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Alcohol Dependency:

Its Effects on Human Behavior

Charlene C. Sianoya

BS PSYCHOLOGY III

Divine Word College of Legazpi


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Abstract

This study entitled Alcohol Dependency: Its effects on human behavior focuses on the

effects of alcohol on human behavior as the main variable. These studies the problems related to

alcohol abuse. Alcohol dependence is considered a public health problem and deserves attention.

Alcohols effects vary from person to person. This study aims to identify the bad effects of

alcoholism on family relations. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors on being an

alcohol dependent on youth and their family relations. The respondents was given a questionnaire

for them to answer. The 20 respondents ages range from 18-27 years old from BS Psychology

students of Divine Word College of Legazpi. In this study, the scores of the respondents was

computed. They answered based on their experiences and drinking habits. The results states that

none of the respondents are alcohol dependent or alcoholic.


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Introduction

From the Book Alcohol Use Disorder 2013, it defines that alcohol dependence is a

previous psychiatric diagnosis which a person or an individual has been physically or

psychologically dependent on alcohol. In 2013 it was reclassified as alcohol use disorder

(alcoholism) along with alcohol abuse in DSM-5.

Alcohol Rehab Guide (2016), defined alcoholism as the most severe form of alcohol abuse

and involves the inability to manage drinking habits. It is also commonly referred to as alcohol use

disorder. Alcohol use disorder is organized into three categories: mild, moderate and severe. Each

category has various symptoms and can cause harmful side effects. If left untreated, any type of

alcohol abuse can spiral out of control. Individuals struggling with alcoholism often feel as though

they cannot function normally without alcohol. This can lead to a wide range of issues and impact

professional goals, personal matters, relationships and overall health. Over time, the serious side

effects of consistent alcohol abuse can worsen and produce damaging complications.

The American Medical Association (1956) declared that alcoholism was an illness.

Alcoholism or alcohol dependence is defined by the American Medical Association (AMA) as "a

primary, chronic disease withgenetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its de

velopment and manifestations." In 1991, the AMA further endorsed the dual classification of

alcoholism by the International Classification of Diseases under both psychiatric and medical

sections.

Bendszuz (2007) defined alcoholism as a chronic problem. However, if managed properly,

damage to the brain can be stopped and to some extent reversed.


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Flavin (1992) added that the disease is characterized by symptoms including an impaired

control over alcohol, compulsive thoughts about alcohol, and distorted thinking.

Enoch & Goldman (2001) explained that the risk of developing alcoholism depends on many

factors, such as environment. Those with a family history of alcoholism are more likely to develop

it themselves. However, many individuals have developed alcoholism without a family history of

the disease. Since the consumption of alcohol is necessary to develop alcoholism, the availability

of and attitudes towards alcohol in an individual's environment affect their likelihood of

developing the disease. Current evidence indicates that in both men and women, alcoholism is 50

60% genetically determined, leaving 40-50% for environmental influences.

In a review in 2001, McLellan et al. compared the diagnoses, heritability, etiology (genetic

and environmental factors), pathophysiology, and response to treatments (adherence and relapse)

of drug dependence versus type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and asthma.

Kleber, et al (2000) have found that genetic heritability, personal choice, and

environmental factors are comparably involved in the etiology and course of all of these disorders,

providing evidence that drug (including alcohol) dependence is a chronic medical illness.

Flavin (1992) defined alcoholism as a primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial,

and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often

progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the

drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most

notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic.

Tracy (2016) defined alcoholism as a disease characterized by the habitual intake of alcohol.

The definition of alcoholism is chronic alcohol use to the degree that it interferes with physical or
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mental health, or with normal social or work behavior. Alcoholism is a disease that produces both

physical and psychological addiction. Alcohol is a central nervous system depressant that reduces

anxiety, inhibition, and feelings of guilt. It lowers alertness and impairs perception, judgment, and

motor coordination. In high doses, it can cause loss of consciousness and even death. Alcoholism

is a disease that damages the brain, liver, heart, and other organs (short-term, long-term effects of

alcohol).

Kuntche et al (2005) stated that the reason alcohol is such a powerful drug is because it

lifts mood and changes the way drinkers feel. Some research has looked at the factors that motivate

people to consume alcohol. This same researcher reported that the majority of drinkers volunteer

social motives (e.g. to make a party more enjoyable) as being associated with moderate drinking;

drinking for coping purposes was associated with heavy drinking or binge drinking.

