid and


(b) number of grams of O2 per gram of solid.

The unbalanced equations are:

NH4NO3(s) ---> N2(g) + O2(g) + H2O


KClO3(s) ---> KCl(s) + O2(g)

Solution:

1) Balance both equations:

2NH4NO3(s) ---> 2N2(g) + O2(g) + 4H2O


2KClO3(s) ---> 2KCl(s) + 3O2(g)

2) Write molar ratios:

NH4NO3 to O2 is 2:1
KClO3 to O2 is 2:3

3) Let the molar ratios be in terms of one mole of the solid:

NH4NO3 to O2 is 1:0.5
KClO3 to O2 is 1:1.5

4) Answer to (a):

In terms of moles, KClO3 produces more O2 than NH4NO3. In fact, KClO3 produces three times as much
oxygen (compare 1.5 to 0.5).

5) Convert the moles of each molar ratio to grams:

NH4NO3 to O2 is 80.04 to 16.00


KClO3 to O2 is 122.55 to 48.0

6) Let the gram ratios be in terms of one gram of the substance:

NH4NO3 to O2 is 1 to 0.20
KClO3 to O2 is 1 to 0.39

4) Answer to (b):

In terms of grams, KClO3 produces oxygen approximately twice as fast (0.30 to 0.20) as NH4NO3.

Problem #18: An element X forms both a dichloride (XCl2) and a tetrachloride (XCl4), Treatment of 10.00 g
XCl2 with excess chlorine forms 12.55 g XCl4. Calculate the atomic mass of X, and identify X.

Solution:
1) Write a balanced equation for the reaction:

XCl2 + Cl2 ---> XCl4

2) Determine grams, then moles of Cl2 that react:

12.55 g minus 10.00 g = 2.55 g

2.55 g / 70.906 g/mol = 0.035963 mol

3) Determine moles of XCl2 present:

Due to 1:1 molar ratio between XCl2 and Cl2, the moles of XCl2 equals 0.035963 mol

4) Determine the molecular weight of XCl2:

10.00 g / 0.035963 mol = 278.06 g/mol

5) Determine both atomic weight and identity of X:

278.06 g/mol minus 70.906 g/mol = 207.2 g/mol (rounded off to the 0.1 place)

X is lead.

Problem #19: Water is added to 4.267 g of UF6. The only products of the reaction are 3.730 g of a solid
containg only uranium, oxygen, and fluorine and 0.970 g of a gas. The gas is 95.0% fluorine and the
remainder is hydrogen.

a) What fraction of the fluorine of the orginal is in the solid and what fraction in the gas after the reaction?

b) What is the formula of the solid product?

Solution to a:

1) Calculate moles UF6 present:

4.267 g / 352.018 g/mol = 0.01212154 mol

2) Calculate grams of fluorine in UF6:

(0.01212154 mol) (113.988 g/mol) = 1.38171 g

The 113.988 comes from the fact that 6 F are in UF6

3) Calculate mass of fluorine in gas

(0.970 g) (0.950) = 0.9215 g

4) Calculate mass of fluorine in solid:

1.38171 g - 0.9215 g = 0.46021 g

5) Calculate percent fluorine in solid:


0.46021 g/ 1.38171 g = 33.307%

6) Calculate percent fluorine in gas:

100% - 33.307% = 66.693%

Solution to b:

1) Calculate mass of H2O reacted:

(3.730 g + 0.970 g) - 4.267 g = 0.433 g

2) Calculate mass of oxygen in solid product:

(0.433 g / 18.015 g/mol)(15.999 g/mol) = 0.38454438 g

3) Calculate mass of uranium in solid product:

3.730 g - (0.38454438 g + 0.46021 g) = 2.88524562 g

4) Calculate moles of U, F and O in solid product:

U: 2.88524562 g / 238.029 g/mol = 0.01212 mol

F: 0.4604 g/ 18.998 g/mol = 0.02423 mol

O: 0.38454438 g/15.999 g/mol = 0.02403 mol

5) To more clearly see the 1:2:2 ratio, simply divide by the smallest number:

U: 0.01212/0.01212 = 1
F: 0.02423/0.01212 = 1.999
O: 0.02403/0.01212 = 1.98

The formula of the unknown is UF2O2 and the overall reaction is:

UF6 + 2H2O --> UF2O2 + 4HF

Problem #20: A compound containing titanium and chlorine is analyzed by converting all the titanium into
1.20 g of titanium dioxide and all the chlorine into 6.45 g of AgCl. What is the simplest (empirical) formula
for the original compound?

Solution:

By the way, note the use of millimoles rather than moles. Remember 1 mole equals 1000 millimoles.

1) This reaction happens:

TixCly ----> x TiO2 + y AgCl

2) Determine moles TiO2 formed:

1.20 g / 79.90 g mol1 = 15.02 mmol


3) Determine moles of AgCl formed:

6.45 g / 143.32 g mol1 = 45.00 mmol

4) Determine millimoles of Ti and Cl in original compound:

the Ti : TiO2 molar ratio is 1:1, therefore 15.02 mmol of Ti


The Cl : AgCl molar ratio is 1:1, therefore 45.00 mmol of Cl

5) The mole ratio of Ti to Cl in the compound is 15:45 or 1:3. Therefore:

the compound's formula is TiCl3

Problem #21: An unknown element X is found in two compounds, XCl2 and XBr2. In the following
reaction:

XBr2 + Cl2 ---> XCl2 + Br2

when 1.5000 g XBr2 is used, 0.8897 g XCl2 is formed. Identify the element X.

Solution:

moles of XBr2 = moles of XCl2

1.500 / (x + 159.808) = 0.8897 / (x + 70.906)

(0.8897) (x + 159.808) = (1.500) (x + 70.906)

0.8897x + 142.1811776 = 1.5x + 106.359

0.6103x = 35.8221776

x = 58.70

Element X is Ni.

By the way, be careful. Take a look at Co and you'll see 58.93 and think that that is close enough. Nickel is
58.69. The Co/Ni pairing is one of three with the atomic weight goes down as you proceed from element to
element. Ar/K and Te/I are the other two.

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