Brennan, Walfish, AuBuchon (1986) explained that for a man or a woman, young or old,

who by their nature or by their upbringing is not skilled or is held back in their ability to express

their feelings, alcohol allows that expression. With inhibitions gone, someone can be the witty or

playful person that their shyness normally prevents. The person lets themselves go, can laugh and

chat, express opinions and argue a case, can dance and sing and not have to be on ones guard

about what to say or how to say it. Or alcohol may allow a person to express a long held grievance

or sorrow that is real and runs deep and sore and badly needs to be spoken about. This may

otherwise never break the surface of consciousness and just leave a person with a part of their life

that is sore or sour and only ever expresses itself indirectly in moodiness or grumpiness or in

always being negative.


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Method

This part presents the method, participants, instruments and procedure of the data to be

used in the study.

Participants

The participants of the study were male and female students in all year level who are

officially enrolled in Divine Word College of Legazpi SY 2016-2017 taking up Bachelor of

Science in Psychology. The number of Psychology students in 2nd year is 5, in the 3rd year is 12

and in the 4th year is only 3. We dont have 1st year participants because we dont have 1st year

students that semester. The female participants were 7 and the male participants were 13. The total

number of participants is 20 BS Psychology students. The researcher chose psychology students

because she noticed that most of the students in psychology are drinking liquor.

Instruments

The instrument used in this study is a survey method that researcher made and was

patterned from the alcoholic test: the Am I an Alcoholic self-test and the Short Alcohol Dependence

data Questionnaire in order to gather the needed data in finding out the effects of being an alcohol

dependent on human behavior. The questionnaire has 15 items with 4 choices never, sometimes,

often, and always. The respondents answer states their most recent drinking habits.

Procedure

The researcher conduct a survey to gather the needed data. The researcher gave the

questionnaire one by one and told them that its up to them if they will put their names for their

privacies and also to read each questions carefully and answer honestly the questions. The

researcher also explain to them the purpose of the study and then explain the directions in the
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questionnaire. Upon the completion of the questionnaire, the researcher thanked the respondents

for cooperating, participating in the study and lending their short time to answer the questionnaire.

After the whole data was collected, the researcher tallied and computed the answers of the

respondents. The results were analyzed if there was an effect on the respondents on being alcohol

dependent and does it affect their behavior.


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Results

This part presents the results of the data gathered in the study.

Table I. Presents the Number of respondents by Sex

Respondents Male Female

BS Psychology students 13 7

The Table I shows the number of respondents by sex. We have 13 male respondents and 7

female respondents. It is a total of 20 BS Psychology students in all year level.

Table II. Presents the Number of Respondents by Age

18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
Respondents
y/o y/o y/o y/o y/o y/o y/o y/o y/o y/o

BS

Psychology 2 4 6 3 0 1 1 2 0 1

students

The Table II shows the number of respondents by age. In 18 years old-2, 19 years old-4,

20 years old-6, 21 years old-3, 22 years old-0, 23 years old-1, 24 years old-1, 25 years old-2, 26

years old-0, and 27 years old-1. The researcher gathered 20 respondents of different ages.
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Table III. Presents the Number of Respondents by Year Level

Respondents 1st year 2nd year 3rd year 4th year

BS Psychology
0 4 12 3
students

The Table III shows the number of respondents by year level. There were 4 respondents

who are in 2nd year, 12 respondents from 3rd year and 3 respondents from 4th year BS Psychology

students. Total of 20 respondents of all year levels.

Table 1. Presents the answers of the Respondents to Questions 1-15

Questions Never Sometimes Often Always Total

Q1 4 14 2 0 20

Q2 20 0 0 0 20

Q3 4 10 6 0 20

Q4 10 4 4 2 20

Q5 6 10 2 2 20

Q6 4 8 6 2 20

Q7 4 8 0 8 20
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Q8 8 12 0 0 20

Q9 12 8 0 0 20

Q10 4 14 2 0 20

Q11 2 6 8 4 20

Q12 12 6 0 2 20

Q13 8 8 2 2 20

Q14 8 6 4 2 20

Q15 8 10 2 0 20

The Table 1 shows the answers of all the respondents in the questions that was given to

them. Based on the results, all the respondents are not alcohol dependents persons. The respondents

only drink moderately and occasionally. They are not Alcoholic nor Alcohol Dependent persons.
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Discussion

This part discusses the summary and conclusions of the study entitled Alcohol

Dependency: Its Effects on Human Behavior. The problem that was brought in this study and

continually discusses by the people was about on being alcohol dependents and its effects on the

human behavior which encouraged the researcher to conduct this study. The purpose of this study

was to know what alcoholism/alcohol dependent is and what are the effects of being an alcohol

dependent on human behavior. The participants in this study are only 20 and the data were tallied

and computed to answer the problem in the present study/investigation. Based on the results, all

of the respondents are not alcohol dependent.


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